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volumetric pipettes. In addition to these key techniques, the fundamentals of experimental chemistry were also explored, such as reading the meniscus properly, proper laboratory notebook documentation, and use of precision with Pasteur pipettes. Indicators were employed as evaluating the precision of the chemist’s technique. In exploring the quantitative transfer method, AgNO3 was used as an indicator and when added to the residual water no cloudiness formed indicating that the quantitative transfer was successful. Accurate and careful measurements are critical for the outcome of a chemical experiment, and these techniques ensure greater accuracy and essentially more precise results.
Introduction Reproduction and precision is the integral basis of the experiments performed within the scientific community. The procedure of a well crafted experiment must be specific and direct enough so that any scientist within the same community could repeat the steps in order to produce similar, if not, exact results. Likewise, the procedure should be carried out with near exact precision in order to prevent variances between the results produced by a protocol and a repeated experiment. This experiment is essentially an introduction to proper laboratory techniques. It acts as an opportunity to practice correct documentation of laboratory results and to
Tests similar to this are essential for experiments. but difficult to .establish proper format of a laboratory note book. and volumetric pipetting. Cl. These techniques can be used frequently in acid and base experiments but certainly not limited to them. In addition to these procedures proper techniques were introduced to ensure for exact measurements. In verifying that the proper method for quantitative transfer was employed. For example. the chemist should also use proper measuring techniques. In this experiment. the water level should be read at the meniscus with a white piece of paper behind the glass. Proper use of a volumetric is simple in concept. in order to carry out this procedure. dilutions. or container using repeated rinses. several key procedures were outlined as they include: quantitative transfer. as the provide verification of a successful experiment. a test was carried out with 3 droplets of AgNO3 into a solution of KCl. a small amount of solution would be drawn from a concentrated stock and diluted to obtain a proper concentration. The follow reaction illustrates the formation of the white cloudiness in the presence of Clions. Quantitative transfer is a method of precision in the sense that the chemist is removing as much of the solution from one beaker and transferring it into another flask . beaker.+ Ag+ => AgCl(s) Dilutions are also important in experimental procedures. Volumetric pipettes are used to transfer precise amounts of solution from one container to another. This ensures that the water level measurement is standard and accurate when documenting. If a chemist wanted to use a proper number of moles of a solute within a certain range or magnitude. However.
the actual weight of the KCl measured was 2. The experiments were carried out with using stock solutions as the experiment stated “the acid-washed soils were stored as stock suspensions in a refrigerator” pages 466-467 (1). These techniques are essential in producing accurate experiment results. Experimental The procedures of this experiment were conducted following the procedure of “An Introduction to Chemical Systems in the Laboratory” pages 3-8 (2) In weighing approximately 2. nor did any cloudiness appear. and volumetric pipetting are nearly ubiquitous in chemistry experiments. produced no visible solid. . it is clear that the volume of liquid used needed to be accurately recorded and transferred as the figures of experiment were in the magnitudes of mM (10-3 moles). the results are going to produce numbers artificially incorrect.00g grams KCl. but more importantly precision. in a chemistry experiment titled “On the Acid-Base Properties of Humic Acid in Soil”. For example.02g Results Quantitative Transfer: Adding AgNO3. dilutions. Although the use of a volumetric pipettes were not employed.master. the experiment dealt with an acid-base titration that required dilutions. because if the incorrect amount is drawn. Quantitative transfer.
graduated cylinders. Beakers. volumetric. and proper use of a volumetric pipet. Pasteur pipettes. the meniscus was below the line.+ Ag+ => AgCl(s) Dilutions: The first time adding the water droplets from the Pasteur pipettes into the volumetric flask. policeman stirring rods. and volumetric pipettes were used to carryout basic quantitative transfers. an additional two drops of water were added. dilutions. Accuracy tests were employed to ensure the techniques were properly executed. flasks. .For the purposes of this lab the following equation describes the formation of the white precipitate: Cl. After reexamining the water level. AgNO3 was added to the rinse succeeding the quantitative transfer to test of residual KCl. White pieces of paper were place behind that glass of either a volumetric flash or a graduated cylinder to test for the precise level of the meniscus. The meniscus was then visible right above the line at eye level Error Analysis No mathematical analysis was completed Discuss and Reason This lab experiment was carried out as an opportunity to learn the fundamentals of chemistry laboratory techniques and to exercise precision.
