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Types of Cast-In-Situ Piles

Posted in Pile Foundations

The names of the various types of commonly used cast-in situ piles are:
Simplex pile
Franki pile
Vibro pile
Vibro-expanded pile
Raymond pile
Mac Arthur pile

(1) Simplex pile:

This type of pile may be driven through soft or hard soil. A steel tube having an internal
diameter equal to the diameter of the pile and 20 mm in thickness, is driven into the
ground. To facilitate driving of the pile, the steel tube is fitted with a detachable steel shoe
that completely closes the bottom of the tube. When the tube has been driven to the
required depth, a charge of concrete is poured into the tube and the tube is gradually
withdrawn leaving the charge of concrete below. Thus by alternately pouring the concrete
and withdrawing the tube, the pile is constructed to its full length. The metallic shoe
remains in place and hence a new one is needed for each pile In case the pile is required
to be reinforced, the reinforcement cage is lowered into the steel tube prior to the pouring
of concrete.

Simplex Pile
(2) Franki pile:
This type of pile has an enlarged base and a corrugated stem. A steel tube, having its
internal diameter equal to the diameter of the pile required, is held vertical at the ground
level with the help of leads. A charge of concrete is poured at its base filling the bottom 60
cm to 90 cm of the tube. The charge of concrete is consolidated into a solid plug by the
blows of the drop hammer working inside the tube. Further blows of the hammer on the
plug pull the tube down on account of the friction developed between the concrete and the
inside surface of the tube. When the tube has been driven to the required depth, it is
slightly raised and the plug is forced out of the tube by hammering. The reinforcement
cage (if needed) is then lowered inside the tube. A fresh charge of concrete is then poured
in the tube and rammed well by the drop hammer while the tube is pulled up a short
distance. The repeated process produces a series of corrugations on the stem of the pile
and the pile is thus completed.

Stages in Franki Pile

(3) Vibro pile:
This type of pile is best suited for places where the ground is soft and offers little frictional
resistance to the flow of concrete. A steel tube fitted with a cast iron shoe is first driven to
the required depth. There is a water-tight joint between the shoe and the casing so that
even if the pile is to be driven in water-logged ground, the soil and the sub-soil water
cannot find an access in the tube before the concreting is done. The reinforcement cage (if
needed) is lowered in the tube at this stage. The charge of concrete is then poured in the
tube. The extraction of the tube and the ramming of concrete is effected by the upward
and the downward blows of the hammer. The tube is connected to the hammer by
extracting links. During the upward blow of hammer the tube is raised up by a short
distance and the concrete moves down to fill the space left by the tube. During the
downward blow, the concrete is compacted and rammed outwards thereby forming
corrugated surface for the pile. This results in increased friction between the pile surface
and the surrounding ground.
(4) Vibro-expanded pile:
In situations where it is desired to have increased frictional resistance between the pile
stem and the surrounding ground, the surface of a vibro-pile is expanded greatly to achieve
the object. this increases the bearing resistance of a vibro pile. In this process, a steel tube-
of the required diameter of the pile having a detachable cast iron conical shoe at its base,
is driven to the required depth. A charge of concrete (tilling a good length of tube) is
poured and the tube is completely withdrawn leaving the cast iron shoe and the charge of
concrete down in the pile hole. The withdrawn tube is fitted with a special flat iron shoe
and once again driven in the same hole. The charge of concrete down below gets expanded
to nearly double its area by this process. If required, another charge of concrete is poured
and the process repeated. The reinforcement cage is there after lowered in the tube (if
needed) and the pile is completed as usual.

