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ANSWER KEYS

108
STUDENT BOOK ANSWER KEY
Note: Answers are not provided for tasks calling for students opinions or free responses.

CHAPTER 1 (pages 124) Note-Taking (page7)


Possible answers:

People/ Object(s) Meaning of


READING ONE Situation Object(s)
for People
Main Ideas (page4)
2. Bushmen a young tree symbolized
1, 3, 5
of the bent into an doorway
Kalahari/ arch and walls of
Close Reading (page4) camping in a protected
1. a 2. a 3. a desert home
3. Meads little presents symbolized
Guessing from Context (page5) young arranged in a love of people
Possible answers: daughter/ circle she left and
1. 2. dwelling Guess: home first sea protection in
Dictionary: a house, apartment, voyage her new home
where people live 4. Mead / arrangement marked each
estate Guess: elegant residence fieldwork of tin cans new place as
Dictionary: a large area of land, in faraway holding beads, home
with one large house on it, often in places salt, or crayons
the country
3. poignant Guess: painful
Dictionary: intensely sad, pitifully READING TWO
moving
2. 2. A house is an edificea buildingwhereas a Main Ideas (page10)
dwelling is a place where people live (dwell), 1, 3, 4
and it can take many forms: a hut, a cave, a
tree house, an igloo, and so on. Close Reading (page10)
3. The difference is one of money and class. An 1. a 2. b 3. c 4. a
estate is an expensive, upper-class dwelling,
whereas a home is a more general term that Guessing from Context (pages 1112)
can be of any class. Possible answers:
4. Sad is a very general word that means 1. 2. rummage Guess: to look through
unhappy, and poignant has elements of regret, Dictionary: to search for
nostalgia, and even bitterness. something by moving things
around in a careless way
Using the Dictionary (page6) 3. patch Guess: a small piece or area
a. 3 b. 1 c. 2 Dictionary: a part of an area that
The third meaning is used in the reading. is different or looks different from
the parts that surround it
Synonyms (page6) 4. ferocity Guess: wild possessive sense
2. forays 7. intact Dictionary: the state of being
3. converted 8. mark extremely violent, cruel, and
4. dismantle 9. grief severe
2. 2. No, she wasnt. Rummage implies hectic,
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5. estates 10. poignant


6. dwellings nervous looking.
3. A patch is smaller than an acre.
4. Ferocity implies that she would do anything
to keep her homeeven fight for it.

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 114
Synonyms (page12) Word Forms (page19)
2. adrift 7. predictable 1. 1. disenfranchise
3. passing through 8. Shelter
2. entitlement, entitle
4. rummage 9. patch
3. institutionalization, institutionalize
5. grime 10. ferocity
4. marginalization, marginalize
6. legacy
5. prosperity, prosperous, prosperously
6. remedy, remedial
Sufx -en and Prex en- (page13) 7. resourceful, resourcefully
1. 2. lengthen 7. widen
3. frighten 8. broaden 2. 2. institutionalized 5. remedy
4. heighten 9. weaken 3. prosperity 6. entitled
5. lighten 10. moisten 4. resources 7. marginalization
6. shorten
Synonyms (page20)
2. 2. endanger 7. enrich 2. grudgingly 5. policies
3. engender 8. ennoble 3. prune 6. casualties
4. enjoy 9. enfeeble 4. shift
5. enrage 10. endear
6. enlarge
Grammar for Reading (pages 2021)
Linking Readings One and Two 1. Possible answers:
(page14) 2. It implies that society is to blame.
Possible answers: 3. The fact that they belong to the community
Reading One entitles them to help.
A sign that people care about you can give you 4. the people from the area who need what is
a feeling of self-worth and home (presents), but left in the home
theres not enough security in the shelters to keep 2. 3, 4
things there.
Home in its simplest form means marking off Note-Taking (page22)
privacy (young tree), and a shelter has no privacy. Possible answers:
Even a transient stop can be made to feel like a 2. They are homeless because of reasons beyond
home (tin cups), so even a room can be a home. their control. Homelessness is the end result of a
Reading Two variety of problems that have been visited upon
A home remains a sign of who you are even when those who have become homeless.
you have lost it (Anns photos). 3. It is our faultthe fault of our (modern,
You need a physical space of your own. industrial, capitalist) society and its various
Quindlen loves her home because it is a physical policies.
extension of herself. It doesnt matter if its not 4. We must try to fix this.
perfect, so a homeless person will appreciate a
room.
Quindlen thinks we should put ourselves in the CHAPTER 2 (pages 2555)
place of the homeless and start seeing them as
individuals.
READING ONE
READING THREE Warm-Up (pages 2627)
2. 2. a 3. b 4. e 5. c 6. g 7. h 8. f
Main Ideas (page17)
1. True Reading Strategy (page27)
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2. True 1. J.P. Morgan


3. False; Conservatives are not responsible, nor are 2. John D. Rockefeller
the liberals. 3. Andrew Carnegie
4. False; It has an ethical responsibility.

Close Reading (page18)


1. a 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. b

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 115
Main Ideas (page30) Name: Andrew Carnegie
1. False; The robber barons did not start off poor. How Did His Career Start?
2. True telegraph clerk at age 17; then secretary to head of
3. False; They did not believe in competition; they Pennsylvania Railroad; then Wall Street broker
did everything in their power to eliminate it. What Industries Did He Develop?
4. False; They did not take care of their workers; steel
they kept wages low. How Did He Do This?
foreign competition kept out by high tariff
Close Reading (pages 3031) conveniently set by Congress
1. a 2. a 3. b 4. b 5. c 6. a high prices
low wages
Collocations (page31)
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11
Amass can be used with both things and groups of READING TWO
people; accumulate can be used only for things.
Reading Strategy (page34)
Synonyms (page32) 1. strains from rapid industrialization and urban
2. convulsions 7. amassed growth
3. accumulated 8. defective 2. a. 18501900
4. tariffs 9. upheld b. Paris, London, New York, Chicago,
5. beneficiary 10. obscure Philadelphia, Osaka (and six other cities)
6. plant 11. barely c. competition to be replaced by cooperation

Note-Taking (page33) Main Ideas (page36)


Possible answers: 1. f 2. b 3. e 4. g 5. d
Name: J.P. Morgan
How Did His Career Start? Close Reading (pages 3637)
son of a banker; began selling stocks for the railroad; 1. c 2. a 3. b
escaped military service during Civil War
instead, sold defective rifles to army at a profit Guessing from Context (page37)
What Industries Did He Develop? Possible answers:
railroads > linked to banks > then linked to 2. envision Guess: to see in the future, consider
insurance companies / steel (from Carnegie) Dictionary: to imagine something,
How Did He Do This? especially in the future
drove away competition by getting Congress to 3. institute Guess: to establish, set up
pass tariffs in his favor Dictionary: to start a system, rule, legal
high prices process, etc.
low wages 4. address Guess: to find ways to solve a problem
Dictionary: to discuss, think about,
Name: John D. Rockefeller or do something about a particular
How Did His Career Start? problem or question, especially with
started as a bookkeeper; then became a merchant the aim of solving a problem
What Industries Did He Develop?
oil Synonyms (pages 3839)
iron 2. address 7. exceeded
copper 3. institute 8. constituents
coal 4. restraints 9. reinvigorated
shipping and banking 5. strains 10. in flux
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6. urged
How Did He Do This?
drove out competition through agreements with
railroads for shipping his oil Word Forms (pages 4041)
high prices 2. 2. institute (verb) 5. address (noun, 2)
low wages 3. address (verb, 4) 6. institutes (noun)
government subsidies 4. strain (verb, 1)

