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Zantopulos

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H. Zantopulos

Senior Research Specialist,

The Timken Company,

Two Flat Plates

Canton, Ohio 44706

Using the method of conformal mapping, an alternate solution is obtained for the

line contact deformation of a cylinder loaded between two flat plates. In this

method, the elastic deformation of two half spaces, assuming an elliptical pressure

distribution across the width of contact, does not have to be calculated relative to an

arbitrarily selected stationary reference point.

Introduction

In considering the relative approach of two flat plates with a can be rationalized and put into the form w = u + iv. This is ac-

cylindrical roller compressed between them, many in- complished by multiplying both the numerator and the

vestigators combined the deformation in the plates with the denominator of the right hand side by the quantity x- i(k+y)

deformation of the roller to determine the total approach of to obtain

the two plates [1-4]. Hoeprich and Zantopulos showed that

these results all can be derived from a general equation [5]. u + iv= {[k2-(x2 + y2)] + i2kx] )r/[x2 + (k + y)2] (2)

Although the elastic deformation of an infinitely long roller Equating real and imaginary parts in equation (2) results in

can be obtained in a mathematically precise way, e.g., [6], the the equivalent transformation equations

same is not true for the total elastic deformation of an infinite- w = [k2-(x2+y2)]r/[x2 + (k+y)2]

ly long contact on a half-space. In that instance, the integra- (3)

tion required for the solution of the problem necessitates an v = 2krx/[x2 + (k+y)2] (4)

arbitrary choice of a stationary reference point from which to

perform the integration. Otherwise, the value of the total For the problem under consideration, i.e., for points on the

elastic deformation of the two plates becomes infinite. surface of the contact area where the half-width of contact,

In this paper another solution is presented which makes use b<Kr, the roller radius, the assumptions x. k and ^ = 0 can

of conformal mapping and eliminates the need for an ar- be made, reducing equations (3) and (4), respectively, to

bitrary reference point. First, the transformation equations u=r (5)

for the mapping are derived; then Loo's solution [6] for the

roller problem is presented. Next, Loo's solution is applied to v = 2rx/k (6)

the problem of the half-space using the transformation equa-

tions. Finally, the present solution is compared to the previous In addition, even though the elliptic pressure distribution

solution discussed in [5]. varies from the z-plane to the w-plane, the total load or load

per unit length remains fixed.

Derivation of Transformation Equations

Using conformal mapping, the problem of the half-space

shown in Fig. 1 can be transformed into the equivalent

problem of the circle with radius r shown in Fig. 2 by the map- z-plane

ping function [7]

w = (ik-z)r/(ik + z) (1) y

This transformation maps the upper half of the z-plane into

the interior of the circle in the w-plane and the x-axis in the z- O k

plane into the circumference of the circle in the w-plane.

Specifically, the point M(x = Q,y = 0) maps into the corre- 2b

sponding point M'(u=l,v = 0) and the point Q(x=0,y = k)

maps into the corresponding point Q'(u = 0,v = 0).

Noting that z = x + iy, the right-hand side of equation (1) M

./ / / //:// /,/c ' " ' " ' / { f

TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received by the Tribology Division June 21, 1987. Fig. 1 Problem of the half-space

Copyright 1988 by ASME

Downloaded From: http://tribology.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 10/31/2017 Terms of Use: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use

mation in the roller and then the deformation in the plates.

For the roller problem, given an elastic pressure distribution

of a cylinder on a flat plate of the same material,

b = (2Ar)U2 (11)

where

A = 4P(1-I/2)/(TTE)

compression

5,. = 0 = (A/2) In [8/7(Ae)] (12)

In considering the deformation in the plates, it should be

Fig. 2 Problem of the circle

noted that the half-width of contact, b*, in the w-plane is

related to the half-width of contact, b, in the z-plane through

the transformation given by equation (6), that is,

Loo's Solution for the Roller Problem

b* = 2br/k (13)

The problem in the w-plane, Fig. 2, has been reduced by

Loo [6] to the integral equation Combining equations (11) and (13) with equation (10)

results in the deformation of the plates,

A-Bt2=- \b_bPw* \t-s\ds (7) 2A = (3 = (A/2) In [ 2k/(Are) ] (14)

The relative approach of the two flat plates with a cylin-

where drical roller compressed between them simply becomes the

sum of equations (12) and (14),

A=P'ln[e/(2r)]+p/(2K)

2A + 5r = Aln[4/(Ae)] (15)

B=l/(2rK) The relative approach 2A + 5r as given in equation (15) is a

b function of k. However, 2A + 5r for a given load and geometry

P' = [ p(s)ds must be independent of the value of k to have any physical

meaning. By dividing both sides of equation (15) by k and let-

ting A' = A/k,S/ =br/k, and A' = A/k, equation (15) can be

The expression for B has been modified from Loo's work as

rewritten as

suggested by Lubkin [8]. Equation (7) is a Fredholm equation

of the first kind whose solution was shown by Shtaerman [9] 2A'+5,'=A'ln[4/(A'e)] (16)

to be which is independent of k. This is equivalent to a new coor-

p(s) = 2P'(b2-s2)l/2/(Trb2) (8) dinate system defined by x' =x/k and y' =y/k. However, if

the prime designation is dropped, i.e., the coordinate system

b = (P'/B)m (9) renamed, then

where p(s), which is an elliptic pressure distribution, and b, the 2A + br=A\n[A/(Ae)} (17)

half-width of contact, are the solution to the Hertz contact This could also have been obtained by setting k = 1 in equa-

problem. tion (15).

