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COMPARATIVE HUMANITARIANISM

Professor Chris Garces


Department of Anthropology
Cornell University
ceg97@cornell.edu

It is now commonplace to hear that we live in a humanitarian age; but to what extent is
humanitarian practice coextensive with global and cultural politics today? This seminar
will explore how institutions and governments identify ‘states of emergency’ in order to
safeguard populations and political alliances. But we will also consider the globally
mundane and quieter interventions that typically go unnoticed by way of humanitarian
aid. Our readings problematize gift exchange and the logic of sacrifice across charitable,
philanthropic, NGO, religious, and paeacekeeping efforts. Key topics include: the
gendered dynamics of aid distribution; the impact of philanthropy on private-public
balances of power; the role of displaced populations as biopolitical communities; and the
democratic applications of charity to mask imperial resemblances. We will together
challenge the ethical knot of using ‘voluntary actions’ as the basis of normative political
systems, highlighting contingencies and exploring paradoxes in humanitarian endeavors.
The student taking this course will leave it with a fuller command of the range of
humanitarian work taking place in today’s world.

COURSE STRUCTURE:
This seminar is divided into twelve weekly themes germane to the study of comparative
humanitarianism. Each week, seminar participants will be required to analyze a set of
core readings that have influenced directions in humanitarian critique. Every student will
also select one additional text from a list of elective readings—grouped under sub-
thematic headings—delivering a brief in-class presentation on how the these secondary
works build upon and/or modify our understanding of core weekly materials. The
curriculum allows for students to familiarize themselves with works relevant to the field
of international humanitarianism, complementing personal scholarly interests and critical
theoretical trajectories. The two major class assignments will include a scholarly book
review essay and a full-length research paper.

THEME 1: THE QUESTION OF HUMANITARIANISM

Readings:

• Barnett, Michael and Thomas G. Weiss. 2008. “Humanitarianism: A Brief History of the Present.” In:
Humanitarianism in Question: Politics, Power, Ethics. (eds. M. Barnett and T. Weiss.) Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, pp. 1-48.
• Kennedy, David. 2004. “Introduction.” The Dark Sides of Virtue: Reassessing International
Humanitarianism. Princeton. N.J. : Princeton University Press.
• Mauss, Marcel. 1925 The Gift (selections)

Elective:

• CHARITY PROBLEMATIZED
o Bornstein, Erica. 2009 “The Philanthropic Impulse” Cultural Anthropology v. 24, n. 4
o Garces, Chris & Alexander Jones. 2009. “Mauss Redux: From Warfare’s Human Toll to
l’homme total” Anthropological Quarterly Winter
o Marion, Jean-Luc. 2002. A Prolegomenon to Charity. New York: Fordham University
Press
o Heyd, Douglas. 1982. Supererogation: Its Status in Ethical Theory. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press
• THE POLITICS OF CARE UNDER CAPITALISM
o Haskell, T.L. 1985a. “Capitalism and the origins of the humanitarian sensibility.” Part 1,
American Historical Review 90(2) (April): 339–61.
o Haskell, T.L. 1985b. “Capitalism and the Origins of the Humanitarian Sensibility.” Part
2, American Historical Review 90(3 )(June): 547-566.
• HUMANITARIANISM AS POLICY?
o Rieff, David. 1995. “The Humanitarian Trap.” World Policy Journal Winter.
o Smillie, Ian. 2004. The Charity of Nations : Humanitarian Action in a Calculating World.
Bloomfield, CT : Kumarian Press.

THEME 2: HUMANITARIAN DISCOURSE AS SECULAR RELIGION

Readings:

• Asad, Talal. 2003. Formations of the secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford
University Press.

