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Notes for CE231: Version 1.0

Robert L. Taylor

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

University of California at Berkeley

Berkeley, California 94720-1710

E-Mail: rlt@ce.berkeley.edu

October 1999

Contents

1 Introduction 1

2 Introduction to Strong and Weak Forms 2

2.1 Strong form for problems in engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2.2 Construction of a weak form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2.3 Heat conduction problem: Strong form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2.4 Heat conduction problem: Weak form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

3 Introduction to Variational Theorems 8

3.1 Derivatives of functionals: The variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3.2 Symmetry of inner products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.3 Vainberg's method: Construction of variational theorems . . . . . . . . . . . 10

3.4 Variational notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4 Small Deformation: Linear Elasticity 13

4.1 Constitutive Equations for Linear Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

5 Variational Theorems: Linear Elasticity 17

5.1 Hu-Washizu Variational Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

5.2 Hellinger-Reissner Variational Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

5.3 Minimum Potential Energy Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

i

A variational statement provides a convenient basis for constructing approximate solutions (e. . whereas. The strong form of a problem is given as a set of partial dieren- tial equations..Chapter 1 Introduction In these notes. Vainberg's theorem is introduced to indicate when a variational theorem exists for a given variational equation.g. the weak form of a problem is associated with either a variational equation or a variational theorem. Chapters 2 and 3 provide an introduction to formulation of problems in both a strong and a weak form.

the linear heat equation is used as an example problem to describe some of the details concerning use of strong and weak forms. In Chapter 5 variational theorems are presented in three forms. Chapter 4 provides a summary of the strong form for a linear elasticity problem.nite element methods). Ini- tially. The .

the last form discussed is the principle of minimum potential energy which includes only the momentum equations (in terms of displacement) and the traction boundary conditions. The second form. strain-displacement equations. known as the Hellinger-Reissner form. Finally. All other equations must be provided in strong form. includes all the equations except the strain-displacement equations which must therefore be provided in a strong form. and boundary conditions for both traction and displacement.rst form. constitutive equations. presents a variational theorem which includes all the equations for elasto- statics: Balance of linear momentum. known as the Hu-Washizu form. 1 .

non-linear equations include nonlinear terms also.1 Strong form for problems in engineering Many problems in engineering are modeled using partial dierential equations (PDE). Some equations admit use of solutions written as series of products of one dimensional functions for which exact solutions may be constructed for each function.one case being the linear wave equation in one space dimension and time. in general it is not possible to treat general boundary conditions or problem shapes using this approach.Chapter 2 Introduction to Strong and Weak Forms 2. Again. Very few partial dierential equations may be solved in closed form . Linear equations are characterized by the appearance of the dependent variable(s) in linear form only. The dierential equations may be either linear or non-linear. whereas. As an example consider the Poisson equation @ 2 u + @ 2 u = q(x. The set of partial dierential equations describing such problems is often referred to as the strong form of the problem.1) @x2 @y2 de. y) (2.

3) m n a b a b mn The solution may now be completed by expanding the right hand side as a double sine series (i.e. 0 y b with the boundary condition u = 0 on all edges.2) m n which when substituted into the equation yields XX m 2 + n 2 sin( mx ) sin( ny )u = q(x. y) (2. Fourier series) and matching terms between the left and right sides. Evaluation of the 2 . This dierential equation may be solved by writing u as a product form sin( mx ) sin( ny )umn XX u= a b (2..ned on the region 0 x a.

y) of interest. INTRODUCTION TO STRONG AND WEAK FORMS 3 solution requires the summation of the series for each point (x. it is not possible to get an exact solution in closed form. Indeed. use of a . Consequently.CHAPTER 2.