Stages in Vibro-Expanded Pile

(5) Raymond pile:
This type of pile is constructed in lengths varying from 6 to 12 m. The diameter of the pile
varies from 40 to 60 cm at lop and the diameter at its base is slightly smaller, varying from
20 to 28 cm so as to give a uniform taper to the pile. The thickness of the outer shell
depends upon the pile diameter and site conditions. The thin steel shell is reinforced with
hard drawn wire spiral spaced at 8 cm centre to centre. The shell is closed at the bottom
with a steel boot. The shell is placed over ii collapsible mandrel having the same taper as
the pile and 1)0th arc driven to the desired depth. The mandrel is then withdrawn leaving
the shell in the ground. The shell is gradually filled with concrete up to the lop. This forms
a Raymond pile. The function of shell outside the concrete core is to prevent the adjoining
soil and the sub-soil water coming iii contact with fresh concrete.

Stages in Raymond Pile

(6) Mac Arthur pedestal pile:
In this type of pile the apparatus consists of an outer casting (a hollow steel pipe ) and an
inner core. The bottom of the core is of such a size that it completely closes the open base
thickness with two point pick-up. Piles 500 mm square and smaller are usually cast solid,
whereas pile above 500 mm square may be cast with 200 mm to 300 mm diameter cored
hole (void).

Sheet Piles Types of Sheet Piles

Sheet piles may he made up of wood, concrete or steel. Steel piles are driven side by
side into the ground to form a continuous vertical wall for retaining soil. The alignment
and resistance or thrusts are normally provided by horizontal wallers, braces or tiebacks.
Factors affecting the choice of a particular type of pile include nature of ground, cost, ease
of installation, availability of material, ability to withstand driving, lateral strength and
ease of making connections. Depending upon the material used in their manufacture,
some of the types of sheet piles are,
1. Wooden sheet piles
2. Precast concrete Sheet piles
3. Prestressed concrete sheet piles
4. Steel sheet piles
1. Wooden sheet piles:
Wooden sheet piles are made in various sizes and forms. The nature of site conditions
determine, the choice of a particular type, In places where excavation is small and
the ground water problem is not serious, 5 cm x 30 cm to 10 cm x 30 cm wooden planks
arranged in a simple row will serve the purpose. If the water-tightness is required to a
great extent, lapped sheet piling is used. In this case, each pile is made up of two planks,
either spiked or bolted to one another. Thus if only earthen banks of small height are to
be supported, a single or double row of planks properly erected will perform the
function of sheet piling. If complete water tightness is desired or pressure of the
retained material wakefield or tongue and grooved sheeting is generally used. To
facilitate the driving of the piles, they are usually bevelled at foot. This not only assists in
driving but also prevents bruising, if the piles encounter hard stratum.
Wakefield piles:
This type of pile is made with three planks, 5 cm, 8 cm or 10 cm in thickness. The planks
are nailed together with the middle plank offset forming a tongue on one edge and a
groove on the other. The planks are connected by using a pair of staggered bolts at 80 cm
centre to centre at intermediate points. The triple lap piles prove stronger in driving.
There is no wastage in forming the tongue and groove joints and the piles have less
tendency to warp. Timber sheet piles have light weight and as such the equipment
required for pile driving is also light. This is considered to be an important
advantage timber piles have over piles of other materials.
Sectional Plan of a Wakefield Pile
2. Precast concrete sheet piles:
Precast concrete piles are made in square or rectangular cross-section and are driven
similar to wooden piles to form a continuous wall. The interlock between two piles is
normally provided with the help of tongue and groove joint. The tongue and groove extend
to the full length of the piles in most of the cases.
An alternative method of providing joint between two piles is shown below. In this
method, after the piles are driven to the required. depth, the joint is grouted with cement
mortar 1: 2 (1 cement : 2 sand).

