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# Structural Questions / Soalan struktur

## 1 SPM 2010 No.1

. Diagram 1 shows the inter-conversion of the three states of matter, X, Y and Z of water.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan perubahan keadaan tiga jirim, X, Y dan Z bagi air

X Y Z
(a) What type of particle is found in water?
Apakah jenis zarah yang terdapat dalam air?

[1]
(b) Under the room pressure, at what temperature does ice change to water?
Di bawah tekanan bilik, pada suhu berapakah ais berubah kepada air?

[1]
(c) What is the physical state labeled Z ?
Apakah keadaan fizikal yang berlabel Z ?

[1]
(d) Name the process when water changes from state X to state Y.
Namakan proses apabila air berubah daripada keadaan X kepada keadaan Y.

[1]
(e) *When water changes from state Y to state Z, state the changes in:
Apabila air berubah daripada keadaan Y kepada keadaan Z, nyatakan perubahan bagi:
(i) The energy of the particles.
Tenaga zarah.

.
[1]
(ii) The forces of the attraction between the particles.
Daya tarikan antara zarah-zarah itu.

[1]
(f) **The smell of the curry cooking in the kitchen spreads to the living room.
Based on the kinetic theory of the matter, state the process involved.
Explain your answer.
Bau masakan kari di dapur merebak hingga ke ruang tamu.
Berdasarkan teori kinetic jirim, nyatakan proses yang terlibat.
Terangkan jawapan anda.

[3]

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2. SPM 2009 No.2
Diagram 2.1 shows the standard representation for the atoms of two elements, lithium and
oxygen.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan perwakilan piawai bagi atom bagi dua unsur, litium dan oksigen

7 16
Li O
3 8

## Diagram 2.1 / Rajah 2.1

(a) 7
What is represented by the number 7 in 3 Li ?
7
Apakah yang diwakili oleh nombor 7 dalam 3 Li ?

.
[1]
(b) (i) Write the electron arrangement for an atom of:
Lithium/litium

..

[1]
Oxygen/Oksigen

[1]
(ii) *Compare the size of the lithium atom with the oxygen atom.
Bandingkan saiz atom litium dengan atom oksigen.

..
[1]

(c) Element J reacts with oxygen to form compound Z. The physical state of compound Z
is liquid at room temperature. Diagram 2.2 shows the graph of temperature against time
when liquid Z is cooled from room temperature to 5 oC.
Unsur J bertindakbalas dengan oksigen menghasilkan sebatian Z.Keadaan fizik bagi sebatian Z
adalah cecair pada suhu bilik.Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan graf suhu melawan masa apabila cecair Z
disejukkan dari suhu bilik ke suhu -5 oC.
Temp /oC
30

0
t1 t2 Time/min-1
Diagram 2.2 / Rajah 2.2

2
(i) State the type of particle in compound
Nyatakan jenis zarah dalam sebatian Z

..............................................................................................................................................
[1 ]

(ii) *Explain why the temperature of Z remains constant from time t1 to t2?
Jelaskan mengapa suhu Z tidak berubah dari masa t1 ke t2?
...........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
[2 ]
(iii) *Draw the arrangement of particles of compound Z at 5 oC.
Lukiskan susunan zarah-zarah sebatian Z pada suhu 5 oC.

[ 1]
4. (a) SPM 2004 No.1 (b)
Graph 4 shows the temperature against time when solid naphthalene is heated.
Graf 4 menunjukkan graf suhu melawan masa bagi pemanasan pepejal naftalena.

Temperature/ 0C
S

Q
T1
R

T0 P
Time / s
0 MM
.Graph 4 /

## (i) State the melting point of naphthalene.

Nyatakan takat lebur naftalena.

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(ii) *Explain why there is no change in temperature from Q to R.
Terangkan mengapa tiada perubahan suhu dari Q ke R.

[2]
(iii) *State how the movement of naphthalene particles changes between R and S during
the heating.
Nyatakan bagaimana pergerakkan zarah-zarah naftalena berubah semasa pemanasan
antara R dan S.

