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After reading this chapter you can expect to understand the following things:
1. The teachers' attitude or behavior that can increase or decrease the excitement or
enthusiasm of students in learning.
2. The method of teaching to engage students fully in learning, so enthusiastic in learning
3. The teaching materials that can cause students desire to learn.
4. Media teaching to attract students to study harder and vibrant
5. Assessment that encourages students to learn more and continuously.

In the performance membelajarkan teaching students, there are many important

aspects that determine, namely teachers, materials, methods, media, and assessment.
Effective teaching in teaching students can be seen from up some much students gain changes
in knowledge, attitudes and skills, as he gained experience or training during the teaching
process takes place.

The effectiveness of teaching is closely related to student motivation. Efrktif teaching

is teaching to develop students' motivation in learning as much as possible. For the teachers
in charge of teaching success need to see to it that every component involved in teaching can
medukung increase student motivation in learning. This chapter will try to discuss the
relationship between any aspects or components of teaching it to the students' motivation


1. Teacher as Model
None of us would argue that the behavior of teachers affect their students' learning
activities. The teacher becomes a model for the students at any time. Tanner and Lindgrean
(1971) argued about the influence of teachers on the behavior or activities of students in the
study as follows:

"The teacher is most powerful person in the classroom, psychologically speaking. His ability
to reward and Punish is usually Grater than of any individual in the room; he sets the pace; he
takes the intiative, or rather, the initiative is his if he wants it. The teacher's power is such that
even when he does nothing to the class. He even has an effect on the class when he is not
present ".

Students are constantly meraksi the attitudes and values and personality of the
teacher. They made the teacher as a model to follow. No stranger to us the belief that
methods of teaching that includes important is to make the teacher as a model. Bandura and
Walters (1963) has long argued the characteristics of people who easily be used by others as a
model, that is, people who have a position that gives the effect of, or have a high profile, has
the authority, and the ability and have the power to give appreciation. With Bandura and
Walters explanation is clear to us that teachers are people who have the conditions to become
a model by her students. Students capture subtle expressions, gestures, and attitudes of
teachers, although teachers themselves do not reveal the behavior itself (Sumbo, 1988).

Furthermore Dumbo explained that students imitate the teacher every time. Therefore,
students imitate the behavior of teachers, both good and bad. Students are more imitate what
is "done" and what is "said to be" teachers (Rohrkemper, 1984). Teachers have told us how
important reading, but he himself lazy to read books, teachers who emphasized that strong
discipline is important in supporting the learning success, but he was not disciplined and not
make him learn more, then that will be emulated by the students are lazy mmbaca books and
the teacher indiscipline in learning.
Rohrkemper (1984) investigated the influence of the behavior of teachers in the
teaching of behavior and attitudes of students in learning. He examines how the influence of a
teacher's question on the level of the student's thinking. When the teacher asks a question of
low (factual), then their students tend to also express high levels then questions her students
will also be asked in the forms of high-level questions (asking why or how).

2. unidimensional counter Multidimensional Classroom Classroom

As we have already seen that the self-concept of students greatly affect the motivation
of students who are learning. Students who have a self-concept that is positive, it is the
student who believes that he achieved the feat through effort, show independence in learning
and do not give up (Rosenhaltz and Simpson, 1984). Teachers, according Rosenhaltz and
Simpson, no one develops in her class one standard for success, namely intelligent. They
always mention that students can succeed if he is intelligent, while students who are not smart
difficult, it will not even succeed in learning. Teacher gives bad influence to self-concept
students seen by teachers as students who are less intelligent. Students will find that he will
not be able to learn, and as a result of further excitement and interest in learning to decline.
Students will surrender unconditionally in the face of learning tasks. There will not be a
strong desire to improve the learning effort, because he believes that he is not capable.
Instead students were perceived by teachers as an intelligent student, can be motivated to
learn, or not. Students who are not motivated to improve uasha learning, convinced that
without studying hard they can achieve. Therefore, they learn to relax or not studied
seriously. These teachers develop standards for success, causing susasana class called
"unidimensional Classroom".
There is another teacher who developed the standard for success, causing the
atmosphere of a class called "Multidimensional classroom", ie teachers who always convey
to her students that many ways to achieve success, that student success depends on how much
effort to learn he had done. Teachers emphasize that every student is different and each
student has strengths and weaknesses. No student who is more powerful than other students
in all aspects. These teachers always motivate students in that way, and as a result of the self-
concept of students very well. Not going to happen in students a sense of inadequacy or self
feel stupid, even they feel confident that they themselves have the advantage or strength, and
the important thing they are doing is trying to develop the advantages or strengths so that they
can achieve success.