Sectional Plan of Different Types of Precast Concrete Piles

The piles are reinforced to avoid formation of cracks due to rough handling or shrinkage
stresses. In order to reduce the possibility of damage due to driving impact, the stirrups
should be spaced closely near the top and bottom of the piles. The piles are normally
bevelled at their feet to facilitate tightly close driving of a pile against the already driven
one. Reinforced concrete sheet piles are bulky and heavy and as such they are
gradually being superseded byprestressed concrete piles.
3. Prestressed concrete sheet piles:

On account of the numerous advantages the prestressed concrete members have over the
conventional type of reinforced concrete members, prestressed concrete sheet
piles are commonly used for sheet piling jobs. Similar to concrete sheet piles, they are
reinforced on both the faces so that they could be handled from either side. They are
comparatively lighter in weight, more durable and economical in the long run. They are
advantageously used in sea water, since the danger of cracking of concrete is negligible
and also the corresponding danger of corrosion of pile reinforcement is reduced.
4. Steel sheet piles:
Steel sheet pile is a rolled steel section consisting of a plate called the web with integral
interlocks on each edge. The interlocks consist of a groove, one of whose legs has been
suitably flattened. This flattening forms the tongue which fits into the groove of the second
sheet. Commonly used sheet piles can be broadly divided into the following three
Straight-web type
Shallow or deep arched-web type
Z web type
Special shapes and sizes of steel sheet piles are manufactured for meeting the
requirement of junctions and other similar situations. Each of the above mentioned type
of piles is manufactured in varying widths and lengths. The selection of the type of pile
and the section to be adopted depend upon the depths up to which the pile is to be driven,
the nature of soil to be penetrated the elevation of the earthen embankment, ground water
level etc.
In general, Straight web type of piles are used where the piles are liable to he subjected
to tensile forces and interlocking strength is of prime importance (Cellular cofferdam
etc); Arched-web type are used where the piles are required to resist bending stresses (in
cantilever retaining walls etc,) and Z-web type of piles arc used where the piles are
required to resist bending stresses of very large magnitude.

Steel Sheet Piles

Steel sheet piles are driven with the help of pile drivers which may be of drop hammer
type or single or double acting hammer driven by steam or compressed air. The
outstanding feature of steel sheet piles is that they can be used for greater depths. The
continuous interlocking arrangement of the piles gives strength and rigidity to the
supported structure. A wall made from properly driven sheet piles leaks very little, hence
steel sheet piling is used with advantage in the construction of deep cofferdams. They are
commonly used in coastal defence works which are likely to be subjected to tidal action.
Types of Steel Piles
Posted in Pile Foundations

The types of steel piles commonly used are:

Screw piles
Disc piles

(a) H-piles:
The use of rolled steel H-beams to function as bearing piles is a comparatively recent
development in piling industry. H-piles can withstand large impact stresses developed
during hard driving. This type of pile has proved to be especially useful when the pile is
expected to penetrate a rock or through hard substratum. On account of the smaller
cross-sectional area of the pile, it can be driven to the desired depth without jetting,
coring or adopting other methods of soil displacement. They require less storage space
and can be handled without much difficulty.H- piles can be advantageously driven close
to an existing structure as they produce very small soil displacement. H-piles can be
securely spliced. Spliced H-piles have been driven to a maximum depth of 100 m. In
situations where the piles are liable to corrode, they are coated with coal tar or some
other type of suitable coating or they are encased in concrete. The smaller cross-sectional
area of H-pile makes them function less effectively as friction or compaction piles. After
the piles have been driven to the required depth, the pile heads are cut square and a steel
plate cap is welded to each pile and finally the pile heads are embedded in reinforced
concrete pile cap. H-piles are commonly used in the construction of bulkheads,
trestles, retaining walls, bridges and cofferdams.
(b) Pipe-piles:
Seamless or welded steel pipes are often driven to function as end bearing or friction
piles. The pipe piles may be driven either open ended or close ended. When the driving
end of the pipe is left open, (without any driving point) it is called open end pile. Open
ended piles are usually driven to penetrate rock or hard pan. As the open ended piles are
sunk in the ground, the soil inside the pipe is cleaned out by means of compressed air,
water jet etc simultaneously. When the pipes have been driven to the required depth,
they are cleaned from inside and filled with concrete.
Pipe Piles
In case of closed end piles, the driving end of each pipe is closed by welding a conical steel
or cast iron shoe to the pipe end. In this case also, after driving, the hollow space inside
the pipe is normally, filled with concrete. The diameter of the pipes used for piling varies
from 25 cm to 120 cm and their shell thickness varies from 8 mm to 12 mm The use of this
type of pile for depths of 30 in or more is quite common.
(c) Screw piles:
A screw pile consists of a cast iron or steel shaft of external diameter normally varying
from 15 to 30 cm and terminating into a helix or screw base. The pile shaft maybe hollow
or solid. The diameter of the screw at its base varies from 45 cm to 150 cm. The pile is
sunk by screwing the pile down inside the ground by use of an electric motor. Screw piles
function most efficiently in soft clay or loose sand. In such a ground it is easy to install
the piles and also the large bearing area provided by the screws makes the best use of the
low bearing capacity of the soil.

