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2015 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks

A Review of Solid Waste Management Techniques using GIS and Other Technologies

Priyanka Shrivastava1, Shivangi Mishra2 S.K.Katiyar3


Centre of Remote Sensing and its application Civil Engineering Department,
Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology
Bhopal, India Bhopal, India
e-mail: piya_sj@yahoo.co.in1, e-mail: sunil64@gmail.com3,katiyarsk@manit.ac.in3
shivangicivil0038@gmail.com2

Abstract Solid waste management has been a leading sea, lakes, rivers etc. results in contaminating water
concern for all the developing countries. It poses serious supplies as well as whole aquatic chain.
threats in terms of environmental damage, health hazards and
economic cascade. There has to be apt planning for proper To subdue the increase in waste we need to develop an
waste management by analyzing the area and its waste efficient, innovative and robust solid waste management
situation. This paper deals with, how Geographical system that can elevate the present system as well as be time
Information System and other technologies like RFID, GPS and cost effective. This can only be achieved by incorporating
etc. can be used as a decision support tool for proper planning the latest technologies in the existing system and by optimal
of solid waste management. This paper aims to review and planning at each step and level. Geographical information
compare various GIS models suggested for solid waste system is one of the emerging technologies that have huge
management. The study would upgrade the solid waste
contribution in planning and management of waste. GIS
management reform, boost its management and efficiency to
ensure the practical solutions for solid waste collection integrates hardware, software, and data for collecting,
process, monitoring and management for green environment. managing, analyzing, and showing all forms of geographically
referenced information in a computer-based system [6]. Its
Keywords- Solid waste management, geographical major advantage is that it gives a visual output of data in terms
information system, RFID, GPS, GSM. of maps etc. that helps in recognizing patterns, trends and
relationships that may not be clear in tabular or written form of
I. INTRODUCTION data. A GIS is different from other information systems,
Solid waste management is one of the basic and fundamental because it integrates common database operations such as
services provided by municipal authorities in the developing query and statistical analysis with the advantages of visual and
country to keep cities clean and hygienic. However, it is geographic analysis through maps
among the most poorly rendered service by the authorities. The [7]. It helps in providing a decision support system for
system in progress is unscientific, inefficient and outdated for proper planning of solid waste management system.
its management and working. In the developing countries, In this paper we will review 5 such proposed models for
waste management is a serious issue as rise in urbanization and the solid waste management incorporating GIS & other
economic development is leading to major growth in quantities technologies like RFIDs, GSM etc.
of waste materials. The environment pollution and the waste of
resources caused by unmanaged solid waste is alarming and II. METHODOLOGY
hence has become a very sensitive issue. Many urban areas
Solid waste management basically does the collection of
lack basic and effective waste handling resulting in open
waste from the source and perform various steps for its
dumping, burning or burying of waste causing serious
removal either by treating the waste or finally disposing it
environmental issues. If the current situation is not handled
on a landfill site. The primary processes involved in solid
properly and in a planned manner, it would lead to severe
waste management are: Collection of waste, Transportation
repercussions on a local and global level. Waste is a dangerous
health hazard and can cause spread of deadly infectious
of waste and Disposal or processing of waste.
Collection of the generated waste from the source is a very
diseases. It basically works as a cycle effecting everything
crucial step in solid waste management. Effective collection of
around our ecosphere. Unattended waste lying around invites
solid waste and its segregation decides how well solid waste is
flies, mosquitoes, rats etc. leading to unhygienic living
managed. Usually collection of waste is done manually by the
conditions. These creatures then cause serious diseases like
workers of the municipal cooperation. Transportation of waste
malaria, diarrhea, jaundice, plague etc. Animals grazing on this
from source is usually done with the help of bullock carts,
waste or near such areas can pass on diseases via food chain.
three-wheelers, tractors, trucks etc. depending upon the type of
Also the waste not being collected can clog storm water run off
road network. Many cities nowadays use hydraulic vehicles
leading to formation of sluggish water bodies that become
for the collection of waste. Most of these vehicles are old and
breeding space for disease causing agents. Waste thrown near
open. Usually the waste is
water bodies like

