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Chapter 2

Internetworking
Concepts Overview
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. 2-1
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-2
Objectives

On completion of this chapter, you will be able


to perform the following tasks:
• Describe how data traffic is exchanged between
source and destination devices
• Identify the roles and functions of a hub, switch, and
router, and where they best fit in the network
• Select the appropriate Cisco equipment for a given
set of network requirements

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-3


Defining Components
of the Network

Home Mobile
Office Users

Internet

Branch Office Main Office


© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-4
Defining the Components
of a Network (cont.)

Branch
Office Floor 2

Server Farm
ISDN
Telecommuter Floor 1

Remote Campus
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-5
Network Structure Defined by
Hierarchy
Core Layer

Distribution
Layer

Access
Layer

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Access Layer Characteristics

Access Layer

End station entry point to the network

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-7


Distribution Layer
Characteristics
• Access Layer
Aggregation Point Distribution Layer
• Routes traffic
• Broadcast/Multicast
Domains
• Media Translation
• Security
• Possible point for remote access

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-8


Core Layer Characteristics

Core Layer

• Fast transport to enterprise services

• No packet manipulation

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-9


OSI Model Overview

Application
Application
(Upper) Presentation
Layers
Session

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OSI Model Overview

Application
Application
(Upper) Presentation
Layers
Session

Transport Layer

Network Layer
Data Flow
Layers
Data Link

Physical

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-11


Role of Application Layers
EXAMPLES

User Interface
Telnet
Application
FTP

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Role of Application Layers
EXAMPLES

User Interface
Telnet
Application
FTP

• How data is presented ASCII


Presentation • Special processing EBCDIC
such as encryption JPEG

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-13


Role of Application Layers
EXAMPLES

User Interface
Telnet
Application
FTP

• How data is presented ASCII


Presentation • Special processing EBCDIC
such as encryption JPEG
Keeping different Operating System/
Session applications’
Application Access
data separate
Scheduling

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-14


Role of Application Layers
EXAMPLES

User Interface
Telnet
Application
FTP

• How data is presented ASCII


Presentation • Special processing EBCDIC
such as encryption JPEG
Keeping different Operating System/
Session applications’
Application Access
data separate
Scheduling
Transport Layer

Network Layer

Data Link

Physical

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-15


Role of Data Flow Layers

EXAMPLES

• Move bits between devices


Physical • Specifies voltage, wire speed and EIA/TIA-232
pin-out cables V.35
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-16
Role of Data Flow Layers

EXAMPLES

• Combines bits into bytes and


bytes into frames 802.3 / 802.2
Data Link • Access to media using MAC address HDLC
• Error detection not correction
• Move bits between devices
Physical • Specifies voltage, wire speed and EIA/TIA-232
pin-out cables V.35
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-17
Role of Data Flow Layers

EXAMPLES

Provide logical addressing which IP


Network
routers use for path determination IPX
• Combines bits into bytes and
bytes into frames 802.3 / 802.2
Data Link • Access to media using MAC address HDLC
• Error detection not correction
• Move bits between devices
Physical • Specifies voltage, wire speed and EIA/TIA-232
pin-out cables V.35
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-18
Role of Data Flow Layers

EXAMPLES

• Reliable or unreliable delivery TCP


Transport • Error correction before retransmit UDP
SPX
Provide logical addressing which IP
Network
routers use for path determination IPX
• Combines bits into bytes and
bytes into frames 802.3 / 802.2
Data Link • Access to media using MAC address HDLC
• Error detection not correction
• Move bits between devices
Physical • Specifies voltage, wire speed and EIA/TIA-232
pin-out cables V.35
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-19
Role of Data Flow Layers
Application
Presentation
EXAMPLES
Session
• Reliable or unreliable delivery TCP
Transport • Error correction before retransmit UDP
SPX
Provide logical addressing which IP
Network
routers use for path determination IPX
• Combines bits into bytes and
bytes into frames 802.3 / 802.2
Data Link • Access to media using MAC address HDLC
• Error detection not correction
• Move bits between devices
Physical • Specifies voltage, wire speed and EIA/TIA-232
pin-out cables V.35
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-20
Encapsulating Data
Application
Presentation
PDU
Upper Layer Data Session
Segment
Transport
TCP Header Upper Layer Data