[1]

## Percubaan SPM Johor 2008 No.1

5. Diagram 5 shows the chemical symbols which represent four elements W, X, Y and Z.
Rajah 5 menunjukkan simbol yang mewakili empat unsur iaitu unsur W, X, Y dan Z.

12 7 14 40
W X Y Z
6 3 6 18

Diagram 5 / Rajah 5
(a) State the number of electrons and neutrons in atom Z.
Nyatakan bilangan elektron dan neutron dalam atom Z.

## Number of electrons: . Number of neutrons:

Bilangan elektron : Bilangan neutron:
[1]
(b) (i ) Define nucleon number.
Takrifkan nombor nukleon.

.......
...
[1 ]
(ii) State the nucleon number of atom Z.
Nyatakan nombor nukleon bagi atom Z.

......................................
[1 ]
(c) (i) Write the electron arrangement of atom X.
Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom X.

...
[1 ]
(ii) Draw the electron arrangement of atom X to show the position of protons, neutrons and
electrons in the atom.
Lukis susunan elektron bagi atom X untuk menunjukkan kedudukan proton, neutron dan
elektron dalam atom.

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[2]

## (d) (i) Which two elements are isotopes?

Dua unsur yang manakah merupakan isotop?

............................................
[1 ]
(ii) *Explain why isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties.
Terangkan mengapa isotop sesuatu unsur mempunyai sifat kimia yang sama.

.....
[1 ]
(iii) Give one usage of the isotope mentioned in (d) (i).
Beri satu kegunaan isotop yang dinyatakan dalam jawapan (d) (i).

..
[1 ]

## SPM 2004 No 7 Section B

1. Figure 1 shows the chemical symbols which represent three elements, X, Y and Z.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan simbol kimia yang mewakili tiga unsur X, Y dan Z.

23 35 12
X Y Z
11 17 6
Figure 1

## a) (i) Write the electron arrangement of atoms X and Y [2 marks]

Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom X dan Y.
(ii) State the number of neutrons in an atom of element Z and write the symbol for
an isotope of element Z. [2 marks]
Nyatakan bilangan neutron dalam atom unsur Z dan tuliskan simbol bagi satu isotop
unsur Z
b) * The reaction between atoms of X and Y forms an ionic compound whereas the
reaction between atoms of Y and Z forms a covalent compound. Based on the above
statement, explain how these ionic and covalent compound are formed.
[8 marks]
Tindakbalas antara atom X dan Y membentuk sebatian ionik manakala tindakbalas antara atom
Y dan Z membentuk sebatian kovalen. Berdasarkan pernyataan tersebut, terangkan bagaimana
sebatian ionik dan kovalen ini terbentuk.
c) ** The ionic compound formed from the reaction between elements X and Y is able
to conduct electricity when it is melted or dissolved in water.
Describe how you could prove that this statement is correct. [8 marks]
Sebatian ionik yang terbentuk hasil daripada tindakbalas antara elemen X dan Y boleh
mengalirkan arus elektrik apabila ia melebur atau larut di dalam air. Jelaskan bagaimana
anda dapat menentusahkan pernyataan ini.

## SPM 2005 No 10 Section B

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2. (a) Isotopes are used for example in medicine, industry, science and archeology.
Choose two of the above examples. State an isotope and its purpose in each
example that you have chosen. [4 marks]
Isotop digunakan dalam bidang perubatan, perindustrian, sains dan arkeologi. Pilih dua
bidang diatas. Nyatakan satu isotop dan kegunaan dalam setiap bidang yang telah kamu
pilih tadi.

## (b) * Figure 10.1 shows the electron arrangement of a molecule PQ2.

These letters are not the actual symbols of the elements.
Rajah 10.1 menunjukkan susunan elektron bagi molekul PQ2. Abjad ini bukan merupakan symbol
sebenar unsur.

Q Q
P

Figure 10.1
Based on Figure 10.1,write the electron arrangement for atoms of element P and
element Q. Explain the position of element Q in the Periodic Table of the Elements.
[6 marks]
Berdasarkan rajah 10.1, tuliskan susunan elektron untuk atom bagi unsur P dan Q. Jelaskan
kedudukan unsur Q dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur.