Different Forms of Screw Piles

(d) Disc piles:
Similar to a screw pile, a disc pile consists of hollow metallic pipe attached with a cast
iron disc to its foot so as to enlarge the bearing area of the pile. There is a hole at the
bottom of the pile to permit the water jet pipe to pass through during the sinking of the
pile by jetting. Disc pile can he used only in sandy or soft soils which may permit sinking
of the pile by water jets. Disc piles are used mostly in marine installations, where the
total penetration of the pile in the ground is required to be large.

Disc Piles

Composite Piles
Composite Piles are those piles of two different materials are driven one over the other,
so as to enable them to act together to perform the function of a single pile. In such a
combination, advantage is taken of the good qualities of both the materials. These prove
economical as
they permit the utilization of the great corrosion resistance property of one material with
the cheapness or strength of the other.
The different stages in the construction of a composite piles having a timber pile at its
lower part and precast concrete pile above are shown below. This type of composite pile is
used with the object of achieving economy in the cost of piling work.

Composite Piles
Another type of composite piles commonly used consists of a steel pipe or H-pile at the
bottom and cast-in-situ concrete pile at the top. This type of composite pile is
recommended in cases where the designed length of the pile works out to be greater than
that available for the cast-in-situ type of pile.

Cast-in-situ piles
Cast-in-situ piles are those piles which are cast in position inside the ground. Since
the cast-in-situ piles is not subjected to handling or driving stresses, it is not necessary
to reinforce the pile in ordinary cases or in places where the pile is completely submerged
in the soil. Reinforcements are necessary to be provided in a cast-in- situ piles, when
the pile acts as a column and is subjected to a lateral forces. Cast- in-situ piles can be
divided into two types. In one the metallic shell of the pile is permanently left in place
inside the ground along with the core while in the other type the outer shell is withdrawn.

Cast in situ piles for column footing

Precast Concrete Piles

Precast Concrete Piles may be defined as a reinforced concrete pile which is moulded
in circular, square, rectangular or octagonal form. The precast concrete piles are cast
and cured in a casting yard and then transported to the site for driving. In case space is
available, pile can also be cast and cured near the site of works. They are driven in a similar
manner as timber piles with the help of pile drivers. The diameter of the pile normally
varies 1mm 35 cm to 65 cm and their length varies from 45 in to 30 m.
Precast Concrete Piles
The function of reinforcement in a precast concrete piles are to resist the stresses produced
on account of its handling, driving and the loading which the pile is finally expected to
receive. Longitudinal reinforcement usually consists of one bar 20 mm to 50 mm in
diameter at each angle of the section of the pile. The vertical rods are tied horizontally by
bars 6 mm to 10mm in diameter. The horizontal bars may be provided in the form of
stirrups wound around the verticals. For lengths of approximately 90 cm at head and toes,
the spacing of the stirrups should be 8 cm c/c. Circular piles are seldom tapered but when
tapering of the piles becomes necessary due to site conditions, their length is restricted to
12 m.

Precast Piles supporting Column footing