Integrate by parts using Green's theorem to reduce derivatives to their minimum order. we now direct our attention to rewriting the set of equations in a form we call the weak form of the problem. is density. however. Q is the volumetric heat generation per unit volume per unit time. 2. the solutions are obtained only in series form. we will be concerned with the construction of approximate solutions to problems in elasticity { one such approximation being a reduced theory for beams. T is temperature. Replace the boundary conditions by an appropriate construction.4) i=1 @xi @t where: d is the spatial dimension of the problem. . c is speci. X @qi + Q = c @T (2. 4. More general solutions may be constructed using separable solution.2 Construction of a weak form A weak form of a set of dierential equations is constructed by considering 4 steps: 1. again. 2. In the sequel. qi is the component of the heat ux in the xi direction. plates. Accordingly. The weak form will be the basis for constructing our approximate solutions. Multiply the dierential equation by an arbitrary function which contracts the equa- tions to a scalar. The governing partial dierential equation set for the transient heat conduction equation is given by d . Integrate the result of 1. over the domain of consideration.nite set of terms leads to an approximate solution with the accuracy depending on the number of terms used.3 Heat conduction problem: Strong form The above steps are made more concrete by considering an example. or shells. 2. 3.

and t is time. Partial derivatives in space will be denoted by ( ). .5) @xi and in time by . The following notation is introduced for use throughout this report.i = @ ( ) (2. The equations hold for all points xi in the domain of interest.c heat.

6) In addition. INTRODUCTION TO STRONG AND WEAK FORMS 4 T_ = @T @t (2.i = X @qi (2. t) = T (2.9) where T is a speci. the divergence of the ux may be written as d qi.7) i=1 With this notation. summation convention is used where d X ai bi = aibi (2.CHAPTER 2.8) i=1 @xi Boundary conditions are given by T (xj .

and qn = qi ni = qn (2.T ..10) where qnn is a speci.ed temperature for points xj on the boundary. .

Hence for an isotropic material the Fourier law becomes qi = . kT. second rank thermal conductivity tensor. The Fourier law is a linear relationship given as qi = .i (2. For an isotropic material kij = kij (2.13) in which ij is the Kronecker delta function (ij = 1 for i = j. 0) = T0 (xi ) (2. Initial conditions are given by T (xi .j (2. . The equations are completed by giving a relation- ship between the gradient of temperature and the heat ux (called the thermal constitutive equation). and ni are direction cosines of the unit outward pointing normal to the boundary.14) .11) for points in the domain.ed ux for points xj on the ux boundary. . = 0 for i 6= j).q . at time zero.12) where kij is a symmetric. kij T.

expressed as a weak form.14 into Eq. it is only necessary to approximate .16) 1 2 We note that it is necessary to compute second derivatives of the temperature to compute a solution to the dierential equation.4.CHAPTER 2. INTRODUCTION TO STRONG AND WEAK FORMS 5 The dierential equation may be expressed in terms of temperature by substituting Eq. 2. The result is (kT. 2.15) The equation is a second order dierential equation and for isotropic materials with constant k is expanded for two dimensional plane bodies as 2 2T k @x2 + @x2 + Q = c @T @ T @ @t (2.i + Q = cT_ (2. In the following.i). we show that.

rst derivatives of functions to obtain a solution. Thus. the solution process is simpli.

The partial dierential equation together with the boundary and initial conditions is called the strong form of the problem. The equation is .ed by considering weak (variational) forms. 2. we multiply Eq.4 Heat conduction problem: Weak form In step 1.4 by an arbitrary function W (xi ). 2. which transforms the set of dierential equations onto a scalar function.

i d = nid . the thermal ux vector in our case). Normally. T ) = W (xi) cT_ .17) In step 2 we integrate over the domain. (2. is the product of two functions.i d = 0 (2. Thus. Green's theorem is given by Z Z . qi .i = 0 (2.19) .rst written on one side of an equal sign. Thus g(W. Q + qi.. T ) = W (xi) cT_ . Z G(W. .20) we have . qi. Thus for = VU (2.e.18) In step 3 we integrate by parts the terms involving the spatial derivatives (i. Q + qi.