3. Attitude Toward Behavior Master student

teacher attitudes other less improve learning activities students are teachers who are
easily offended or affected by the attitude of the students. If the student behavior in a positive
learning (show ketekunam, attentive, motivated, tasks) then how to teach even this into a
positive, which is a way of teaching that is fun, ungkapn-expression in a more systematic,
more patient and looking for ways to make students understand what is being taught. But if
the student behavior is negative, ie indifference, less revealing attention, lazy, then the
teacher even this to show you how to teach the negative, that is indifferent to the students,
less passionate or less there is a maximum effort to make students understand, comprehend
and master what he learned (Yenkin and Deno, 1969; Klein, 1971; Brophy and Everstzon,
1981). Furthermore Brophy and Everstzon suggested that a good teacher is not easily affected
by the attitudes or behavior of the students, but from a variety of research they do, they often
find teachers who remain passionate and display the presentation was good, if a teacher
receives negative feedback from her students.

4.attitudes, of teacher towards the students characteristic

The attitude of other teachers at a disadvantage on improving student learning

activities is to predict the success of students by socio-economic status, gender, race, and
cultural differences. There is evidence, according to Friedman (1973) that the treatment of
teachers to students coming from high economic class different from its treatment of students
who come from lower economic groups. More teachers provide reinforcement (reward,
attention, praise) to students who come from the middle and high economic status of the
students who come from the lower socioeconomic status. Furthermore, Friedman argued that
teachers tend to the view that students who come from families of high socioeconomic status
have higher capabilities of the students who come from families with low socioeconomic
Rist (1970) proved through research that there are teachers to group students based
on the view that students quickly learn is the students who come from socio-economic groups
is high, and vice versa students who are slow learners are students who come from low
economic status groups. According to Rist teacher behavior as there is no scientific basis and
are very harmful to student motivation. No one any information that allows teachers to
conclude that the socioeconomic status of students is directly related to their academic
Why teachers to argue that students who come from higher socio-economic
environment more potential for learning from the students who come from low
socioeconomic environments? The reason is because they see the children of high
socioeconomic status showed the ability to become a leader, neat and clean. They come from
families who are educated and have a stable job; their parents showed great attention to the
education of their children; These children also showed good participation in the group (Rist,

5. Teacher Attitudes Toward Students of Different Sex

Will occur in the classroom, where teachers have preconceived notions that are less
appropriate to the learning ability of students based on gender differences. These teachers
suspected that male students have better learning abilities of female students. Or conversely,
that female students have better learning abilities than in men. Teachers who have
preconceived notions that are not appropriate as this is called a "stereotype" of the sex
differences in learning ability. Gollmick, Sadker and Sedker (1982) suggests the presence of
teachers who have the stereotype that male students in learning more creative, independent,
high achievement, persistence, confidence and ability to solve problems, while the female
students they consider to be more passive, dependent teacher (not independent), are not
capable of achievement, timid, lackluster, attracted only to the problems are simple and are
home domesticity, interested in physical appearance and are less attracted to academic
The assumption that teachers will affect the attitude or behavior in serving the
students, or the way she interacts with the students. Female students were addressed by
teachers as less capable, dependent, passive and lackluster, will regard itself to be so. They
become students who felt inadequate, passive, not passionate and dependent on learning.
Things like this happen started on the lowest level of education up to the highest level of
education. In other words, as has been mentioned as before, and this has been recognized by
experts since tens of years ago, students who have a self-image (self concept) is negative
tends motivated negative anyway (Lecky, 1945, Hamacheck, 1960; Black, 1974; and
Lebeton, 1975). Male students who are considered by the teacher can motivate yourself,
should be considered to be more independent, more passionate and more able to learn, but
they are not. Such an attitude does not help teachers improve student motivation. This is
because teachers pay less attention to them. Instead, they will be criticized for not showing
what is alleged the teacher. (Sadker and Sedker, 1986).
Brophy and Evertson (1981) studied the attitudes of teachers towards female students
and male students and female students know that the teacher is considered by more mature,
more potent and more attractive to teachers, while the male students as a teacher is
considered passive, aggressive and was not interested. The attitude of teachers toward male
students prefer to criticize (Jackson and Lahaderne, 1967) and give them a lower value than
their actual accomplishments (Carter, 1952; Hess and his friends, 1969 cited by Myron H.
Dembo, 1988). Several studies conducted by some experts (Arnold, 1968; Jackson, Siberman,
and walpon, 1969) suggested that female teachers prefer to guide and direct the female
students. There is also evidence to show that the teachers provide an assessment of the
wasters of the students are women and ratings that are too low to male students that they
actually have the potential to learn the same (Doyle, Hancock and Kefer, 1972) ,
According to research Brophy and Good (1974), boys are very prominent and active
behavior in learning. They like to attract the attention of teachers in all forms of behavior.
Boys are more honored, and also punishment of the teacher, the more asked, doing a lot of
interaction with the teacher and called upon more often by teachers. Therefore Brophy and
Good (1974) refuted the argument that the difference in treatment of the student teachers
women and men is due to the influence brought about by the behavior of the students
themselves in learning. It happened is due to the teachers themselves who has the view and
attitude that is not true of the students.
It is not true according to Brophy and good that students with a particular gender is
superior to the students of the other sex. Sadker and Sedker (1968) reported the results of
research conducted to schools, elementary school or junior high school, that teachers respond
differently to male students and female students. Teachers tend to accept calls shouts of boys
( "I, bu", I, bu), but prohibiting female students to yell teachers. Teachers encourage students
mengancungkan woman hand, if they want to answer a teacher's question. Therefore male
students get more attention from the teacher, then the lesson of Sciences of nature and
mathematics, the learning process needs to do some research and many require questions
from students to teachers, students woman became severely disadvantaged because of their
lack of interaction with teachers.