Elective:

• THE RELIGIOUS LOGIC(S) OF ASSISTANCE


o Kilbride, Philip Leroy. 2007. Faith, Morality and Being Irish : A Caring Tradition in
Africa. Lanham: University Press of America.
o Bornstein, Erica. 2001a. “Child Sponsorship, Evangelism, and Belonging in the Work of
World Vision Zimbabwe.” American Ethnologist, 28(3):595-622.
o Bornstein, Erica. 2007. “Faith, Liberty, and the Individual in Humanitarian Assistance.”
In: Nongovernmental Politics (eds. by M. Feher ,G. Krikorian & Y. Mckee. New York :
Zone Books, pp. 658-667.
o Garces, Chris 2007. “The Ethical Turn … to Saintliness? An Ethnographic Challenge”
Anthropology and Humanism 32 (2):213–21.
o Feldman, Ilana. 2007a. “The Quaker way: Ethical labor and humanitarian relief.”
American Ethnologist 34(4): 689-705.
• FAITH-BASED CHARITIES
o Bornstein, Erica. 2001b. “The Verge of Good and Evil: Christian NGOs and Economic
Development in Zimbabwe.” PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review, 24(1):
59-77.
o Chikwendu, Eudora. 2004. “Faith-Based Organizations in Anti-HIV/AIDS Work Among
African Youth and Women.” Dialectical Anthropology 28(3-4).
o Fitzgerald, Rosemary. 2001. “‘Clinical Christianity’: The Emergence of Medical Work as
a Missionary Strategy in Colonial India, 1800-1914.” In: Health, Medicine and Empire:
Perspectives on Colonial India (eds. B. Pati and M. Harrison) pp. 88-136. New Delhi:
Orient Longman.
o Gagnon, V. P. 2006. “Catholic relief services, USAID, and authentic partnership in
Serbia.” In Transacting transition : the micropolitics of democracy assistance in the
former Yugoslavia (ed. Keith Brown) Bloomfield, CT : Kumarian Press.
o Robert Wuthnow. 2006 Saving America: Faith-Based Services and the Future of Civil
Society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

THEME 3: THE BIOPOLITICAL AGE


Readings:

• Foucault, Michel. 1990. The History of Sexuality v. 1: An Introduction. New York: Vintage
• Agamben, Giorgio. 1995. Homo Sacer. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
• Fassin, Didier. 2007a. “Humanitarianism as a Politics of Life.” Public Culture 19(3).

Elective:

• HUMANITARIANISM AS POPULATION GOVERNMENT


o Foucault, Michel. 1980. “The Politics of Health in the Eighteenth Century.” In
Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972-1977 (ed. Colin
Gordon) pp.166-182. New York: Pantheon.
o Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and Punish. Translated by Alan Sheridan. London:
Penguin.
o Agamben “No to Bio-political Tattooing” Le Monde 10 January 2004
o Redfield, Peter. 2005. “Doctors, Borders, and Life in Crisis.” Cultural Anthropology
20(3): 328-361.
o Fassin, Didier. 2007b. “Humanitarianism: A Nongovernmental Government.” In
Nongovernmental Politics, (eds. Feher, Michel; Gaëlle Krikorian; Yates Mckee.) New
York : Zone Books
• DISPLACED PEOPLES & REFUGEE STATUS
o Arendt, Hannah. “We Refugees” In: M.M. Anderson, ed. Hitler’s Exiles: Personal
Stories of the Flight from Nazi Germany to America. New York: The New Press
o Hyndman, Jennifer. 2000. Managing Displacement: Refugees and the Politics of
Humanitarianism. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.
o Malkki, Liisa. 1995. Purity and Exile : Violence, Memory, and National Cosmology
among Hutu Refugees in Tanzania. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
o Malkki, Liisa. 1996. “Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism, and
Dehistoricization” Cultural Anthropology 11(3): 377-404.
o Ticktin, Miriam. 2005. “Policing and Humanitarianism in France: Immigration and the
Turn to Law as State of Exception” Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial
Studies 7 (3) 2005: 347-368.
o Feldman, Ilana. 2007b. “Difficult Distinctions: Refugee Law, Humanitarian Practice, and
Political Identification in Gaza” Cultural Anthropology 22(1): 129-169.
• NEW BIOPOLITICAL COMMUNITIES
o Fassin, Didier and E. D’Halluin. 2005. “The Truth from the Body: Medical Certificates
as Ultimate Evidence for Asylum Seekers.” American Anthropologist, 107(4): 597-608
o Nyers, Peter. 2005. Rethinking Refugees Beyond States of Emergency (Global Horizons).
New York: Routledge Press
o Philip Gourevitch. 1999. We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will be Killed With
Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. New York: Picador
o Hardt, Michael & Antonio Negri. 2005. Multitude: War & Democracy in the Age of
Empire. New York: Penguin Press
o Deleuze, Gilles. 1984. “Nomad Thought.” In: David B. Allison, ed.: The New Nietzsche.
New York: Dell Publishing pgs. 142-9
THEME 4: MEDICAL HUMANITARIANISM
Readings:

• Farmer, Paul. 2003. Pathologies of Power. Berkeley: University of California Press.


• Redfield, Peter. 2005. “Doctors, Borders, and Life in Crisis.” Cultural Anthropology 20(3): 328-
361.
• Redfield, Peter. 2008 “Sacrifice, Triage and Global Humanitarianism.” In T. Weiss and M. Barnett
eds., Humanitarianism in Question: Politics, Power, Ethics. Cornell University Press.

Elective:

• THE MANAGEMENT OF MEDICAL CRISES


o Leaning, Jennifer, Susan M. Briggs, Lincoln C. Chen, eds. 1999. Humanitarian Crises :
The Medical and Public Health Response. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
o Adriana Petryna. 2002. Life Exposed: Biological Citizens after Chernobyl. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press
• PROBLEMATIZING SOCIAL ABANDONMENT
o Biehl, Joao 2001. “Vita: Life in a Zone of Social Abandonment” Social Text
o Biehl, Joao 2004. “The Activist State: Global Pharmaceuticals, Aids, and Citizenship in
Brazil” Social Text
• COMPASSION MEDICALIZED?
o Butt, Leslie 2002 “The Suffering Stranger: Medical Anthropology and International
Morality.” Medical Anthropology 21(1): 1-24
 Responses by Alec Irwin; Joyce Millen; Jim Kim; John Gershman; Brooke G.
Schoep
o Farmer, Paul. 2002 “Suffering, Moral Claims, and Scholarly Responsibility: A Response
to Leslie Butt” Medical Anthropology 21(1)
o Butt, Leslie. “Reply to Alec Irwin, Joyce Millen, Jim Kim, John Gershman, Brooke G.
Schoepf, and Paul Farmer”

THEME 5: AID? POSTCOLONIAL LEGACIES & IMPERIAL RESEMBLANCES

Course Readings:

• Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books.


• Conklin, A.L. 1998. “Colonialism and human rights, a contradiction in terms? The case of France
and West Africa, 1895–1914.” American Historical Review, 103(2): 419–43.
• Stoler, Ann L. “Refractions off Empire” 2006. Radical History Review, 95:93-107.

Elective:

• COLONIALISM AS A ‘HUMANITARIAN’ PROJECT


o Stoler, Ann L. 2002. Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in
Colonial Rule. Berkeley: University of California Press.
o Forbes, Geraldine. 1994. “Managing Midwifery in India.” In: Contesting Colonial
Hegemony: State and Society in Africa and India (eds. D. Engels & S. Marks) pp.152-
172. London: British Academic Press.
o Holmberg, Åke. 1966. African tribes and European agencies. Colonialism and
Humanitarianism in British South and East Africa 1870-1895. Göteborg
Akademiförlaget.
o Rao, Anupama and Steven Pierce. 2006. “Discipline and the Other Body:
Humanitarianism, Violence and the Colonial Exception.” In Discipline and the Other
Body: Correction, Corporeality, Colonialism, A. Rao and S. Pierce, eds. Durham: Duke
University Press, pp. 1-35.
• HUMANITARIAN JUSTIFICATIONS & IMPERIAL RESEMBLANCES
o Lattas, Andrew. 1996. “Humanitarianism and Australian nationalism in Colonial Papua:
Hubert Murray and the Project of Caring for the Self of the Coloniser and Colonized.”
The Australian Journal of Anthropology 7(2): 141-166.
o Khaliki, Rashid. 2005 Resurrecting Empire: Western Footprints & America’s Perilous
Path in the Middle East. New York: Beacon Press
o Pagden, Anthony. 1986. The Fall of Natural Man: The American Indian and the Origins
of Comparative Ethnology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
o Mani, Lata. 1998. Contentious Traditions : The Debate on Sati in Colonial India.
California: University of California Press.

