You are on page 1of 45

A Protocol for Railway Systems Integration: The Hudson-Bergen Experience

A. E. Fazio, Vice President of Operations, Twenty-first Century Rail Corp./Raytheon

M. J. Steffen, Engineer, Methods and Documentation, Twenty-first Century Rail Corp./Raytheon
R. A. Falcon, Project Director Systems-HBLRT/New Rail Construction, NJ Transit
M. C. Becher, Director, Systems Engineering, P B Transit and Rail Systems, Inc.

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

A Protocol for Railway Systems Integration: The Hudson-Bergen Experience

A. E. Fazio, Vice President of Operations, Twenty-first Century Rail Corp./Raytheon

M. J. Steffen, Engineer, Methods and Documentation, Twenty-first Century Rail Corp./Raytheon
R. A. Falcon, Project Director Systems-HBLRT/New Rail Construction, NJ Transit
M. C. Becher, Director, Systems Engineering, P B Transit and Rail Systems, Inc.



Requirements for establishing a rigorous Systems Integration process on major railway projects are
becoming more commonplace, particularly on new construction transit systems and on railway
upgrades intended to achieve high-speed operation. If properly interpreted and applied, Systems
Integration as a process supports system safety, configuration management, and operability goals,
and design requirements. Systems Integration has been interpreted to mean a wide variety of
processes ranging from computer software integration to project management and various other
functional disciplines dependent upon the industry. As used here, it refers specifically to the
definition and control of technical and functional interfaces between the independent groupings of
equipment or systems (track, train control, traction power) which comprise a railway.

The Hudson-Bergen Light Rail Transit System (HBLR) is a new electrified railway currently being
deployed in northern New Jersey. A description of the application of the Systems Integration
process on the HBLR is provided. This effort included a rigorous definition of the functions and
boundaries of each of 15 systems which comprise HBLR, creation of an interface table which
defines interface parameters and their target values, creation of Interface Control Documents
(ICDs), and the establishment of a basis for integrated check-out and testing.

Industries such as aerospace, automotive, and defense utilize relatively standardized protocols for
Systems Integration. It is recommended that the SI process utilized on HBLR be the basis for
establishment of a standard practice for railway application.


This paper has two primary objectives:

1. Provide a protocol or basis for a common understanding for an approach to

the systems integration (SI) process as it applies to rail transit and to
passenger railways.

2. Offer the experience and methods utilized on the Hudson-Bergen Light

Rail (HBLR) System as a means of beginning the development of
recommended practice with regard to SI for the railway industry.

Systems Integration, as a formal engineering process, is being imported into the railway industry
via large transit (light rail in the case of HBLR) deployments. Its use is being extended to
passenger rail, high speed rail, and major improvements to older systems. While the essence of the
process is really not new to railway engineers (the requirement for the signal department, and, in

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

electrified territory, the electric traction department, to participate in interlocking redesign, for
example), the formality and breadth of SI application is reaching new levels on contemporary
transit deployments.

The evolution of the SI process is being driven primarily by three factors:

1. Ever-increasing focus on system safety, including a formal requirement for safety

2. The application of new, and more sophisticated technologies to rail systems;
3. New configurations such as the HBLR hybrid, where the System operates with ATP on a
dedicated railway right-of-way while using lower speed and different rules in street-
running territory.

The deployment of HBLR is through a Design-Build-Operate-Maintain (DBOM) approach. The

contract specification for Systems Integration is included as Appendix 1 to this paper. As noted, SI,
as a formal process, is being imported to railway engineering; the source is primarily SI practice as
employed in the automotive, aerospace and defense industries. In order to achieve a successful
importation it is essential that the SI process be carefully tailored to rail technology and railway
applications. This includes a reasonable assessment of the extent and breadth of application. The
level-of-effort employed for SI on the development of a totally new automobile or jet fighter is not
required, for example, for the extension of a rapid transit line. The objectives of this paper pertain to
this importation; using the experiences gained in applying the HBLR specification, a recommended
practice, which includes a baseline delineation of systems and sub-systems, is described. These
are offered as a basis for complying with SI requirements on future passenger rail projects.


A. Primary Purpose and Characteristics

Systems Integration can be described as a process which assures that the performance of all
elements comprising a product are mutually compatible and function together as an entity to
support the purpose and goals of that product. The elements considered by systems integration
include engineered systems, sub-systems, and assemblies as well as operational rules and
procedures, and human (man-machine) interfaces. It is critical to recognize that Systems
Integration is a continuing process which operates through all phases (i. e., design, construction,
install, start-up, activation, and operations and maintenance) of a product life cycle and which also
continues to have a role during operation and maintenance activities.

One of the common misconceptions regarding Systems Integration is that it applies only to computer
software integration, or to computer software/hardware integration. The SI process is far more
comprehensive; a systems approach to design and deployment is applicable to all complex
equipment. Such an approach can be seen in an example as simple as a typical automotive shop
manual, where a review of the index would describe troubleshooting and maintenance according to
such groupings as the ignition, drive train, lighting and fuel systems, and the body and chassis. Such
systems consist of groupings of equipment, which are related to a specific function required to enable
the automobile to achieve its performance requirements. It is noteworthy that the description of
systems is based on function more so than upon technical discipline.

