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Syllogism

Universal Affirmative/Positive
i.e. All A’s are B’s

Note: Converse All B’s Are A’s is a Possibility

Both I and II follow Answer: Option A Explanation: Since one premise is particular.Important Note:- 1.Only conclusion II follows C.“All A’s are definitely” means “All A’s are B’s” 3.Either I or II follows D Neither I nor II follows . A Only conclusion I follows . II does not follow. Conclusions: 1. Statements: Some swords are sharp. Some rusty things are sharp.e. All cups are handles. Statements: All tubes are handles.“None but A is B” means Only A is B which in turn means “All B’s are A’s” 4. 2. Some handles are not cups. 2. All cups are tubes. A is B means all A is B. A Only conclusion I follows . E. subject and predicate – change 2.“Only A are B” means “All B’s are A’s” i. So. the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. I follows. All swords are rusty Conclusions: 1. . Thus. Some rusty things are not sharp. Since both the premises are affirmative. the conclusion cannot be negative. B.

Either I or II follows D Neither I nor II follows . it follows that 'Some pastries are chocolates'. Thus. A Only conclusion I follows . B. All toffees are chocolates. the conclusion cannot be negative. Some chocolates are toffees. I is the converse of the second premise and so it holds. 2. 2. Some toffees are not pastries. Since both the premises are affirmative. Some scooters do not fly. .Only conclusion II follows C. Both I and II follow Answer: Option D Statements: Some pastries are toffees. B. E. E. Both I and II follow Answer: Option D Statements: All trucks fly. Both I and II follow Answer: Option A Explanation: Since one premise is particular.B. E. II does not follow. All trucks are scooters. Some scooters fly. the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. Conclusions: 1. Thus.Only conclusion II follows C.Only conclusion II follows C.Either I or II follows D Neither I nor II follows . Conclusions: 1.Either I or II follows D Neither I nor II follows . A Only conclusion I follows .

There in only one case where the conclusions are determined based on the conclusion itself. This concept is applicable when more than one conclusion does not follows.Statements: All rods are bricks. they do not form a complementary pair. and II follow D Only either I or III. One conclusion must be positive (All/Some) One conclusion must be negative (No/Some-not) Example:.Stmt : All Lotus are Flowers. B. Conclusions: 1. E. Some doors are bricks. Rules: The two non-following conclusions must be of same character. It is called as Merging Concept. MERGING CONCEPT Note: In most of the questions. and IV follow . None of these Answer: Option E Explanation: I and III involve the extreme terms. Hence. 3. Some rods are not doors. Conclusion: No Lilly is a flower. No Lilly is Lotus. II and III follow C.Only either I or III. All ropes are doors. But. only II follows. Some bricks are ropes. Some Lilly is Flowers. 4. Some rods are doors. A Only I and II follow . 2. . the conclusions are made based on the statements.Only I. since they are not contradictory. All doors are ropes.

one is positive and another is negative. One is Positive and one is negative. All nails are hammers. No Pin is thread. (It’s not true) Some Lilly is flowers (It is also not true) Two conclusions are false. Some Threads are nails. Now Check the conclusions. Conclusions: Some Pins are Hammers. Answer is Conclusion 1 and 2 and Either 3 or 4 follows Statements: Some Bags are Trunks. All Trunks are Shirts. All Books are Shops . Conclusion 3 and Conclusion 4 satisfy the rules of merging Concept. All needles are Nails. And Both are same Characters (Lilly and Flower). Conclusion 1 – It follows (Concept 1) Conclusion 2 – It follows (Concept 1) Conclusion 3 – It does not follows (Concept 2) Conclusion 4 – It does not Follow (Negative Conclusion) (All statements are positive). some threads are needles. It satisfies all the rules of Merging Concept.The first step is to draw Venn Diagram. Statements: Some Pins are needles. They are of same character. So the Answer is Either (i) or (ii) Follows. Some Shirts are Books. No Lilly is a flower. Some pins are threads.

Some books are Bags. Its Not Possible. No shirt is a Bag. Conclusion 1 – False Conclusion 2 – False Conclusion 3 – Given is “Some”. Desired is also “Some”. (All Statements are Positive) Answer is None Follows PS – Possibility case only when there is ‘All’? 2. A+B means A is 10m ‘N’ of B A-B means A is 10m ‘S’ of B A*B means A is 5 m ‘E’ of B A@B means A is 15m ‘W’of B (I) In a code “P+O-R×S@T” is written. right and left find in which direction is he facing now? (1) NS (2) East (3) West (4) NE .Conclusions: All shops are Bags. be takes 3 turns while walking. the point ‘P’ is in which direction of point T? (1) East (2) South (3) west (4) NW (5) None (II) What is the distance between point ‘P’ and ‘S’ in the above expression? (1) 5m (2) 7m (3) 10m (4) 15m (5) None of the above Q2. Conclusion 4 – Definitely False (Negative Conclusion). All at a backward angle of 45* towards his right. Directions Q1. So False. Raju is walking towards west. Some shops being shirts is a possibility.

