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The Ethernet

What is Ethernet?


General Description

What is The Ethernet
Ethernet refers to the family of local area
networks (LAN) products covered by the IEEE
802.3 that operates at many speeds.
It defines a number of wiring for the physical
layer, through means of Network access at the
Media Access Control (MAC)/Data Link Layer,
and a Common addressing format.

What is The Ethernet (cont)
The combination of the twisted pair versions of
Ethernet with the fiber optic versions largely
replacing standards such as coaxial cable Ethernet.
In recent years, Wi-Fi, the wireless LAN standardized
by IEEE 802.11, has been used instead of Ethernet for
many home and small office networks and in
addition to Ethernet in larger installations.

The original Ethernet was developed as an
experimental coaxial cable Network to
operate with a data rate of 3 Mbps using
(CSMA/CD) Protocol.
Success with that project attracted early
attention and specification and led to the
1980 joint development of the 10-Mbps
Ethernet Version 1.0.

History (cont)
The draft standard was approved by the 802.3
working group in 1983 and published as an official
standard in 1985.
Since then, a number of supplements to the
standard have been defined to take advantage of
improvements in the technologies and to support:
1) additional network media
2) higher data rate capabilities

General Description
Ethernet was originally based on the idea of
computers communicating over a shared
coaxial cable acting as a broadcast
transmission medium.
The common cable providing the
communication channel was likened to the
ether and it was from this reference that the
name "Ethernet" was derived.

General Description (cont)
Three data rates are currently defined for
operation over optical fiber and twisted-pair
10 Mbps10Base-T Ethernet
100 MbpsFast Ethernet
1000 MbpsGigabit Ethernet

Ethernet Network Elements
Ethernet LANs consist of network nodes and
interconnecting media.
The network nodes fall into two major classes:
1) Data terminal equipment (DTE).
2) Data communication equipment (DCE).

The current Ethernet media options include two

types of copper cable: (UTP) and (STP), plus several
types of optical fiber cable.

The problem of shortness of coaxial cable.
The Repeater solves this problem. How?
Repeaters connect multiple Ethernet segments,
listening to each segment and repeating the signal
heard on one segment onto every other segment
connected to the repeater. By running multiple
cables and joining them with repeaters, you can
significantly increase your network diameter.
Repeater (cont)
If a collision was detected, the repeater
transmitted a jam signal onto all ports to
ensure collision detection.
Repeaters could detect an improperly
terminated link from the continuous collisions
and stop forwarding data from it.
Repeater (cont)
The solution of cable breakages: when an Ethernet
coax segment broke, while all devices on that
segment were unable to communicate, repeaters
allowed the other segments to continue working,
although depending on which segment was broken
and the layout of the network the partitioning that
resulted may have made other segments unable to
reach important servers and thus effectively useless.
It is used to solve the problem with segmentation.
Bridges connect two or more network segments,
increasing the network diameter as a repeater does,
but bridges also help regulate traffic.
The bridge does not originate any traffic of its own;
like a repeater, it only echoes what it hears from
other stations.
Bridges (cont)
One goal of the bridge is to reduce unnecessary
traffic on both segments. It does this by examining
the destination address of the frame before deciding
how to handle it.
By forwarding packets, the bridge allows any of the
four devices
in the figure
to communicate.
Bridges (cont)
Destination address of A or B, bridge does
nothing (bridge filters or drops the frame).
If the destination address is that of station C
or D, then the bridge will transmit, or forward
the frame
on to segment 2.
networks replace the shared medium of
legacy Ethernet with a dedicated segment for
each station.
These segments connect to a switch, which
acts much like an Ethernet bridge, but can
connect many of these single station
Switching (cont)
Since the only devices on the segments are
the switch and the end station, the switch
picks up every transmission before it reaches
another node.
Switching (cont)
The switch then forwards the frame over the
appropriate segment, just like a bridge, but
since any segment contains only a single node,
the frame only reaches the intended recipient.
This allows many conversations to occur
simultaneously on a switched network.
Ethernet Network Topologies and
LANs take on many topological configurations,
but regardless of their size or complexity, all will
be a combination of only three basic
interconnection structures:
1) The point-to-point interconnection.
2) A coaxial bus topology
3) The star-connected topology

The point-to-point interconnection

The simplest structure and is known as a network

Only two network units are involved
the connection may be DTE-to-DTE, DTE-to-DCE,
or DCE-to-DCE
The maximum allowable length of the link
depends on:
1) The type of cable
2) The transmission method that is used.
The point-to-point interconnection

A coaxial bus topology
The original Ethernet networks were
implemented with a coaxial bus structure
Segment lengths were limited to 500 meters and
up to 100 stations.
Individual segments could be interconnected with
repeaters, as long as multiple paths did not exist
between any two stations
the number of DTEs did not exceed 1024.