Network Packet
IP Header Data

LLC Header Data FCS


Data Link Frame

MAC Header Data FCS

Physical Bits
0101110101001000010
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-21
De-encapsulating Data

Application
Presentation
Session
Upper Layer Data
Transport
Upper Layer Data
ea der
H
Network TCP
TCP+ Upper Layer Data
e a der
IP H
IP + TCP + Upper Layer Data
r
Data Link
He ade
L LC
LLC Hdr + IP + TCP + Upper Layer Data
er
ead
ACH
M
Physical
0101110101001000010
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-22
Written Exercise: OSI Model
OSI Model PDU Functional Responsibilities Examples

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-23


Physical Layer Functions

Defines

EIA/TIA-232
• Media type

Ethernet

802.3
Physical

V.35
• Connector type

• Signaling type

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-24


Physical Layer: Ethernet/802.3

10Base2—Thin Ethernet
10Base5—Thick Ethernet

Host
Hub
10BaseT—Twisted Pair

Hosts

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-25


Hubs Operate at Physical layer

Physical

A B C D

• All devices in the same collision domain


• All devices in the same broadcast domain
• Devices share the same bandwidth
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-26
Hubs: One Collision Domain

• More end stations means


more collisions
• CSMA/CD is used

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-27


Data Link layer Functions
Defines
• Physical source and
destination addresses

Frame Relay
Data Link
802.2
• Higher layer protocol

HDLC
(Service Access Point)

Ethernet
associated with frame
• Network topology
Physical
802.3
EIA/TIA-232
• Frame sequencing
v.35
• Flow control
• Connection-oriented
or connectionless
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-28
Data Link Layer Functions (cont.)

MAC Layer - 802.3


# Bytes 8 6 6 2 Variable 4
Preamble Dest add Source add Length Data FCS

Ethernet II
uses “Type”
0000.0C xx.xxxx here and
does not use
IEEE assigned Vendor 802.2.
assigned

MAC Address

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-29


Data Link Layer Functions (cont.)
802.2 (SNAP)
# Bytes 1 1 1 or 2 3 2 Variable

Dest SAP Source SAP Ctrl OUI


Type Data
AA AA 03 ID

OR 802.2 (SAP)
# Bytes 1 1 1 or 2 Variable
Dest Source
Ctrl Data
SAP SAP

Preamble Dest add Source add Length Data FCS

MAC Layer - 802.3


© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-30
Switches and Bridges Operate
at Data Link Layer
Data Link

1 2 3 4 OR 1 2

• Each segment has its own collision domain


• All segments are in the same broadcast domain
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-31
Switches

Switch
Memory
• Each segment has its
own collision domain
• Broadcasts are
forwarded to all
segments

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-32


Network Layer Functions

• Defines logical

Network
source and IP, IPX
destination
addresses

Frame Relay
Data Link
associated with a 802.2

HDLC
specific protocol

Ethernet
• Defines paths
through network
Physical

802.3
EIA/TIA-232
• Interconnects v.35
multiple data links
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-33
Network Layer Functions (cont.)

Network Layer End Station Packet


Source Destination
IP Header Data
address address

Logical
Address
172.15.1.1
Network Node

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-34


Network Layer Functions (cont.)