THEME 6: ARMED INTERVENTIONS & PEACEKEEPING

Readings:

• Achille Mbembe. 2003 “Necropolitics” Public Culture 15(1): 11-40


• Chandler, David. 2001. “The Road to Military Humanitarianism: How the Human Rights NGOs
Shaped A New Humanitarian Agenda.” Human Rights Quarterly 23(3):678-700.
• Ghosh, Amitav. 1992 “The Global Reservation: Notes Toward an Ethnography of International
Keeping.” Cultural Anthropology 9(3):412-422

Elective:

• HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTIONISM – “JUS AD BELLUM”


o Moore, Jonathan. 1998. Hard Choices : Moral Dilemmas in Humanitarian Intervention.
Lanham, Md.:Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
o Norris, John. 2007. The Disaster Gypsies: Humanitarian Workers in the World's
Deadliest Conflicts New York: Praeger Security International.
• PEACEKEEPING & ITS PARADOXES – “JUS IN BELLO”
o Weiss, Thomas George, ed. 2005. Military-Civilian Interactions : Humanitarian Crises
and the Responsibility to Protect. Toronto: Rowman & Littlefield.
o David Reif. 2006 At the Point of a Gun: Democratic Dreams and Armed Intervention
New York: Simon & Schuster
o Macrae, J. and A. Harmer, eds. 2003. “Humanitarian Action and the ‘Global War on
Terror’: a Review of Trends and Issues.” Humanitarian Policy Group Report 14 (July).
London: Overseas Development Group. Available from:
http://www.odi.org.uk/hpg/papers/hpgreport14.pdf.
o Coles, Kimberley. 2007. Democratic Designs: International Intervention and Electoral
Practices in Post-War Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

THEME 7: THE HUMAN RIGHTS CRUCIBLE

Readings:

• Pannikar, R. 1980. “Is the Notion of Human Rights a Western Concept?” Diogenes Vol. 120
• Cowan, Jane, R. Wilson and M. Dembour, eds. 2001. Culture and Rights: Anthropological
Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Wilson, Richard and Jon Mitchell. 2001. “Introduction: the Social Life of Rights.” In: (eds. R.
Wilson & J. Mitchell) Human Rights in Global Perspective: Anthropological Studies of Rights,
Claims and Entitlements New York: Routledge, pp. 1-16.
• Preis, Ann Belinda. 1996. “Human Rights as Cultural Practice: An Anthropological
Critique.” Human Rights Quarterly, 18:286-315.

Elective:

• ON THE NOTION OF RIGHTS: GENEALOGIES OF A CONCEPT


o Paine, Thomas 1995. “Rights of Man.” In: Thomas Paine: Collected Writings. New
York: Library of America
o Arendt, Hannah. 2000. “The Perplexities of the Rights of Man” In: The Portable Hannah
Arendt. New York: Viking Press
o Asad, Talal. 2003. “Redeeming the ‘Human’ Through Human Rights” In: Formations of
the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press
• OTHER HISTORIES OF RIGHTS-BASED DISCOURSE
o Brown, C. 1999. ‘Universal Human Rights: A Critique’, In: (eds. Dunne, T. & N. J.
Wheeler) Human Rights in Global Politics (Cambridge: CUP).
o Pollis, A. and P. Schwab. 1979. ‘Human Rights: a western construct with limited
applicability’ in (eds. A. Pollis & P. Schwab) Human Rights: Cultural and Ideological
Perspectives New York: Praeger.
o Renteln, A. D. 1988. “Relativism and the Search for Human Rights” American
Anthropologist Vol. 90, No. 1.
o Bell, D. 1992. “Considering Gender: Are Human Rights for Women, too? An Australian
Case” In: (An-Na’im, A. A, ed.) Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspective
Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press.
• INTERNATIONAL LAW AND LEGAL LOOPHOLES
o Merry, Sally Engle. 2006. “Anthropology and International Law” Annual Review of
Anthropology 35: 99-116
o Merry, Sally Engle. 2003 “Human Rights Law and the Demonization of Culture (And
Anthropology Along the Way)” PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review
26(1): 55-76
o Lester A, 2002, "Obtaining the 'Due Observance of Justice': the Geographies of Colonial
Humanitarianism" Society and Space 20(3) 277 – 293.
o Riles, Annelise. 2006. “Anthropology, Human Rights, and Legal Knowledge: Culture in
the Iron Cage.” American Anthropologist v. 108, issue 1, pp. 52-65