A coaxial bus topology (cont)

The star-connected topology
The central network unit is either a multiport
repeater (also known as a hub) or a network
All connections are point-to-point links
implemented with either twisted-pair or
optical fiber cable.

The star-connected topology (cont)

The IEEE 802.3 Logical Relationship to the ISO
Reference Model

The IEEE 802.3 physical layer corresponds to

the ISO physical layer.
the ISO data link layer is divided into two IEEE
802 sub-layers:
1) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer.
2) The MAC-client sub-layer.

The IEEE 802.3 Logical Relationship to
the ISO Reference Model (cont)

The IEEE 802.3 Logical Relationship to
the ISO Reference Model (cont)

The MAC-client sublayer may be one of the

1) Logical Link Control (LLC), if the unit is a DTE.
- provides the interface between the Ethernet MAC and
the upper layers.
2) Bridge entity, if the unit is a DCE
- provide LAN-to-LAN interfaces between LANs

The IEEE 802.3 Logical Relationship to
the ISO Reference Model (cont)

The MAC layer controls the nodes access to the

network media and is specific to the individual

The physical layer is specific to the transmission data

rate, the signal encoding, and the type of media
interconnecting the two nodes

Ethernet Cable
Ethernet Cable
How to wire
Straight through

Ethernet Cable 31
Ethernet Cable
The name, Ethernet
Cable, always refers to
the following category:
Category 5
Category 5e
Category 6
Or more than those

Ethernet Cable 32
IEEE Ethernet Standard Notation

<data rate in Mbps><transmission mode><transmission media>

Ethernet Cable 33
IEEE Ethernet Standard Notation

Ethernet Cable 34
Category Data Rate Signal Frequency Standard
Cat5 100 Mbps 100 MHz TIA/EIA
Cat5e 100 Mbps /1 Gbps 100 MHz TIA/EIA-568-B
Cat6 1Gbps / 10 Gbps 250 MHz TIA/EIA-568-B
Cat6a 1Gbps / 10 Gbps 500 MHz

TIA/EIA is a set of three telecommunications

standards from the Telecommunications Industry

Ethernet Cable 35
Ethernet Cable
It is composed of 4-pair
twist wirings.

Cat5e cable
Ethernet Cable 36
Ethernet Cable
Color Pin (T568B)
White/Orange 1
Orange 2
White/Green 3
Blue 4
White/Blue 5
Green 6
White/Brown 7
Brown 8

You can use the order of rainbow colors to

memorize the order of this wiring.

Ethernet Cable 37
Ethernet Cable
Pin Usage
1 Transmission (Tx+)
2 Transmission (Tx-)
3 Receive (Rx+)
4 --
5 --
6 Receive (Rx-)
7 --
8 --

We can use the concept to justify the order of the wiring

colors of straight through and crossover.

Ethernet Cable 38
How to wire
Prepare the materials and tools.
Cable & RJ-45 plugs
Crimping tool

Crimping tool For RJ-45 plug.

Ethernet Cable 39
How to wire
Strip off suitable length of the cable sheath.
About 2-2.5 cm
You can mark the position first.

Ethernet Cable 40
How to wire
Align the colored wires according to the
specific order.

1 2345 678

Ethernet Cable 41
How to wire
Straight Through
All order of the wirings is the same as the other
1 2345 678 1 2345 678

Ethernet Cable 42
Straight Through

Host A Host B
Pin Usage Color Color Usage Pin
1 Tx+ Tx+ 1
2 Tx- Tx- 2
3 Rx+ Rx+ 3
4 -- -- 4
5 -- -- 5
6 Rx- Rx- 6
7 -- -- 7
8 -- -- 8

Ethernet Cable 43
How to wire
We need to change the order of the transmission
and receiving wirings.
1 2345 678 1 2345 678

Ethernet Cable 44

Host A Host B
Pin Usage Color Color Usage Pin
1 Tx+ Tx+ 1
2 Tx- Tx- 2
3 Rx+ Rx+ 3
4 -- -- 4
5 -- -- 5
6 Rx- Rx- 6
7 -- -- 7
8 -- -- 8

Ethernet Cable 45
How to wire
Trim all the wires to the same length.

Ethernet Cable 46
How to wire
Insert the wires into the RJ45 plug.

Ethernet Cable 47
How to wire
Crimp the RJ45 plug with the crimping tool.

Ethernet Cable 48
How to wire
Verify the order of the wires is correct and all
the wires are correctly making good contact
with the metal contacts in theCorrect
RJ45 plug.

Ethernet Cable 49
How to wire
Cut the cable into suitable length and repeat
the below steps for the other side.
Please be sure what kind of the cable you are

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