(c) ** Table 10.2 shows the electron arrangement for atom W, X and Y.
The letters are not the actual symbols of the elements.
Jadual 10.2 menunjukkan susunan elektron untuk atom W, X dan Y. Huruf yang digunakan
adalah bukan symbol sebenar unsur tersebut.

## Element Electron Arrangement

W 2.4
X 2.8.7
Y 2.8.8.2
Table 10.2

Using the information in Table 10.2, explain how two compounds can be formed
from these elements based on their electron arrangements.
The two compounds should have different bond types. [10
marks]
Dengan menggunakan jadual 10.2, jelaskan bagaimana dua sebatian boleh terbentuk
daripada gabungan unsur berdasarkan susunan elektron. Dua sebatian berikut mestilah
terdiri daripada ikatan kimia yang berbeza.

6
BAB 3
11. *SPM 2005 No. 44

0.12 g of magnesium reacts with excess hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas. Given that the
relatives molecular mass of H = 1, Mg = 24, Cl = 35.5 and 1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm 3 at room
temperature and pressure. Which of the following is true about the reaction?
0.12 g magnesium bertindak balas dengan asid hidroklorik berlebihan menghasilkan gas hidrogen. Diberi jisim
atom relatif H = 1, Mg = 24, Cl = 35.5 dan 1 mol gas menempati 24 dm 3 pada suhu dan tekanan bilik. Antara
berikut yang manakah benar bagi tindak balas itu?
I Mg + 2H+ Mg2+ + H2
II Volume of gas released is 120cm 3
Isi padu gas terbebas ialah 120cm3
III Mass of the salt formed is 0.30 g
Jisim garam terbentuk adalah 0.30 g
IV This is redox reaction
Tindak balas ini adalah tindak balas redoks
A I and II only C I,II and IV only
I dan II sahaja I,II dan IV sahaja
B I and III only D II, III and IV only
I dan III sahaja II ,III dan IV sahaja

12.SPM 2006 No 37
The chemical formula for potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) is K3Fe(CN)6. What is its relative formula mass?
[Relative atomic mass of C = 12, N = 14, K = 39 and Fe = 56]
Formula kimia bagi kalium heksasianoferat(III) is K3Fe(CN)6. Berapakah jisim formula relatifnya?
[Jisim atom relatif bagi C = 12, N = 14, K = 39 dan Fe = 56]
A 121 C 251
B 199 D 329

## 13. SPM 2007 No 3

A balloon contain 6.02 x 1023 of gas particles. What is the number of moles of the gas in the balloon?
Sebiji belon mengandungi 6.02 x 1023 zarah gas. Berapakah bilangan mol gas itu dalam belon tersebut?
A 0.5 mol C 3.0 mol
B 1.0 mol D. 6.0 mol

14.*SPM 2007 No 36
Which of the following gases contains 0.4 mol of atoms at room temperature and pressure?
[1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm 3 at room temperature and pressure]
Antara gas berikut, yang manakah mengandungi 0.4 mol atom pada suhu dan tekanan bilik?
[1 mol gas menempati isipadu sebanyak 24 dm3 pada suhu dan tekanan bilik]
A 4.8 dm3 He
B 4.8 dm3 H2
C 4.8 dm3 SO3
D 4.8 dm3 CO2

7
15.* SPM 2008 No 42
2Na + Cl2 2NaCl
Sodium reacts with chlorine to form sodium chloride. What is the mass of sodium chloride formed when
2.30 g of sodium reacts with excess chlorine? [Relative atomic mass: Na = 23, Cl = 35.5]
Natrium bertindak balas dengan klorin untuk membentuk natrium klorida.Berapakah jisim natrium klorida yang
terbentuk apabila 2.30g natrium bertindak balas dengan klorin berlebihan? [Jisim atom relatif: Na = 23, Cl = 35.5]
A 2.93 g C 9.40 g
B 5.85 g D 11.70 g