With put forward a variety of research experts above about stereotypes of teachers to
students that may adversely affect the activities and achievements of students in learning,
then patutlah teachers are trying to eliminate the stereotypes of themselves. It is clear there is
no denying the opinion that in the classroom strengths and weaknesses of students in learning
is not the same, whether he is male or female. In this case it is not appropriate to look at the
strengths or weaknesses of students with a starting point of their gender.

To avoid or eliminate the stereotype that has been owned by the students themselves,
because it mimics the teacher, then Shapiro, Kramer and Hunerberg (1981) suggested
guidelines are as follows:

a. Helping students to be more aware of stereotypes about gender effect is not good in
attitude, or behavior and way of thinking of students. The trick is to make students comment
on the sexes became a topic of discussion. For example female students to male students
commented that: "The male students are not diligent and more lazy in learning". Male or stu-
dents commented on female students that: "students are more women less capable of learning
than the male students". With in discussion these comments, the students themselves have the
opportunity to prove that there are no differences in the ability that needs to be exaggerated,
and between the sexes can work together to accomplish tasks perfectly. Students can also
men and women together to discuss how other people or other people to develop ideas about
the behavior of real men and women. Students are also given the task of analyzing
stereotypes about gender differences were expressed in various media, such as television
programs, radio, newspapers and magazines.

Indeed, discussions were carried out by students is not going to change student behavior
overnight, but it gives students the opportunity to learn, that the criticisms of the students of
the opposite sex was not a matter of sexuality, but just a difference in opinion between the
from individual to individual, and such differences are common.

b. Trying to change the practice - the practice of schools that accumulate stereotypes about
gender differences. Teachers often do not realize that the rules - the rules, procedure -
procedure, or statements that are practiced in schools leads to the assumption that teachers
provide different services terhahap different genders. It should not happen, and the teacher
had to make changes, for example in the case - it is as follows:

1. The student seating arrangements. Let avoided the seating arrangement where the male
students in the back and a woman sitting in front of the student group. Arrange arrange
seating where specific gender groups with seating near the teacher while the other group
away from the teacher. Seating should be arranged in accordance with the interests of
learning, for example, students - high student seated in the rear and students - students who
are low at the front. Child - children who need a place close to the teacher or board, because
of physical disability (such as lack of vision or hearing) should be placed in the proper place,
regardless of gender.
2. Do not develop a task - the task of learning by gender, for example, the task for the
students - female students easy, and tasks for students - male students is difficult, or vice
3. In developing the discipline, expression - expression of teachers that foster stereotypes
nhendaklah dihndari. Just as the phrase "boys - men should be more polite terhadapwanita"
"son -Eighteen should be more self-control", "boy - let men be more diligent learning". Or
mrngatakan: "child women should behave smooth, should not be like that". The phrase - this
expression all need to be avoided.
4. Do not give rise to competition between the sexes in the study, for example, says: "Who
do the task faster, boys - men or women". Instead Yag is fostered cooperation between them.
Teachers can complete the task - the task of learning, mutual help each other and enjoys
activities together.
Research conducted by Lockheed and Klein (1998) revealed that the separation between
student learning - female and male students in addition to less develop the motivation to
learn, it is also a terrible impact on the social development of students. This result will remain
in effect samapai they mature. Separation of learning that starts from the elementary school
level will cause the wrong archetype interact with different sexes (Serbin, 1983). Boys - men
who have dominated the interaction patterns when cooperation with women in the study, if
you've grown into a man who likes mendi = ominasi in taking decisions in groups of women
and men (Lockheed and Hall, 1976).