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

In defense-related procurements a rigorous step-wise process is required which relates mission
needs to operations requirements, and in turn relates these requirements to system performance
parameters and to a system configuration. AIAA notes (ref. 2) that

The Operational Requirements Document (ORD) is developed by the

operational user and serves as a bridge connecting the Mission Need
Statement to the acquisition program baseline and the specifications for the
concept or system.
Throughout the acquisition process, scientific and engineering methods
are applied to transform the operational need into a description of system
performance parameters and a system configuration through an interactive
approach that applies definition, synthesis, analysis, design, and test and
evaluation. This effort must integrate related technical parameters and
ensure the compatibility of all physical, functional, and program interfaces
in a manner that optimized the total system definition and design.

A similar, albeit less rigorous, process has been imposed on transit system development by the
ISTEA act. This includes the MIS (Major Investment Study) and EIS (Environmental Impact
Statement) processes required as prerequisites to new system deployments. Figure 1 (next page)
provides a translation of some of this jargon (mission needs, operational requirements) into
railway engineering terms.

One final example from other industries is provided by a technical document describing the
deployment of a new and advanced technology chemical process plant (ref. 3).

The PDC (Preliminary Design Concept) is prepared in a manner that

allows for the identification of the F & OR (Functional and Operational
Requirements) that form the basis of specific PDC requirement(s). This,
in general, establishes a hierarchical system of requirements and provides
direction to the system design engineer to develop specific lower tier
system level requirements. Requirements traceability is provided through
all levels of the requirements hierarchy.

System Design Descriptions (SDD). When a plant is broken down into

systems, the systems are described and governed by SDD which
provide a comprehensive technical document that specifically and
completely define the system by including functions and design
requirements, design description, operation . . . . The SDD are traceable to
the PDC requirements, thus initiating the configuration management
Interface definition is required to establish the functional and physical
characteristics linking boundaries of two or more systems, or linking IPM (the
particular plant for which this was developed) with external systems and
components, and to identify global interfaces. Interface control is required to
achieve and maintain integration and compatibility. The SDDs establish
parameters and define constraints upon the design for such interfaces.

(C) AREMA (R) 2000



Service goods
Mission Needs Capacity requirements
Service network

Train performance requirements, including:

Operational Requirements Train size, length and capacity

Average speed, maximum speeds
Throughput requirements

Headway criteria
Vehicle braking and acceleration
Functional criteria Station layout for dwell time

System Integration operates at this level.

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

Of importance here is that the systems integration process operates at the lower level to directly
assure the operability goals of the product. This corrects other current misconceptions regarding
SI; it is neither another word for program/project management (but it is a component of the PM
process), nor is it a vague, theoretical, or conceptual analysis operating at the mission needs level
of product development.

The Systems Integration process, in order to be effective, requires the following attributes:

Comprehensive. All equipment including software, hardware, and

such items as vehicles, support and maintenance equipment, and
civil/structural works must be included in the process.
Hierarchical. The breakdown of equipment in groups is done
according to a carefully delineated hierarchy. On HBLR the
breakdown utilized was system, sub-system, assembly,
component and part. At the top of the hierarchy is the system
which is delineated as a grouping of equipment which works together
to perform a specific operational function.
Specific and Unique. Equipment is classified as belonging to groups
(systems, sub-systems, etc.) on a specific basis, with clearly defined
boundaries. Equipment can only roll-up along one path.
Equipment not discipline-oriented. The breakdown is oriented
towards functions and supporting functions; it is not primarily based
on technical disciplines. Catenary poles, for example, are an assembly
of the overhead contact sub-system (OCS), which is in turn part of the
electrification system, even though they are structural elements.

B. Related Uses of Systems Integration

As discussed, the primary purpose of SI is to directly support design and deployment to assure that
systems comprising a product interact in a manner which allows the product to meet its operational
requirements. This ensures that product performance supports the mission needs statement
which was developed at the projects inception.

The SI process also has direct and indirect ancillary uses including:

1. Configuration Management. The effective control of configuration

requires analysis of the impact of changes. This analysis must
consider how related equipment is affected by a change. This analysis
is most efficient where a healthy SI process is in place.
2. Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS). Product organizations,
particularly those which are strongly oriented toward technical
disciplines, benefit by consideration of the SI process. Specific
organizational units or individuals can be assigned responsibility for
management and successful implementation of particular interfaces.
3. System Safety. An efficient SI process is able to directly provide data
to system safety pertaining to the interrelationship between functions
and equipment. This is a critical need in the performance of fault tree

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

and hazard analysis (If equipment A fails according to mode B,
what is the impact on function C?).
4. Maintenance Planning. The grouping of equipment by primary and
subordinate functions permits a logical approach to the formulation of
a maintenance organization, and for assignment of tasks within the
organization. The interface documentation permits ready identification
of potential coordination issues. On HBLR the SI matrix and interface
control documents are the primary factors in establishment of the
Maintenance of Way Department and assignment of craft jurisdictions.
5. Integrated Testing/Activation. The basis for integrated testing (which
is defined as the testing of functions between systems and of
operational performance) are the Interface Control Documents (ICDs)
developed during the SI process. The ICDs are directly derived from
a table of integration and comprise a critical series of requirements
with which the design must conform.

C. Phasing and Order of Integration

The phasing of SI and the Order of Integration are related, but are not equivalent concepts. The
phasing refers to the level of design completion at which an interface is identified and fixed (ref.
4). For example, the second segment of HBLR includes an aerial guideway structure; early in the
planning of this structure it was determined that the structure geometry would be designed to suit
the available 25 m.p.h. cab speed, and not the 30 m.p.h. alignment that was originally delineated in
the concept design. This provided economies in construction with no adverse impact on

The order of integration relates to the sequence of fixing interface parameters; these are set
according to a priority with lower level designs modified, if required, to protect higher level
interfaces. Order of Integration directly relates to order of integrated testing and troubleshooting
(ref. 5).