16.SPM 2008 No 38
What is the number of moles of copper(II) nitrate in 56.4 g of copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2?
[Relative atomic mass: O = 16, Cu = 64, N = 14]
Berapakah bilangan mol kuprum(II) nitrat dalam 56.4 g kuprum(II) nitrat, Cu(NO 3)2?
[Jisim atom relatif: O = 16, Cu = 64, N = 14]
A 0.30 mol C 0.45 mol
B 0.32 mol D. 3.33 mol

## 17. SPM 2008 No 41

The mass of three atoms of element X is equal to the mass of four carbon atoms. X is not the actual
symbol of the element. What is the relative atomic mass of element X? [Relative atomic mass: C = 12]
Jisim tiga atom bagi unsur X adalah sama dengan jisim empat atom karbon. X bukan simbol sebenar unsur itu.
Apakah jisim atom relatif bagi unsur X?[Jisim atom relatif: C = 12]
A 48 C 16
B 36 D 12

## 18.* SPM 2009 No 37

The relative molecular mass of M2(SO4)3 is 342. What is the relative atomic mass of element M?
[Relative atomic mass: O = 16, S = 32]
Jisim molekul relatif bagi M2(SO4)3 adalah 342. Berapakah jisim atom relatif bagi unsur M?
[Jisim atom relatif: O = 16, S = 32]
A 27 C 118
B 54 D 123

## 19.* SPM 2009 No 38

A sample of iron oxide contains 5.6 g of iron and 2.4g of oxygen. What is the empirical formula of this
compound? [Relative atomic mass: O = 16, Fe = 56]
Suatu sampel ferum oksida mengandungi 5.6 g ferum dan 2.4g oksigen. Apakah formula empirik bagi sebatian ini?
[Jisim atom relatif: O = 16, Fe = 56]
A Fe3O4
B Fe2 O3
C FeO2
D FeO

## 20.* SPM 2009 No 40

2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3
The chemical equation above shows the reaction between iron and chlorine. 1.12g of iron burns
completely in chlorine. What is the mass of the product? [Relative atomic mass: O = 16, Fe = 56]
Persamaan kimia di atas menunjukkan tindak balas antara ferum dan klorin.1.12g ferum terbakar lengkap dalam
klorin. Berapakah jisim hasil tindak balas itu? [Jisim atom relatif: O = 16, Fe = 56]

8
A 0.38g C 4.88g
B 3.25g D 6.50g

## 21.* SPM 2009 No 44

Which substance contain the same number of atoms as in 12g of carbon?
[Relative atomic mass, H = 1, C = 12, O = 16, Mg = 24, S = 32]
Bahan yang manakah yang mengandungi bilangan atom yang sama dengan 12g karbon?
[Jisim atom relatif, H = 1, C = 12, O = 16, Mg = 24, S = 32]
A 2 g of hydrogen C 22g of carbon dioxide
2 g hydrogen 22g karbon dioksida
B 12g of magnesium D 32g of Sulphur
12g magnesium 32g of Sulfur

## 22.* SPM 2010 No 7

An oxide of element X has the empirical formula of X 2O3. 2.24 g of element X reacts completely with 0.96
g of oxygen. What is the relative atomic mass of X? [Relative atomic mass O = 16]
Suatu oksida bagi unsur X mempunyai formula empirik X 2O3. 2.24 g unsur X bertindak balas lengkap dengan 0.96 g
oksigen. Berapakah jisim atom relatif bagi X? [Jisim atom relatif O = 16]
A 112 C. 25
B 56 D. 17

## 23. * SPM 2003 No 37

2Al2O3 4Al + 3O2
The equation above represent the reaction to extract aluminium from aluminium oxide.What is the mass
of aluminium that can be extracted from 102 g aluminium oxide?
[Relative atomic mass, O = 16, Al = 27]
Persamaan di atas mewakili tindak balas untuk mengekstrak aluminium yang boleh diekstrak daripada aluminium
oksida. Berapakah jisim aluminium yang boleh diekstrak daripada 102g aluminium oksida?
[Jisim atom relatif, O = 16, Al = 27]
A 13.5 g
B 27.0 g
C 54.0 g
D 108.0 g