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 116
Linking Readings One and Two 5. parlay Guess: to take advantage of
(page42) Dictionary: to use advantages that
Possible answers: you already have, such as your
2. forced workers to work long hours skills, experience, or money, and
3. combat the power of great corporations increase their value by using all
4. maintained high prices / protect consumers your opportunities well
5. choked out competition hapless Guess: unfortunate
6. establish industrial freedom Dictionary: unlucky
7. used government subsidies / institute government 2. 2. A person who is befuddled is unable to think
subsidies for workers (old age pensions, clearly, not just momentarily confused or
unemployment insurance) perplexed.
3. Peddle is used to take away the respect hedge
fund managers think they deserve.
READING THREE 4. A gullible person is someone who is a mark,
or an easy target for a confidence trick. Mark
Warm-Up (pages 4243) is a similar term in this reading.
2. 2. a 3. c 4. f 5. d 6. b 7. h 8. e 5. Netted means that you obtained money
easilythe way fish are caught in a netand
didnt earn it by working.
Reading Strategy (page43)
6. You use your winnings to make more
1. It is going to explain what the Occupy Wall
winnings. The use of parlay stresses the
Street movement is protesting.
fact that shorting is not producing value. In
2. It is a criticism of Wall Street.
this case, it was just gambling against your
clients.
Main Ideas (page46)
1, 2, 4
Synonyms (page48)
1. e 2. a 3. c 4. d 5. b
Close Reading (page46)
1. b 2. a 3. b 4. c
Expressions and Idioms (page49)
2. b 3. c 4. e 5. f 6. a
Guessing from Context (pages 4748)
Possible answers:
Grammar for Reading (pages 4950)
1. 2. befuddled Guess: confused Possible answers:
Dictionary: completely confused 1. adjective + preposition combinations (sick of)
3. connive Guess: to take illegal or and gerunds (asking, fighting); The repetition of
questionable actions the adjectives shows how the protesters feel, and
Dictionary: to work together the repetition of the gerunds shows a contrast by
secretly to achieve something, referring to the actions of the people of the Wall
especially something wrong; to Street Journal who asked for bailout money and
conspire fought against giving unemployment insurance to
peddle Guess: to sell the average person.
Dictionary: to sell goods that are 2. verbs are repeated; The repetitive pattern gives
of low quality, dangerous, illegal, a summary of the illegal and unethical behavior
etc. of the Wall Street tycoons. It is like a list of the
4. gullible Guess: nave, willing to believe actions reflecting their misbehavior.
Dictionary: too ready to believe
what other people say and
therefore easy to trick
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net Guess: to profit


Dictionary: to earn a particular
amount of money as a profit after
taxes have been paid

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 117
3. connector showing comparisons (just as), verb Synonyms (page62)
showing change (turned into), and preposition 2. astonishingly 9. dazzling
showing agent of change (government by 3. masterpieces 10. grounded
the people rather than by the banks); These 4. overwhelmed 11. soaring
repetitions show the link between the historical 5. heralded 12. trend
periods. The government by the people 6. fervent 13. waned
rather than by the banks is an allusion to the 7. resurrected 14. tip
Gettysburg Address (that government by the 8. irreversible
people, of the people, and for the people shall not
perish from this earth). This allusion validates Using the Dictionary (page63)
the historical progression of the paragraph all the b. noun (3) c. verb (3) d. verb (2) e. verb (1)
more because it suggests that the hope for what
is right and expected for the American people is
Verbs Showing Increase or Decrease
part of the American tradition and rhetoric.
(pages 6364)
1. soar
Note-Taking (pages 4950) 2. wanes
Possible answers: 3. plummet / plunge, soar
1. 2. J. P. Morgan and others paid millions in fines
for illegal activities.
Idioms with ground/grounded (page64)
3. Hedge funds knowingly sold toxic assets to
2. f 3. a 4. e 5. g 6. d 7. b 8. h
German banks and got billions in profits.
4. With the billions one man made in one year
by tricking investors, 70,000 people could Grammar for Reading (page65)
have had jobs. Possible answers:
6. The protesters are fed up with cheating and 1. A: The repetition is a contrast between cinema
reckless behavior, fed up with the rich not as an industry and cinema as an art. This
paying their fair share of taxes. sets off the opposition Sontag sees as the
7. Your lawless behavior is weakening respect central reason films are in decline. She repeats
for the law and democracy because you get it with cinema as routine and cinema as
government protection and everything you experimentin the sense that art cannot
want without taking responsibility. be routine and always has an element of
8. In the past, the excesses of the Gilded Age experimentation and originality. The repetition
found relief in Progressive legislation to also gives an internal rhythm to the sentence that
protect the public and make the rich pay their goes back and forth between these two forces.
fair share for the country. This should happen A: The author is making an analogy: cinema as
now. an art form is experimentation and creativity,
but cinema as an industry is just routine and
ordinary. In addition, the placement of these two
CHAPTER 3 (pages 5682) phrases is very important because cinema as an
industry is mentioned first and is the topic of the
paragraph.
READING ONE 2. A: The still is an answer to the reader, who
might say, Oh, there are still some good
Reading Strategy (page58) movies. Sontag admits the readers point of view
Thesis statement: Cinema, once heralded as the art with still.
of the 20th century, seems now to be a decadent art. A: The but brings the reader back to Sontags
Main idea: In the past, people had great hopes for main point. Despite the fact that there are some
the cinema, but today it is in decline as an art form. admirable movies, most are decadent nonsense.
(possible answer) 3. A: If introduces a conditional statement. Its
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not sure. The outcome of the struggle between art


and business depends on the reader and whether
Main Ideas (page60)
the love of cinema as an art can be revived.
1. b 2. c 3. c 4. a 5. c
A: The interplay in language between death
(dead) and life (resurrected) makes the
Close Reading (page61) authors message all the more effective.
1. b 2. c 3. a 4. a

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 118
Note-Taking (page66) Connotations (page72)
Possible answers: 1. 1. negative 6. negative
2. weekly visit to theater / tips about personal and
2. positive 7. neutral
social behavior / be taken away from reality on
3. negative 8. negative
large screenenter other peoples lives in film
4. negative 9. neutral
3. many impressive serious films / university
5. neutral
students and young people were film enthusiasts/
development of cinephilia / Cahiers du cinma 2. 2. persistent 6. machine
and other magazines / cinemathques and clubs 3. ate 7. domination
4. profit a major indicator / blockbusters rather than 4. devoured 8. control
low-budget films / people see movies at home / 5. contraption
movie theaters close in small towns
5. young people without cine-love of the past / Linking Readings One and Two
without this love, movies are also dead / revival (page73)
of cine-love is necessary 2. S/T 3. S/T 4. S/T 5. S/T 6. T 7. S/T