+ Wqnd. Applying the integration by parts to the heat equation gives Z Z G(W.i V ] d = (U V )nid.22) .CHAPTER 2. 2. W. (2.21) .T . The left hand side expands to give Z Z [U V.24) .id = .q Now the boundary condition Eq. U. hence our equation must be valid even if W is zero for some parts of the domain). T ) = W (xi) cT_ . Substituting all the above into Eq. which we observe is an integration by parts. = Wqnd. INTRODUCTION TO STRONG AND WEAK FORMS 6 Z Z (U V ).u (Note that W is arbitrary. (2. (2.id = (U V )nid. 2. = 0 (2.q and (without any loss in what we need to do) we can set W to zero on .i qi d Z + Wqini d. .23) . qi .i + U.i V d + (U V )ni d. (2. Q d . the boundary term may be split into two parts and expressed as Z Z Z Wqnd.24 completes step 4 and we obtain the .10 may be used for the part on .25) . which may be rearranged as Z Z Z U V. Introducing qn .

qi . Q d .26) .q If in addition to the use of the boundary condition we assume that the Fourier law is satis. T ) = W (xi) cT_ . W.nal expression Z Z G(W.i qi d Z + W qnd. = 0 (2.

q .i k T.27) . = 0 (2.ed at each point in the above integral becomes Z Z G = W c T_ .i d Z + W qn d. Q d + W.

CHAPTER 2. INTRODUCTION TO STRONG AND WEAK FORMS 7 We note that the above form only involves .

This leads to weaker conditions to de.rst derivatives of quantities instead of the second derivatives in the original dierential equation.

Further- more. .27 is sometimes said to be irreducible [4. there are no additional equations that can be used to give any additional reductions. thus. 2. Chapter 9].ne solutions of the problem and thus the notion of a weak form is established. Eq.

it is necessary to introduce a scalar parameter which may be used as the limiting parameter in the derivative [1].e. The notion of a variation is associated with the concept of a derivative of a functional (i. In order to construct a derivative of a functional. This may be done by introducing a parameter and de..Chapter 3 Introduction to Variational Theorems 3. a function of functions).1 Derivatives of functionals: The variation The weak form of a dierential equation is also called a variational equation.

dG = lim G . Thus. The construction of the derivative of the func- tional requires the computation of variations of derivatives of T .q The derivative of the functional with respect to now may be constructed using conventional methods of calculus.i d . Using the above de.3) d !0 where G0 is the value of G for equal to 0. (3.2) . Introducing the family of functions T into the functional we obtain. using the steady state heat equation as an example.ning a family of functions given by T (x) = T (x) + (x) (3. the result Z Z G = G(W.1) The function is an arbitrary function and is related to the arbitrary function W introduced in the construction of the weak form.i k T. W Q d Z + W qn d. The function is called the variation of the function T and often written as T ( (x) alone also may be called the variation of the function) [1]. T ) = W. G0 (3.

i 8 .nition we obtain d(T ).4) d d .i = d (T + ) = (3.i .i .

i d The limit of the derivative as goes to zero is called the variation of the functional.5) .CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO VARIATIONAL THEOREMS 9 With this result in hand.i . the derivative of the functional with respect to is given by dG = Z W k d (3. We shall de. For the linear steady state heat equation the derivative with respect to is constant. hence the derivative is a variation of G.

6) d This is a notation commonly used to de.ne the derivative of the functional representing the weak form of a dierential equation as dG = A(W. ) (3.

3.7) Symmetry of the inner product resulting from the variation of a weak form is a sucient condition for the existence of a variational theorem which may also be used to generate a weak form. Symmetry of the functional A also implies that the tangent matrix (computed from the second variation of the theorem or the . W ) (3.ne inner products.2 Symmetry of inner products Symmetry of inner product relations is fundamental to the derivation of variational theorems. An inner product is symmetric if A(W. ) = A(. To investigate symmetry of a functional we consider only terms which include both the dependent variable and the arbitrary function.

rst variation of the weak form) of a Galerkin method will be symmetric. has a . given by a functional I (T ). A variational theorem.

1 leads to a result where replaces W in the weak form. given a functional I (T ) we can construct G(W. for the variational equation to be equivalent to the weak form must be an arbitrary function with the same restrictions as we established in de. T ) (3. Thus. T ) as lim dI (T ) = G(.rst variation which is identical to the weak form. 3.8) !0 d Note that use of Eq. Thus.

often we may only have a functional G and desire to know if a variational theorem exists. Variational theorems are quite common for several problem classes.ning W . but knowledge that it exists is helpful since it implies properties of the discrete problem which are bene. In practice we seldom need to have the variational theorem. however.

existence of a variational theorem yields a weak form directly by using Eq. etc. 3.cial (e. symmetry of the tangent matrices.g.). Also. minimum or stationary value.8. ..