## 24.* SPM 2003 No 47

XCO3 XO + CO2
The equation above shows the action of heat on the carbonate salt of metal X. How many moles of XCO3
are needed to produce 4.0g of oxide X.
[Relative atomic mass, O = 16, C = 12, X = 64]
Persamaan di atas mewakili tindak balas haba ke atas garam karbonat logam X. Berapakah bilangan mol XCO 3
yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan 4.0 g oksida X. .
[Jisim atom relatif, O = 16, C = 12, X = 64]
A 0.03g
B 0.05g
C 0.08g
D 0.09g

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SPM 2003 No 1
1. Figure 1 shows the set-up of apparatus for an experiment to determine the empirical formula of
magnesium oxide.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi suatu eksperimen untuk menentukan formula empiric
magnesium oksida.

penutup

Mangkuk
pijar
Pita megnesium

Panaskan

Result:/Keputusan:
Mass of crucible + lid = 24.0g
Jisim mangkuk pijar + penutup

## Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium ribbon = 26.4g

Jisim mangkuk pijar + penutup + pita magnesium

## Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium oxide = 28.0g

Jisim mangkuk pijar + penutup + pita magnesium oksida

## a. What is meant by empirical formulae? [1mark]

Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan formula empirik? [1 markah]

..

## b. Based on above results,

Berdasarkan keputusan di atas,

i. Calculate the mass of magnesium and the mass of oxygen that have reacted.
Hitungkan jisim magnesium dan jisim oksigen yang telah bertindak balas. [ 1 markah ]

ii. Calculate the mole ratio of magnesium atoms to oxygen atoms. [1mark]
[ relative atomic mass, O = 16, Mg= 24 }

Hitungkan nisbah mol bagi atom magnesium kepada atom oksigen. [ 1 markah ]
[Jisim atom relative : O=16, Mg=24

## iii. Determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.

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Tentukan formula empirik bagi magnesium oksida. [ 1 markah ]

iv. Write the chemical equation for the reaction in the experiment. [1mark]
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas dalam eksperimen itu. [ 1 markah ]

c. Why was the crucible lid opened once in a while during the experiment? [1mark]
Mengapa penutup mangkuk pijar dibuka sekali sekala semasa eksperimen dijalankan? [ 1 markah ]

d. Metal X is placed below hydrogen in the reactivity series. You are required to carry out an
experiment to determine the empirical formulae of the oxide of metal X. The apparatus
provided are combustion tube, glass tube, cork, Bunsen burner, and porcelain.

Logam X terletak di bawah hydrogen dalam siri kereaktifan.Anda dikehendaki menjalankan suatu
eksperimen untuk menentukan formula empiric bagi oksida logam X. Alat radas yang dibekalkan ialah
tiub pembakaran, salur kaca,gabus, penunu Bunsen, dan piring porselin.

i. Draw a labeled diagram of the set-up of the apparatus for the experiment. [1mark]
Lukiskan gambar rajah berlabel sususnan radas bagi eksperimen itu. [ 1 markah ]

ii. Describe the steps that should be taken to ensure that all the air in the combustion
tube has been expelled. [1mark]
Huraikan langkah-langkah yang perlu diambil untuk memastikan semua udara
dalam tiub pembakaran telah disingkirkan. [ 1 markah ]

..

11
Diagram 3 shows the apparatus set up to determine the empirical formula of copper oxide.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan susunana radas untuk menentukan formula empirik bagi kuprum oksida

## Burning of excess hydrogen gas

Pembakaran lebihan gas hidrogen

## Table 3 shows the result of this experiment

Jadual 3 menunjukkan keputusan experimen ini.

## Description Mass (g)

Penerangan Jisim (g)
Combustion tube + porcelain dish 32.25
Tiub pembakaran + Piring Porselin

## Combustion tube + porcelain dish + copper oxide 42.25

Tiub pembakaran + Piring Porselin + kuprum oksida

## Combustion tube + porcelain dish + copper 40.25

Tiub pembakaran + Piring Porselin + kuprum
(a) (i) What is the meaning of empirical formula ?
Apakah maksud formula empirik?

