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POLIGOV REVIEWER - The Armed forces are the protector of the people and the state

- The Armed forces secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of national
territory from local or foreign invaders (ex. Maute or ISIS)
Article I National Territory
- The President is a civilian authority. He is the commander-in-chief
- This pertains to the physical boundary

- It includes terrestrial, aerial and fluvial domains


Section 4.
- Diplomatic missions or consular offices abroad are also included
- The prime duty of the government is to serve and protect the people
- It includes jurisdiction over:
- The government may call upon the people to defend the state (ROTC)
a. Offender commits crime aboard a Philippine ship or airship
- People may render personal military or civil service
b. When the offender counterfeits Philippine money
- Only able-bodied individuals may be required to do civil or military service to
c. When the offender introduces said fake money within Philippine maintain peace and order
Jurisdiction
- Disabled people need the protection of the state and are exempt from military service
d. When a public officer commits an offense in the exercise of his
functions

e. When the offender commits crimes against national security Section 5.

- The maintenance of peace and order and the protection of life, liberty and property
and the promotion of general welfare is the main goal of the government
- Archipelago doctrine - the waters around, between and connecting the islands of the
archipelago regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal - Salus Populi Est Suprema Lex - the general welfare of the people is the supreme law
waters of the Philippines
- The president may prohibit the return of another president in order to prevent chaos
and maintain peace and order

Article II Declaration of Principles and State Policies

Section 1. Section 6.

- It is a government of the people, by the people and for the people - The state should not use its money to benefit another religion

- The country is run by representatives voted for by the majority thru election - The state cannot establish another religion

- People can directly propose the enactment, revision or amendment of laws - Religions cannot interfere with government functions

- People are included in the drafting of the Constitution - Government cannot interfere with purely religious acts

- The rule of majority applies - Religions can give their opinions concerning public matters; it just exercises its
freedom of expression
- There is interdependence among the three branches of the government
- The state and religions are partners in promoting the common good
- The Philippines is a government of laws and not of men
- Charitable institutions, churches and all lands, buildings and improvements actually,
- Even the highest public official must follow the law directly and exclusively used for religious, charitable and educational purposes shall
be exempt from taxation
- No person is above the law

- Sovereignty resides in the people


Section 7.
- Public welfare is always the primary concern of the government
- When the government deals with foreign countries, it must always consider national
- Power of the elected officials is borrowed from the people sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country; national interest must always be
taken into consideration when dealing with other countries

Section 2.
Section 8.
- The Philippines renounce aggressive war but not defensive war
- The Philippines must be free from nuclear weapons
- Doctrine of Incorporation - the generally accepted principles of international law
become part of the law of the land - (Read on the issue involving North Korea)
- The goal is not to start wars but to defend the people during one

- Treaties signed by the government with other friendly countries become part of the Section 9.
law of the land
- Philippine prosperity and independence must be ensured
- the renunciation of war and the protection of life, liberty and property are generally
accepted principles of international law - The government must enact laws that will free the people from poverty

- The government must enact policies that will raise the standard of living
Section 3. - (check 4Ps program)
- Civilian authority is supreme over the military
Section 10. - The state shall ensure the protection of the environment

- Social justice must always be promoted - The government penalizes illegal logging

- This doesnt mean that policies will only benefit the poor; policies must benefit the - The state must ensure the balance between livelihood and the protection of nature
people in general; it must not benefit only a few for the benefit of future generations
- (Read on mining issues and Gina Lopez issues)
- (Read on the War on Drugs, Bureau of Customs and Comelec issues)

Section 17.
Section 11.
- Education is a priority
- Being poor is not an excuse to commit a crime
- The government must support the arts, culture and sports
- Being rich must not be abused to avoid liabilities or obligations
- State must fund the national teams that represent the Philippines in order to boost
- The state must always guarantee human rights their morale

- The accused have rights (Read Art. III Sec. 12) - Science and technology must be encouraged thru funding
- The workers have rights: FAIR WAGE FOR FAIR LABOR - Scientists rights over their discoveries and inventions must be protected by the
government

- (Read on the free education issue)


Section 12.

- The family is a basic social institution


Section 18.
- Parents are the first teachers of the children; they must shape their moral character
in order to be good citizens - Workers must be protected from abusive employers
- The family is sacred that is why there is no divorce law in the Philippines - They must only work for 8 hours per day
- Marriage is between a man and a woman only - If they work overtime, they must be compensated
- The paramour (kabit) has no rights over the conjugal properties of the married couple - They have the right to firm a union for the benefit of their rights
- Adultery is committed by a woman; concubinage by a man - They must be given reasonable breaks during work periods
- Bigamy is committed if a married person (man or woman) marries another - Their religion must not be used against them to terminate their employment
- The state cannot interfere how parents educate their children as long as they dont - They must be given the right to improve their skills
teach them to violate the laws and disrespect others and the government

Section 13.
Section 19.
- The youth must be educated properly in schools and in their homes in order to
inculcate in them patriotism and nationalism - Social economy and independence must be effectively controlled by Filipinos

- The youth must be involves in public and civic affairs - However, the state can collaborate with foreign investors to develop the economy

- They must participate when they can, in social works and must know the issues of - The Philippines can export its products and allow foreign products to be imported
the country
- The state cannot be isolated - the Philippines cannot exist on its own. It must
maintain friendly relationships with other countries in order to develop the economy

Section 14. - (Read on MRT issue)

- Filipino women must be protected from harm

- Women must be treated equally in the workplace Section 20.

- They are given equal rights in education, work, voting, running for public office and - The private corporations or investors are encouraged for the development of the
others country

- They have the right to maternity leave when they are pregnant

Section 21.