READING TWO READING THREE


Reading Strategy (page67) Reading Strategy (page74)
Tolstoy liked the wonderful emotion of the new art 1. fiscal / marketing
form and believed it would have an impact on the 2. concept (of Avatar)
way writers write. 3. political parallels (in Avatar)

Main Ideas (page69) Main Ideas (page77)


1, 3 1. False; Camerons inspiration comes from movies
themselves (e.g., Star Wars), from drawing (his
Close Reading (page69) illustrations), and from his knowledge of special
1. a 2. b 3. c effects.
2. True
Guessing from Context (page70) 3. False; He was onspired by mercenary things
Possible answers: money and his budget, being the first one to do
2. swift Guess: quick something and being the best at it.
Dictionary: happening quickly 4. False; Cameron is very competitive.
and immediately 5. True
blending Guess: mixing
Dictionary: combining Close Reading (pages 7778)
long-drawn-out Guess: tiring and complicated Possible answers:
Dictionary: taking more time 2. Cameron writes stories that fit the financial and
than usual or more time than creative limits of his situation.
you would like 3. Cameron believes that technology progresses
3. domination Guess: control only when you use it (it has to be put to use in
Dictionary: control order to progress).
4. devour Guess: eat up 4. Avatar shows how human history is the story of
Dictionary: consume technically and militarily stronger people stealing
from weaker people.
Synonyms (page71) 5. Cameron believes its easier to get people to
2. blending 7. domination see movies about sensitive issues if the settings
(movies) are fictional.
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3. hovers 8. swift
4. devoured 9. parables
5. long-drawn-out 10. flutter Synonyms (page78)
6. obstinately 2. g 3. f 4. a 5. b, d 6. c 7. e 8. j 9. i

Using the Dictionary (page79)


b. 3 c. 5 d. 2 e. 3 f. 1

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 119
Note-Taking (pages 7980) 3. paradox Guess: contradiction
Dictionary: a situation that
1. Possible answers:
seems strange because it
2. different decisions for each projectmust
involves two ideas or qualities
consider budget and what we can do well and
that are opposite or very
what hasnt been done yet (e.g., Terminator);
different
always strive to be best and not second-best
simultaneously Guess: at the same time
in use of technique (e.g., Jurassic Park); find
Dictionary: happening or done
a way to make use of past creative efforts and
at exactly the same time
take advantage of the right time for a project
4. accompany Guess: come with
(e.g., Titanic); consider the technology that
Dictionary: to happen or exist at
needs to be exploited at a particular time
the same time as something else
(e.g., Avatar)
5. incite Guess: provoke
3. hidden behind the story of the film is the
Dictionary: to deliberately
history of the human race: empires with
encourage, urge
technical or military superiority that kill and
conquer people that are less technological
Synonyms (page89)
Paragraph 1:
CHAPTER 4 (pages 83109) 2. f 3. c 4. b 5. a 6. d
Paragraph 2:
1. b 2. e 3. a 4. d 5. c
READING ONE
Word Forms (page90)
Reading Strategy (page84)
the negative aspects of the Internet 2. b. noun (1) c. verb (3) d. noun (3)
Possible answer: The reading may show some of the
negative aspects of the Internet. Prex: anti- (page90)
Possible answers:
Main Ideas (page86) 1. killing bacteria / stopping the growth of bacteria
Possible answers: 2. violent; unfriendly or impolite; showing a lack of
1. business interests have invaded the Internet concern for other people
through global advertising. 3. helping to prevent infection
2. the collection of information about what you 4. a substance that stops water in car engines from
read, what you think, what you buy, where you freezing
travel, and so on.
3. it is very dangerous to our right to privacy. Grammar for Reading (page91)
4. they have the potential to invade our privacy and 1. Paragraph 1: Write the word blender in an
take away our civil liberties. email and the next set of ads youre likely to
5. hides peoples identities behind anonymity and see will be for Waring and Oster. Search for
allows bullying and personal attacks with no information on bipolar disease, and drug ads will
responsibility. pop up when you are reading baseball scores.
Paragraph 2: [H]ighlight a passage in a Kindle
Close Reading (page87)
book and the passage is sent back to Amazon.
1. a 2. c 3. b 4. c
Paragraph 4: Read the comments that
Guessing from Context (page88) accompany many blog posts and articles, and it is
Possible answers: overwhelmingly evident that violating dignity
2. sway Guess: push in a certain someone elses and therefore, ones ownis a
cheap and widely circulated currency.
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direction
Dictionary: to influence
someone who has not yet
decided about something so that
they change their opinion

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 120
2. Possible answers: Word Forms (page97)
1. The writer is using imperatives to illustrate a
1. 1. alienate
point. The reader appreciates these direct and
2. analogy
concrete examples because they come right
3. consistency, consistently
after sentences that are much more theoretical
4. emerge
and complex. At the same time, with the
5. hinder
imperative, a closer connection between the
6. proliferate, proliferating
reader and the writer is established. Now, for
7. therapist, therapeutically
the first time in the paragraph, the writer is
speaking to you. 2. 2. consistently
2. In all three instances, the sentence pattern 3. analogous
serves the same purpose. 4. hindered
5. emerge
Note-Taking (page92) 6. proliferation
Possible answers: 7. therapeutic
A. 3. Google was transformed into the largest
global advertising platform Synonyms (pages 9899)
B. 1. data about all aspects of peoples lives. 2. consistently 7. withstand
2. track mobile phone and tablet users and note 3. emerges 8. initiate
what they are doing. 4. embedded 9. analogous
3. privacy will be invaded and other civil 5. hindrance 10. proliferation
liberties will be abused. 6. alienation 11. prospect
C. is also a commercial powerhouse.
2. help businesses pitch their products. Using the Dictionary (page99)
D. 2. the value of individuality and personhood is b. noun (1) f. noun (1)
diminished. c. verb (1) g. verb (2)
E. The hive mind is created through the Internets d. noun (2) h. noun (3)
electronic connections. e. noun (4)

Note-Taking (page100)
READING TWO Possible answers:
1. Facebook and MySpace, communication
Reading Strategy (page93) encouraged through subgroups, message boards,
1. 1. Lecky-Thompson, 2009: a paraphrase of people who share interests; same as clubs in the
information from a study written by Lecky- offline world; participation possible through
Thompson in 2009 posting of reactions and giving feedback, thereby
2. Market Wire, 2008: a quote by Kathleen initiating conversations, debates, and ways of
Adams that appeared in a 2008 publication of sharing new ideas
Market Wire 2. groups formed by people outside of the
3. Young, 2006: a quote by Young in his 2006 mainstream (those alienated); sense of unity
study and feeling of belonging develops; online
communication makes greater world
2. The author did most of her research on the smallerpeople from small communities can
Internet. find acceptance by others beyond their fixed
geographical location
Main Ideas (page96) 3. writing blogs offers an emotional release; also
1, 4, 5 helps the body combat infection and disease;
anonymous communication permits writers to
Close Reading (page96) maintain control and therefore prosper from the
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1. b 2. a 3. b communication; people such as the elderly or


physically disabled, who cannot move around
easily, can stay in touch with family and friends
through social networking