[1 mark]

## (ii) State the Function of anhydrous calcium chloride.

(iii) Nyatakan fingsi kalsium terhidrat
..
[1 mark] / [1 markah]

## Based on table 3, calculate the mass of

Berdasarkan jadual 3, hitungkan jisim bagi
Copper / kuprum

Oxygen / oksigen
[ 2 marks]

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(ii) Calculate the ratio of moles of copper atoms to oxygen atoms.
[Relative atomic mass: Cu = 64, O = 16]
Hitung nisbah mol bagi atom kuprum kepada atom oksigen. [Jisim atom relatif: Cu = 64, O = 16]

[1 mark] / [1 markah]

## (iii) Determine the empirical formula of copper oxide.

Tentukan formula empirik bagi kuprum oksida.

.
[1 mark] / [1 markah]
{c} (i) Why is hydrogen gas passed through the combustion tube after heating has
stopped?
Mengapakah gas hidrogen dialirkan melalui tiub pembakaran selepas pemanasan tamat?

[2 mark] / [2 markah]
(ii) State how to determine that the reaction between copper oxide with hydrogen has completed.
Nyatakan bagaimana untuk menentukan bahawa tindak balas yang berlaku antara kuprum oksida
dengan hidrogen telah lengkap

....................................

..
[1 mark] / [1 markah]

(d)* (i) State why the empirical formula of magnesium oxide cannot be determined by using the same
technique.

Nyatakan mengapa formula empirik bagi magnesium oksida tidak dapat ditentukan dengan
menggunakan teknik yang sama.

[1 mark] / [1 markah]

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*(ii) State the name of another metal oxide whose empirical formula can be determined using the same
technique.

Nyatakan nama suatu logam oksida lain yang formula empiriknya boleh ditentukan menggunakan
teknik yang sama.

.
[1 mark] / [1 markah]
C. Essay question / Soalan Esei
1.SPM 2010 No 7
A hydrocarbon X, consists of 82.75% of carbon and 17.25% of hydrogen by mass. the
molecular mass of X is 58.[Relative atomic mass: C = 12; H = 1]
Satu hidrokarbon X, terdiri daripada 82.75% karbon dan 17.25% hidrogen berdasarkan jisim.
Jisim molekul relatif bagi X ialah 58.[Jisim atom relatif: C = 12; H = 1]

## (i) Determine the empirical formula and molecular formula of hydrocarbon X.

Tentukan formula empirik dan formula molekul bagi hidrokarbon X.
[ 6marks] / [6 markah]
Peperiksaan percubaan 2007 SBP No 8
(a) What is meant by empirical formula?
Apakah maksud formula empirik? [1 mark] / [1 markah]

## (b) A carbon compound contains 92.3% of carbon and 7.7% of hydrogen by

mass.
The relative molecular mass of this compound is 78.
Find the molecular formula of this compound.
[Relative atomic mass: C, 12; H, 1]
Satu hidrokarbon terdiri daripada 92.3 % karbon dan 7.7 % hidrogen berdasarkan jisim.
Jisim molekul relatif bagi X ialah 78
[Jisim atom relatif: C = 12; H = 1]
[5 marks] / [5 markah]

(c) Describe how you could determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide
in the laboratory. Your description should include
procedure of experiment
tabulation of result
calculation of the results obtained
[Relative atomic mass: O,16; Mg,24]
[14 marks]
Terangkan bagaimana formula empirik bagi magnesium oksida dapat ditentukan dalam makmal.
Penerangan anda perlu merangkumi

prosedur experimen
penjadualan data
pengiraan untuk keputusan eksperimen

[ 14 markah]

14
2. Diagram 2.1 shows part of the Periodic Table of Elements. M, Q, R, T, U, V and W
are not the actual symbols of the elements.
Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada Jadual Berkala Unsur. M, Q, R, T, U, V
dan W bukan merupakan simbol sebenar unsur.

Diagram 2.1

## (a)(i) Which element is a noble gas?

Unsur yang manakah gas nadir? [1M]

..........................................................................................
(ii) Which element exists as diatomic molecule?
Unsur yang manakah wujud sebagai molekul dwiatom? [1M]

..........................................................................................

