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Aldoobie, N. (2015). ADDIE Model.

American International Journal of Contemporary

Research, 5(6), 1.

ADDIE model is one of the most common models used in the instructional design field a guide
to producing an effective design. This model is an approach that helps instructional designers,
any contents developer, or even teachers to create an efficient, effective teaching design by
applying the processes of the ADDIE model on any instructional product.

Ibrahim, A.A. (2015). Comparative Analysis between System Approach, Kemp, and ASSURE
Instructional Design Models. International Journal of Education and Research, 3(12),

The all three models (Approach, Kemp, and ASSURE Instructional Design Models) have basic
elements of ID which is normally referred as ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development,
Implementation, and Evaluation). Brant (2001) indicated that System ApproachModel is based
on the universal core elements of ADDIE.

Nawi, A., Hamzah, M.I., Ren, C.C., & Tamuri, A.B. (2015). Adoption of Mobile Technology for
Teaching Preparation in Improving Teaching Quality of Teachers. International Journal
of Instruction, 8(2), 115.

The ADDIE model was chosen because this model has well-organized and structured
components from one step to the next step

Moradmand, N., Datta, A., & Oakley, G. (2014). The Design and Implementation of an
Educational Multimedia Mathematics Software: Using ADDIE to Guide Instructional
System Design. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design, 4.

The use of multimedia and computer-based tools can facilitate the learners abstract thinking and
allow multiple representations to be linked dynamically between concrete and symbolic
representations. The current study used these two approaches (storytelling and multiple
representations) to teaching mathematics as a basis for designing new interactive multimedia
software for the teaching and learning of mathematics in the lower primary classroom

Toh, T.L. (2009). Use of cartoons and comics to teach algebra in mathematics classrooms.
Mathematics Of Prime Importance: MAV Yearbook 2009(PP. 230 - 239).

Students usually encounter difficulty with solving linear algebraic equations. Their conceptual
understanding of algebraic equations is not well developed because they are not provided with
opportunities to engage in enactive or iconic forms of the idea, while the symbolic version of
algebra is beyond their grasp (Yeap, 2009, p 32). Students usually see an equation as an
arithmetic process and unable to see it as an object to work on (Sfard, 1991).

Packalen and odoi comics with an attitude

Marianthi, V., Boloudakis, M., & Retalis, S. ( ). From Digitised Comic Books To Digital
Hypermedia Comic Books: Their Use In Education. University of Piraeus. Hal 2.

The strengths of comics in education according to Yang Gene (2003) are many such as: a)
Motivating. Due to humans natural attraction to pictures, comics can capture and maintain the
learners interest; b) Visual. Pictures and text mutually tell a story. In this "interplay of the
written and visual" comics "put a human face on a given subject" resulting in emotional
connection between students and characters of a comics story, Versaci (2001); c) Permanent.
Williams (1995) cites comics' "permanent, visual component" in contrast to film and animation,
where the medium dictates the pace of the viewing progresses. The text medium is permanent
but not "pictorial. So "visual permanence" is unique to comics, while time within a comic book
progresses at the pace of a reader; d.) Intermediary. Comics can scaffold to difficult disciplines
and concepts, can give reluctant readers the non-threatening practice and to experienced ones
inspiration and confidence for more challenging texts; e) Popular. Hutchinson (1949) stated that
"there should be harmony between the child's on-going life activities and his experiences in the
school - new learning always is a continuation or expansion of learning already possessed by the
learner". In addition, comic books promote media literacy, encouraging students to "become
critical consumers of media messages" (Morrison, Bryan, & Chilcoat, 2002). Through comic
books about social aspects students may examine "contemporary lifestyles, myths, and values"
(Brocka, 1979). f) development of thinking skills: Analytical and critical thinking skills can be
developed through comics according to Versaci (2001). Answering of deeper questions about the
combination of visual and textual force students to get familiarised with these two means of
expression, uncovering the deeper meaning of a work and offering a profound insight.

