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SYNOPSIS: IASbabas TLP 2017 [7th Feb] Day 17

IAS baba 14/02/2017

SYNOPSIS- IASbabas TLP 2017 [7th Feb] Day 17


1. That international relations are influenced by personal outlooks of leaders has never been as evident as it
is today. Do you agree? Comment.

Personal outlooks and beliefs used to play an important role under monarchies and dictatorships where policies
both internal and foreign were based on whims and fancies of the dictators.

But this was not the case with democracies. In democratic countries the international relations are based on
Economic importance, strategic importance and cultural ties between two countries.

Recently it is being noticed that again foreign relations of Countries are influenced by personal outlooks of leaders.

Best Example Donald Trump. His recent actions has create ripples of controversies like building a wall at
US Mexico border, his current ban on immigration of people from 7 middle eastern Countries and
withdrawal from TPP.
Russian foreign policy is based on very strong stance of President Putin. Russia stood as a very strong pillar
with Iran even when majority of developed countries had put sanctions on it. Russia is still firmly supporting
the Syrian regime.
Shinzo Abe has pushed Japan towards a more aggressive defence policy and has changed economic
relations with different countries including India and South Korea.

More examples can be added here but remember that all the examples should be from democratic countries as in
dictatorships, the international policies has always been shaped by personal outlooks of the dictators.

Policies based on personal ideology may or may not be bad. For example, the international policy of independent
India was shaped by Pt Nehru. He was a statesman who took bold and revolutionary steps like making India a non
aligned country and policy of Panchsheel. His helped India grow rapidly in the world torn by cold war.

Or an ideology can be totally disastrous like the aggressive policy pursued by Hitler.

World is more closely knit now than ever before, condition of one country can influence several other countries. In
this scenario it is very important for a leader to put countrys cause to the forefront to shape its policies.

Best Answer : Putta

Every countrys international relations is based on its foreign policy. Foreign policy of a country is majorly driven by
its national interests and power (Power of authority, power to influence and power to force)of the particular country


Driving force for international relations in the past:

From the time world was open to engage in international relations ,foreign policies of the country was based on its
military might.

Every country identified itself with some alliance based on its political and economic preferences though some
countries stayed away from identifying themselves with Power blocks and formed NAM.(Non alignment movement)

Ex: Division of the world into Power blocks after world war II

Present day driving forces:

Present world , countries have showing their power to influence with their economic might. Economic development
through trade developments in various sectors is defining the base of nations foreign policy.

Today leaders of the country are defining the countrys international relations through their power of authority and
power to influence.

This can be evident from recent examples of US President Trump opting out from TPP, Japans PM Shinzo Abes
economics policies in the name of Abenomics and Indias foreign policy termed as Modis doctrine in the name of
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

Leaders power to influence the countrys international relations is not bad as long as it reflects aspirations of the
people of the country and driven by national interests of the country and does not harm the interests of globally
connected world. But it should not lead to dictatorship which caused huge damage to the countries in the past.

2. The decision by the US to stay away from one of the largest and most ambitious trade block might have
implications for India. Which trade block is the statement referring to? Discuss its implications for India.


The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a trade agreement between 12 countries surrounding the Pacific Ocean.
(Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam.)


Implications for India:

1. Economic Advantage : Such a major trade agreement constituting 40% of world trade have potential to
propel the exports from economies like Vietnam, Malaysia etc. It could have been negatively impacted Indian
exporters, especially leather and cotton. With break up, it cleared up the worries of Indian per a
report the loss for India ($2-6 billion) would have been about 0.1% of GDP by 2030.
2. 2. IPR regime: it weakens global pressures to strengthen IPR rules in India, which supports pharmaceuticals
and generic drug industry in India.
3. Strategic Advantage : RCEP, which is seen as a counter to TPP can get strengthened and exploit the space
opened up due to the fall of TPP. India and China are a part of RCEP. And on the other side, India can
continue its efforts to strengthen bilateral relations in the region.
4. Political Advantage : US interests in India is likely to grow, as it sees India to counter the Russia-China tie up
power. With US being isolating itself, it can empower India to play a major role in global arena.

5. Threat: China will dominate the RCEP and the Asia-pacific region, which will not be favorable to Indias
economy as China will enjoy the Technology and Cost advantage.


Write a brief conclusion.

Best Answer: MOL0929

3. What is CPEC? Should India worry about it? Analyse.


The ChinaPakistan Economic Corridor is an under-construction $54 billion bilateral economic corridor between
Pakistan and China. It is part of Chinas One Belt, One Road initiative and Pakistans Vision 2025.


CPEC (China Pakistan Economic Corridor) is part of Chinas One Belt, One road (OBOR) Initiative. It is seen as the
proof of friendship between Pakistan and China, but it also raises the following concerns for India

1) Threat to India sovereignty: CPEC passes through Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) which is still a disputed
land and integral part of India. Also China has stepped up its military activity in region in of security to corridor.

2) Political concerns: it symbolizes strengthened relationship between China-Pakistan, and increases the chance of
Chinas intervention in bilateral matters of India-Pakistan to protect its own interest.

3) Economic concerns: This will reduce Chinas distance to Africa by 12000 kms. The effective use of this corridor
will reduce the Indias export to Western Europe, West Asia and Africa. India was having an advantage to shorter
sea route to Africa and Europe, which will be challenged after CPEC successful implementation.