## (iii) Which element forms an amphoteric oxide?

Unsur yang manakah membentuk oksida amfoterik? [1M]

..........................................................................................

## (b) Elements Q, R and W are placed in the same group.

Unsur Q, R dan W ditempatkan dalam kumpulan yang sama.

## (i) Why are these elements placed in the same group?

Mengapakah unsur-unsur berkenaan diletak dalam kumpulan yang sama? [1M]

..........................................................................................

(ii) Arrange the elements in ascending order based on the reactivity toward oxygen.
Susun unsur-unsur itu dalam tertib menaik berdasarkan kereaktifan terhadap
oksigen. [1]

..........................................................................................

## (iii) Write a balanced chemical equation when Q reacts with oxygen.

Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang seimbang apabila Q bertindak balas dengan oksigen.

..........................................................................................

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(c) Write the electron arrangement for atom T
Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom T. [1M]

..........................................................................................
(d) Diagram 2.2 shows a balloon containing 0.01 mol helium gas.
Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan sebiji belon mengandungi 0.01 mol gas helium.

Diagram 2.2

Based on the given information, calculate the colume of helium gas in the balloon at
room conditions.
[1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room conditions]

Berdasarkan maklumat yang diberi, hitung isipadu gas helium dalam belon itu pada
keadaan bilik.
[1 mol gas menempati 24 dm3 pada keadaan bilik] [1M]

## 3. Diagram 3 shows the electron arrangement of compound L formed when oxygen

reacts with carbon.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan susunan elektron bagi sebatian L yang terbentuk apabila oksigen
bertindak balas dengan karbon

Compound L/Sebatian L
Diagram 3

16
(i) State the type of bond in compound L.
Nyatakan jenis ikatan dalarn sebatian L.
[1 mark] [1 markah]

.....................................................................................................................
(ii)Write the chemical formula for compound L.
Tulls formula kimia bagi sebatian L.
[1 mark] [1 markah]

.....................................................................................................................
(b) Compound L exists as gas at room conditions. 36 dm3 of gas L reacts with
ammonia to form water and urea, CO(NH2)2.
Sebatian L wujud sebagai gas pada keadaan bilik. 36 dm3 gas L bertindak balas
dengan ammonia untuk membentuk air dan urea, CO(NH2)2.

## By using the formula of compound L in 3(a)(ii), write a balanced chemical equation to

show the reaction between compound L and ammonia.
Dengan menggunakan formula sebatian L di 3(a)(ii), tulis persamaan kimia seimbang
untuk menunjukkan tindak balas antara sebatian L dengan ammonia.
[2 marks] [2 markah]

.....................................................................................................................

## Calculate the mass of urea formed.

[Molar mass of urea = 60 gmol-1, 1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room conditions]

## Hitung jisim urea yang terbentuk.

[Jisim molar urea = 60 gmol-1, 1 mol gas menempati 24 dm3 pada keadaan bilik]

(c) Oxygen can also react with sodium to form another compound with formula Na20.
Oksigen juga boleh bertindak balas dengan natrium untuk membentuk sebatian lain
dengan formula Na20.

(i) Compare the melting point of compound Na20 with melting point of compound L in
Diagram 3.
Bandingkan takat lebur bagi sebatian Na20 dengan takat lebur sebatian L di Rajah 3.

.....................................................................................................................

## (ii) Explain your answer in 3(c)(i)

Terangkan jawapan anda di 3(c)(i)

.....................................................................................................................

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.....................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................
[5 markah]
5. Figure 2 shows part of the Periodic Table of the Elements. Q, R, T, X and Y do not represented the
actual symbol of the elements.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada Jadual Berkala Unsur. Q, R, T, X dan Y tidak mewakili simbol sebenar
unsur berkenaan.

Group / Kumpulan

Q R
Period / T X Y
Kala

Figure 2 / Rajah 2

(a) Using the letters in the Periodic Table of the Elements in Figure 2, answer the following
questions.
You may use the Periodic Table of the Elements on page 20.
Dengan menggunakan huruf-huruf yang terdapat dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur pada Rajah 2, jawab
soalan berikut.
Anda boleh menggunakan Jadual Berkala di halaman 20.

