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Integumentary System

dr. Jan Tambayong, PHK
FoM UPH

This teaching material is copyrighted.
No part of this work may be reproduced, including photocopied, without written permission of UPH.
Functions

1. Covers and protects
the body
What does the skin
protect us from?
– Pathogens
– Injury
– Ultra-violet radiation
Functions

2. Regulate body
temperature
How does it regulate
temperature?
– Sweating
– Dilate/constrict of
blood vessels
– Goose bumps
Integumentary System
– Cutaneous membrane (skin) – our largest organ
• Accounts for 7% of body weight
• Divided into two distinct layers
– Epidermis
– Dermis
– Accessory structures
– Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)
Functions Of The Integument
• Cushions and insulates deeper organs
• Protects body from abrasion, trauma, chemicals,
pathogens, temperature extremes and UV rays
• Excretion and secretion
• Contains sensory receptors associated with nerve
endings
• Synthesis and storage of nutrients (vitamin D3)
Integumentary Structures
• Components of the Integumentary System

Figure 5-1
Skin Structures
Epidermis
Skin pigmentation is due to
the type and amount of
melanin produced
Eumelanin produces darker
pigments
Phaeomelanin produces
lighter pigments and
freckles
These often occur together in
varying amounts

Melanocyte
The Epidermis- Four Main Cell Types
• Melanocytes - found in basal layer,
manufacture and secrete pigment
• Merkel cells - basal layer, attached
to sensory nerve endings
• Keratinocytes – Arise from deepest
layer of epidermis to stratum
spinosum
– Produce keratin – a tough fibrous
protein
– Produce antibodies and enzymes
– Keratinocytes are dead at skin's
surface
• Langerhans cells - stratum
spinosum, part of immune system
macrophage-like
The Epidermis
• Stratified squamous epithelium
• Several distinct cell layers
– Thick skin—five layers on palms and soles
– Thin skin—four layers on rest of body
Layers of The Epidermis
• Stratum corneum
– Most superficial layer
– Dead, flattened
(squamous) cells
– Abundant keratin -
Keratinized (cornified)
tough, water-resistant
protein
– Protects skin against
abrasion and penetration
• Stratum lucidum (clear
layer)
– Occurs only in thick skin
– palms and soles
– Composed of a few rows
of flat, dead
keratinocytes, with
eleidin
Layers of The Epidermis
• Stratum granulosum (grainy
layer)
– Consists of keratinocytes
• Tonofilaments
• Keratohyaline granules –
help form keratin
• Lamellated granules –
contain a waterproofing
glycolipid
• Stratum spinosum (spiny layer)
– “Spiny” appearance caused by
artifacts of histological
preparation
– Contains thick bundles of
intermediate filaments
(tonofilaments)
• Resist tension
• Contain protein prekeratin
– Contains star-shaped
Langerhans cells
Layers of the Epidermis
• Stratum basale
– Deepest layer of epidermis
– Attached to underlying
dermis
– Stem cells actively divide
– Merkel cells – associated
with sensory nerve ending
– Melanocytes – secrete the
pigment melanin
Epidermal Cells and Layers of the Epidermis

Figure 5.3
Sources of Skin Color
• Melanocytes
– Make melanin from tyrosine
– Melanin provides UV
protection; eumelanin and
pheomelanin (lighter)
– Gives reddish-brown to brown-
black color
• Carotene
– Contributes orange-yellow
color
– Provided from diet (carrots and
tomatoes)
• Hemoglobin - blood
pigment
– Caucasian skin contains little
melanin
– Allows crimson color of blood
to show through
Dermis
• Second major layer of the skin
• Provides mechanical strength, flexibility, and protection
for underlying tissues
• Highly vascular and contains a variety of sensory
receptors that provide information about the external
environment
• Two layers
– Papillary layer – includes dermal papillae
– Reticular layer - deeper layer – 80% of thickness of dermis
• Flexure lines - creases on palms
Layers of the Dermis
• Papillary layer
– Underlies epidermis
– Named for dermal papillae
– Aerolar connective tissue
– Supports, nourishes epidermis
– Provides sensory nerves, lymphatics,
and capillaries
• Reticular layer
– Tough, dense, fibrous layer
– Dense irregular connective tissue
– Collagen fibers - limit stretch
– Elastic fibers - provide flexibility
– Blends into papillary layer (above)
– Blends into subcutaneous layer (below)
Dermal Components
• Epidermal accessory
organs
• Cells of connective tissues
proper
• Communication with
other organ systems
– Cardiovascular
– Lymphatic
– Nervous
• Sensation
• Control of blood flow and
secretion
Subcutaneous Layer - Hypodermis
• Composed of loose
connective tissue - areolar
and adipose
• Stabilizes skin position
– Loosely attached to
dermis
– Loosely attached to
muscle
• Contains many fat cells
– Provides thermal
insulation
– Cushions underlying
organs
• Safely receives hypodermic
needles
Types and Growth of Hair