Check symmetry of the functional A(W.10) to de. If symmetric then to 2.9) T (x. stop: no variational theorem exists. t) ! T (x.CHAPTER 3. ).3 Vainberg's method: Construction of variational the- orems The construction of a variational theorem from a weak form is performed as follows [2]: 1. t) (3. Perform the following substitutions in G(W. T ) W (x) ! T (x. otherwise. INTRODUCTION TO VARIATIONAL THEOREMS 10 3. t) (3. 2.

12) !0 d and a problem commonly referred to as a variational theorem.ne G(T. A variational theorem is a functional whose . T ) 3. Integrate the functional result from (b) with respect to over the interval 0 to 1. The result of the above process gives Z 1 I (T ) = G(T. T ) = 0 (3.11) 0 Performing the variation of I and setting to zero gives lim dI ( T ) = G(. T )d (3.

when set to zero.i k T.ikT. TQd + T qnd.rst variation. For the steady state heat equation we have Z Z Z G(T.14) .id . (3. yields the governing dierential equations and boundary conditions associated with some problem. (3. the . T Q d + T qn d.q Reversing the process.i d .q The integral is trivial and gives Z Z Z 1 I (T ) = 2 T. T ) = T.13) .

rst variation of the variational theorem generates a variational equation which is the weak form of the partial dierential equation. The .

rst variation is de.

ned by replacing T by T = T + (3.15) .

CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO VARIATIONAL THEOREMS 11 and performing the derivative de.

16) If the second variation is strictly positive (i. the variational theorem is called a minimum principle and the discrete tangent matrix is positive de. ) (3. The second variation of the theorem generates the inner product A(.e.12. 3. A is positive for all )..ned by Eq.

nite. If the second variation can have either positive or negative values the variational theorem is a stationary principle and the discrete tangent matrix is inde.

17) .i d Z + W qn d. The transient heat equation with weak form given by Z Z G = W c T_ .i k T._ 6= (.nite. Q d + W.q does not lead to a variational theorem due to the lack of the symmetry condition for the transient term A = T.18) If however. = 0 (3. we ._ T ) (3.

we can often restore symmetry to the functional and then deduce a variational theorem for the discrete problem. For example if at each time tn we have T (tn) Tn (3.rst discretize the transient term using some time integration method.19) then we can approximate the time derivative by the .

That is. T (3. Tn T_ (tn) Ttn+1 . = t . tn = t and omitting the subscripts for quantities evaluated at tn+1.21) since scalars can be moved from either term without aecting the value of the term. the rate term which includes both T and becomes A = Tt .20) n+1 t n Letting tn+1 . (3.nite dierence . ) = ( T.22) . ) (3. A = (T.

INTRODUCTION TO VARIATIONAL THEOREMS 12 3.CHAPTER 3.4 Variational notation A formalism for constructing a variation of a functional may be identi.

The dierential of a function f (xi ) may be written as @f dx df = @x (3. we may formally write a . Similarly.23) i i where xi are the set of independent variables.ed and is similar to constructing the dierential of a function.

u is the variation of the variable (i.i are the dependent variables of the functional. u.24) @u.i . it is formally the (x))..i where u. and I is called the .e.rst variation as I = @u @I u + @I u + (3.

This construction is a formal process as the indicated partial derivatives have no direct de.rst variation of the functional.

27) . However.q Collecting terms we have Z Z Z I = T. @T @ (T Q) T d Z . (3.q which is identical to Eq.nition (indeed the result of the derivative is obtained from Eq.i k) T. .q @T Performing the derivatives leads to Z Z Z 1 I = 2 (k T.i k T.i d .i) T.14.i + T.3). we obtain the result Z Z 1 @ I = 2 @T (T.2 with T replacing W .i d . (3.i + @ (T qn) T d. For the functional Eq. 3. (3. Q T d + qn T d. Q T d + qn T d. etc. We may also use the above process to perform a linearization of variational equations in order to construct solution processes based on Newton's method.i d .26) .25) . This formal construction is easy to apply but masks the meaning of a variation. 3.i k T. 3. applying this con- struction can be formally performed using usual constructions for a derivative of a function.