Bolton, C., & Gary. (2012). Connecting Through Comics: Expanding Opportunities
for Teaching and Learning. David Publishing, 389-395.

Alexio, P & Norris, C. (2010). The comic book textbook. Education and Health, 28(4). 72.

However, supporters of comics andgraphic novels (see for example Eisner, 1992and McCloud,
1993) have attempted toexplain that comics are not simply words accompanied by pictures.
Instead a greatdeal of sophistication can be achieved by the skilful combination and interaction
of thetwo on the same page. In others words, incomics, the impact of words and pictures can be
greater than the sum of its parts.

Herbst, P., Chazan, D., Chen, C.L., Chieu, V.M., & Weiss, M. ( ). Using comics -based
representations of teaching, and technology, to bring practice to teacher education
courses. International Journal on Mathematics Education.

Arini, F.D., Choiri, A.S., & Sunardi. (2017). The Use of Comis as a Learning Aid to Improve
Learning Interest of Slow Learner Student. European Journal of Special Education
Research, 2(1), 1-10.

Children often choose comic literature over traditional texts because comic-based texts offer
visuals, drawings, and other art along with words and dialogue, all of which make these texts, not
only something one reads, but something one see as well, like reading and watching a movie at
the same time (Weiner, 2004).
The vividness of comics also have influential aspects, they are impressive, can catch students
attention by their colourful pages, the characters appearance and easily remembered as well.
Comics also have the ability to meet the needs of students in a variety of academic ability
(Thacker, 2007).

Rasiman & Pramasdyahsari, A.S. (2014). Development of Mathematics Learning Media E-

Comic Based on Flip Book Maker to Increase the Critical Thinking Skill and Character of
Junior High School Students. International Journal of Education and Research, 2 (11),

Tambychik, T & Meerah, T.S.M. (2010). Students Difficulties in Mathematics Problem-

Solving: What do they Say?. Elsevier, 8, 142-151.

Development of diagnostic instruments, modules and approaches were essential to assist the
students which will result in more meaningful teaching and learning process.

Gafoor, K.A. &Shilna, V. (2013). Role of Concept cartoons in chemistry learning. Universitiy if
Cartoons and comics have utility in teaching-learning too, well beyond the generally accepted
use of them in mass media. They use minimal text to make the ideas available to learners by
visual appeal, and, hence are especially useful with groups of learners who have limited literacy

Jupri, A. (2016). Student Difficulties in Mathematizing Word Problems in Algebra. Eurasia

Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 12(9), 2381-2502.
the main difficulties encountered by students who deal with word problems concern transforming
problems into mathematical models, i.e., in horizontal mathematization

Jong, T., Specht, M., & Koper, Rob. (2008). Contextualised Media for Learning. Educational
Technology & Society,11(2), 41-53.
Carpraro, M. M., & Joffrion, H. (2006). Algebraic equations: Can middle school students
meaningfully translate from words to mathematical symbols? Reading Psychology,
27(2) 147164.
Clement, J. (1982). Algebra word problem solutions: Thought processes underlying a common
misconception. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 13(1), 1630.
Stacey, K., & MacGregor, M. (2000). Learning the algebraic method of solving problems.
Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 18(2), 149167.
Cho, H. (2012). The use cartoons as teaching a tool in middle school mathematics. (Doctoral
Dissertation). Columbia University Academic Common. Retrieved January 2017 from
Thacker, C. (2007, March, 8). How to use comic life in the classroom. Retrieved January 2016
McVicker, C. (2007). Comic strips as a text structure for learning to read. The Reading Teacher,
6(1), 85-88.
Nagata, R. (1999). Learning biochemistry through mangaHelping students learn and
remember, and making lectures more exciting. Biochemical Education, 27, 200-203.
Jacobs, D. (2007). More than words: Comics as a means of teaching multiple literacies. The
English Journal, 96(3), 19-25.