978-1-5090-0076-0/15 $31.00 2015 IEEE 1456


DOI 10.1109/CICN.2015.281
loaded in these vehicles manually. The waste collected is Then classification of bins is carried out based on the land
then emptied in a transfer station or material processing use. Sufficient buffer was created for sensitive areas like
facility or a landfill disposal site. water bodies so the runoff from waste does not create any
Disposal of waste is the most ignored aspect of solid environmental damage. Also the land use helped in creating
waste management and the current practices in use are a considerable distance from building like hospitals,
highly unscientific. Most of the municipal authorities dump schools, religious places etc. Further [1] segregated the
the solid waste gathered on a dumping site or yard within or waste into two types: recyclable and composite. The areas
outside the city. These sites are not covered and hence identified for recyclable waste through land use
become breeding space for flies, rats and other disease classification were allotted recyclable waste collection bins
causing agents. The leachate i.e. the liquid formed through
resulting in better segregation of waste.
the rotting of organic waste produced in these sites
This proposal is a very convenient and effective solution
penetrate through the ground and pollutes the underground
for planning of waste bins and should be implemented as
water posing a serious threat to health and environment.
the first step for the solid waste management. It increases
III. REVIEW the convenience of the users and also checks on the waste
bins hampering the environment.
A. Solid waste management planning using GIS and RS B. GIS Integrated Waste Production Modelling
technologies case study Aurangabad city, India. The model proposed in this paper provides an innovative
The model proposed in this paper helps in planning the approach for identifying the number of waste bins and their
allocation of waste bins and checks the municipal waste bin respective locations. The case study is based on a small area of
location suitability as per local area constraints. The case Atticas, a suburb of Athens. The data used is by ground based
study area here is the Indian City Aurangabad, situated in temporal analysis and then design of the spatial temporal
Maharashtra state. The data used is a satellite image with geodatabase. Ground based studies in performed to get the
15-meter resolution Panchromatic Landsat Enhanced population density and the population distribution. The daily
Thematic Mapper. The vector data is prepared by waste production is also derived keeping in mind parameters
overlapping the digitized municipal maps with this satellite like commercial units of waste production etc. based on land
image to achieve precision in data. use/type. All this data is then introduced in the spatial temporal
[1] started with analyzing the existing waste bin locations. database. This data is then analyzed by the data modeling
By doing this [1] checked whether there are bins at engine, a sub system which returns a final map with the
convenient proximity of the users and also found areas appropriate number and location of bins.
where there are no waste bins at close proximity of users.
This model also considers the road network and
inaccessible locations where the waste loading trucks
cannot reach. Keeping all the above points in mind, the
final waste loading points are redistributed and number of
bins is derived.
This proposal is a good alternative to random distribution of
the waste bins but it does not consider factors like type of
waste generated e.g. recyclable, composite etc. which may
further improve the system.

C. Application of Geographic Information System to


Solid Waste Management
The model proposed in this paper provides a web based
solution for the planning, monitoring and management of
the solid waste management. The case study is carried out
on the area of Ondo state, Nigeria. The data is collected by
interviewing municipal officials and residents. The analysis
of the present waste situation of the case study area and the
survey is used to create the initial database.
The proposed system uses an internet based platform for
management and monitoring of waste collection,
transportation and disposal. The system is based on client
server architecture. The system aims at providing proper
Figure 1. Conceptual Model allocation and relocation of waste bins, checks for

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unsuitability and proximity convenience to users. The web
application will be used by three different users: the
administration, the management and the citizens. Also the web
application acts as an interface between the citizens and
municipal authorities providing a platform to communicate.
The model is implemented on windows compatible pc and is
developed using c#, ASP.NET on a .NET framework with

Figure 3. Architecture of solid waste monitoring and management system

central database where it can be easily monitored. GIS and


GSM is chosen for communication between the server and
vehicle position tracking. The GIS monitoring terminal will
receive all the data and would help in real time monitoring
of the system. Further it finds shortest possible route to the
Figure 2. System Architecture destination thus reducing the fuel cost making the system
cost effective.
backend powered by Microsoft SQLSERVER. The system The proposed system is a good alternative to current
is designed to run on all platforms that have a browser system of solid waste management. It is cost effective,
installed. environment friendly and provides real time information. It
can be made more effective if planning of waste bins is
This proposal is an innovative approach for managing solid
done prior to collection, it will have a better impact on the
waste. It is cost effective and also provides a real time
management of solid waste.
platform for citizen and municipal authority
communication to deal with grievances, feedback etc. E. Solid Waste Monitoring and Management using RFID,
D. Soild Waste Monitoring and Management using RFID, GPS and Camera
GIS and GSM The model proposed in this paper is an advancement of the
above model with an addition of Camera. It is a web based
The model proposed in this paper is also a web based
solution and it incorporates RFIDs, GPS, GPRS, Camera &
solution for real time monitoring and management of solid
GIS technologies. Here it deals not only with collection and
waste. It is a client server architecture. It incorporates
transportation of the waste, it also estimates the total waste
RFIDs, GPS, GSM & GIS technologies. It basically deals
generated.
with collection and transportation of the waste from the
source to the destination which can be landfill site or any This system uses LR RFID tag. LFs large radio frequency
other transfer station. wavelength is not absorbed by moisture making it water
resistant and ideal for highly humid and rainy weather.
RFID plays a very important part in this system. It helps in
These tag contain data regarding the bin i.e. serial number
overcoming the manual recording work which the truck
etc., mounted on the waste bins. The RFID reader is
driver does. The RFID tags are attached on the bins which
mounted on the Truck. When the truck comes closer to the
contains all the data logs and the RFID reader and antenna
waste bin, RFID reader communicates with the RFID tag
is mounted on the truck. When the truck reaches waste bin
and captures the data stored about the waste bin and sends it
RFID tag would be detected by the RFID reader and all the
to the control server using GPRS.
the information will be sent via GSM which will be
mapped on the GIS map. This process will be fully The additional feature of this model is the camera mounted
automatic and will require no interference of the driver. The
vehicle location is collected using GPS and is stored in

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IV. CONCLUSION
The above models are an innovative approach for planning
and management of the solid waste. Identifying the location
of waste bins should be the first step for the solid waste
management. Incorporating technologies like RFIDs, GPS
etc. can provide real time tracking and monitoring of the
system. Also using the web based solutions can help the
citizens to interact with the municipal authorities and
provide bi-directional communication which is very
important for a good and efficient system to work.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would sincerely like to thank Sridhar Vallala
co-founder, IGSA Solutions Hyderabad for his guidance.
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