Those who take dowry in marriage should be condemned by society. who is brother of B. Those who do not take dowry in marriage respect womanhood. A. Statements and Course of Action/ Conculsion Q. Both I and II are vague. i. In a family there are 7 persons and there are 2 married couples in this family A is the father of B E is the daughter of D and grand Daughter of C.Only conclusion II follows . It lacks substance. d (None follows). II) We should all strive to make our society corruption free. If A’s shadow direction is to the left of B. 3 ii. Q. A Only conclusion I follows . 2. B. 1 A2. discredits himself and dishonours womanhood. Courses of Action : I) All corrupt persons should be brought to book. who makes dowry as a condition for marriage. Blood Relations Male represented by +. standing in a straight line in a ground. E is the sister of F. 4. 1 3. What is the face direction of B? (1) north (2) south (3) east (4) west (5) none A1. Statement: Corruption has become rampant in our society. In the morning time. 2 persons A and B are talking to each other. Nothing concrete is being said here. Conclusions: 1.1. 4 A3. Female represented by -.Q3. Statements: Any young man. Husband-wife relationship represented by a dash sign (―) Sibling relationship represented by(=) sign.

Next ≥. Thus. II also follows. and = should be in another row. The symbols >. Last =. Both I and II follow Answer: Option E Explanation: Clearly. conclusion I follows. Make sure that you form a table as above. Inequality Problems In Coded Inequality. 5. symbols like \$. and = should be in one row and the symbols <. In Row 1. So. First Priority should go to >. Also. E. Next ≤. the statement declares dowry as an evil practice and reflects its demerits. %.Either I or II follows D Neither I nor II follows . ≤. In Row 2. Just remember these lines.Reverse Direction. . Last =. <———. it is given that those who take dowry dishonour womanhood. #. ≥. First Priority should go to <. &. This implies that those who do not take dowry respect womanhood. @ are used. Similarly.C. Note: ———-> Forward Direction. Directions P \$ Q means P is not smaller than Q P @ Q means P is neither smaller than nor equal to Q P # Q means P is neither greater than nor equal to Q P ∂ Q means P is neither greater than nor smaller than Q P © Q means P is not greater than Q Solution:- Form a small table before solving this kind of problems.

Example 2 Statement: H @ T. So it is FALSE So Conclusion one alone Follows NOTE: When more than one conclusion in false. Always compare with the Modified Statement. 1. One is © and other is #. T # F. 2) E @ T. H @ N  If you draw a line from H to N. W @ N  If you draw a line from W to N. E © V. we should note the symbol which is exactly above #. (3) W ∂ N. check for merging concept. you will get a Reverse line. Step 1 – Make a single statement. Conclusions: 1) V \$ F.  Between H and N. (2) H @ N. So we should note the symbol which is opposite to \$. you will get a Reverse line. Both are in row 2.Example 1 Statements: N ∂ B. So M @ W is TRUE. 2. then the statements can be merged.  Between M and W two symbols are there. B \$ W.  Between W and N. H © M Conclusions: (1) M @ W. the symbols are #. 3. the symbols are \$ and ∂. 3) H @ V. The symbol above to # is @. the higher priority goes to \$.  If you check these symbols with the table. So Conclusion 2 is FALSE. If the characters are same and both the statements are false. That is ©. \$. Between \$ and ∂. 4) T # V Modified Statement – H @ T # F ∂ E © V .  The conclusion formed a reverse line. you will get a Reverse Line. if we get a meaningful symbol. Since the letters form a reverse line. Highest Priority is #. F ∂ E. W # H. and ∂. M @ W  If you draw a line from M to W. and while merging. # is in Row 2 and \$ is in Row 1. But given conclusion is W @ N. N∂B\$W#H©M Step 2 – Analyze the conclusions one by one.