## (i) Choose an element that is a halogen.

Pilih satu unsur halogen.

..............................................................................................................................................
[1 mark / 1 markah]
(ii) Which element is monoatomic?
Unsur yang manakah monoataom?

[1 mark / 1 markah]
(iii) Which element forms an amphoteric oxide?
Unsur yang manakah membentuk oksida bersifat amfoterik?

..............................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark / 1 markah
(b) * Arrange Q, R, T, X and Y according the increase in size of the atoms.
Susunkan Q, R, T, X dan Y mengikut pertambahan saiz atom.

18
(c) Write the electron arrangement for an atom of element Q.
Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom unsur Q.

.....................................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark / 1 markah]
(d) Write the formula for the ion formed from an atom of element Y.
Tuliskan formula bagi ion yang terbentuk daripada atom unsur Y.

.....................................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark / 1 markah]
(e) Why are elements Q and R placed in the same period?
Mengapakah unsur Q dan R berada dalam kala yang sama?

.....................................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark / 1 markah]
(f) * When a small piece of element T is put into water, TOH solution is formed and hydrogen
gas is released.
State one observation when red litmus paper is put into the solution.
Apabila seketul kecil unsur T dimasukkan ke dalam air, larutan TOH terbentuk dan gas
hidrogen terbebas.
Nyatakan satu pemerhatian apabila kertas litmus merah dimasukkan ke dalam larutan itu.

.....................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark / 1 markah]
(g) State the common name of the elements between group 2 and group 13.
Nyatakan nama umum bagi unsur yang terletak di antara kumpulan 2 dan kumpulan 13.

.....................................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark / 1 markah]

## 1. SPM 2010 (No. 4)

(a) Table 4.1 shows the proton number of three elements, X, Y, and Z. the letters used do not
represent the actual symbols of the elements.
Jadual 4.1 menunjukkan nombor proton bagi tiga unsur, X, Y dan Z. Huruf yang digunakan tidak
mewakili simbol sebenar unsur-unsur tersebut.

## Element Proton number

Unsur Nombor proton
X 6
Y 12
Z 17
Table 4.1

## (i) Write the electron arrangement of:

Tulis susunan elektron bagi:

Atom Y: ................................................................................................................................
Atom Y:

19
The ion of atom Z: ................................................................................................................
Ion bagi atom Z:
[2]
(ii) *Write the formula of the compound formed between elements Y and Z.
Tulis formula bagi sebatian yang terbentuk antara unsur Y dan Z.

..............................................................................................................................................................
[1]

(iii) *Element X reacts with element Z to form a covalent compound with a formula XZ4.
State two physical properties of this covalent compound.
Unsur X bertindak balas dengan unsur Z untuk membentuk satu sebatian kovalen dengan
formula XZ4.
Nyatakan dua sifat fizikal bagi sebatian kovalen ini.

1.__________________________________________________________

2.__________________________________________________________
(iv) *Draw the electron arrangement of the compound XZ 4.
Lukis susunan elektron bagi sebatian XZ4.

[2]

(b) **Table 4.2 shows some physical properties of two compounds, U and V.
Jadual 4.2 menunjukkan bebetapa sifat fizikal bagi dua sebatian, U dan V.

## Compound Melting point Boiling point Solubility in water Solubility in organic

Sebatian (C) (C) Keterlarutan dalam solvent
Takat lebur (C) Takat didih (C) air Keterlarutan dalam
Table 4.2 pelarut organik
Jadual 4.2

## (i) US 800 1420 Soluble Insoluble

t Larut Tidak larut
a
Vt -95 86 Insoluble Soluble
Tidak larut Larut
e

(i) State the physical state of the following compounds at room temperature.
Nyatakan keadaan fizikal bagi sebatian berikut pada suhu bilik.

U: ________________________________________________________
V: ________________________________________________________
[2]
(ii) State the type of compound for U.
Nyatakan jenis sebatian bagi U.
..............................................................................................................................
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21
22
23
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