Vellus hairs
– Body hairs of women and children
Terminal hairs
– Hair of scalp
– Axillary and pubic area (at puberty)
Hair thinning and baldness
– Due to aging
– Male pattern baldness
Hair
• Filamentous strands of dead
keratinized cells produced by hair
follicles
• Contains hard keratin which is
tougher and more durable than
soft keratin of the skin
• Chief parts of a hair
– Root – imbedded in the skin
– Shaft – projects above skin's
surface
Hair Follicles
Hair Function and Distribution
• Functions of hair include:
– Helping to maintain warmth
– Alerting the body to presence of insects on the skin
– Guarding the scalp against physical trauma, heat loss,
and sunlight
• Hair is distributed over the entire skin surface
except
– Palms, soles, and lips
– Nipples and portions of the external genitalia
Interesting Tidbits
• A fingernail or toenail takes about 6 months to
grow from base to tip
• Fingernails grow faster than toenails
• An average human scalp has 100,000 hairs
• We lose between 40 and 100 hairs per day
• Blondes have more hair than brunettes
Interesting Tidbits
• Hair derived from invaginations of epidermal
epithelium. Their color, size, and disposition vary
according to race, age, sex, and region of the body.
• Hairs grow faster in warm weather, at night, teenage
girls.
• Hairs grow discontinuously, growth followed by
regression, and a resting stage. The growth is not the
same in all regions of the body:
– Scalp, face (beard, eye brows, eye lashes), arm pit,
and pubis.
– Alopecia (partial or complete lack of hair)
Hair
• Hair Shaft organized into three concentric layers
– Medulla – central core
– Cortex – surrounds medulla
– Cuticle – outermost layer
• Pigmented by melanocytes at the base of the hair
Hair Follicle
• Root sheath extending from the
epidermal surface into the dermis
• Deep end is expanded forming a
hair bulb
• Papilla - nipple-shaped
indentation with blood vessels
and nerves
• Matrix - germinal layer of cells
(actively dividing cells) right
above the papilla
• A knot of sensory nerve endings
(a root hair plexus) wraps around
each hair bulb
• Bending a hair stimulates these
endings, hence our hairs act as
sensitive touch receptors
• Arrector pili muscle - bundle of
smooth muscle contracts to make
hair stand erect
Cross Section of a Hair

Figure 5.7a, b
Longitudinal Section of Follicle

Figure 5.7c, d
Hair
Hair

• Hair medulla
– Consists of living cells
• Hair cortex
– Consists of dead cells
(pyknotic nuclei)
Hair
• The inner root sheat
consists of:
– Henle’s layer
– Huxley’s layer
• Trichohyalin granules
– Cuticula
Sebaceous Glands (oil glands)
• Occur over entire body - Except palms and soles
• Simple alveolar glands
– Holocrine secretion – entire cell breaks up to form secretion
– Secretes an oily substance called sebum
– Most are associated with a hair follicle
• Functions of sebum
– Softens and lubricates hair and skin
– Skin waterproofing
– Collects dirt
Sweat (Sudoriferous) Glands
• Two types:
• Eccrine (Merocrine)
– Most abundant sweat gland
– “True sweat”
• 99% water with some salts
• Contains traces of metabolic
wastes ~ 2% urea
– Role in thermoregulation
– Widely present in skin (up to
500/cm2)
• Apocrine
– Odorous secretion
– Absent before puberty
– Present in axillary, areolar, anal
and genital areas
Eccrine (Merocrine) Gland

• Excretory duct
– Central part looks
darker
• Pars terminalis
(secretory part)
– Central part looks
paler
Self Quiz

L. M. I. Blood vessels
A. H. Connective tissue
B. Dermis
A. Epidermis
G. Fat cells
K. B. L. Hair
J. Hair follicle
J. F. Muscle
C. D. Neuron
I. K. Sebaceous gland
C. Subcutaneous layer
H. D. E. Sweat gland
E. M. Sweat pore
G. F.