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 121
Linking Readings One and Two Guessing from Context (page105)
(page101) Possible answers:
Possible answers: 2. relinquish Clues: Ben Ali resigned, revolution
2. Sue Halpern: People who do not have to say Guess: to be forced to give up
who they are when interacting on the Internet (power)
end up becoming uncivil toward one another. Dictionary: to unwillingly let
Not having their behavior checked because of someone else have your position
their anonymity lets them adopt cruel behavior 3. contentious Clues: issues that cant be
without being subject to penalties. discussed in public
Ebony Wheeldon: Because people can remain Guess: controversial
anonymous, the Internet allows them more Dictionary: likely to cause a lot of
control over the information they share. They argument and disagreement among
are able to reach out to one anotherand enter people
online communities of their own interests. 4. fragmented Clues: opposite of working
3. Sue Halpern: The great paradox is that the together for demonstrations and
hive mentality takes over, and the group solidarity
becomes more important than the individual. The Guess: split up
alienation of the individual is the result. Dictionary: separated into many
Ebony Wheeldon: Social media sites help parts
all kinds of individuals participate in online
communities that give them a sense of belonging. Synonyms (pages 106107)
People who felt alienated before end up feeling 2. grievances 9. spans
like they are a part of something. This reflects 3. fragmented 10. relinquish
the therapeutic benefit of the Internet, which 4. expectations 11. dramatically
affirms each persons individuality. 5. solidarity 12. presaged
6. go viral 13. ballooned
7. upheavals 14. cascade
READING THREE 8. critical

Reading Strategy (page102) Collocations (page107)


1. a 2. b 1, 3, 4, 7, 9

Main Ideas (page104)


1. False; Social media were not responsible; the CHAPTER 5 (pages 110138)
situations and the will of the people were.
2. True
3. False; Social media opened peoples views to READING ONE
other countries.
4. False; The political movement became stronger. Reading Strategy (page111)
5. False; An increase in social media came before Possible answers:
the demonstrations. 1. hearing banging on the door, being ordered by
6. True Nazi policemen, being robbed of belongings,
7. False; Most people have a cell phone. remembering his fathers disappearances and
reappearances, leaving Vienna with brother to
Close Reading (page104) live in New York with grandparents, parents
1. b 2. a 3. a following six months later
2. These childhood events became a defining period
in his life.
3. These memories contributed to his later interest
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in the workings of the human mind.

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 122
Main Ideas (page114) Collocations (page119)
Possible answers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8
1. they were so devastating to his family that he
developed an interest in why people behave as Note-Taking (page119)
they do and how memory functions. Possible answers:
2. without memory, we have no personal or cultural 2. Why Memory Is Important: provides our lives
identity. with continuity, our identity and personal history
3. understand the meaning of consciousness and (joyful experiences)
overcome the debilitating diseases of the brain. How Brain Science Can Help Us: gives
hope for better treatments for memory loss
Close Reading (pages 114115) (e.g.,Alzheimers disease)
1. a 2. c 3. a 4. c 5. b 6. c 3. Why Memory Is Important: provides references
to traumatic experiences (also part of our
Guessing from Context (pages 115116) personal history and identity)
Possible answers: How Brain Science Can Help Us: gives hope for
2. coherent Clues: provides continuity / puts in better treatments to deal with persistent painful
perspective memories (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder)
Guess: logical 4. Why Memory Is Important: is essential for the
Dictionary: clear and reasonable, easy transmission of culture
to understand How Brain Science Can Help Us: helps us study
3. binding Clues: opposite (without) of the mystery of consciousness as we learn how
bindingbroken into fragments each brain is unique and serves as a vehicle
Guess: connecting, unifying toward the expression of a persons free will
Dictionary: joining, connecting
4. luminous Clues: joys
Guess: bright READING TWO
Dictionary: shining, brilliant
5. traumatic Clues: painful / horrific / damaging Reading Strategy (page120)
Guess: emotionally upsetting 1. Major Operating Functions (column 2,
Dictionary: shocking, upsetting amygdala)
6. sever Clues: loss of memory destroys/ 2. short-term memory, declarative memory, spatial
afflict (negative verb forms in memory, emotional memory, procedural memory
sequence) (Kinds of Memory Processed, column 3)
Guess: breaks 3. the right hippocampus
Dictionary: to cut off, end a 4. emotional memory
relationship with (a person or a thing)
Main Ideas (page123)
Word Forms (page117) 2. a, iii 3. e, iii 4. b, ii 5. d, i 6. c, iv
1. 1. afflict
2. bewilderment, bewilder, bewildered / Close Reading (page124)
bewildering 1. a 2. b 3. b
3. humiliate, humiliated / humiliating,
humiliatingly Synonyms (pages 124125)
4. persistence, persistent, persistently 2. f 3. h 4. d 5. i 6. g 7. c 8. j
5. trauma, traumatize, traumatically 9. b 10. e
2. 2. humiliation 6. persistently
3. traumatized 7. afflictions Singular and Plural of Words of
4. trauma 8. bewildering Greek or Latin Origin (page125)
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5. persistence 2. data 7. syntheses


3. analyses 8. media
Synonyms (page118) 4. bacteria 9. appendices
2. bewildering 8. In retrospect 5. matrices 10. addenda
3. afflicted 9. binding 6. parentheses
4. traumatic 10. abstract
5. humiliating 11. transmitted
6. sever 12. persists
7. coherent 13. ultimate
Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 123
Linking Readings One and Two Grammar for Reading (page134)
(page126) 1. 2. F 3. R 4. F 5. R 6. R 7. F 8. R
2. fear in long-term memory / amygdala
3. cortex, hippocampus 2. Possible answers:
4. declarative memory, long-term memory / 1. How, when he recognized no one else
hippocampus with any consistency, did Clive recognize
5. emotional memory / amygdala Deborah? (paragraph 1)
6. long-term memory / hippocampus It is clear from what the author says in
paragraph 3 that nothing, not even the worst
amnesia, could possibly succeed in making
READING THREE Clive forget the love he had for so many years
for his wife Deborah.
Reading Strategy (page127) 2. But can Clives beautiful playing and singing,
Possible answers: his masterly conducting, his powers of
Paragraph 1: amnesia / recognize wife improvisation be adequately characterized as
Paragraph 2: music / emotional memory simple skills or procedure? (paragraph6)
It is clear from what the author says in
paragraph 7 that in his opinion, procedural
Main Ideas (page129) memory, the kind of memory that permits us
1. True
to function automatically, in a machine-
2. False; Procedural memory explains how the
like fashion, cannot possibly be the sole
unconscious is working.
explanation for Clives enormously creative
3. False; Clive does not hesitate.
performances.
4. True
3. Can any artistic or creative performance
5. False; He has to keep performing to find his
of this caliber be explained by procedural
connection to the present.
memory? (paragraph 6)
It is clear from what the author says in
Close Reading (page130) paragraph 7 that in his opinion, procedural
1. b 2. a 3. a 4. a 5. b memory, the kind of memory that permits us
to function automatically, in a machine-
Synonyms (page131) like fashion, cannot possibly be the sole
2. j 3. d 4. e 5. h 6. l 7. k 8. g explanation for Clives enormously creative
9. b 10. i 11. a 12. c performances. There must be echoes of his
former self in his brain that can only be
Using the Dictionary (page132) reached by music.
1. Immanent 4. imminent
2. imminent 5. eminent Note-Taking (page135)
3. eminent Possible answers:
2. Keywords: emotional memory / Deborah
Collocations (page132) Notes: never forgotten, Deborah and music
1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 Question: Why do Deborah and music remain
special to this amnesia patient?
Figurative Language (page133) 3. Keywords: musical powers / intact
Possible answers: Notes: still do musical things
2. when the performance ends, its as though the Question: After he became ill, what could Clive
rope is a gift in return for his musicwhen the still do with music?
music stops, the chord (cord) is broken 4. Keywords: conscious and unconscious memory
3. his mind becomes a blank when the music ends Notes: 2 types: conscious is episodic and
4. Clive cannot escape from the emptiness by unconscious is procedural
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looking back Question: Which kind of memory remains