D. Relationship Between Systems Integration and Integrated Test Planning

The primary tools in the SI process are the system (and lower tier) descriptions, the Table of
Interfaces (including organizational responsibility for each interface), and the Interface Control
Documents (ICDs). The ICDs serve as the technical basis document for integrated test planning.
The ICDs are necessary to:
fully define the interfaces
identify the parameters to be tested across the interface
establish the appropriate pass/fail criteria for the parameters to be tested
provide acceptable tolerances for tested parameters

Inspection, integrated test, or other appropriate means must then verify the interface characteristics.
Those that require an integrated test will be addressed via the Integrated Test Plan. ICDs will be
grouped by system association and functionality to enable a single Integrated Test Procedure to
satisfy multiple ICDs where appropriate.

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

In the case of HBLR, the Integrated Test Program and Systems Integration efforts are linked not
only by necessity, but also by contract. The Systems Performance Specification, Book IV defines
the Interface Control Documents, as quoted below (ref 1).

Each interface shall be described by means of an Interface Control

Document (CDRL), which shall define:

a. The entity within the Contractors organization that is responsible

for managing and engineering the interface
b. The agreed interface arrangement (physical installation, power
supply, signal levels, transfer characteristics, etc.)
c. The functional, performance, reliability, maintainability and safety
requirements of the individual elements forming the interface
d. The proposed method and schedule for verifying the interface
integrity, the individual element performance, and the combined
system performance, with the appropriate pass/fail criteria for

Two aspects of the HBLR Project created non-technical interface management requirements: the
accelerated deployment schedule, and the necessarily phased deployment of the initial operating

The accelerated deployment schedule made concurrent and fast-track engineering necessary.
While this approach was necessary to achieve the aggressive HBLR schedule it also required
multiple sub-contracts responsible for what is in some instances less than ideal division of scope. In
the interest of expedited procurement much of the major equipment was procured as supply only,
and the installation subcontract bid was solicited after the design was more complete.
Additionally, to expedite the procurement process, system work packages were maintained at
manageable scope to ensure sufficient competition was assured. This resulted in virtually no
turnkey contracts on the HBLR, and with that subcontract boundary interfaces within each major

The HBLR also includes an incremental and accelerated service activation schedule. This created
significant interfaces between each successively activated operating segment. The referenced
interfaces are created between subsystems within virtually all rail systems, between subsystems in
one segment and those in the next segment in succession.


A. Justification and Benefits

In reviewing the SI process the question of Why bother? might be asked regarding its relevance
to railway projects. In these days of rigorous budget scrutiny it is perfectly legitimate to critically
evaluate the value added by SI. The benefits of the process stem from two current, and
somewhat conflicting, trends in railway engineering and operations. The first is the propensity of
designers and operators to require increasingly complex engineered systems. These include such a
wide range of equipment as special trackwork, new state-of-the-art control centers, and CBTC.
It is particularly the case in new light rail and rapid transit starts. The second trend relates to a
change in the makeup of the engineering design community; the majority of design professionals

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

have not served in field positions where intuitive insights into systems integration and railway
operability issues are most readily gained.

The benefits of a healthy SI process (as well as the most rigorous specifications for such a process)
are most commonly seen on transit work, but are also seen on high speed rail and high
performance commuter rail. It is in these applications that the greatest potential exists for
variations from commonly used design. The new FRA standards for high-speed track provide an
example, which includes a requirement for qualification of the vehicle in addition to the specific
requirements for track.

The application of the SI process to railways must be prudent, it is not necessary to perform
detailed analysis of interfaces, particularly at lower levels, which have been well proven through
prior usage. It is also not a judicious application of resources to analyze the interfaces of systems
or subsystems that do not provide mission critical functionality. Likewise, a relatively standard
delineation of systems and sub-systems can be defined. The application of SI on the HBLR
represents the accumulated experiences of a number of previous large (mega) railway
applications including the Frankford Elevated Reconstruction in Philadelphia, Taiwan High Speed
Rail, Los Angeles Red Line, and Amtraks former New York Zone projects (Secaucus Transfer,
Pennsylvania Station Life Safety, Kearny Connection, High Density Signalling).

B. Hudson-Bergen Light Rail, Description

A new light rail system is currently in deployment along the New Jersey shore of the Hudson
River. This system will provide for north-south rail service between Bayonne, Jersey City,
Hoboken and communities in Bergen County to the north. The system as presently defined
consists of approximately 21 route miles, including two branches. Studies are in progress for
further extensions in Bergen County along abandoned or lightly utilized railroad alignments. In
addition to providing for north-south transit, the alignment connects with all east-west routes
including PATH (at three locations), ferries (at four locations), express and local buses which
operate through the Lincoln and Holland tunnels, and NJ Transits (former Erie -Lackawanna)
Hoboken rail terminal.

HBLR represents a high end application of light rail. The LRV is a 90-foot, double-articulated,
low-floor car, which has been tested at speeds in excess of 60 m.p.h., although MAS will be 55
m.p.h. The alignment is double track on exclusive right-of-way (primarily former CNJ and Conrail
River Line), with the exception of two miles of mixed traffic operation in downtown Jersey City.