5. Set 7 Q1 Important Note for questions based on Shifting  In shifting problems. 6. and 4 are True. 2) E @ T – Reverse Line. 4) T # V – Forward line. we should mark the symbol which is exactly opposite to ©. Both are in Row 2. ∂. According to even numbers or odd numbers. So T # V is True. Rules for questions based on Arrangement . Answer – Conclusion 1. 3) H @ V – Forward line. The two words are arranged according to the number of letters present in the word. Step II.e. The pattern of ordering could be: 1. the previous step of any step can possibly be determined. so we can move in backward or reverse order which is not possible in some of the other type of problems. According to number of consonants or vowels in each word. 6. and ©. High priority is #. So the correct symbol is \$. and highest priority is for ©. Symbols are ∂ and #. E. 7. 4. Divide in two equal parts and then arrange each half in an alphabetical order. Symbols are in different rows. words beginning with consonants in alphabetical order first and then words beginning with vowels in the order a. 8. Machine input output In this type of questions. Symbol opposite to # is @. 2.i. According to the words beginning with consonants or vowels – e.u. High Priority is for #. According to the number of characters in each word.o. 2. Words are arranged alphabetically based on their last letter.Conclusions 1) V \$ F – Reverse Line – Symbols are © and ∂. The first two numbers are arranged in ascending order from the left. Alphabetical in case of words. Step I. 9. 3. Both are in Row 2. Symbols are #. So E @ T is True. Increasing or decreasing in case of numbers. All are in Row 2.g. So False. Since it forms a reverse line. Conclusion 1 is True. the words or the numbers are arranged as per a fixed order.g.

1st digit becomes last in two-digit numbers while middle digit becomes the 1st digit in three-digit numbers Step IV. Explanation:- First Count the numbers of letter in each word and group them according to the number of letters are even/ odd.so this is clear gives you the answer 'Cannot be determined' 2. Interchanged the first and last digit of the input. We will do this through example later in this article. Previous Step can never be determined. First Even letter words followed by even number from left side and then odd letters numbers followed by odd numbers from right hand side in descending order. 3. Input : 49 61 kindly 25 tell 47 your previous name 97 Step 1 : previous 49 61 kindly 25 tell your name 97 47 Step 2 : your previous 49 kindly 25 tell name 97 47 61 Step 3 : name your previous 49 kindly 25 tell 47 61 97 Step 4 : tell name your previous 49 kindly 47 61 97 25 . Just specify the zero at the end of the digit of the given input. Problems There is no fixed pattern in regard of statement. Misc. 1. Statement under this category will come before you as a real surprise.It will only happen in the case of Arrangement. Let Total No. Such question are complete mind game. logically pick 1st x alphabetical word or numbers in increasing order and just place them before the remaining word or numbers. Fix the zero after the first digit of the given input Step III. To find particular step ( Let x) for any input . So take n = 8 then Maximum step can be made through this input is ( n . Last digit of the given input is removed Step V.1). Let we have given Step VI & then ask to find Step V or IV or III . Step I. Step II. This is the case Apply when given Input is an 'Increasing Order' & For Decreasing Order last x word or numbers should be picked. Examples:- Input : big 23 towers 96 78 high 57 49 yours 82 tomorrow Step 1 : tomorrow big 23 towers 96 78 high 57 49 82 yours Step 2 : tomorrow 96 big 23 towers 78 high 49 82 yours 57 Step 3 : tomorrow 96 towers 82 23 78 high 49 yours 57 big Step 4 : tomorrow 96 towers 82 high 23 78 yours 57 big 49 Step 5 : tomorrow 96 towers 82 high 78 yours 57 big 49 23 And Step V is the last step of the above input. Of element or words or numbers in input is 8.

if the no of vowels are same then it is arranged in alphabetical order. Numbers are arranged in decreasing order from right to left with their digits reversed. Numbers are arranged in ascending order on the right end. Explanation:- Words are arranged in ascending order according to the no of vowels in the words.Step 5 : kindly tell name your previous 47 61 97 25 49 And Step 5 is the last step of the above input. . If the number of alphabets are same. Input: games 79 go glacier 57 14 give 86 63 gender 42 get Step I: glacier games 79 go 57 give 86 63 gender 42 get 41 Step II: gender glacier games 79 go 57 give 86 63 get 41 24 Step III: games gender glacier 79 go give 86 63 get 41 24 75 Step IV: give games gender glacier 79 go 86 get 41 go 75 36 Step V: get give games gender glacier go 86 41 24 75 36 97 Step VI: go get give games gender glacier 41 24 75 36 97 68 Step VI is the largest step of above arrangement Explanation:- Words are arranged according to the number of alphabets from left to right. first prime numbers then followed by composite numbers. they are then arranged in alphabetical order. The arrangements of vowels take place on the left end.