For a presentation using indicial notation see [4. The equations are presented using direct notation. Chapter 6]. The presentation below assumes small (in.Chapter 4 Small Deformation: Linear Elasticity A summary of the governing equations for linear elasticity is given below.

r is the gradient operator. x. which may be split as follows ru = r(s)u + r(a) u (4. The basic governing equations are: 1. u. .5) Based upon this split. the stress tensor. Balance of angular momentum.3) where the symmetric part is r(s)u = 21 ru + (ru)T (4. 2. ru.4) and the skew symmetric part is r(a) u = 21 ru . and the strain tensor.1) where is the mass density. and u is the acceleration. which leads to symmetry of the stress tensor = T (4. The dependent variables are given in terms of the displacement vector. the symmetric part de. where the domain of analysis is with boundary . Deformation measures based upon the gradient of the displacement vector. bm is the body force per unit mass. Balance of linear momentum expressed as r + bm = u (4.nitesimal) deformations and general three dimensional behavior in a Cartesian coordinate system..2) 3. (ru)T (4. .

6) 13 .nes the strain = r(s)u (4.

SMALL DEFORMATION: LINEAR ELASTICITY 14 and the skew symmetric part de.CHAPTER 4.

35 (4. is split into two parts: Speci.1 u3. .3 ru ! 4u2..9) The gradient of the displacement has the components ordered as (with no symmetries) 2 3 u1.7) In a three dimensional setting the above tensors have 9 components.10) u3.1 u2.thus. However.2 u3. Accordingly. or small rotation.13) which implies !11 = !22 = !33 = 0. !ij = !ji (4. The component ordering for each of the tensors is given by 2 3 11 12 13 ! 421 22 23 5 (4.2 u2.!23 0 The basic equations which are independent of material constitution are completed by specifying the boundary conditions.11) 31 32 33 and the symmetry condition ij = ji (4. For this purpose the boundary.1 u1. ! = r(a) u (4.12) The spin tensor is skew symmetric.8) 31 32 33 which from the balance of angular momentum must be symmetric.!12 0 !23 5 (4.14) !31 !32 !33 . hence ij = ji (4.3 The strain tensor is the symmetric part with components 2 3 11 12 13 ! 421 22 23 5 (4. 2 3 2 3 !11 !12 !13 0 !12 !13 ! ! 4!21 !22 !23 5 = 4.2 u1. if the tensor is symmetric only 6 are independent and if the tensor is skew symmetric only 3 are independent.!13 .nes the spin.

15) where u is a speci. given as: u = u (4.u.ed displacements on the part .

and .ed quantity.

SMALL DEFORMATION: LINEAR ELASTICITY 15 speci.CHAPTER 4.

t . given as: t = n = t (4.ed tractions on the part .16) where t is a speci.

In the balance of momentum.ed quantity. the body force was speci.

4.e..1). Inclusion of inertial forces requires the speci.17) Static or quasi-static problems are considered by omitting the acceleration term from the momentum equation (Eq. unit weight/volume) using bm = bv (4.ed per unit of mass. This may be converted to a body force per unit volume (i.

19) where d0 is the initial displacement .18) u_ (x. 0) = d0(x) (4. 0) = v0 (x) (4.cation of the initial conditions u(x.

eld. and v0 is the initial velocity .

4. 0 is a second part which we assume is a speci. however. = m + 0 (4.20) where m is the strain caused by stresses and is called the mechanical part. we begin by considering a linear elastic material with an additional known strain. In small deformation analysis the strain is expressed as an additive sum of parts. Accordingly. We shall consider several alternatives for splits during the course.1 Constitutive Equations for Linear Elasticity The linear theory is completed by specifying the constitutive behavior for the material.eld.

21) . For example. 0 ) (4.22) where the matrix of stresses is ordered as the vector = 11 22 33 12 23 31 T (4. which is also called Voigt notation) as = Dm = D( . ij ) T = 11 22 33 2 12 2 23 2 31 (4.LP where T is temperature and T0 is a stress free temperature.23) the matrix of strains is ordered as the vector (note factors of 2 are used to make shearing components the engineering strains. The constitutive equations relating stress to mechanical strain may be written (in matrix notation. 0 as a thermal strain is given by 0 = th = (T . T0) (4.ed strain.24) .