The exclusive right-of-way is cab signaled, with wayside signals at interlockings only. Permissible
speeds are provided to the train operator through an Aspect Display Unit (ADU) which directly
indicates permissible speed at either 55, 45, 35, 25, or 15 m.p.h. ATP is provided in cab signal
territory. In mixed traffic territory, an automatic cut-out (street mode) is provided, which limits the
train to a maximum speed of 35 m.p.h.

The line serves an urban and older suburban area, which is undergoing a commercial and
residential renaissance. Much of the service territory is located directly across the Hudson River
from Manhattans financial district. Ridership is predicted to be high, with an intense peak hour
load. Consequently, headways more typical of heavy rapid transit are specified. The block layout
criteria are on the order of 90 to 120 seconds, with an actual schedule requirement in peak hour of
20 TPH on each branch.

All trackage in cab signal territory is provided with reverse signaling capable of the same headway
as in the assigned direction. Interlockings are placed at locations which provide for a headway of
15 minutes or less if single tracking is required between adjacent interlockings. Interlockings may

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

be operated by train-to-wayside devices (TWC), from a central supervisory control (OCC), or

Track is 115-lb. RE continuous welded rail; concrete ties are utilized on ballasted sections, with
direct fixation on viaducts, and embedded utilized in-street. Turnouts are AREMA standards, with
No. 10 as the mainline standard.

Catenary is constant tension, except in the street-running territory where simple trolley wire is
utilized. Power is supplied at a nominal 750 v. DC and collection is by pantograph (one per car).

Service will be provided for 20 hours daily, seven days per week. Certain portions of the line will
see local freight; this will be accomplished with time of day separation, with freight operating
between the hours of 0100 and 0500. The Bayonne line shares a cut-section with the National
Docks Branch and intrusion detection is provided. Trains will operate in lengths of up to two cars
on lines south of Hoboken where the length is limited by the street operation. On the northern
(River) line, three-car trains will be utilized.

In deploying this new system, New Jersey Transit elected to utilize a fast-tracked DBOM. The
successful bidder was Twenty-first Century Rail Corp. (TFCRC), which is a partnership of
Raytheon, Kinkisharyo (the carbuilder) and Itochu. The contract requires that full revenue
operation of the Initial Operating Segment (IOS) of 10 miles occur within 40 months of NTP; this
is in March 2000. TFCRC is required to operate and maintain the system to specifically delineated
levels of service and quality for a period of 15 years. This includes the construction, phase-in, and
operation of additional segments.

C. HBLR Integration Process

The basis for SI on HBLR is a careful delineation of all equipment and software in the program
into one of 15 systems. These systems, which are classified into the two general categories of
Rail Systems and Facilities and Civil systems, are further broken into sub-systems,
assemblies, components, and parts. This is a carefully described hierarchical breakdown that
is included as Table 1.

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

Table 1

Master Table of Systems and Sub-systems

(See separate table attached as electronic file : Table 1 etc.)

Click to view Table 1

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

A narrative description of the systems and sub-systems is included as Appendix 2.

Table 1 includes listing of primary and secondary interfaces, assignment of organizational

responsibility, and the naming of a pertinent Interface Control Document (ICD) for the governance
of each of the primary interfaces in the table.

The basis for System Integration is the identification of each of the systems comprising HBLR, the
establishment of system boundaries and the delineation of cross-boundary requirements, such as
exchange of an electrical signal, load or heat transfer, or fit-up and configuration criteria.

Interfaces arise primarily between system, sub-system or lower-level functional and technical
boundaries. Other interfaces requiring consideration in the HBLR Systems Integration process are:
Man-machine and other operability interfaces.
Interfaces which are created within a given system, due to division of
scope between subcontractors. In the Train Control System, for
example, Harmon Industries is the equipment supplier with the
Daidone-Van Alt joint venture doing the installation, with Raytheon
responsible for integrated testing and maintenance.
Interfaces created due to staging, such as between IOS and SOS, or
special interfaces which arise from the phased deployment of IOS.
While these are not permanent, they must be considered as part of the
operation of IOS.

An hierarchical (top down) approach offers the best method of capturing the appropriate interfaces.
Table 1 illustrates the relevant hierarchy. Table 2 provides a sample of a completed portion of
Table 1; it illustrates the specific interfaces that pertain to sub-system 1.1, the Light Rail Vehicle.
Note that the SI process must address all interfaces identified within the table, including item 1.2.4,
which is the shuttle (tow) wagon. Likewise, Table 3 illustrates a portion (with specific parametric
valued deleted) for System 3, Track. Table 3 was included to illustrate a special interface in which
the SI process on HBLR operates below the sub-system level, however the HBLR SI process does
not generally address interfaces below the sub-system level. The integration of technical interfaces
within a system is classified as vertical integration and is the responsibility of the lead discipline
engineer or functional manager.

This approach is generally acceptable in railway applications due to the long history of usage of
most rail equipment at the assembly and component level. There are however, exceptions to this
generally acceptable practice. Table 4 for example, illustrates a portion of the Interface Table for
system 3.0, Track. On a short section of the elevated guideway, the constraints on relative position
of expansion rails with respect to structural expansion joints require the use of low longitudinal
restraint rail fasteners. These are required for the management of rail thermal stresses. In this
special case the SI process on HBLR operates down through the assembly level (i. e., to the rail, rail
clip, and plate), within the track system to assure proper functionality of track with respect to a
Guideway. This is because the application of low restraint fasteners in elevated, direct fixation
track, although not without precedent, does not represent a standard, time proven equipment.

