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Hitachi Zosen Corporation

Grate Combustion for

Mixed MSW
Riverside EfW plants, London UK 2,332t/d 65MW

January 30, 2015

Hitachi Zosen Corporation Company Profile

A major global player in the business domains of Renewable Energy, Social Infrastructure and Disaster
Environmental Systems
We have developed a wide range of Waste to Energy plants
Material recycle system
technologies based on strong capabilities in Water & sludge treatment etc.

the Waste to Energy market worldwide. Industrial Plants

Desalination Plants
Power generation facilities
Renewable energy etc.
Corporate Data and Business

Founded 1881 Shield tunneling machines
Disaster prevention systems etc.
Incorporated 1934

Process Equipment
Employees 9,171 (consolidated)*
Pressure vessels
Spent nuclear fuel storage cask &
canister(container) etc.
Paid-in Capital 45 billion yen (483 million US$) *

Net Sales 333 billion yen (2,822 million US$) * Marine diesel engines
Press machines
Precision machinery etc.
Headquarters Osaka and Tokyo
*(As of March 31, 2014)

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Hitachi Zosens Global Reference of WtE Plant
Falls Township, USA,
750t/d2Lines, 53MW Osaka Higashi-yodo,

Riverside, London, UK
763t/d3Lines, 65MW

Dalian, China
500t/d3Lines, 24MW

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Waste to Energy Plant

Incinerator &
Boiler Power Generation
Waste receiving
Flue gas treatment
and feeding

Ash treatment

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Flow of MSW in 23 Cities of Tokyo

Collection / Final
Resource Transport of Intermediate processing of waste disposal
waste Clean Association of TOKYO 23 Metropolitan
23 cities Government)
waste Efficient use of heat

Outer Central Breakwater Landfill Disposal

21 WtE plants energy Power generation:

Site or New Sea Surface Disposal Site

in-house use/sale of
within 23 Ash-Melting surplus power Heat supply
Cities Facilities to in-door swimming pool
Incombustible and others
Transfer Used of incineration
2 Incombustible ash for construction
Waste Processing & others by
processing into slag..
Large-sized Center
large-sized Pulverization Recovery of Steel
Processing and aluminum for
waste Pulverized
Plant for sale
Resources Collect Large-sized Processing
resources Center

Processing and re-production

for recycling by private
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Waste Management Europe 2012

Recycling has a limit

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Waste Management Methods 2012

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Why to combust Mixed Waste
Less landfill space required

Thermal Utilization of Energy Content

No ground leakages

No uncontrolled gas emissions

Reduction of green house gas emissions

Material Utilization

Reduction of transportation distances

Many industralized countries have banned MSW landfills

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Waste Treatment Technologies
Category Method Technology
Mechanical Biological Recycling
Anaerobic Digestion
Thermal Treatment Combustion Grate
Fluid Bed
Rotary Kiln
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Thermal Technologies
Grate Combustion
Most-widely spread for MSW
Fluidized Bed Combustion
More suited for fine-grained materials
(e.g. sewage sludge, wood chips)
Combustion in Rotary Kiln
More suited for hazardeous waste

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Grate Combustion commercially proven

Mixed MSW (mass-burn)

High temperature combustion of unprocessed MSW in rugged
steam boilers with sophisticated air emissions controls
Highly reliable; most widely used system in the world

Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF)

Waste is mechanically pre-processed before burning in steam
RDF is applicable in rural area to reduce the transportation cost
More by-pass waste to landfill than mass-burn system
More equipment, therefore more expensive to build and operate
than mass-burn system

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Basics of Combustion

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Gasification, Pyrolisis and Plasma

Temperatures up to 1400 C in low oxygen atmosphere
Syngas, char, tar and inert solid residue

Temperatures in excess of 200 C in absence of oxygen
Char, syngas tar, and inert solid residue

Temp greater than 3000 C in oxygen-starved environment
Syngas and vitrified solid residue

Tar makes trouble in Gasification and Pyrolysis process

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Gasification, Pyrolisis and Plasma

Less waste troughput

Requires some homogenity of the fuel
More by-pass waste to landfill than mass-burn
High investment cost
Combustion process for syngas is required
Many uncertainties

Europe: No success in 1990s and no operation plant now

Japan: Gasification and ash-meltaling plants are operating
from 2000s but stop building new plant.
Main stream come back to Grate Combustion
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Combustion of Mixed MSW and Biomass
Design aspects of Mixed MSW WtE Plant Conventional Biomass Power Plant

1. Heterogeneous fuel. 1. Homogeneous fuel.

Non uniform in size & density. Uniform in size & density.