26) m ab the elastic modulus matrix is symmetric and satis. W (m ). SMALL DEFORMATION: LINEAR ELASTICITY 16 Tensor Matrix Index Index 1 2 3 4 5 6 ab 11 22 33 12 23 31 21 32 13 Table 4.1: Transformation of indices from tensor to matrix form and D is the matrix of elastic constants given by 2 3 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 6D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 77 6 D = 66D D32 D33 D34 D35 D36 77 6 31 (4.CHAPTER 4.25) 6D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 77 4D51 D52 D53 D54 D55 D56 5 D61 D62 D63 D64 D65 D66 Assuming the existence of a strain energy density. from which stresses are computed as ab = @@W (4.

0cd ) (4.27) Using tensor quantities. C1233 ! D43 . using this table. we have C1111 ! D11 . the constitutive equation for linear elasticity is written in indicial notation as: ab = Cabcd(cd .1 Thus.28) The transformation from the tensor to the matrix (Voigt) form is accomplished by the index transformations shown in Table 4.29) The above set of equations de. etc: (4.es Dij = Dji (4.

We can add the inertial eects to the variational equations which result from any variational theorem using d'Alemberts principle. The inclusion of inertial forces precludes the development of variational theorems in a simple form as noted in the previous chapter. . We next discuss some variational theorems which include the elasticity equations in a form amenable for development of approximate solutions.nes the governing equations for use in solving linear elastic boundary value problems in which the inertial forces may be ignored.

uT bv d T ( s) Z Z .1) . . is known as the Hu-Washizu variational theorem. thus. ) = 2 D d .Chapter 5 Variational Theorems: Linear Elasticity 5. u )d. = Stationary (5.1 Hu-Washizu Variational Theorem Instead of constructing the weak form of the equations and then deducing the existence of a variational theorem. . and. as done for the thermal problem. a variational theorem which includes all the equations for the linear theory of elasticity (without inertial forces) will be stated. BuT t d. The theorem may be written as Z Z 1 I (u.u Note that the integral de. The variational theorem is a result of the work of the Chinese scholar. T D 0 d T Z Z + (r u . tT (u . ) d . and the Japanese scholar. Washizu [3].t . K. Hu.

Z Z Z I = aT b d = (aT b)T d = bT a d (5. a transpose may be introduced into each term without changing the meaning. ) satisfy the conditions where the . For example. hence.. u. .g.2) A variational theorem is stationary when the arguments (e.ning the variational theorem is a scalar.

To construct the .rst variation vanishes.

as u = u + U (5. S. and the strain. the stress. E.3) = + S (5.rst variation. we introduce the variations to the displacement.4) 17 . Accordingly. U. we proceed as in the previous chapter.

VARIATIONAL THEOREMS: LINEAR ELASTICITY 18 = + E (5.5) and de.CHAPTER 5.

. ) (5.ne the single parameter functional I = I (u .6) The .

rst variation is then de.

For the Hu-Washizu theorem the .ned as the derivative of I with respect to and evaluated at = 0.

rst variation de.

ning the stationary condition is given by .

Z Z dI .

.

= ET D d . ET D0 d d =0.

u The . = 0 (5.t Z . E)d Z Z . tT Ud. .u . UT td. nT S(u . )d + T (r(s)U .7) . Z Z + ST (r(s)u . UT bv d . Z . u )d.

uT b v d . = 0 (5. Z . In order to show that the theorem in form 5. + tT Ud.t . E).u and the two forms lead to identical results. Accordingly. )d + T (r(s) u . nT (u . Z Z Z Z T r(s) Ud = .8) . )d Z Z . u )d. To accomplish the grouping it is necessary to integrate by parts the term involving r(s) U.23 for each of the variables.t Z .u Grouping all the terms we obtain . UT r d + tT Ud. we need to group all the terms together which multiply each variation function (e. The result is Z Z I = T Dd .g. tT ud.. the U.rst variation may also be constructed using 3. uT td. (5. T D0 d Z Z + T (r(s) u .9) .u . S.7 is equivalent to the equations for linear elasticity. .

Z dI .

.

d .

