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Casting

Workshop Practice (ENG F111) Dr. M. Eswara Krishna


HISTORY
Typical Cast Parts

(c)

(a)

(b) (d)

Figure: (a) Typical gray-iron castings used in automobiles, including the transmission valve body (left) and
the hub rotor with disk-brake cylinder (front).
(b) A cast transmission housing.
(c) The Polaroid PDC-2000 digital camera with a AZ191D die-cast high-purity magnesium case.
(d) A two-piece Polaroid camera case made by the hot-chamber die-casting process. Source: Courtesy
of Polaroid Corporation and Chicago White Metal Casting, Inc.
A large sand casting weighing 680 kg for an air compressor frame
CASTING PROCESS
In this process, the metal is first
liquefied by heating it in a
suitable furnace.
Then, the liquid metal is poured
into a previously prepared
mould cavity where it is allowed
to solidify.
Finally, the product is taken out
of the mould cavity.
PARTS PRODUCED BY CASTING
PROCESS

Most of the IC Engine Parts


Machine Tool Parts
Very Large Components for Hydraulic Turbines
Frying Pans
SAND CASTING PROCESS
Steps involved in Casting
Process
Pattern making.
Mould making.
Core making.
Melting of metal and pouring.
Cooling and solidification.
Cleaning of castings and
inspection.
PATTERN MAKING
Pattern is a mould forming tool used
to form the mould cavity in which
molten metal is poured.
A single pattern may be used for
making many mould cavity.
Pattern making involves the study of
materials used for making patterns,
various types of patterns and pattern
allowances.
Core
Cavity
Required casting
Gating
system

Pattern

Sand

Core box Sand mould in two-piece flask


PATTERN MATERIAL

Patterns can be made from wood,


metals, alloys, plaster, rubber,
wax, etc.
The selection of a pattern
material depends on the size and
shape of the casting, dimensional
accuracy, the quantity of casting
required and the molding
process.
PROPERTIES OF PATTERN
MATERIAL
Easily shaped, worked, machined
and joined.
Resistant to wear and corrosion.
Resistant to chemical action.
Dimensionally stable and
unaffected by variations in
temperature and humidity.
Availability and Economical.
WOOD
Easily available.
Low weight.
Low cost.
It absorbs moisture and hence
dimensions will change.
Lower life.
Suitable for small quantity
production and very large size
castings.
METAL
Used for mass production
For maintaining closer
dimensional tolerances on
casting.
More life when compared to
wooden patterns
Few of the material used include
CI, Al, Fe, Brass etc.
Aluminum is widely used.
PLASTIC

Low weight
Easier formability
Do not absorb moisture
Good corrosion resistance
POLYSTYRENE
It is very easy to make pattern as
it is soft.
Polystyrene changes gaseous
state on heating.
Used for prototype (single piece)
castings.
Also known as Disposable
patterns.
TYPES OF PATTERNS
SOLID PATTERN
A pattern that is made
without joints, parting or any
loose pieces in the
construction is called a single
piece or solid pattern.

It is not recommended except


for limited production like
large and small size castings
of simple shapes.
TYPES OF PATTERNS

Loose pieces
Part 2
Part 1

Dowel pin

(a) Solid pattern (b) Split pattern (c) Loose piece pattern
SPLIT PATTERN
It is the most widely used type of
pattern for intricate castings.

Used When
The depth of the casting is too high.

The pattern is split into two parts.


The two halves of the pattern should
be aligned by making use of the
dowel pins.
TYPES OF PATTERNS

Loose pieces
Part
2 Part 1

Dowel pin
(a) Solid pattern (b) Split pattern (c) Loose piece pattern
Loose Piece Pattern
Used when
Withdrawal of pattern from mould is
not possible.
Castings is having projections,
undercuts and etc.
The obstructing part of the contour is
held as loose piece by a wire.
After the molding is over, first the
main part is removed and then loose
pieces are recovered through gap
generated by the main pattern.
TYPES OF PATTERNS

Loose pieces
Part 2
Part 1

Dowel pin
(a) Solid pattern (b) Split pattern (c) Loose piece patter
Match Plate Pattern
Here the cope and drag halves of the
pattern along with the gating system
and riser are mounted on a single
matching plate on either side.
When match plate is removed after
moulding, a complete mould with gating
system is obtained.
These patterns are used for rapid
production of small and accurate
casting.
The match plate may be of wood, steel,
magnesium or aluminum.
Match Plate Pattern

Runner

Match plate
Pattern
Gate

Pattern
(a) Gated pattern for 8 castings (b) Match plate patt
Gated Pattern
It is used for producing small
sized cavities in one mould.
The gating and runner system are
integral part of the gated pattern.
So a single runner is used for
feeding all cavities and
considerable amount of the
moulding time is saved.
Removable and Disposable pattern
A removable pattern is removed from
the sand and is used for producing
multiple identical moulds.
In case of disposable patterns, the
pattern is left in the mould instead of
being removed from sand.
The pattern material vaporizes when the
molten metal is poured
cavity thus created is filled with molten
metal. The method is also known as full
mould process or cavity less method.
Disposable pattern