c. helping students to not memisahakan sharply career fields according to their gender. This
does not mean that any career can be done by women or pri, for each gender is limited by its
dignity of each. There should be no expressions or attitudes or behavior of teachers who give
the impression that women are only able to do the work is low, while men are able to do work
that requires skill and high intellectual ability. Teachers can only bring a magazine that
reveals a man who is successful in the field of career expert cook, mereancang, and make
clothing and other work that is considered women's work.

The attitude of teachers towards students with different cultural backgrounds

An attitude that can obviously degrade or disrupt the learning activities of students is if
teachers show different attitudes to academic progress and success may be achieved by
providing guidance for the cultural background from which students come.
The problem at the present time may not yet be felt in our country, or has been felt, but
there is no research about it so as not dimuculkan as a matter of education. Suppose that this
problem has not been perceived as a problem of national education, the cause is not yet
tejadinya movement of people from one area of the area with a number of other very much.
But whit improvement of socio-economic conditions, and the number and quality of
communications is growing, then it will come to Masayang perpindahanpenduduk problem of
Asru region to another will be more and more terjadi.oleh because itudidalam one class
guided you there will be students of other ethnic cultures different. Within sartu class high
school in the paddock (Sumatran barato for example, there will be students who beerasal of
Manado, or Irian Jaya or East Timor; where teachers will be facing problems of attitude that
is not expected that, this problem may have arisen in schools dijakarta that population
consists of various tribes. mingkin there are teachers in Jakarta who feel that students coming
from daerahtertentu, "less potential for learning", or students from tribal "foo" less potential
to learn dibandingkandengan another tribe. negative feelings are reflected by the teacher in
his attitude to serve students who are considered potentially less of it. For example, with their
frequent criticism, or less mendapatperhatian and penghargaandari teacher. Of course this can
cause the student was not happy with the attitude of the teacher to make the interaction
between teachers and students into not good.
In the United States the problem attitudes of teachers towards students of different
cultures has been widely studied. For example, research carried out by the data, Schaefer and
Davis (1968) and Leacock (1969) about the attitude of teachers towards students who come
from Mexico and Puerto Rico. Students who are from this area received less attention and
awards from the teacher-students gurudibadingkan with white Americans.
Philip (1983) argued penelitianya result of the attitudes of teachers towards children
american indian. They assume that children meruapakan indian students are less able to learn,
do not want to appear in front of the class, not being able to interact and participate verbally.
In fact, according to Philip, their inability to perform in depankelas or to participate verbally
potentially not because they are not capable, but because of cultural influences they perform
tasks or certain skills and then they try to practice on their own without anyone being
watched. When they have mastered as cra tasks and skills that they then want to demonstrate
in public. Adalahmereka happens in the classroom has been required to perform while they
are still learning, and mastering appropriate that they believe have not been established.
Their reluctance to participate verbally didapan their friends because they fear of being
wrong. They have not been able to appear before the tasks or skills they are steady, while
teachers berpandanganbahwa learn from mistakes is very effective. This does not fit with the
cultural background of students who come from the indian tribe.
Teachers need to really understand how cultural differences can cause a teacher one
interpret the behavior of students from other cultures. It is important for teachers to interact
with students from different cultures memperalajari culture from which their students come
from, and try mengertibagaimana cultural influence of the origin of the behavior of students.
For this the teacher can read a book, visit family, and visiting masyakrakat cultured as the
culture of their students.