THEME 8: THE GENDER(ING) OF AID WORK

Readings:

• Pederson, Susan. 1991. “National Bodies, Unspeakable Acts: The Sexual Politics of Colonial
Policy-Making” Journal of Modern History 63: 647-680.
• Fitzgerald, Rosemary. 1997. “Rescue and Redemption – The Rise of Female Medical Missions in
Colonial India During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries” In: (eds. A.M.
Rafferty, J. Robinson and R. Elkan) Nursing History and the Politics of Welfare pp. 64-79.
London: Routledge.
• Boddy, Janice. 2003. “Barbaric Custom and Colonial Science: Teaching the Female Body in
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.” Social Analysis 47 (2): 60-81.

Elective:

• GENDER & URBAN PHILANTHROPY


o Bashford, Alison. 1998. Purity and Pollution: Gender, Embodiment and Victorian
Medicine. London: Macmillan Press.
o Winston, Diane. 2000 Red-Hot & Righteous: The Urban Religion of the Salvation Army
Cambridge: Harvard University Press
o Comitini, Patricia. 2005. Vocational Philanthropy and British Women's Writing, 1790-
1810. Aldershot, England : Ashgate.
• PHILANTHROPY AS A ‘CIVILIZING’ ENDEAVOR
o Boddy, Janice. 2007. Civilizing women : British Crusades in Colonial Sudan. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
o Arrom, Silvia Marina. 2000. Containing the Poor: The Mexico City Poor House,1774-
1871
o Balfour, Margaret and Ruth Young. 1929. The Work of Medical Women in India.
London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press.
o Lambert, David. 2004. “Geographies of colonial philanthropy.” Progress in Human
Geography, 28 (3): 320-341

THEME 9: HUMANITARIAN EXCEPTIONS & HUMANITARIAN IMMUNITY

Readings:

• Benthall, Jonathan. 1997. “The Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Islamic Societies,
with Special Reference to Jordan.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 24(2): 157.
• Redfield, Peter. 2006. “A Less Modest Witness.” American Ethnologist 33(1): 3-26.
• Calhoun, Craig. “The Imperative to Reduce Suffering: Charity, Progress, & Emergencies in the
Field of Humanitarian Action” In: (M. Barnett & T.G. Weiss, eds) Humanitarianism in Question:
Power, Politics, Ethics. Ithaca: Cornell Univerity Press

Elective:

• INTERNATIONAL AID ORGANIZATIONS


o Hutchinson, John F. 1996. Champions of Charity: War and the Rise of the Red Cross.
Westview Press.
o Benthall, Jonathan. 2003. The Charitable Crescent : Politics of Aid in the Muslim World.
New York : I.B. Tauris.
o Hopgood, Stephen. 2006 Keepers of the Flame: Understanding Amnesty International
Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
o Moritz Thomsen. 1997. Living Poor: A Peace Corps Chronicle
• HUMANITARIAN ACTION AS SALVATION
o Bellion-Jourdan, Jerome. 2007 “Are Muslim Charities Purely Humanitarian? A Real but
Misleading Question” In: Nongovernmental politics, (M. Feher, G. Krikorian & Y.
Mckee, eds.) New York : Zone Books, pp. 647-657.
o Ticktin, Miriam. 2006. “Where Ethics and Politics Meet: The Violence of
Humanitarianism in France.” American Ethnologist, 33 (1): 33-49.
o Fiering, N.S. 1976. “Irresistible compassion: an aspect of eighteenth-century sympathy
and Humanitarianism.” Journal of the History of Ideas, 37(2): 195–218.
o Didier Fassin 2005 “Compassion and Repression: The Moral Economy of Immigration
Policies in France.” Cultural Anthropology v. 20 n. 3