However. Calculations are to be carried out with accordance to the accuracy of the experiment.In chemistry. Three main techniques were explored. Rinsing the beaker multiple times suspends residual ions from the beaker. Perhaps the beaker. Quantitative transfer was not a procedure that produced quantitative results. and funnel and allows for complete transfer of all the ions. the objective was to remove and transfer the solution from a beaker and into a volumetric flask. AgNO3 indicates that residual Cl-. stirring rod. AgNO3 is used as an indicator that also dissolves in water forming Ag+ and NO3. the salt dissolves in the separating into K+ and Cl. In quantitative transfer. The possible cause of a failed quantitative transfer is a direct result of failing to remove all Cl. if this procedure was performed correctly. every measurement should be exact or as accurate as possible. This experiment did not require the documentation of any quantitative data. In experiment the performed. When Ag+ comes in proximity of Cl. However. When adding water to KCl. Therefore. should be documented in a laboratory notebook. rod. However.ions. This lab is an introduction to the fundamentals of good techniques in the lab. and procedures are essential and therefore. good technique must be utilized within the actual experiment.ions. figures. a visible white cloudy substance will form. AgCl(s). . and funnel were not rinsed thoroughly enough. However. All observations. a test could be used as an indication of success or failure producing qualitative results. However. no visible white precipitate formed. residual K+ and Cl. it should also be noted that 2.ions.ions.02 g of KCl was used. these ions are invisible to the naked eye so an indicator must be added to test for residual ions. to produce correct results and draw solid conclusions. in the case of precipitate forming.ions would remain in the suspension within the 150 ml beaker after the preceding rinse.
For the purposes of this experiment. When the quantitative transfer was completed. The meniscus must be read at eye level with a white piece of paper behind the glass. it is important to note that the volumes added to the flask are being done in a drop wise fashion with Pasteur pipettes. The chemist may be unable to come to exact eye level with the meniscus. but are subjected more to the amount of KCl used. the dissolved KCl should have been completely transferred in into a 250ml volumetric flask. This procedure required dexterity as the water level would drop quickly when the drawer was detached from the tube. However. Therefore. this experiment had no experimental quantitative data and thus analysis of error is inapplicable to this experiment. may include an impaired perception. the water level was approximate so that the meniscus of the water level would not be exactly above the line every time. The error on the part of the chemist. Any height difference while reading the meniscus results in a variance of measurements and can ultimately lead to a variance in results. The volumetric pipeting marked the last of the three experiments performed. However. Volumetric pipettes were linked with a drawer to transfer 25ml of the KCl dilute three times into a clean flask. for this experiment. As accurate as 250 ml volumetric flask was the amount of water was not exact. Therefore. it should be noted that these pipettes were far more accurate than the flasks as the pipettes were calibrated to at least near tenth of a .Differences in mass may include the unevenness of weight distribution on the scale. because the addition volumes of water in a drop wise fashion adds water in varying amounts for each drop. for future experiments when considering the concentration of a solution diluted. However. and thus skews the perception. no numerical concentration was to be obtained. no data was collected. however.
The essence of these exercises imparts a good understanding of proper technique and precision to the chemist. When water 25 ml of water was drawn three times and placed into a 150 ml flask. some questions remain. even if no visible precipitate was formed. 41(2). To what extent is this indicator accurate? In other words. Environ. (2) Chemistry 203/205 “An Introduction to Chemical Systems in the Laboratory”. In contrast. following these techniques along with proper documentation of laboratory observations will ensure greater accuracy in the results produced within the scope of future chemistry experiments.ions present. 3-8 . surely no visible AgCl will form. Hamilton-Taylor. However. J. the flasks seem to be merely estimates. However. The use of a volumetric pipette helps the chemist gain the experience to accurately. visible precipitate might form. if there were thirty Cl.2007-2009. the water level was well below the 75 ml mark where it should have been. However. will it be accurate enough to conduct research outside this course? In the bigger scheme of this lab.milliliter. 465-470.ions present. how accurate are these methods that were taught in this lab? Although the answers to these questions are unclear. E. Sci. J. 2007. To what extent can we consider the quantitative transfer accurate? For example. Stipes Publishing Company. there must have been some amount of Cl.000 Cl. The quantitative transfer gave a good understanding of the importance of thorough transferring. D. Technol. The dilutions illustrated the importance of accuracy in the volume of liquid added. Champaign.. References (1) Cooke.. Tipping. IL . to what extent is this method of quantitative transfer accurate? It must be accurate for the experiments conducted in this course. if there were maybe 10.ions. ACS. In the quantitative transfer.