Section 15. - The state must aim to distribute land to the landless to promote general welfare

- DOH must always ensure easy access to medicines and vaccines and medical - The Philippines is an agrarian country; the state must aid the farmers in order to
services alleviate or improve their lives

- The government must promote health by heavily taxing vices such as cigars and
alcoholic beverages
Section 22.
- The government must promote healthy living in schools
- The rights of non-dominant tribes must be protected by the state

- The culture and traditions of the tribes must be protected and spread thru education
Section 16. in order not to be forgotten
- The people have the right to be informed of matters of public concern except when it
comes to national security and military strategies and other matters concerning foreign
Section 23. relationships
- Every government activity is essential for achieving the greatest good for the - court decisions not yet released are still confidential
greatest number

- The government must not takes sides


Article III Bill of Rights
- The government must always consider the welfare of the people thru Parens Patriae
- the government is the parent of the country which takes care of those who cannot Section 1.
take care of themselves
- The Bill of rights protect the people from abuses by private individuals or the
government

Section 24. - Due process - it is a law that hears before it condemns, which proceeds upon inquiry
and renders judgment only after trial.
- Mass media is important in disseminating information
- There must be a proper trial in a proper tribunal or court with jurisdiction
- This includes, radio, TV, newspaper and social media
- Life includes the individuals right to his body in its completeness
- (Read on the help of media during typhoons and calamities)
- You cannot cut another mans body parts; murder or physical injury is penalized
- Freedom of expression may be exercised but with responsibility
- Liberty includes the right to exist and the right to be free from personal restraint
- You cannot say anything that you like in social media
- You cannot make a person a slave
- The opinions must be reasonable and not violate the rights or privacy of another
- Property includes anything that can be within the commerce of man; things that can
be owned

Section 25. - You cannot sell or own another person


- The local government units (barangay, municipality, cities, provinces) are given the - You can donate your body for scientific or medical purposes
right to control their respective areas
- An accused cannot be imprisoned without a proper hearing; he must be given the
- They are given the right to raise revenues or income thru taxes right to defend himself
- The central government exercise general supervision over LGUs - Equal Protection simply means equality in the enjoyment of similar rights and
privileges granted by law.

Section 2.
Section 26.
- There must be a valid search warrant or warrant of arrest before any officer of the
- Everyone can be voted for and run for public office as long as they can qualify law apprehends an alleged criminal
- Unqualified aspiring candidates are declared nuisance candidates - Probable Cause is defined as such facts and circumstances which could lead a
reasonably discreet and prudent man to believe that an offense has been committed
- Political dynasties are prohibited but as of now there is still no law enacted defining
and that the objects sought in connection with the offense are in the place sought to
political dynasties (read on political dynasties)
be searched.
- The term of office is limited so that other aspiring public servants are given the
- Checkpoints are not automatically illegal especially when public safety and order are
chance to serve the in the government
the primary concerns
- What is prohibited is the concentration of power with only one powerful family
- Buy-bust operations in drug cases are valid

- Theres no need for warrant when the accused is caught in the act of doing the crime
Section 27.

- Public office is a public trust


Section 3.
- Public officers and employees must be accountable to the people that is why they
- The right to privacy is the right to be left alone
are required to submit their Statement of Assets, Liabilities and Net Worth. (SALN)
- Unless theres a lawful order from the court or public safety or order requires
- Public officers must lead modest lives and avoid extravagance
otherwise, you cannot be prohibited from communicating or writing to other people
- Public officers must serve the people with responsibility, integrity, loyalty and
- Text messages are private conversation but it can be used in court as evidence if it
efficiency
violates the rights of another
- Public officers work for the benefit of the people
- Facebook posts must not orally defame or shame another individual
- They cannot waste government resources
- If the text message is illegally obtained, it cannot be used in evidence
- They cannot use government properties for their own benefit
- If you post your photo on Facebook and the settings are in public, you cannot claim
- (stealing office supplies or using government vehicles to go grocery shopping) violation of your privacy when your photo gets tagged or shared

- Your privacy in your own home is important and must be protected unless you use
your own home to commit illegal activities
Section 28.
Section 4.

- Singing the national anthem disrespectfully and uploading it on social media does
not excuse a person from violating this provision

- You can express anything as long as it does not violate morality and decency and
the rights of others

- You cannot utter malicious words that would be hurtful to other religions

- The mass media must be responsible in spreading the news because it might cause
panic or bad public opinion

- The media should help the government in spreading public safety and order

- The media must be the watchers of truth and not disseminate fake news

- People have the right to assemble peacefully

- A violent rally gathered for the purpose of destroying government properties or


hindering public works is illegal

- Labor unions can hold strike in order for their demands to be heard by the employer
but it must not destroy the employers property

- Permits must be secured before holding a gathering and it must be done within the
specified area granted by the government

- Police brutality is not allowed; maximum tolerance is practiced

- Public officers can form unions and associations but cannot hold strike because this
will affect the services offered to the public

- Public school teachers cannot hold strike; the students will be deprived of their right
to education

- You can comment on the official acts of the government officials but you cannot
attack their character personally

- You can criticize the government but in the proper manner

Section 5.

- The right to the exercise of religion also includes the right not to be a part of one

- The government cannot declare or establish a one country religion

- You can worship any god you like as long as you dont interfere with the rights of
others

- The state cannot establish or support a religion

- The state cannot grant money to a religion; the state can, however, give allowances
to priests or ministers who are working for the government

- The state cannot add to the requirements for serving in public office any religious
acts or worship

- You cannot be required to perform religious acts to exercise your civil or political
rights

- The state cannot compel a child to salute the flag or sing the national anthem if it
goes against his religion

- An employer cannot require his employees to work during his day of worship

- The government cannot compel people to memorize a specific prayer

- An artist cannot make an artistic display disrespecting a certain religion