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

Table 2

No. Name Description ICD Description
1.1.1 Pantograph 2.2 OCS Must be Trolley gauge 3.0 Track
within acceptable and height Alignment
range of panto- including @
graph action; Travel of turnouts. Track
avoid lock-down, catenary superelevation
over-extension or weights, panto- and cross level
misalignment graph pressure
1.1.3 Automatic Doors 10.2 Station Clearance 3.0 Track posi-
(Plug Doors) platforms must dimension tion with respect
not obstruct door to platform
1.1.4 Brakes 4.1 & 4.2 Service 3.2.1
and emergency 3.1.1 Rail,
braking must 3.3.1
conform to block for wheel
design for train adhesion rates
Operator-applied 3.5.1
3.4.1 Turnouts
4.1 & 4.2 Service and operator
and emergency practice, wayside
brakes to control signage
diverging speed
1.1.4 Brakes 4.6.0 Action by Must achieve 1.1.4A 1.1.5 Removal of
ATP. Emergency emergency Traction power
operation must brake,
conform to application and 3.2.1
emergency brake rate 3.3.1 Rail for
braking model assurance of 4.0 adhesion
described in ICD mphps. 2.2.0 OCS if
traction power
supply lost
dynamic brake is
1.1.5 Propulsion 3.2.1, 3.3.2 rate -mphs 2.1.0 Traction
of accele ration -57 mph max power supply
avoid wheel slip. -mphps/sec and return. Line
Do not exceed voltage at
allowable jerk nominal 750U.
1.1.8 Car Frame & 3.0 Vehicle ISO Standard 3.0 Track is to
Structure achieve ride No.2631 meet class 4
quality. geometry 1.1.6
Tracks and
10.0, 12.0, 13.0, List of suspension
14.0, 15.0, 16.0, dimensions and 3.0 Track location
2.2.0 drawing for per design
Achieve Dynamic clearances, and
and Static end excess and
Clearance center excess

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

Table 2 (contd)

1.1.9 TWC interface Fit up of TWC
equipment equipment
1.1.10 Internal Compatibility of Frequencies 6.0 Integrated
Communications vehicle internal Mounting Control System,
(VIC) comm with hardware head end
communications Connections equipment and
system for voice Power Supply functions
and data
1.1.11 Interior/Exterior Visibility of
Lighting dashboard and
of wayside -
operability inter-
face day & night

Exterior lighting
to be suitable
for high-speed
operation on
exclusive ROW.

Exterior Lighting
to be suitable
for on-street
operations, day
& night
1.2.0 MOW (utility) 10.0, 12.0, 13.0,
Equipment 14.0, 15.0, 16.0
Achieve Static
and Dynamic

2.2.0 OCS Operating

achieve safe procedure for use
clearance to of equipment

1.2.4 Shuttle Wagon Must be capable Tractive effort

of towing LRVs ____
for maintenance
shunting and for Braking ____
Coupler ____
Note: Additional
interfaces to
shop equipment.
These will be
developed under

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

Table 3

3.0 Track Description Engineering ICD
3.1.0 2.1.3 Negative return 4.80 Signal system track
track provides the circuits
path for traction power
negative return.
Requires isolation 1.1.5 Vehicle traction
from ground (stray motors
current control) and
separation of return 2.3.0 Stray current
current from trk circuit
energy at impedance
3.1.1 Rail 4.8 Broken rail Allowable settings 3.1.4 Plate & ballast
protection is provided on track circuits resistance?
by track circuits
(audio frequency, 7.3 Operating rules must
power frequency) reflect this function
Note: Each of the
preceding interfa-
ces is also applic-
able to sub-
3.1.0 Ballasted 12.1 Drainage. Track 100-year flood 7.4 SOP is required for
Track drainage must be extraordinary water
maintained conditions
3.1.1 Rail 3.1 Ballasted Track. Satisfy range of 7.4 SOP is required for
Rail stresses are acceptable rail maintaining rail.
resisted by entire neutral 4.8 Track Cir-cuits. Setting
track structure temperature of design depends on
___<Tn__<___ broken rail protection

For ballasted track

3.2.1 Rail (in 3.2 Rail stresses are ___<Tn__<___ 7.4 SOP is required for rail
embedded track) resisted by closure maintenance
pour; Rail neutral
tempera-ture is set at Presence of track circuit
time of first pour. will impact range of Tn
3.3.0 Rail, D/F 14.0 and 8.0 Rail ___<Tn<___ 14.0 Special analysis is
Track thermal stresses ar e if track circuit and required for D/F track on
resisted by fasteners, viaduct or trestle under
plates and plinths; ___<Tn< ___ certain configuration
these loads are if no track circuit
ultimate -ly
transmitted to the
track slab part of
right-of-way system
or to the structure
(system 14.0)

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

Table 3 (contd)

3.4.1 Turnouts 4.4.1 Switch Fit-up of rods in 3.1.4 Ballast to be tamped

Machines. Train cribs, tie spacing, a clear of operating parts.
routing is provided by and baskets,
electric switch switch throws to 7.4 SOP is re-quired for
machines or by be at ____. Throw manual operation of switch
hydraulic switch is measured six machines
machines in-ches behind
point for track,
and at detection
rod for switch
obstruction test
4.4.1 Route assur-
ance is provided by
switch locking on
elec-tric switch

3.5.5 Insulated joints

to be in accordance
with shop drawings 2.1.3 Continuity of traction
for block layout either Each location power return per bonding
single - or double -rail requires a drawing plan
track circuits and for
fouling protection
3.4.1 Turnouts 1.1.6 Provide Allowable gauge
guidance for tracks is
operating through ___<G<___
turnout at point of and switch point
switch condition to be as
per ICD
1.1.6 Provide 1. Gauge
guidance for tracks ___<G<___
operating through
frog 2. Frog-guard
rail gauge
___<F< ___
3. Back to
___<G< ___