Address Mask
172.16.122.204 255.255.0.0
172 16 122 204
Binary
Address 10101100 00010000 01111010 11001100
255 255 0 0
Binary
Mask 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

Network Host

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-35


Network Layer Functions (cont.)
1.1 1.0 4.0 4.1

2.1 2.2
1.3 4.3
1.2 4.2
E0 S0 S0 E0

Routing Table Routing Table


NET INT Metric NET INT Metric
1 E0 0 1 S0 1
2 S0 0 2 S0 0
4 S0 1 4 E0 0

• Logical addressing allows for hierarchical network


• Configuration required
• Uses configured information to identify paths to networks
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-36
Routers: Operate at the
Network Layer
• Broadcast control
• Multicast control
• Optimal path
determination
• Traffic management
• Logical addressing
• Connects to WAN
services

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-37


Using Routers to Provide
Remote Access
Modem or ISDN TA
Telecommuter

Mobile User

Branch Office

Main Office

Internet

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-38


Transport Layer Functions

• Distinguishes between
upper layer applications

Transport
• Establishes end-to-end
connectivity between TCP UDP SPX
applications
• Defines flow control

Network
IP IPX
• Provides reliable or
unreliable services for
data transfer

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-39


Reliable Transport Layer
Functions

Sender Receiver
Synchronize

Acknowledge, Synchronize

Acknowledge

Connection Established

Data Transfer
(Send Segments)

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-40


Network Device Domains
Hub Bridge Switch Router

Collision Domains:
1 4 4 4
Broadcast Domains:
1 1 1 4

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-41


Choosing a Cisco Product

Core Layer

Distribution
Layer

Access
Layer

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-42


Product Selection
Considerations

• Provides functionality and features you need today


• Capacity and performance
• Easy installation and centralized management
• Provides network resiliency
• Investment protection in existing infrastructure
• Migration path for change and growth
• Seamless access for mobile users and
branch offices

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-43


Product Selection
Considerations (cont.)

• First select WAN


technology solutions
based on the following:

Cost per
Modem/ISDN

Month
– Availability of service
– Bandwidth requirement Leased Line, T1
Frame Relay
– Cost
• Second, choose products
that support selected WAN 0 Usage
solutions

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-44


Product Selection
Considerations (cont.)
kbps
1544 Leased Line,
Frame Relay, Video, Multimedia
128 XDSL

64
ISDN, Voice
56 Frame Relay

19.2 Web Browsing


New Modem
9.6
E-Mail, File Transfer
4.8
Old Modem Telnet

Determine applications that you want to run


© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-45
Cisco Hub Products
Selection Issues: Cisco
FastHub400
• Need for 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps on media
Cisco
• Port density FastHub300

• Need for management console Cisco


FastHub200
• Easy Operations Cisco
FastHub100
Cisco 1528
Micro Hub 10/100
Cisco 1500
Micro Hub

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-46


Catalyst Switch Products
Selection Issues:
• Need for 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, or 1000 Mbps on Catalyst
media 8500 series
• Need for trunking and inter-switch links Catalyst
5000 series
• Workgroup segmentation (VLANs)
Catalyst
• Port density needs 2900 series
Wiring
• Different user interfaces Catalyst Closet/Backbone
3000 series Solutions
Catalyst 2900
series XL
Catalyst
1900/2820 series Desktop/Workgroup
Solutions
Cisco 1548 Micro
Switch 10/100
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-47
Do Not Delete—Overflow Text
on Notes Page

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-48


Cisco Router Products
Cisco
Selection Issues: 12000 GSR
Series
• Scale of the routing features needed Cisco
7000
• Port density/variety requirements Cisco Series
AS 4000
• Capacity and performance 5000 Series
Series
Cisco
• Common user interface 3600
Cisco Series
2600 Central Site Solutions
Cisco Series
2500
Cisco Series
1600/1700 Branch Office Solutions
Cisco Series
700/800
Series Small Office Solutions

Home Office Solutions


© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-49
Do Not Delete—Overflow Text
on Notes Page

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-50


Visual Objective

Use the product selection tool to


select Cisco Equipment
© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-51
Summary

After completing this chapter, you should be


able to perform the following tasks:
• Describe how data moves through a network
• Identify the roles and functions of routers,
switches and hubs, and specify where each
device best fits in the network
• Select the appropriate Cisco equipment for a
network that combines switching, routing and
remote access requirements

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-52


Review Questions

1. What are some of the advantages of using the


OSI model in a networking environment?
2. Describe the encapsulation process.
3. How many broadcast and collision domains
are on a hub?

© 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com ICND v1.0a—2-53


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