5. the present is the key to the past; it is the key to unimpaired in amnesia?
escaping the emptiness and making a connection 5. Keywords: dress elegantly / move confidently /
between what he was and what he ishe can talk fluently
find the past of himself only if he remains firmly Notes: appears to be self-sufficient
in a present activity Question: What things involving a sequence or a
pattern can Clive still do?

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 124
6. Keywords: improvisation / artistic / creative Guessing from Context (page146)
Notes: skills versus art? Possible answers:
Question: What question does Sacks ask? 2. ubiquitous Clues: especially familiar to us/
7. Keywords: automatism intimate association / familiar sounds
Notes: performance / innovation / vivid Guess: all around
Question: Is Clives performance just automatic? Dictionary: seeming to be everywhere
8. Keywords: rope / thread / abyss 3. skeptic Clues: dispute
Notes: yearn for memory of past Guess: someone who disagrees
Question: What temporarily gives Clive his Dictionary: someone who has doubts
identity back? about whether something is true
utter Clues: sounds
Critical Thinking (page136) Guess: speak
Dictionary: to make a sound with
1. Possible answers:
your voice
1. Some parts of his amygdala (emotional
4. prescribe Clues: grammatical rules / word
memory) and cerebellum, basal ganglia,
order /determine
and motor cortex (procedural memory)
Guess: dictate
were probably not affected. All of the other
Dictionary: to state officially what
memory areas probably were.
someone can or cannot do
4. Paragraph 7: Sacks sees Wearing not as a
simple patient but as a creative person:
fresh and alive, vivid when he plays. Synonyms (pages 146147)
Paragraph 8: Sacks deeply feels the horror 2. artificial 7. trace
of the situation: only playing music saves 3. predators 8. emit / utter; imperceptible
Wearing from the abyss, the absence of 4. emit / utter 9. Skeptics
memory and, therefore, identity; Wearing 5. subtle 10. gulf
is yearning to be whole again in Sackss 6. prescribe
imagery.
Word Usage (page147)
2. 1. E 2. P 3. P 4. E 5. P 6. E
1. proscribe 4. proscribed
2. proscribes 5. prescribed
CHAPTER 6 (pages 139164) 3. prescribes

Note-Taking (page148)
READING ONE Possible answers:
2. For:
Reading Strategy (page140) Against:
1. the vervet monkey Its not just fear; they Making these sounds is
2. information about predators communicate precise in- innate and instinctive; not
formation. learned like language.
3. For:
Main Ideas (page143) Against:
1. False; Tape recorders have changed their ideas.
Its not instinctive be- Humans have grammar
2. True
cause vervets learn to rules for language; animal
3. False; Sound patterns are learned rather than
make the right sounds after sounds dont have
instinctive.
them.
4. False; We do not know; scientists need to find out
six to seven months.
if they develop large vocabularies on their own in
4. For:
the wild.
Against:
5. True
Chimps and apes are very Its all very artificial
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6. True
because
7. False; It is hard to trace human language origins.
smart and can learn to com- animals dont speak
language
Close Reading (page144) municate in English. This in the wild.
1. b 2. b 3. a 4. b 5. a has made it essential to
find ways to study
vocalizations made by
animals in the wild.

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 125
READING TWO 3. However, young vervets appear to learn how
to utter and respond to sounds appropriately,
just as do human infants.
Reading Strategy (page149)
Possible answers: 3. 1. Many linguists, echoing the influential Noam
1. The title implies that chimpanzees are our genetic Chomsky, argue that its a uniquely human
relatives and that their ability to communicate gift.
and our ability to communicate are on a 2. This seems to work.
continuum of development. 3. Savage-Rumbaugh suspects that bonobos
2. Chomsky and many other linguists insist that are using language in the wild . . . / While
only humans use (speak) language. the finding has not been replicated in other
3. The but tells us that there must be other experts primates, Savage-Rumbaugh suspects that
who disagree with Chomsky and those who agree it might represent the kind of symbolic
with him. communication system humans rely on.

Main Ideas (page151) Note-Taking (page156)


1. False; Bonobos cannot speak human languages. Possible answers:
2. True I. B. 1. able to use language (symbolic
3. True communications systems)
4. False; Not all scientists believe that bonobos use I. B. 2. working to disprove the bias of linguists
communication symbols. such as Chomsky
5. False; She works with bonobos and a keyboard. II. A. 1. because of the structure of their vocal
tracts, apes cant produce the sounds of human
Close Reading (pages 151152) language; researchers before Savage-Rumbaugh
1. a 2. a 3. b 4. b taught them sign language
II. A. 2. used by Savage-Rumbaugh; consists of
Word Forms (page 152) 400 symbols; apes can communicate with humans in
conversation that way
1. 2. contention II. A. 3. picks up words in normal conversation;
3. echo, echoing not a system based on rewards (behaviorism);
4. evasion, evasive, evasively normal give-and-take in the conversation
5. refutation, refuted II. B. 1. bonobos congregate in groups of 100 in
2. 2. refutation trees; hard to prove they are using languages among
3. contention themselves; when on the ground, they are silent to
4. contend, echo avoid predators.
5. evade II. B. 2. bonobos communicate at crossroads
6. refute of trails by smashing plants and branches at the
angle pointing in the direction to take (symbolic
Synonyms (page153) communication)
2. evade 7. refute II. C. 1. just trampled plants, not a way of
3. forage 8. counter communicating
4. contend 9. echoing II. C. 2. clues left only where trails split and
5. uniquely 10. bias therefore a choice of a new direction is necessary;
6. pick up 11. loom although evidence of this habit not seen in other
primates, bonobos can use a human symbolic
communication system
Phrasal Verbs with pick (page154)
b. 2 c. 2 d. 1 e. 2 f. 3 g. 1 h. 2
i. 1 j. 2 Linking Readings One and Two
(page157)
2014 by Pearson Education, Inc.