The attitude of teachers to the difference of student achievement

The attitude of teachers who lack maximally develop learning activities is to interact
differently to different students achievement. Their teachers give awards and more questions
to students in high-performing compared to students with low achievers (Good, 1970). The
same was found by Kranz, Weber, and fashel (1970) in his study of the interaction of teachers
and students at the schools elementary school in the learning process.
Based on research conducted by Mendoja, Good and Brophy (1972) deketahui that
the quality of interaction that teachers with high achieving students are also different quality
of interaction students are underachieving. Teachers are more eager for answers to children of
high achievers (recently given the opportunity to answer to the children of others) rather than
waiting for an answer from students underachieving.
From the study of the behavior of the teachers who teach primary school level,
Brophy and Good (1972) found that students who are high achievers always been a favorite
for teachers. They are more appreciated if mejawab correct and less criticism if they answer
incorrectly. Different premises attitudes of teachers towards students who are underachieving,
they are more criticized jaewaban if they are wrong. Teachers say the phrase repeats or other
questions addressed to students of high achievers, but not so for students who are
underachieving. In fact, there are teachers providing feedback ignore the learning outcomes
of the students are underachieving, but not so with the students who are high achievers.
Teacher behavior that differentiate the service to students who excel this, do not
correspond at all with preaktik teaching should be. Precisely students who excel rendahlah
that require reinforcement and attention and support of teachers so that they are more
motivated to learn. Teacher-gur-criticism should mengatasai kertikan to answer students
underachievers as a good strategy for mengingkatakan their excitement in learning.
Sebalikanya let not occur circumstances where teachers are supporting the students who
actually need support. For students who are high achievers, the attitude of teachers who
support only make these students reach achievement levels are the same, but the criticism,
neglect, providing feedback, and attitudes that are less sympathy from teacher to make
students excel low loss of motivation in learning.

Motivation and teaching methods

An important thing to do teachers to improve students' learning activities is to create
teaching procedures to fully involve students in the learning process. The method of teaching
is also called the students active learning methods or often abbreviated to the CBSA.
Teaching methods that can increase the excitement for students to learn is that if the teaching
methods that can involve students quantitatively and qualitatively in the learning process.
Teaching methods engage students only quantitatively, can not be used as guidelines for the
students motivated in learning. Conversely, students who work in a relatively short time can
not be considered to have low motivation.
Bruse Joyce and Marsha Weil (1986) suggested various models of teaching that
involves students both quantitatively and qualitatively in learning. This teaching model is the
involvement of students in accordance with the level of development. More and more
students itnggi level of development required dalambelajar independence, thus diminishing
the involvement of teachers.
There are four groups of models of teaching that each group comprises several
models which again as stated by Joyce and Weil Marha. The groups in question are the
methods of teaching information processing models, the models of personal, social tehe
models, and behavioral model system.
Group teaching model called information processing models aim to boost the
desire to understand the world by teaching them ways to find and organize data, training them
to skillfully use a variety of concepts and skillful use of language. Group teaching model
includes models of teaching is called:

a. Inductive thinking models

b. Inquairy training models
c. Advance organizeers models
d. memorization models
e. The Intelect developing models
f. Scientific inquairy models

The group aims to develop a personal model of selfhood (selfhood) students.

Premises using the model of teaching this form within the students themselves, want to
achieve personal growth more than what is achievable now, so that it becomes more resilient,
sensitive and creative to get the quality of life understanding of himself, feeling responsible
for the education of self better. Mode-teaching model including group teaching models are
models of teaching called :

a. nondirective Model
b. syntetic models
c. Awarensess training models
d. The meeting classroom models.

Group teaching model called The Social Model consists of models of teaching is called:

a. Group Incesrigation Model

b. Role Playing Model
c. Juriprudential Model
d.. laboratory Training Model
e.Social Science Inquiry Model

Models of teaching is that students actively in learning alongside or working groups so that they
can cooperate with others and help each other in solving problems and learning. Models of teaching
is to enable students to be self-help groups complete the learning tasks.
Group teaching model called The Behavioral System consisting of various models of teaching,
a. Mastery Learning or Directors Instruction
b. Learning self-control models
c. Training for soft skills and concept development models

This teaching model is so that students are able to modify their own behavior, menterapi
meyesuaikan behavior and behavior with environmental demands or values prevailing in its
environment. Students learn how to respond to a given uympan behind other people and make it as
a material consideration to repair itself.
A wide variety of teaching models described above are models of teaching methods that allow
students to learn actively very mendukungpeningkatan passion, persistence, and minatsiswa-
students in learning. Should realize by teachers that teaching methods that engage students in
learning is not the method of discussion, but many models method may be rare, perhaps even not
been implemented by our teachers in Indonesia.