Sand Polystyrene Pattern Hot metal


Sand

(a) Disposable pattern (b) Hot metal replacing


in sand mould disposable pattern
Pattern Allowances

a) Patterns are not made the exact


same size as the desired casting
due to metal shrinkage, draft,
finish, distortion and rapping.
b) Therefore the allowances are
given in the pattern to allow these
various factors.
Types of Allowances
Shrinkage Allowance
Machining Allowance
Draft or Taper Allowance
Distortion Allowance
Rapping or Shake Allowance
Shrinkage Allowance
Provided to compensate for shrinkage
of metal during solid contraction.
Pattern is made slightly bigger.
Amount of allowance depends upon
type of the material used, its
composition, pouring temperature etc.
Note: The contraction of the metals is
always volumetric, but the shrinkage
allowances are always expressed as
linear measures.
Shrinkage Allowance for different metals
Metal Allowance mm/m
Cast Iron (Grey) 10.5
Steel 21.0
Brass 16.0
Aluminum 16.0
Zinc 24.0
Lead 24.0
Tin 7.00
Silver 10.0
Machining Allowance
Provided to compensate for machining
on casting.
Pattern is made slightly bigger in size.
Amount of allowance depends upon
size and shape of casting, type of
material, machining process to be
used, degree of accuracy and surface
finish required.
Draft or Taper Allowance
It is given on all the vertical surfaces
to facilitate easy withdrawal of the
pattern.
The factors influencing this
allowance are the design of the
pattern, its vertical height and the
method of molding.
It can be expressed either in degrees
or in terms of linear measures.
Typically it ranges from 1 degree to 3
degree for wooden patterns.
Draft or Taper Allowance

(a) Pattern with zero (no) draft (b) Pattern with draft

(Not to scale)
Distortion Allowance
Casting which has an irregular shape
and some such design that the
contraction is not uniform throughout
will distort during cooling.
To eliminate this defect an opposite
distortion is provided in the pattern
so that the effect is neutralized and the
correct casting is obtained.
This can be done in trial and error
basis to get the distortion amount.
Distortion Allowance

(a) (b) (c)


Required shape of Casting produced when no Pattern with distortion
casting distortion allowance is provided allowance
Rapping or Shake Allowance
When a pattern is to be withdrawn from
the mould, it is first rapped or shaken,
by striking over it from side to side, so
that its surface may be free of the
adjoining sand wall of the mould.
As a result of this the size of the mould
cavity increases a little and a negative
allowance is to be provided in the
pattern to compensate it.
It is negligible in small and medium
sized castings.
Example

A job shown in the Figure is to be made of steel by


casting process. The mould for this job is made from a
wooden pattern. Determine the dimensions of the wooden
pattern. Assume machining allowance of 2 mm on each
side, shrinkage allowance of 2% and a taper allowance of
1 degree.

80

20

50
It is given that machining allowance of 2 mm on
each side is to be given. Thus, each side is
increased by 2 mm resulting in the basic dimension
of the pattern as shown in Figure (a). The required
casting is shown with dotted lines.

84

24

54
The taper allowance value x is calculated from the
geometry of the Figure (b) as x = 24 tan 1 = 0.419
mm. Thus, the top surface dimension is increased to
provide for draft allowance from 54 84 mm to
54.838 84.838 mm.

x
84
24 24

54
(a) (b)
Now, the dimensions of pattern are increased
by 2% on all sides. That is, dimension 54 mm
will become
54 + (54*2)/100 = 55.08mm or 55.1mm
The dimension 54.838 will become
54.838 + (54.838*2)/100 = 55.9mm

Similarly, all other dimensions are calculated


and the final dimensions of the pattern are
shown in Figure
Final dimension of the Pattern
55.9

86.5

85.7
24.5

55.1
EXAMPLE #2
A job shown in Figure is to be made from steel by
casting process. The mold for this job is made from
wooden pattern. Determine the dimensions of the
wooden pattern assuming machining allowance of 3
mm on each side, shaking allowance of 1 mm on
length and width, shrinkage allowance of 3%.
EXAMPLE #2

40

30 80
EXAMPLE #2
Solution Since given machining allowance is 3 mm
on each side, add 3 mm on each side of the part
shown in Figure. The dimensions of the pattern after
machining allowance will be:

L = 80 + 2 3 = 86 mm
W = 40 + 2 3 = 46 mm
H = 30 + 2 3 = 36 mm
EXAMPLE #2
The dimensions of the pattern after adding machining
allowance are shown in the following figure
EXAMPLE #2

46

36
86
EXAMPLE #2
The shrinkage allowance of 3% is added to all the
dimensions of the pattern shown in Figure 11.22.
Dimension of the pattern after providing shrinkage
allowance of 3% will be:
L = 86 + 86 3/100 = 88.58 mm,
W = 46 + 46 3/100 = 47.38 mm
H = 36 + 36 3/100 = 37.08 mm
EXAMPLE #2

88.58

37.08 47.38
EXAMPLE #2
Given shaking allowance is 1 mm on length and
width. Recall that, shaking allowance is a negative
allowance. Hence, 1 mm has to be reduced from the
calculated values of length and width side. Students
are advised to note that the height of the pattern
doesnt require any shaking allowance.
EXAMPLE #2
Therefore, final dimension of the pattern will be:

L = 88.58 1 = 87.58 mm
W = 47.38 1 = 46.38 mm
H = 37.08 mm
EXAMPLE #2

87.58

37.08 46.38