2. bonobos
Grammar for Reading (page155)
3. vervets, bonobos
1. 1, 2, 5 4. vervets, bonobos
2. 1. Between human language and the 5. bonobos
vocalizations of any animal lies a seemingly 6. vervets, bonobos
unbridgeable gulf.
2. [Vervets] have an external referent that may
be quite exact.

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 126
READING THREE Close Reading (pages 170171)
1. c 2. a 3. c 4. a 5. b
Reading Strategy (page158)
1. Yes Synonyms (page171)
2. No, humans moral behavior is more complex. 2. modesty 8. frank
3. contribute 9. sympathy
Main Ideas (page160) 4. debater 10. mishandle
Possible answers: 5. refusal 11. economy
1. the human brain allows for reasoning and, 6. fun-loving 12. devious
therefore, direct moral responsibility 7. because
2. morality and whom you can trust
3. human language is unique, and the use of Word Forms (page172)
language has shaped our brain in ways unknown 1. 1. charitably
in animals 2. compassionate, compassionately
3. deceptive, deceptively
Close Reading (page161) 4. hypocrite / hypocrisy, hypocritical,
1. c 2. a 3. b hypocritically
5. manipulator / manipulation, manipulative,
Synonyms (page161) manipulatively
2. silence 7. connection 2. 2. compassion, Compassionate, compassionately
3. instinctive 8. apathy 3. Deception, deceiver, deceive
4. cowardice 9. incapably 4. hypocrite, hypocritical, hypocrisy
5. continuation 10. keep 5. manipulate, manipulative, manipulation
6. capable 11. voting
Figurative Language (page173)
Collocations (page162) Possible answers:
1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10 2. A; sunrise and crowning = hope
3. S; a king = a father; a kingdom = a family

CHAPTER 7 (pages 165194) 4. S; a prince and mule shared the same


characteristic of stubbornness
5. A; a revolution shares some of the characteristics
of the sun: able to give people a new government
READING ONE (renew life) but also dangerous
6. M; the lions share is the biggest and best part
Reading Strategy (page168) because the lion is the strongest
No, Machiavelli does not believe a ruler should be a
moral person.
Critical Thinking (page174)
Main Ideas (page170) 2. Possible answers:
Possible answers: 1. No; Machiavelli would probably think asking
2. What a Prince Should Do: A prince should lie. for a vote makes the prince look weak; a
Why: A prince has to defend his interests, not prince doesnt consult his subordinates.
the truth. The people are too simple to be told 2. No; Unless it could be kept secret from the
the truth. They have no loyalty or goodness, so a publicthen Yes.
prince doesnt need goodness either. 3. Yes
3. What a Prince Should Do: A prince should only 4. No
pretend to follow religion. 5. Cant tell
Why: Pretending to be religious fools the people, 6. Yes; Its a good move to win over the public;
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but a prince should care only about keeping Machiavelli favored manipulation.
power. 7. Yes; Machiavelli told the prince to do things
5. What a Prince Should Not Do: A prince shouldnt for show and to be a hypocrite.
make himself hated by the people.
Why: This creates bitter enemies for life.
6. What a Prince Should Not Do: A price shouldnt
try to make himself loved.
Why: People will not be loyal to a leader.

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 127
READING TWO 4. The Best Type of Leadership: leader does better
when he makes men afraid of him rather than
love him; leaders never have to answer to the
Main Ideas (page177)
people; the ends justify the means
1. 2. b 3. f 4. e 5. d 6. a 5. The Importance of Political Stability: very
important; the prince will make sure he has
Close Reading (page178) power no matter how he acquires and maintains it
1. a 2. b 3. c 4. a 5. a 6. b 6. Other Topic: great things can be accomplished
in society even by means of evil and deceitful
Guessing from Context (page179) methods
Possible answers: Jefferson
2. secure Guess: get 2. The Rights of Man: all citizens have equal rights;
Dictionary: to get or achieve they are entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit
something permanent, especially after of happiness
a lot of effort 3. The Aims of Government: to ensure that people
derive Guess: receive have their rights
Dictionary: get something, especially 4. The Best Type of Leadership: leaders are there
a nice feeling or an advantage, from only by the consent of the governed; the
something or someone best leaders are those who ensure the safety and
consent Guess: permission happiness of their people
Dictionary: permission; agreement 5. The Importance of Political Stability: the
3. alter Guess: modify people have a right to revolution; political
Dictionary: to change or to make stability is good only if the situation is good; if
someone or something change a government is oppressive and disrespectful of
4. transient Guess: unimportant peoples rights, then it needs to be overthrown
Dictionary: continuing only for a short 6. Other Topic: human rights are basic truths (they
time are absolute and self-evident)

Synonyms (page180)
2. invariably 6. impelled READING THREE
3. constrained 7. secure
4. endowed with 8. transient Reading Strategy (page185)
5. alter Possible answer:
He may think that democracy is not a perfect system.
Word Forms (page181)
1. 2. alteration, altered Main Ideas (page187)
3. consent / consensus, consent, consensual, Possible answers:
consensually 1. good temper
4. derivation / derivative, derived 2. sympathy
5. equality, equalize, equally 3. most important
4. values a variety of opinions
2. 2. alter, alterations 5. the right to criticize things
3. consent, consent
4. derive, derived
Close Reading (page188)
5. equal, equality
1. c 2. a 3. b 4. a 5. a
Note-Taking (page182)
Synonyms (page189)
Possible answers:
2. b 3. a 4. l 5. f 6. h 7. d 8. j
Machiavelli
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9. k 10. g 11. e 12. i


2. The Rights of Man: none; whatever rights are
given to them can be taken away by the prince;
men are more interested in their private property Using the Dictionary (page190)
than freedom b. U c. D d. D e. U f. U
3. The Aims of Government: to preserve the state
and the power of the prince

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 128
Grammar for Reading (pages 190191) 2. 2. extermination
3. adversary
2. 1. E. M. Forster, the English writer known for
4. atrocities
five wonderful novelsamong them, A Room
5. assertion, pious, master
with a View, Howards End, and A Passage to
6. expenditure
Indiawas born in London in 1879.
7. utmost
2. In a period of 20 yearsbetween 1905 and
8. fateful
1924he published most of the works for
which he is known.
3. Because his father died of consumption soon Collocations (page201)
after he was born, Forster lived with his 1, 2, 3, 5
mothera difficult and demanding woman
for the first 66 years of life, until his mothers
death in 1945. READING TWO
4. When writing Howards Endhis first
major successin 1910, Forster was part Reading Strategy (page202)
of the Bloomsbury Group, a circle of Disagree
British thinkers and writersamong them,
Virginia Woolf, John Maynard Keynes, Dora Main Ideas (page204)
Carrington, and Lytton Strachey. 2, 3, 4
5. Although Forster believed that novels could
not be adapted into stage or filmin his Close Reading (page205)
opinion, the individual experience of reading 1. a 2. a 3. b 4. b 5. a 6. b
a book was an experience that could not be
captured in another media formmany of Guessing from Context (page206)
the film adaptations of his work became Possible answers:
Academy Award winners. 1. sustain Guess: continued (at the same
rate)