Substituting equations (8) and (9) into equation (7) and per-

forming the necessary integration yields Discussion of Results

(5 = 2KP'ln[4r/(be1/2)] (10) It can be seen from equation (17) that the normal approach

Equation (10) alternately can be used to calculate the defor- is independent of the roller radius r and that the length only

b = half-width of contact in z- across contact width in x,y = z-plane coordinates

plane z-plane z = x+iy

b* = half-width of contact in P'(.s) '-= elliptic pressure distribution Zi = stationary reference point

w-plane across contact width in 0 = deformation

c' = constant w-plane 5 = total deformation of two

e = natural logarithm base P == total load on contact area plates compressing a roller

E = modulus of elasticity P' --= load per unit length K = total roller deformation

i = V^T Q --= stationary reference point in K = br/k

k = the y coordinate of point Q z-plane 2A = total deformation of two

in the z-plane Q' --= stationary reference point in plates at the center of contact

K = 2(1 - v2)/(irE) w-plane A' = A/k

I = length of contact r == roller radius A = 4P(1 - v2)/{irHE)

M = point in z-plane s,t == integral equation variables A' = A/k

M' = point in w-plane u,v == w-plane coordinates V = Poisson's ratio

Table 1 Deformation equations for a roller compressed bet- course, rests on the assumption that the roller is of sufficient

ween two flat plates length and that the plates are of sufficient thickness to agree

with the theoretical analysis.

Number Reference Equation An interesting observation is the fact that the point z= ik in

Fig. 1 (which is transformed into the point w = 0 in Fig. 2) can

1 Lundberg [1] 5 = Aln

Of) be considered as a stationary reference point since the point

w = 0 does not deform because of the symmetry of the

Palmgren [2] & = constant problem in Fig. 2.

Conclusion

3 Dowson and Hig- / 2 evn{- |-^"

/2e-

, / 2) 1

'r\~ ' V

ginson [3] 6 = Aln It would seem that Wren's [10] "appeal for a decisive inter-

pretation" of this contact problem has been satisfied. The first

Nikpur and At I" (l + ( 2 z 2 / 0 2 ) l / 2 - l step was taken by Hoeprich and Zantopulos [5] when they

Gohar [4] 5 = Aln

("ft (i + (2z2/t)2)1/2 + l

demonstrated that all of the equations listed by Wren in his

discussion can be derived from the same general expression.

5 Hoeprich and 1/2(1 - K ) \

The second step is presented in this paper, that of eliminating

Zantopulos [5] 6 = Aln the need for an arbitrary reference point. Thus, equation (17)

represents a systematic, unambiguous method for the solution

Equation (14) i5 = Aln

(f/ of the deformation of a cylinder between two flat plates.

Acknowledgment

The author wishes to express his appreciation to The

appears in the A term as a load per unit length ratio. This is Timken Company for permission to publish this work. The

supported by the data presented in [5] in which a regression author would also like to thank the reviewers and Dr. Joe

line passed through the data points gave a very high correla- Padovan of the University of Akron for their helpful com-

tion (>0.99) between the approach and the load/length ratio, ments and suggestions.

5 = constant(/VQ0-88 (18)

References

Equation (17) is compared to five other equations for the

1 Roark, R., Formulas for Stresses and Strain, Fourth Edition, McGraw-

deformation of a cylinder compressed between two flat plates Hill, New York, 1965, p. 320.

as shown in Table 1. It can be seen that these other equations 2 Palmgren, A., Ball and Roller Bearing Engineering, Third Edition, S. H.

contain a geometrical variable t, r, or z2 in addition to A. The Burbank and Company, Inc., Philadelphia, 1959, p. 50.

inclusion of these variables is a direct consequence of the 3 Dowson, D., and Higginson, G. R., "Theory of Roller Bearing Lubrica-

tion and Deformation," Proc. Lubrication and Wear Convention, Instn. Mech.

method used to determine the deformation in the plates. Engrs., London, 1963, Paper 19, pp. 216-227.

If the value of the thickness of the plates used to obtain the 4 Nikpur, K., and Gohar, R., "Deflection of a Roller Compressed Between

experimental data in [5] is substituted into equation 5 of Table Platens," Tribology International, Vol. 8, 1975, pp. 2-8.

1, the result is 5 Hoeprich, M. R., and Zantopulos, H., "Line Contact Deformation: A

Cylinder Between Two Flat Plates," ASME JOURNAL OF LUBRICATION

5 = Aln(1.4686/A) (19) TRIBOLOGY, Vol. 103, 1981, pp. 21-25.

6 Loo, T. T., "Effect of Curvature on the Hertz Theory for Two Circular

This compares favorably with equation (17) written in the Cylinders in Contact," ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 25, 1958,

same format pp. 122-124.

7 Wylie, C. R., Jr., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, McGraw-Hill,

5 = Aln(1.4715/A) (20) 1951.

8 Lubkin, J. L., Discussion to Reference [6], p. 638.

Hence, it would appear that the simpler equation (17) can be 9 Shtaerman, I. la., The Contact Problems of the Theory of Elasticity,

used in place of equation 5 of Table 1 to calculate the defor- Moscow-Leningrad, Gostekhizdat, 1949.

mation in roller bearings. The validity of equation (17), of 10 Wren, F. J., Discussion to Reference [3], pp. 275-276.

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