Teachers are responsible for investigating the matter (facts, concepts, or principles worthy of
study students to achieve the learning objectives). In addition, teachers should organize the subject
matter in a way that is easy and happy students learn (Skinner, 1968). Organizing subjects greatly
affect motivation and learning outcomes. If the subject matter was well organized, the students will
succeed in menegrjakan test (Abrani, Leventhal, and Perry, 1982). Student success in taking the test,
of course, nothing to do with the activities of the high student to learn the subject matter diteskan /
dipercobakan because of the material and the way the teacher organizing the material interesting.
1. Choosing a Subject Matter
Gage and Berline (1988) suggests that teachers should know the factors that should be considered in
choosing the subject matter to be studied students interested in learning.

a. The level of students' abilities

Students who are still in early stages of development of concrete thinking can only understand the
facts and concepts-konsepp simple and will not be able to understand the concepts of complex and
abstract. For example in Indonesian elementary school students in fourth grade were able to learn
about the types of words and put these kinds of words in a sentence. However it is very difficult for
them to understand "the process of development of the Indonesian from 1945 until now.

b. Association with the experience that has been owned by students

The material that will be taught be of something new, but students should have a background
experience to learn new subject matter. Students more easily understand the new subject matter if
he has the background knowledge or experience about the material. With regard to this Ausubel
(1986) recommends that in having the subject matter teachers should consider the capabilities and
knowledge of the students.

c. The level of attractiveness of the material

The subject matter will be interesting for students to learn, if the material was in accordance with
the circumstances that exist in the environment. For example in the subjects of Dance, students in
Minangkabau studying an assortment of dance area. Elementary School Students Studying a variety
of dance area. Dance dance lessons in primary school aims to establish local dance dance skills. For
students who sit in the Junior High School aims to learn the dances of the region, not only for dance
dance skills areas, but should study how the history of the dances and the values embodied in the
movements of the dance. Similarly, students in high school, studied dance in the region deeper
discussion, or lead to the creation of the dances a new area, discuss the values or the underlying
fundamentals of the dance area. It is apparent from this example what students are learning from
the environment in which the same subjects does not mean the same material. The material should
be adjusted to the level of students' progress.
d. The level of novelty and actuality material
The subject matter will appeal to students if the subject matter is the events that are going on, both
concerning the politics, the arts and technology. High school students would be very interested in
learning about domestic politics, for example, about the elections, activities of the MPR and DPR
who are conducting period siding, displacement of population, taxes raged discussed at present.
Students will be interested to discuss about cancer or AIDS is becoming a major issue for human life.
Students will be interested to mempelari computer or robot or satellite if the material is presented
in schools because it semuamerupakan events are also being hotly discussed.

e. The development level Students

The subject matter will be interesting for students to learn if the material was suitable to the level or
degree of development of the student. For example, for the level of development of adolescents,
they will be interested in the subject matter concerning "how to build a relationship with a friend of
the opposite sex", especially for children a woman will be interested to learn about the health
material "body care (skin, hair)".

2. Organising Learning Materials

As previously noted that the students are interested in studying a subject matter, in
addition to teachers how to choose the material, as well how to organize the material. There are
various ways that can be done to organize the subject matter as proposed by Goyer (presented by
Gage and Berliner, 1988) as follows:

a. Organizing the subject matter is based on "The relationship between the components
(Component Relationship)
In this case the material will be structured in a manner described raised the idea of a broad
advance, and then broken down into sub-sub idea tau ideas narrower. If students understand the
relationship between ideas elbih narrow or sub-sub ideas with one another and with the broader
idea, then it is easy for students to learn the material being taught. Suppose you want to teach a
topic "Living next door". Tau idea of coexistence is a comprehensive idea of it being a more narrow
notion, for example:
Importance of neighbors; a variety of inappropriate behavior towards neighbors, the problems
often experienced in dealing with the neighbors, ways that can be done to overcome these
problems. Sub-sub ideas can be broken down into sub-units smaller ideas that can impart
information clearer.
In organizing this way, teachers should be to tell the students that he would move gives an
explanation of the sub ideas one to the other sub ideas. For example, by saying, "we have discussed
the importance of neighbors, and now we will discuss about the inappropriate behavior towards
neighbors". Each move from one idea or another idea to sub-grant students "sign" as described

b. Penngorganisasian materials based on "Relations Order" (Sequential Relationship)

Organizing materials based on this method, the sequence relationships can be based on the
sequence of events or causality. Once the basic sequence is understood pengoganisasian students, it
will be easy for them to remember the sequences. For example stated to the students as follows:

"In discussing the problem of informal group discussions we should take steps logically quality. The
first step is to find facts that cause problems. Both formulate real issues. Third specify criteria to
assess ways of solving the problem. And fifth sets out the steps to solve the problem ".