=0 = E [D( . = 0 (5. t)d. nT S(u . .10) . UT (r + bv )d Z Z + UT (t .u . )d .t . ]d T 0 Z Z + ST (r(s) u . u )d. ) .

There are other variational principles which can be deduced directly from the principle. Suppose that an expression does not vanish at a point. and the displacement boundary condition. The Hu-Washizu variational principle serves as a convenient basis for constructing ap- proximate solutions to problems in linear elasticity. VARIATIONAL THEOREMS: LINEAR ELASTICITY 19 The fundamental lemma of the calculus of variations states that each expression multiplying an arbitrary function in each integral type must vanish at each point in the domain of the integral. the strain-displacement equation. in . the traction boundary condition. remain as arguments in the functional for which variations are constructed. Two of these. con- sequently. . For example. since the variation is arbitrary. For linear elasticity this leads to = 0 + D. For the Hu-Washizu theorem. and thus the only possibility is that the assumption of a non-vanishing expression is false. the balance of linear momentum. This results in the integral of the square of a function. the only equation not contained is the balance of angular momentum.2 Hellinger-Reissner Variational Theorem The Hellinger-Reissner principle eliminates the strain as a primary dependent variable. 5. and the stress.1 (5. This leads to a contradiction. which must then be positive. we can assume that it is equal to the value of the non-vanishing expression. and hence the integral will not be zero. the Hellinger-Reissner principle and the principle of minimum potential energy are presented below since they are also often used in constructing approximate solutions in linear elasticity. Indeed. The expression which multiplies each variation function is called an Euler equation of the variational theorem.11) The need to develop an expression for strains in terms of stresses limits the application of the Hellinger-Reissner principle. The lemma is easy to prove.CHAPTER 5. the variations multiply the constitutive equation. only the displacement. The strains are eliminated by developing an expression in terms of the stresses. u. then.

) = . d + r ud . 2 D d .1d Z Z Z . thin plates as a limit case of the thick Mindlin- Reissner theory).g. On the other hand. uT td.u The Euler equations for this principle are r(s) u = 0 + D. Thus. .12) . 2 T D. uT bv d T 0 T ( s ) Z Z . u )d. Introducing 5.t . linear elastic incompressible problems. tT (u .13) .11 into the Hu-Washizu principle leads to the result Z Z 1 0T 0 1 I (u.. the Hellinger- Reissner principle is an important limiting case when considering problems with constraints (e.11 is not possible in general. we shall on occasion use the principle in our studies. (5.nite deformation elasticity the development of a relation similar to 5.1 (5.

6 or comparing 5.1. The . VARIATIONAL THEOREMS: LINEAR ELASTICITY 20 together with 4.13.CHAPTER 5. 4. The strain-displacement equations are deduced by either directly stating 4.11 to 5.15 and 4.16.

rst term in 5.12 may be omitted since its .

and the strain. as arguments of the functional. The MPE theorem may be deduced by assuming = r(s)u (5. 5. .15) are satis.3 Minimum Potential Energy Theorem The principle of minimum potential energy eliminates both the stress. the displacement boundary conditions are assumed to be imposed as a constraint on the principle. In addition.rst variation is zero.14) and u = u (5. .

the constitutive equation must be given.14 and 5. (5.. Accordingly.15 the relation = D( . The principle of minimum potential energy is often used as the basis for developing approximate solutions in which only displacement approximations are needed. the variational theorem is given by the integral functional Z Z 1 I (u) = 2 (r u) D(r u)d .t Since stress does not appear explicitly in the theorem. uT bv d .ed at each point of and .16) . . 0) (5. respectively. in addition to 5. (r(s) u)T D0d ( s) T ( s ) Z Z . uT td. Thus.17) is given.

1989. [4] O. Holden-Day Inc.Bibliography [1] F. Methods of Applied Mathematics. volume 1. 2 edition. San Francisco. Washizu. 1964. 3 edition. Vainberg. Englewood Clis NJ. McGraw-Hill. New York. Pergamon Press. Hildebrand. 1965 (also Dover Press. Variational Methods for the Study of Nonlinear Operators. 4 edition.L. [3] K. 1992). CA. Taylor.B. London.M. The Finite Element Method. 1982.C. Zienkiewicz and R. Prentice-Hall. Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity.. [2] M. 21 .

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