4. Allowable
wheel tread &
gauge as per ICD
3.4.1 Turnouts 2.2.0 OCS, alignment
of trolley wire to
conform to track
turnout geometry
3.4.0 Special 2.0 Electrification Sectionalizing 4.0 Train control system,
work / traction power sec- plates will be locations of home signal
Interlockings tionalizing is to con- developed
and 7.5 SOPs for single
form with operable
configurations of rail- track operation
way at interlockings
Special work 14.0 Rail thermal Movement of rail 3.3.0 Rail on plinth is to be
(expansion rails) stresses must be must occur across configured with Special low
transferred across structural restraint fasteners
Structural expansion Expansion joint 4.0 Insulated joints to avoid
joint expansion area 5.0
Traction power bonding

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

Table 4



NO. 2.1.2
System: Interfacing System: INTERFACE:
2.0.0 Traction Power 2.0.0 Traction Power
Subsystem: Interfacing Subsystem: Clearance
2.1.0 Substations & Power 2.2.0 Overhead Contact Sys.
Assembly: Interfacing Assembly:
2.1.2 Positive Feeds Switches & Equipment


Verify the mechanical connection of the positive feeders to the disconnect switches.


The Positive feeders should enter the switches through a water tight bushing and fit properly to
the lugs in the switch.


Method: X Inspection Test No. __________________

Schedule: X Construction Start-Up

Maintainability X Reliability X
Acceptance Criteria:

The mechanical entrance and connection should be as designed.

Form #101 2/1/99 X OPEN CLOSED Date: 02/11/99

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

D. HBLR, the Non-functional Boundary

Figure 2 below depicts a classic systems integration problem. The Integrated Control System train
control function requires the equipment of three equipment vendors and the work scope of two
installation subcontractors to function in accordance with design specifications for the ICS to do
the same. This example typifies the instances of less than ideal division of scope mentioned
previously relative to the fast-track and concurrently engineered approach employed to achieve the
ambitious service activation schedule required of the HBLR System.

Figure 2




(SI G)


Signal / Commnications / Integrated Control

Simplified Diagrams

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

First, for the equipment vendors:

the Integrated Control System (ICS) hardware and software up to and

including the front-end processors is supplied by a single vendor
the fiber optic modem and carrier transmission system (CTS) channel
banks are being supplied by a second vendor
the signal system vital logic controllers (VHLC) are being supplied by
a third vendor

The installation responsibility crosses subcontract boundaries a number of times:

the ICS equipment installation is being performed by the

communications installation subcontractor
the Communications Backbone (both fiber optic and copper
components) are installed by the electrical and signal installation
the fiber optic modem and carrier transmission system (CTS) channel
banks are being installed by the communications system installation
the signal system copper cable, VHLC, signals, and switch machines
are being installed by the electrical and signal installation

This example illustrates the relative complexity that a Systems Integrator faces. In this example
interfaces are created both by technical definition (crossing the boundary of one system into
another) and subcontract scope boundaries. Even though only two installation subcontractors are
involved, a signal from the OCC to the field will cross between their installation work scopes five
times before reaching its destination in the field to operate a switch machine.

This particular example was actually slightly more complicated due to the use of duct banks and
conduit for all cabling including signal system lateral runs. To keep from losing focus on the SI
implications the duct bank and lateral conduit contracts are not addressed herein. The duct bank
and conduit schemes were necessary to facilitate the concurrent engineering and subcontract scope
approaches discussed previously.


Most new passenger railway and rail transit projects now include a requirement for the
implementation of a formal systems integration process. This requirement usually applies to all rail
and facilities systems that are instrumental in providing mission-critical functions including
vehicles, fixed equipment, and software.

Based on experience on a number of major railway programs including HBLR, and on practical
operational and maintenance experience, the following recommendations are offered:

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

1. If properly interpreted and reasonably implemented, the SI process can be
of great benefit during all project phases, including operations and
maintenance. That is, it is a value added process.
2. A baseline delineation of systems, including system descriptions and
system boundaries, would be of benefit to the railway engineering
community. Such baselines exist in other industries (ref 6, Space
Systems), such as automotive and aerospace. The HBLR documents may
serve as the basis for further work in developing such a baseline for
railway programs.
3. Likewise a baseline interface table, with defined interface parameters
would provide a useful guide on future projects. Values of parameters
would be project specific, but the provision of a menu of key interfaces
would be of use as an industry-wide reference base.
4. The focus of the SI process is in horizontal integration and upwards toward
operability requirements. Only in special cases should SI for railway
applications function below the sub-system level.
5. A clear and well-understood relationship exists between SI and Integrated
Testing. A similar relationship exists, and should be clearly defined
between SI, Systems Safety and maintenance planning.
6. The focus of SI efforts should be on interfaces involving mission-critical
functionalities. This is important to ensure that the SI process yields
maximum benefit.


Requirements for imple mentation of a formal Systems Integration process are becoming
increasingly common and more vigorous in the railway industry. SI is a low level process which
should be initiated early in a programs life. If properly interpreted and applied, significant
benefits accrue. The railway industry would benefit from increased uniformity regarding
interpretation of SI requirements, and in fundamental aspects of the process. The SI process
utilized on Hudson-Bergen Light Rail is described and offered as a basis for the formulation of
recommended practice.