Properties vary from region to Properties will not vary from

region. region to region.

Properties vary from season to Properties will not vary from

season season to season

2. Variation in the heating value. 2. Variation in the heating value.

Wide variation of LHV from 1100 to Fixed heating value of 3115
2200 kcal/kg kcal/kg

WtE plant should handle vary low CV fuels with stable combustion

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Global reference of WtE

Maishima (Osaka), Japan

Key Data

Client City of Osaka

Start-up 2001

Furnace Grate furnace
Energy recovery 4-pass-boiler
Site on an artificially build island in the bay of Osaka Flue gas treatment SNCR, fabric filter
wet scrubber, catalyst
Architecture and interior design from famous
Austrian artist Friedensreich Hundertwasser Technical Data
Hitachi Zosen contractor and supplier of the Fuel Municipal, bulky and similar
complete electro-mechanical part industrial waste
Waste capacity 900 t/day (450t/d, 2 lines)
Most remarkable EfW plant. Many citizens come to Thermal capacity 2 x 52 MW
visit from all over the world Steam 2 x 98 t/h (40 bar, 350 C)
Power out put 25MW

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Global reference of WtE

Tokyo Chuo, Japan

Key Data

Client Clean Association of Tokyo 23

Start-up 2001

Furnace Grate furnace (air cooled)
Energy recovery 4-pass-boiler
Hitachi Zosen is EPC contractor for Turn-key basis Flue gas treatment dry + wet scrubber, SCR
excluding building works
Technical Data
Generated electrical power and heat supplied to the Fuel Municipal waste
Spa beside the plant. Waste capacity 600 t/day (300t/d, 2 lines)
Located in Tokyo bay area where is adjacent to Thermal capacity 2 x 46.5 MW
residential area Power out put 15MW

Tokyo Olympic 2020 held near there.

Hitachi Zosen providing Periodical Maintenance
Services since start-up.

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Global reference of WtE

Google Map


2020 Olympic
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Global reference of WtE

Laogang (Shanghai), China

Key Data

Client Shanghai Laogang Solid Waste

Utilization Co., Ltd.

Start-up 2014

Largest waste incineration capacity in China Furnace Grate furnace (air-cooled)
Energy recovery 4-pass vertical boiler, turbine
Hitachi Zosen responsible for overall process design, Flue gas treatment SNCR, Dry + Wet scrubber
grate, boiler, flue gas treatment, detail design, supply
of key components, erection and commissioning Technical Data
supervision Fuel Municipal waste
Waste capacity 3 000 t/day (750 t, 4 lines)
Net calorific value 7.1 MJ/kg
Thermal capacity 4 x 61.8 MW
Steam 4 x 70.6 t/h (40 bar, 400C)
Power out put 60MW

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Global reference of WtE

Riverside (London), United Kingdom

Key Data

Client Riverside Resource

Recovery Ltd.

Start-up 2010

Furnace Grate furnace (air-cooled)
Largest EfW facility in the UK Energy recovery 4-pass boiler, turbine
Flue gas treatment SNCR, semi-dry process
Hitachi Zosen Inova was full turnkey contractor
including jetty and road works Technical Data
80% of waste delivery via barges from Thames River Fuel Municipal waste
Waste capacity 2,290t/d (763t, 3 lines)
Highly efficient plant at higher steam conditions Net calorific value 9.0 MJ/kg
Steam goes to 72.4 MWel turbine Thermal capacity 3 x 79.5 MW
Steam 3 x 54 t/h (72 bar, 427C)
Plant operation during first 4 years carried out by
Hitachi Zosen Inova

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Global reference of WtE

Issy-les-Moulineaux (Paris), France

Key Data

Client SYCTOM Paris

Start-up 2007

Furnace Grate furnace (water-
Waste treatment plant for 1.1 million inhabitants in Energy recovery 4 pass boiler, turbine
22 municipalities and 3 districts of Paris Flue gas treatment Dry with bicarbonate

Located on the outskirts of Paris Technical Data

Large part of the plant embedded in the ground Fuel MSW
Waste capacity 1,464 t/d (732t/d, 2 lines)
After loading waste, no waste truck has to drive Net calorific value 10.0MJ/kg
more than 15km to reach the plant Thermal capacity 85.1MW x 2
Hitachi Zosen Inova supplier of process components Generator capacity 52MW
for combustion, steam production and flue gas