Ways of organizing the material centered on solving such problems may cause a high
motivation for students to mempelajarinnya (Goyer, proposed by Gage and Berliner, 1988).

c. Organizing the subject matter based on "Relevant Relationships" (Relevance Relationship)

Teachers can organize the subject matter by setting the central idea and set other ideas and
arguments. For example, you want to present listeners that national development should be
directed to the village, then you should provide arguments relevant to the central idea put forward
earlier. You should be able to explain that in economic terms, the villagers preferred, because the
people living in villages more numerous than the population living in cities, and the urban population
lived by villagers. Thus the listener easily and understand your central idea and became interested.

d. Organizing materials based on "Transitional Relationships" (Transitional Relationship)

Organizing these types of materials can be demonstrated by using words or phrases that define
ungkatapan on the organization of the material. This causes the students to know the organizational
structure of the material you are using. For example, teachers who are teaching materials teaching
process said: "Teaching can be analyzed in different ways with different purposes as well. This can
be analyzed in terms of the components influencing the learning process, if it is connected with the
learning process. Can also be analyzed in terms of the time sequence in accordance with the
implementation steps of teaching it (if you like to plan a program of teacher education). Can also be
analyzed in terms of grade level or materials where the teaching takes place (if the objective to
discuss the lesson materials that differ with different grade teacher) ".

Repeating the phrase "It can be analyzed in terms of" shows a series of parallel ideas. Terkhir
phrase that "repeat" the first phrase, namely summary.


1. Advantages of Using Media Teaching
Heinich, Molenda, and Russel (1982) suggests the benefits of using the medium of instruction
in teaching students, namely:

a. Media teaching can be mengkonkritkan ideas or ideas that are conceptually, thus reducing
misunderstandings students in studying.
b. Teaching media can increase the interest of students to learn the subject matter.
c. Media teaching gives pengalama-real experience that stimulates the activity of self-learning untu.
Students Encouraged to perform learning activities for encouragement in itself (intrinsic motivation).
d. Media pengajaraan can develop a sustainable way of thinking.
e. Mendia teaching provide experiences that are not easily obtained through other materials and
make the learning process a deep and diverse.
Jorone psychologists Bruner (1965) suggested that if the students can learn by direct
experience (through the media, demonstrations, "Field trip", dramatization), then the teaching
situation that will heighten the excitement and the students in learning.
Fleminng and Levie (1978) concluded from various studies conducted by Bruner that teaching
media provide concrete experiences that facilitate student learning, namely in achieving mastery,
remember, and understand abstract symbols.
With put forward the opinion of experts from various studies that they do that, then we need
not doubt about the importance of teaching aids in increasing student motivation.

2. Choose Media Teaching

Questions of next appears in memahas link between motivation and the medium of instruction is
"how to choose effective teaching media to enhance student motivation or to improve student
learning activities". Heinich, Molenda and Russel (1982) menegmukakan measures in a systematic
planning and effective use of teaching aids, as follows:

a. Analyzing Student Characteristics

Teachers should pay attention to the characteristics of students in planning the use of teaching aids.

There are two types of student characteristics that should be known by teachers, namely:
1. General character that includes gender, level, class, intellectual ability, talent, and culture.
2. The special characteristic of the background experience of students about the topic or subject
matter that includes knowledge, skills and attitude to the topic or subject matter to be presented.
Selection of teaching media truly adapted to the general student characteristics will allow
students to understand the subject matter presented by the teacher. For example, students who
berintelegensi low desperately need help to understand the subject matter with the teaching of
media that can be heard, seen and She felt. Students like this will easily learn if assisted with media
teaching provide direct experience (Jerone Bruner, 1966)
For some students tyang apathy toward the subject matter, media that can be given to help
them to be interested in learning is the media that provide a powerful stimulus such as a movie
dramatization or simulation game.
Suppose the student does not have the background experience of the subject matter to be
taught, then the appropriate assistive media used is the medium of instruction that can provide
direct experience (field trip) or media that can be seen and heard at the same time (film, videotape).

B. set a goal of teaching

What learning goals that should be achieved by each student?, More precisely, what should
the new capabilities of the students after the teaching process is completed? Teachers need to
set goals, because teachers should choose meda and sequence learning activities appropriate
to achieve the objectives must also creating a rich learning environment making
it easier to achieve that goal.

C. Select, modify and planning subject matter

Selection of the appropriate lesson mteri according to science education will have increased
steadily if isertai with instruction in the media setting kelas.Henich, Molenda and Rusel
(1982) explained that 90-95% of study time should be done with pengajaran.adanya media
compatibility between that will be taught by the media teaching, helping students to
effectively learn.