(C) AREMA (R) 2000


1. Hudson-Bergen Light Rail Contract Specification, Mandatory Criteria, Book IV

Operations and Activation.
2. Giadrosich, Donald L., Operations Research Analysis in Test and Evaluation. American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Washington, D. C., 1995.
3. Systems Engineering Management Plan for Initial Pre-Treatment Module EBASCO/BN
FL, July 1993.
4. PB Internal Document, Systems Integration Quality Plan.
5. Pisacove, V. L. and R. C. Mode, ed., Fundamentals of Space Systems. Oxford University
Press, Oxford, 1994.
6. Pre-CDRL submittal for HBLR DBOM project, Raytheon, May 1999.
7. Raytheon installation criteria; special interface parameters for rail.


1. HBLR Specification for systems Integration

2. Narrative descriptions, systems and sub-systems
3. Definitions
4. Interface Table, LRV
5. Interface Table, Track
6. Sample Interface Control Document (ICD)


Table 1. Master Table of Systems and Sub-systems

Figure 1. Jargon Chart

Figure 2. Typical Special Interfaces

(C) AREMA (R) 2000



4.2.1 Systems Integration Documentation

As part of the design process, the Contractor shall systematically identify and document all technical interfaces, by
means of an Interface Matrix (CDRL) which lists all major system elements and defines which elements have a direct
or indirect interaction. Each interface shall be described by means of an Interface Control Document (CDRL), which
shall define:

a. The entity within the contractors organization that is responsible for managing and engineering the

b. The agreed interface arrangement (physical installation, power supply, signal levels, transfer
characteris tics, etc.)

c. The functional, performance, reliability, maintainability and safety requirements of the individual
elements forming the interface

d. The proposed method and schedule for verifying the interface integrity, the individual element
performance, and the combined system performance, with appropriate pass/fail criteria for each.

The Interface Matrix and Interface Control Documents shall be submitted as part of the In-progress review data
package. These documents shall be kept up to date, and resubmitted at the final design review.

4.2.2 Interface Problems Investigation

The Contractor shall be responsible for identifying and resolving all system interfaces which contribute to attainment
of the overall system performance requirements or other Contract requirements. The contractor shall pay special
attention to the interfaces and corresponding performance parameters listed in the table 4-1. This list shall be viewed
as preliminary; the Contractor shall add other interfaces as the design and system integration process proceeds.

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

Table 4-1
Interface and Performance Parameters


Track / LRT Car; l Ride comfort

Wheel / Rail l Structural dynamic loading
l Wheel and rail wear or damage
l Wheel-rail interaction, generated noise and ground borne vibration
l Safety margin against derailment

LRT Car / Facilities l Clearance

l Compatibility with maintenance equipment

LRT Car / Station Platform l Platform / side door threshold vertical and horizontal gaps per ADA

LRT Car / Train Control / Signaling l Safe braking distances

l Electromagnetic compatibility

LRT Car / Traction Power Supply l Train performance

l Trip times
l Regeneration efficiency
l Electromagnetic compatibility

LRT Car / Overhead Contact Wire l Wire and pantograph shoe wear
l Contact integrity (under all dynamic vehicle motion)

LRT Car / Operator l Safety

l Train manual controllability
l Station docking accuracy
l Troubleshooting simplicity

LRT Car / LRT Car l Collision safety

l End-to-end clearance

LRT Car / Train Radio l Transmission clarity (voice and data)

l Signal / noise ratio

For each of the interfaces listed, and for all other necessary interfaces to be identified by the Contractor, the
Contractor shall, at an early stage of thedesign and procurement processes, investigate the interaction between
interfacing elements, to verify that the design characteristics of the individual elements have been correctly specified.
A plan for the interface investigations shall be submitted to NJT for review (CDRL) as part of the in-progress design
review data package. The results of these investigations shall also be submitted for review (CDRL).

(C) AREMA (R) 2000


System/Subsystem Summary Descriptions



Consists of all rail and highway rail vehicles required for HBLR and all equipment placed on those vehicles except
that equipment which is placed on the vehicle that specifically designated as part of others systems e.g., Train Control
or Communications. Support and maintenance equipment for vehicles is designated as part of the shop. (System No.

The two major sub-systems of Rolling Stock are the Light Rail Vehicle (LRV) and Maintenance of Way equipment.

The Light Rail Vehicle has major interfaces to track, train control, electrification and the communications systems.
On-board train control and communication equipment are considered to be part of these other systems; functional as
well as physical and engineering interfaces exist aboard the vehicle to these systems.

The fleet of M/W equipment has not yet been selected, required interfaces e.g. clearances to stations and shop
requirements must be considered in selecting this equipment. At present one piece of M/W of equipment is in service
on HBLR; this is the shuttle wagon and is designated as unit W-01. Because this equipment is intended for towing
of LRVs it has interface requirements to the LRV.



The purpose of this system is the supply and distribution of electric traction power for HBLR; it provides all related
functions including conversion and switching of traction power, negative return and auxiliary power. Critical physical
boundaries for the Electrification System include sub-station connections to incoming utility (PSE&G) power,
connections at the rail to impedance bond leads and traction power bonding, and connections to the auxiliary power
equipment located in the train control, station, and shop systems. Critical equipment also includes line feed switches
and jumpers. The most visible and critical interface for Electrification is between the Overhead Catenary subsystem
(OCS) and the LRV pantograph.