CHAPTER 8 (pages 195220) Dictionary: to make something


continue; to maintain
2. devolve Guess: be reduced to
Dictionary: to descend to a
READING ONE lower level
overtures Guess: greetings
Reading Strategy (page197) Dictionary: attempts to begin a
1. Yes 2. No friendly relationship
3. predominance Guess: more of it
Main Ideas (page199) Dictionary: greater importance
Possible answers: or significance
1. wars, conquests, and religious struggles 4. efface Guess: erase
2. control humans aggressive instincts Dictionary: to destroy or remove
3. the life force / representing the death instinct something
4. for human beings to kill the whole species / 5. perpetuate Guess: let happen, give life to
disaster Dictionary: to make a situation
or attitude continue to exist
Close Reading (pages 199200) 6. determinant Guess: characteristic
1. a 2. a 3. b 4. b 5. a 6. b Dictionary: something that
strongly influence what you do
Synonyms (pages 200201) or how you behave
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1. 2. controversy 7. dislike
3. attack 8. surrender
Word Forms (page207)
4. exposure 9. content 1. 1. acquire
5. arrest 10. better 2. effacement, effaced
6. intense 3. perpetuation, perpetual, perpetually
4. predominate, predominant, predominantly
5. reiteration, reiterated
6. sustenance, sustained / sustaining

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 129
2. 1. acquisitive Synonyms (page215)
2. reiterates, predominate 2. h 3. i 4. g 5. f 6. b 7. a 8. k
3. effaced 9. d 10. l 11. c 12. e
4. sustained, predominate
Grammar for Reading (page216)
Synonyms (page208) 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. b 5. a, b, b
2. c 3. j 4. a 5. k 6. e 7. i 8. l
9. h 10. g 11. f 12. b Note-Taking (pages 217218)
Possible answers:
Note-Taking (page209) 1. 2. suggested looking into his fathers blood
Possible answers: relatives.
3. Assertion: genial 3. there was a long line of violent killers: great-
Explanation: animals are relatively peaceful, grandfather hanged (murdering mother);
described that way despite one or two aggressive seven other alleged murderers, including
acts; hardly any aggressive acts noted after Lizzie Borden.
millions of hours observing humans 4. to take brain scans and give blood samples.
4. Assertion: violent, kind, violence 5. normal for the whole family, except for
Explanation: violence has more of an impact on himself (low activity in orbital cortex). /
us than kindness; violence is more shocking blood test: Fallon was the only one in the
5. Assertion: flexibility family with the warrior gene in a DNA test of
Explanation: brain is larger in size and humans 12 genes related to aggression and violence
are less programmed by their genesflexibility
2. Possible answers:
should be considered a determinant in human
2. part of the brain connected with aggression
awareness; humans can be aggressive and
and id-type behaviors (rage, violence, eating,
peaceful, dominant and submissive, spiteful and
sex, drinking)
generous
3. MAO-A gene (monoamine oxidase A)
6. Assertion: basis / foundation
regulates serotoninpeople with a version of
Explanation: too much stereotypical thinking by
this gene dont react to the calming effect of
those in power; our biological nature is not an
serotonin
obstacle to social reform
4. affects the moodhas a tranquillizing effect
5. believes a positive childhood environment has
Linking Readings One and Two a greater impact on personality development
(page210) than brain patterns and DNA
Possible answers:
1. F 2. G 3. F/G 4. G 5. G
CHAPTER 9 (pages 221251)
READING THREE
READING ONE
Main Ideas (page213)
1. False; The battle is an important part. Reading Strategy (page223)
2. False; They do not determine whether a person 1. True
will be a criminal; environment also counts. 2. True
3. True 3. True
4. True
Main Ideas (page226)
Close Reading (page213) 1. False; People did not take a long time.
1. b 2. a 3. b 4. a 2. False; The people who helped were ordinary
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citizens.
Phrases and Idioms (page214) 3. True
1. d 2. a 3. f 4. c. 5. b 6. e 4. False; The Sikh in the bus had not killed her.
5. True
Using the Dictionary (page214)
a. 2 b. 2 c. 1 d. 3 Close Reading (page226)
1. b 2. a 3. a 4. a

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 130
Guessing from Context (page227) READING TWO
1. fan out Clues: across the road / stopping
cars Reading Strategy (page232)
Guess: move out in different 1. April, 1940
directions 2. They challenged the Germans directly by
Dictionary: to spread something providing all kinds of obstacles to German plans.
out 3. It will show how the Danes succeeded in
2. prevail Clues: succeeded sabotaging the Germans efforts.
Guess: won
Dictionary: to achieve success in
Main Ideas (page235)
the end
1, 3, 4
3. brace for Clues: attack / lean in
Guess: got our bodies ready
Dictionary: to prepare for Close Reading (page235)
something bad that is going to 1. b 2. a 3. a
happen
4. accommodate Clues: food / clothing / Synonyms (pages 236237)
thousands of people 2. reckon with 6. tackled
Guess: take care of 3. sabotage 7. tipping off
Dictionary: to provide enough 4. took measures 8. concessions
space for a particular number of 5. seizure
people
Using the Dictionary (page237)
Synonyms (pages 228229) a. 1 b. 1 c. 2 d. 2
2. bereft 8. started
3. intent on 9. braced for Word Forms (page238)
4. stark 10. thugs
1. 2. immunization, immunize
5. menacing 11. fanning out
3. reckoning
6. prevail 12. chilling
4. seize, seized
7. accommodate
5. resign, resigned

Using the Dictionary (pages 229230) 2. 1. reckon


2. seize
1. 1. crowd 5. crowd 3. immune
2. crowd 6. mob 4. concede
3. mob 7. crowd 5. resign
4. mob
2. 1. startled 3. startling Collocations (page238)
2. start 4. start 1, 2, 4, 5

Note-Taking (page230) Grammar for Reading (pages 239240)


Possible answers:
1. Paragraph 1:
On the bus
1. Himmler thought [that] this was the right
Solution: The bus driver and all of the other
moment to tackle the Jewish question.
passengers lied to the rioters and protected the Sikh.
2. What he did not reckon with was that
On the street quite apart from the Danish resistancethe
Danger: The people who joined the march German officials who had been living in the
encountered mobs of rioters armed with steel rods country for years were no longer the same.
2014 by Pearson Education, Inc.

and knives. 3. [T]he special S.S. units (Einsatz-


Solution: The marchers chanted slogans to remind kommandos) employed in Denmark very
people of Gandhis legacy of nonviolence. / The frequently objected to the measures [that]
women stood in front of the men to bring the rioters they were ordered to carry out by the central
to their senses and make them stop. agenciesaccording to Bests testimony of
Nuremberg.