D.Menggunakan media lessons

after selecting, modifying and planning teaching materials, teachers need to plan how to
present the material and how much time is required dibutuhkan.Jika the various equipment
and facilities required can be prepared.

E.Meminta student response

Teachers encourage students to respond to stimuli teaching, which can be either repeat the
facts that have been studied and also shaped creations kompleks.Misalnya, scientific works,
paintings and lainnya.Untuk see the response of these students may require media.

F. Evaluating

In carrying out the assessment in the teaching process, or after the end of a teaching unit, we
need a board, formats, pictures, camera, etc. vidiotape.

Motivation And Ratings

1. The function of assessment in increasing motivation
If the assessment exercise was not planned with the best possible learning motivation
that comes from the implementation penilaitan will not appear as expected by the teacher, or
student just learn on tests saja.Siswa not feel that that assessment as teachers' efforts to
develop a variety of new things in field they studied, but as the teachers' efforts to develop a
variety of things barudalam pitch being studied, but even they feel that the assessment that
teachers do this mereka.Perasaan trouble might arise in the student if the assessment made by
the teacher simply to test students only and just get numbers that are easily teacher decide
whether the student has mastered or not mastered or smart / stupid in belajar.Tetapi if the
assessment that teachers do is to get information about how far the rest of the already learned
the lesson and in which areas they have not mastered and provide feedback for further efforts
to improve their performance, it can increase the passion in an effort to learn siswa.Memang
no assessment aimed at determining the qualifications of students as a requirement pass or
not pass in the levels of schooling, but this was done after the learning takes place.
The fact that encountered Black (1968) showed that many teachers are preparing
exam questions that never require students to high-level thinking, such as analyzing,
criticizing and commenting, but only presents questions that are memories of the materials
that have been described teachers.

2. Characteristics of a Good Rating

Good judgment in the sense of increasing the Usha-business students to learn is that the
assessment was planned and associated with short and long-term goals to be achieved panjan
students during belajar.Oleh Therefore, the assessment should be carried out continuously
during the process beajar.Penilaian sustained by Sounders (1969) can raise the motivation of
students to learn because:
a. Having a high level of confidence that the grounds appraisal done many times and students
can directly and provide comments on the ratings given to him.
b. The opportunity for students to improve and develop themselves so as to improve the
assessment results.
c. Continuous assessment is more concerned with students' efforts and not concerned with
results only.
3. Aspects and Comments Ratings
giving the numbers and comments in the paper is very helpful student assessment
weeks to encourage students to learn more good.However there are teachers who only
provide an assessment of the numbers alone, so that students do not know how he should
work and not be able to make improvements in the right way.
The motivation of students who initially flaming can be reduced, and even disappear
at all.There also teachers who just comment without giving any explanation or less once
mengarahkan.Hal encourage students to try to improve or learn not give a true answer that
helps to build student motivation komemntar then the things to consider are:
a. Kemukakanlah tetrlebih first answer from the point where the benar.Misalnya: "Your
answer on no.1-6 and no.8 is good and true, answered with systematic and core answer has
dikemukakan.Untuk about no.9,10 and 12 you seem having trouble, for that you read the
book back bab.X pages 9 and 12.
b. Give sympathetic criticism; do not criticize or discredit siswa.Misalnya "To answer your
9,10,12 seems to be having no doubt that less able to provide explanations and examples
jelas.Untuk that you can see the results of your discussions dated 7-8-2012, the "Problema
c. Haris Teacher explaining where students can obtain the correct answer.

4. Assessment by students
One way to do student assessment is to involve students in doing
penilaian.Sekelompok students made the jury for themselves and their friends participated
comment on why they assess demikian.Hal can be done by students in rotation, this way done
by Morton and Machbeth ( 1977) to show students are very motivated to learn and to feel
satisfied with their votes terima.Hal this is because they realize with sugguh really mistakes
they do with the ways they are supposed to do.
The aspects involved in subjects that include attitudes of teachers, teaching
methods, teaching materials, and assessment of learning outcomes greatly affect the interest
and enthusiasm of students in learning.
The attitude of teachers modeled by students, teachers leading classes force also
affect the classroom atmosphere and activities siwsa in belajar.Guru are on semangant
students will raise the spirit like these students to develop stanar belajar.Guru success called
"Multidimensional Classroom" .Berbeda with style teacher who developed the standard
kesukasesan "unidimensional classroom" that emphasizes success can only be achieved by
the students who have high intelligence who cerdas.Gaya teacher or student in the class to
lead such a bad influence on the atmosphere of the classroom and student motivation.