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Some Fact about WtE
Sanitary waste treatment Improvement residential
environment and Health Improvement
Mass treatment possibility of living
Good adaptability for treatment of various wastes
Volume reduction of Waste (over 90%)
Landfill life-extension

WtE is considered as Green Energy / Renewable Energy
world wide. of unused
Waste heat utilization & Power Generation energy
Stable clean energy

Greenhouse Gas Reduction (Carbon emission credits) Reduce

It meets all Environmental norms in Japan or in Europe impact on

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Combustion technology for Mixed MSW

Residence time on grate of 45 60


Proper Control of Primary Air

Gentle churning of the waste

Grate Cooling

Early-Enough Ignition

Secondary Air for Post-Combustion

and Mix of Flue Gases

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Reliable Grate Combustion Systems for WtE

Types of Waste
Municipal solid waste (non or pre-treated) and
comparable industrial wastes
Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)
Co-combustion (< 10%) of sewage sludge, hospital
waste, shredded tires

Range of Capacity
Throughput 5 - 44 t/h
Net calorific value 6 - 18 MJ/kg
Thermal capacity 12 - 120 MW/line

Taylor-made Systems
Air and water-cooled grate furnaces
2 5 pass energy recovery boilers

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State-of-the-Art Grate Combustion

Continuous Improvement of Proprietary Grate


1975 Von Roll reciprocating forward feed

grate (R-type)
1985 Flue gas recirculation
1994 Water-cooled grate
1996 Swirl injection of secondary air
2001 Combustion control with
calorific value adjustment
2010 Inova grate
2011 Extended combustion control
(burn-out, waste quality monitoring)
2011 On-line monitoring of boiler cleaning
2012 Staged secondary air / re-circulated
flue gas injection

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Low Emissions, High Efficiency and Availability

1. Grate (air or water-cooled)

Flexibility for changing waste composition
Steady combustion conditions
Low maintenance costs
2. Flue Gas Recirculation 5
Improved boiler efficiency
Reduced NOx-emissions 4
3. Swirl Injection
Improved burn-out of flue gas and fly ash
4. Boiler
Steam parameters up to
440 C/100 bara 2
2 5 pass / vertical / horizontal
Conservative design of membrane walls
and convective heat surfaces
5. Boiler Cleaning
Effective cleaning with different systems
Wet spray
Explosion generator
Soot blowing

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CV and WtE Technical Development in Japan

Lower Calorific Value (kJ/kg)

Large difference

5000 Europe

Incinerator introduced from Europe
High water content Efficient heat recovery
2000 and power generation
waste incineration Flue Gas Treatment
development Dioxin removal
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
1963The first machinery incineration plant completed(Japanese technology)
1965The first WtE plant completed(European technology)

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WtE Technology Concept in India
Developed WtE concept to suit
Indian waste composition
High efficiency lead to increase in
Power Output
Design concept is as adopted in
Europe and Japan
Made affordable for Indian Market.
Local supplies and local services as
far as possible can be adopted TYPICAL INDIAN PLANT
Adopted technology meets / exceed
the requirement of MSW2000,
MSW2013 (draft)

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Load Range Diagram for Indian Project

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Combustion technology for Low CV MSW

Plant in operation without use of

auxiliary fuel.

Large grate area

1 grate drop

Internal Heat Cycle preheats

primary air without additional fuel

Minimised heat losses in furnace

Approx. 850/2: Refractory in

post combustion chamber,
preheating of secondary air

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Combustion technology for Low CV MSW

Secondary air injection

Grate: l Homogenous flow
l Air cooled l Low CO concentration
l 6 grate zones l Low NOx
l 1 drop concentration
l Good mixing of

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Combustion technology for Low CV MSW

Vertical boiler
4 passes Evap2
compact design


Refractory lining ECO2
l Corrosion protection
l No direct contact
flue gas <-> steel surface
l Prevents large deposits
Soot blowers
l Minimised heat losses in
Start-up and auxiliary burner

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Planning Commission Report Update May 2014

Ref: Planning Commission Report May 2014

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Planning Commission Report Update May 2014

Ref: Planning Commission Report May 2014

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Planning Commission Report Update May 2014

Ref: Planning Commission Report May 2014

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Thank You

Copyright Hitachi Zosen Corp.