THEME 10: NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS & THE POLITICS OF


AID

Readings:

• Hayden, Robert M. 2002 “Dictatorships of Virtue? States, NGOs, and the Imposition of
Democratic Virtues.” Harvard International Review 24(2):57-61.
• Hemment, Julie. 2004 “The Riddle of the Third Sector: Civil Society, International Aid, and
NGOs in Russia.” Anthropological Quarterly 77(2):215-241.
• Keck, Margaret E. and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in
International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Elective:

• THE NGO PARADIGM & NATIONAL REVITALIZATION


o Dauvergne, Catherine. 2005. Humanitarianism, Identity, and Nation: Migration Laws of
Australia and Canada. Vancouver : UBC Press.
o Pandolfi, Mariella. 2003. “Contract of Mutual (In)Difference: Governance and the
Humanitarian Apparatus in Contemporary Albania and Kosovo.” Indiana Journal of
Global Legal Studies(10): 369-381.
o Ignatieff, Michael. 2003. Empire Lite : Nation-Building in Bosnia, Kosovo and
Afghanistan. New York: Vintage.
o Mendelson, Sarah E. and John K. Glenn, eds. 2002 The Power and Limits of NGOs: A
Critical Look at Building Democracy in Eastern Europe and Eurasia New York:
Columbia University Press.
• THE POLITICS OF ‘HUMANE’ SOCIETIES
o Razack, Sherene. 2007. “Stealing the Pain of Others: Reflections on Canadian
Humanitarian Responses” Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 29(4):
375 – 394.
o Hilhorst, D. 2002. “Being Good at Doing Good? Quality and Accountability of
Humanitarian NGOs.” Disasters. 26(3): 193.
o Luc Boltanski, 1999 Distant Suffering: Morality, Media and Politics. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press

THEME 11: THE PRIVATE-PUBLIC ALLIANCE AS ‘ANTI-POLITICS’?


Readings:

• Fisher, William F. 1997. “Doing Good? The Politics and Antipolitics of NGO Practices.” Annual
Review of Anthropology. (26): 439-464.
• Ferguson, James. 1991. The Anti-Politics Machine: “Development,” Depoliticization, and
Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Elective:

• DEVELOPMENT AS STATE HUMANITARIAN DISCOURSE


o David, Wilfred L. 2004. The Humanitarian Development Paradigm : Search for Global
Justice. Lanham, MD. : University Press of America.
o Veena Das and Deborah Poole, “State and Its Margins: Comparative Ethnographies.”
• ECONOMIC AID AS HUMANITARIAN ACTION
o Gill, Lesley. 2000. Teetering on the Rim: Global Restructuring, Daily Life, and the
Armed Retreat of the Bolivian State
o Brett, John. 2006. “We Sacrifice and Eat Less: The Structural Complexities of
Microfinance Participation” Human Organization 65(1): 8-19

THEME 12: THE HURRICANE KATRINA CASE


American Anthropologist Special Issue Vol. 108, no. 4 (2006):
• Breunlin, Rachel & Helen A. Regis, “Putting the Ninth Ward on the Map: Race, Place,
and Transformation in Desire, New Orleans.”
• Colten, Craig E. “Vulnerability and Place: Flat Land and Uneven Risk in New Orleans.”
• Ethridge, Robbie. “Bearing Witness: Assumptions, Realities, and Otherizing of Katrina.”
• Masquelier, Adeline. “Why Katrina’s Victims Aren’t Refugees: Musings on a ‘Dirty’
Word.”
• SSRC, Understanding Katrina: Perspectives from the Social Sciences:
http://understandingkatrina.ssrc.org/
• Read commentaries by Alexander, Cutter, Dominguez, Enarson, Jackson, Kaufman, Lakoff,
Molotch, Oliver-Smith, Perrow, Rodríguez & Dynes, and Smith