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 131
4. And Best himself, an old Gestapo man and Guessing from Context (page245)
former legal adviser to Heydrich, author of Possible answers:
a then famous book on the police, who had 2. conditioned Guess: used to, accustomed to
worked for the military government in Paris Dictionary: to make a person or an
to the entire satisfaction of his superiors, animal think in a particular way by
could no longer be trusted, although it is influencing or training them over a
doubtful that Berlin ever learned the extent of period of time
his unreliability. 3. slum Guess: place where people are
Paragraph 2: down, poor, unlucky
5. Best went to Berlin and obtained a promise Dictionary: an area of a city that is
that all Jews from Denmark would be sent to in very bad condition, where very
Theresienstadt regardless of their categorya poor people live
very important concession, from the Nazis 4. engulf Guess: take over
point of view. Dictionary: to affect strongly,
6. At the last moment, Best told them that they overwhelm
were not permitted to break into apartments, 5. thrive Guess: live
because the Danish police might then Dictionary: to become strong or
interfere, and they were not supposed to fight successful or healthy
it out with the Danes. 6. quest Guess: effort to find something
Dictionary: a long search for
2. Possible answers: something
1. The Sikh passengers actions of anxiety are
described here, and confirmation of the cause
Synonyms (pages 246247)
of anxiety (too late to get off the bus; thugs
2. f 3. c 4. a 5. g 6. j 7. i 8. h
were everywhere) is also given.
9. k 10. b 11. e
2. The womans communications with the Sikh
passenger show her understanding of what is
happening. Note-Taking (page248)
3. A description is given of how the German Possible answers:
officials who had been living in Denmark for 1. Rejects
years had changed. b. cooperating makes the oppressed as evil as the
oppressor
c. moral obligation to awaken the oppressors
Linking Readings One and Two conscience
(page241) 2. Rejects
1. Possible answers: b. nurtures hatred rather than love
2. R1: Yes, except in some instances; R2: No c. no communication in societyno dialogue,
3. R1: In Delhi, allowing the murdering to only monologue
happen; R2: Opposing the murders 3. Accepts
4. R1: Limited success; R2: Mostly successful b. not a question of rights of any particular
groupreaches out to everyone
c. moral achievementjustice is the primary
READING THREE goal

Main Ideas (page244)


1. False; The author can understand it. CHAPTER 10 (pages 252282)
2. False; The author sees some good things about
violence. Consider These Questions (page253)
3. True 1. a, b, c (Jeanne dArc, the young peasant girl
4. False; Violence leaves no chance for the
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who crowned the King of France and led French


oppressors. armies, is one of the very few exceptions to the
5. False; Justice and love are part of the struggle. fact that only women from noble families were
remembered in history.)
Close Reading (page244)
1. a 2. b 3. a 4. a

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 132
2. 1. Possible answer: The Enlightenment and Synonyms (pages 258259)
the democratic revolutions (starting with the 2. compelled 8. remunerated
American Revolutionary War, 17751783) 3. deprived of 9. candid
changed peoples attitudes. Education was 4. exclude 10. submitted
opened to women, and women became part 5. abject 11. fraudulently
of a large reading public. Writing was one 6. aggrieved 12. obtain
of the first ways women showed their talent 7. distinction 13. thorough
because literature could be written quietly at
home. With the Industrial Revolution, more
women worked outside the home or farm. READING TWO
Later, labor-saving devices, such as washing
machines and refrigerators, reduced the need Main Ideas (page263)
for womens work at home. 1. Paragraph 2. a
Paragraph 3. b
Paragraph 4. b
READING ONE
Close Reading (page264)
Warm-Up (page254) 1. b 2. a 3. b 4. b 5. a 6. a
1. De Gouges began her Declaration: Woman is
born free and remains equal to man in rights
Guessing from Context (page265)
just like the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
2. denounce Guess: speak badly about
2. Just like the Declaration of Independence
Dictionary: to publicly express
disapproval of someone or
Reading Strategy (page254) something
All checked. 3. enlightened Guess: educated, aware
Dictionary: showing a good
Main Ideas (page256) understanding of something and
1. True not believing things about it that
2. False; They could work outside the home but in are false
the lowest jobs. advocate Guess: speak in favor of
3. False; They could go to primary school, but Dictionary: to publicly support a
higher education was closed to them. particular way of doing things
4. True 4. promote Guess: make happen
5. False; They did not at the time enjoy full rights Dictionary: to help something
of citizenship because they couldnt participate develop and be successful
in the political process and, if married, their 5. suppress Guess: smother, destroy
property passed to their husbands. Dictionary: to prevent something
from growing or developing
Close Reading (page256)
1. b 2. b 3. a 4. b Synonyms (pages 266267)
1. b. 3 c. 4 d. 2
Words Forms (page257)
2. 2. called . . . to account
1. 1. compel, compelled / compelling / 3. suppress
compulsory, compellingly 4. enlightened
2. deprivation, deprived 5. humble
3. exclusion, excluded 6. accrued
4. fraud, defraud, fraudulent 7. faculties
5. remunerate, remunerated 8. humane
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2. 2. exclusion
3. depriving Using the Dictionary (page268)
4. compulsory
1. a. 1 b. 3 c. 3 d. 3 e. 1 f. 2
5. remuneration
6. fraudulent 2. 1. faculties 3. faculty
7. deprived 2. faculty 4. faculties

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 133
Grammar for Reading (page269) Synonyms (page277)
2. a. 2 b. 1 and 3 c. 3 and 4 2. step up 7. subsequently
3. behest 8. rank and file
4. cracked down on 9. vigils
Note-Taking (page270) 5. set their goals 10. waged
Possible answers: 6. campaigned 11. ratification
4. Douglass fought against slavery for himself and
his people but fighting for women was an act of
nobility.
Phrasal Verbs with crack and step
5/6. Men dominated women in time and spacethe (page278)
weight of history acts against change. 1. stepped up 5. stepped in
7. An idea doesnt diefreedom for anyone helps 2. cracked up 6. cracked down
the human race progress. 3. stepped up 7. stepped up
4. stepped down 8. step up
Linking Readings One and Two
(page271) Collocations (page279)
1. S 2. S/D 3. D 4. S/D 5. S 6. D 7. S 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7

Note-Taking (page279)
READING THREE Possible answers:
1916: Carrie Chapman Catt became president of
Reading Strategy (page272) the National American Woman Suffrage
1. 1910 Association and developed the Winning
2. August 26, 1920 Plan (with its goal of suffrage in 1920).
1917: Alice Paul and the Womens party stepped up
their campaign after the U.S. entered World
Main Ideas (page275) War I.
2, 3, 4
1918: Jeannette Rankin of Montanathe first
female member of Congressintroduced the
Close Reading (page275) suffrage amendment on the House floor.
1. b 2. a 3. a 4. b 1919: The amendment was submitted to the states
for ratificationafter the Senate voted yes.
Guessing from Context (page276) 1920: The 19th amendment became a part of the
Possible answers: U.S. Constitution.
2. ratification Guess: votes
Dictionary: approval, adoption
3. vigil Guess: watch
Dictionary: a political protest in
which people gather outside,
especially during the night
4. crack down Guess: get brutal
Dictionary: to take action to deal
more strictly with a problem
5. subsequently Guess: later
Dictionary: after a previous event
6. set a goal Guess: establish an objective
Dictionary: to decide that you
should try to achieve something,
especially something that requires
a lot of effort
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campaign for Guess: fight for


Dictionary: to take part in a series
of actions intended to achieve a
particular result

Longman Academic Reading Series 4, Teachers Manual Student Book Answer Key 134