4) Challenge to Indias security: In any future war with China, China can use this route to mobilize its army to Indias
western side and also use Gwadar port as its naval base.


Write a brief conclusion.

Best answer: Vivek

China Pakistan Economic Corridor(CPEC) is large scale economic corridor initiative that connects Kashgar (China)
and port of Gwadar(Pakistan), through the construction of a network of highways, railways, optical fiber and
pipelines. It is an extension of Chinas ambitious One Belt, One Road initiative. India have all reasons to worry about
it because:

1. Negates Indias Territorial Claims: CPEC passes through POK, which India claim to be a part of India. The
project neglects all claims and risks of political uncertainty in the region.
2. Pakistan into Arms Race with India : An unconditional Chinese support can strengthen Pak Army and leads
to intensifying regional arms race.
3. Internationalization of Kashmir Issue: With Chinas support, Pakistan can ascertain greater pressure on
Kashmir issue on global forums.
4. Regional Isolation: CPEC have potential to alter the trade and power dynamics in South Asia. With opening
of West Asia and African lands for Chinese trade development, it possess serious threat to Indias withhold in
the region. Although India is itself moving ahead with Iran-Afghanistan relations, it is doubtful whether it can
compete the Chinese aggression.
5. Threat of Joining CPEC: Joining CPEC has itsown threats, the major being flooding of Indian market with
cheap Chinese products. India cannot go ahead with a policy which puts on such a severe pressure on
indigenous industrialists.

Thus India should be extremely cautious, at the same time progressive enough to build strong bonds and economic
linkages into Central Asian, Middle East and African supply chains.

4. Many Indian states are undergoing assembly elections. Analyse the role of Election Commission in
organising fair and peaceful elections. Can you discuss some of the landmark achievements of this
constitutional body?

Periodic national and assembly elections, under the supervision of Election Commission of India, are a strong
indicator of the success of a functioning democracy.

The powers and obligations of the Election Commission to ensure a proper election which is free and fair, and to
maintain a proper atmosphere conducive to such an election, are derived from Article 324.

It can exercise any power which is necessary to achieve this objective even if the Conduct of Elections Act and the
rules made thereunder do not confer such powers specifically.

The Election Commission is thus not only entitled to take all steps, but is under a constitutional obligation to do so, in
order to maintain during elections communal harmony, which is a necessary condition for holding free and fair
elections according to the Constitution.

Election Commission of India has been able to nourish Indias democratic health over the years by improving the
quality of election management through

Its powers and functions classified into three categories Administrative, Advisory and Quasi-Judicial
Issuing model code of conduct for political parties before elections etc.

In recent years, however, the Commission has started to play more active role to ensure greater participation of
people in the political affairs.

The Commission very quickly adapted itself to the changed political milieu that came about in the country. From a
relatively passive role that it had played in the earlier years following our independence, it quickly responded and
centre stage to play a vigorous, proactive role to ensure that the democratic process in the country remains, as was
envisaged by all at the time of Independence, free and fair in both character and content.

Landmark achievements:

Model code of Conduct: set of guidelines that govern the conduct of political parties and candidates in the run-up
to an election. It intends to provide a level playing field for all political parties, to keep the campaign fair and healthy,
avoid clashes and conflicts between parties, and ensure peace and order.

The main aim is to ensure that the ruling party, either at the Centre or in the states, does not misuse its official
position to gain an unfair advantage in an election.

Section 8 of Representation of People Act, 1951: The Election Commission taking serious view of the increasing
role of criminals in politics gave criminal un-friendly interpretation to Section 8 of Representation of People Act,

You can also mention on:

Non-of-the-above (NOTA) option

Electronic Voting Machines (EVM)

Digitizing the electoral process

Best answer 1: Ghalib

Election commission plays very important role in organising fair and peaceful elections. EC ensures that no ruling
party should have additional advantage and misuse its administrative power for getting undue benefits in election.
EC keeps an eye on hate speeches of politicians and ensure that strict action should be taken by judiciary against
them. EC generally transfers government officials before election to ensure that official should not give any
advantage of ruling party. The video recording of election and counting in another step for bringing transparency.
Any attempt to disturb elections by violence, booth capturing is taken seriously and often re-elections are ordered for
such cases.

The violence and attempt to capture booths have been minimised in past two decades.

With latest Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), the counting of votes have been much faster.

The option of NOTA (None Of The Above) has also given voters option to reject all the candidates. Although, the
NOTAs are only counted and maximum number of NOTA will not result into new election.

Indian election system has generated huge respect from many developing nations. Many African nations have
demanded Indian help in conducting elections or for training of officials.

EC is successfully able to conduct fair and peaceful elections in the nation. The hate speeches and power of money
has been reduced significantly due to highly vigilant election commission.


5. What budgeting reforms have been taken in the latest budget? Discuss.

Please note: Many of you have answered reforms and new initiatives taken in Budget. However, question is asking
about budgeting reforms.
Budgeting Reforms include recent reforms and changes brought in Budget process.

1. Administrative reforms: Merging Railway Budget with the General Budget.

2. Expenditure reforms: Replacing existing Plan and Non-Plan expenditure with capital-revenue heads.

3. Proponing of presentation of Budget from 1 st March to 1 st February.

Now discuss on these above areas. Why these reforms were brought and intentions behind these reforms (positives
and negatives).

Best answer: Arjun