Sub-systems within electrification include:

2.1 Substations and power distribution, which includes all traction power feeder cables to the risers on
the OCS as well as return cable.
2.2 Overhead Contact sub-system (OCS), which includes catenary poles, overhead wire, sectionalizing
bypass switches, pole-mounted disconnect switches, polemounted surge arresters and cast-in-place
2.3 Stray current mitigation sub-system which includes bonding and isolation sub-system which
includes rail bonding (but excluding the rail)

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

A major boundary will exist between the two major electrification installation sub- contracts; one of which will be for
the overhead contact subsystem (OCS) and the other of which will include installation of the sub-stations and all other
related electrical work.



The primary purpose of the Track System is to provide support and guidance to trains. This guidance also includes
train routing at interlockings. There are three general types of track utilized on HBLR; these are:

Ballasted Track, comprised of 115 lb. AREA rail installed on monoblock concrete ties. The rail is fastened to
the ties with a spring loaded clip (Pandrol clip). This type of track is utilized on the private right of way
portions of the mainline. A modified form of ballasted track, utilizing wood ties, is used in selected yard areas
and within interlockings.

Slab (Direct Fixation) Track. This track consists of 115 lb. AREA rail fastened directly to cast-in-place track
plinths. The rail rests on resilient plates which are in turn fastened to the plinths through the application of
bolts. Special effort is made to provide for electrical isolation of the rail from the concrete. This type of track
is used in selected areas of at grade private ROW and on viaduct structures.

Embedded Track. This track consists of 115 lb. rail which is directly supported on concrete and is then
encased in a second pour. Special effort is made to achieve electrical isolation of the rail through the use of a
rubber boot. This type of track is primarily utilized in locations where in-street running occurs; this
portion of HBLR is generally not provided with broken rail protection through the use of track circuits (track
circuits are utilized only in a short embedded track section south of Canal Interlock). The embedded track and
slab track may appear similar, they are in fact, entirely dissimilar in their method of construction and in their
method of accommodating train loads.

Related elements of the track include special appurtenances within interlockings such as turnouts and slip
switches. Other special elements include guarded curve segments and station slab track segments.

Sub-Systems and Boundaries

The Track System is comprised of the following sub-systems:

3.1 Ballasted Track

Includes all non-special ballasted track (concrete and wood ties). Ballast is considered part of track; the
physical boundary with Right of Way being the bottom of the ballast layer. At the upper bound the interface
to the vehicle occurs at the rail at both the head and gauge corner. Track also interfaces with the Electrification
system at the impedance bonds and cross bonds and with the train control systems track circuits at the track

3.2 Embedded Track

Includes all non-special track of embedded construction. The track physically interfaces at its upper
boundary with the vehicle; this interface involves the wheel-to-rail head, and wheel flange to gauge corner of
the rail. The lower boundary interface is at the bottom surface of the first concrete pour, where the track slab
sits on the right of way. Interface to Traction power per 3.1, and certain sections of embedded track interface
to train control as per 3.1

3.3 Direct Fixation (Slab) Track

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

Same upper interface as 3.1 and 3.2, the lower interface is at the bottom of the plinth. The plinth (second pour)
is included in the track and not the right of way due to the method of construction, which is bottoms up and
requires track to be at final alignment and profile prior to pouring the plinth. The slab (first pour) is part of the
guideway or right of way system, whichever applies at the particular location. Interfaces with traction power
and train control as per 3.1.

3.4 Special Trackwork/Interlockings (Ballast)

Includes turnouts, slip switches and related equipment. Upper and lower horizontal boundaries are as per sub-
system 3.1. Boundaries exist to signal equipment such as at switch machines and operating, lock and point
detection rods. Also to TWC devices and to train detection loops which are located on track. Boundary exists
to electrification at impedance bonds crossboards as well as at switch heaters/snow melters.

Boundary exists to other sub-systems within track at insulated joints (which are included within this sub-

Special interface exists to vehicle for purposes of vehicle routing.

3.5 Special Trackwork Interlocking Slab

These boundaries and interfaces are analogues to sub-system 3.4.

3.6 Special Appurtenances

These include crossing diamonds outside of interlockings (none of which presently of which presently exist on
IOS) and curves which utilize check rail. These are considered as a part of this sub-system due to the special
nature of wheel/rail/guard rail interface. Also included are highway crossings, which have special interfaces to
the traffic operating system and to the train control system, and track bumping posts.



The train control system provides the primary functions of train routing at merge/diverge locations (interlockings) and
train separation at all locations other than in the yard. This system also provides the functions of on-board speed
enforcement; such enforcement is affected through the cab signal system acting on the LRVs traction power and
braking control systems. Speed enforcement is applied for reasons of civil restrictions, train routing, train separation
and for protection against broken rails. The train control system is not deployed, (and therefore the aforementioned
functions are not provided) in street-running territory.

The basis for train control is an audio frequency track circuit with basic logic provided through vital microprocessors.
Although manual train operation is required, Automatic Train Protection (ATP) is provided through a series of speed
commands displayed on board the vehicle. Wayside signals are provided only as home signals located at entrances
to interlockings.

In order to function the Train Control System relies heavily on the Communications System (System No. 5), which
includes the communications link between signal locations and the OCC. The Train Control System also includes
automatic Train to Wayside (TWC) communicators which provide for routing requests at interlocks as well as
supplemental information regarding train location. These TWC devices are also located in street-running territory as a
means of providing OCC with information regarding train location. Train location provided by TWCs is considered
as non-vital and is not utilized by the Train Control System for any Safety-critical functions. They also provide an
interface to the Traffic Operations Systems (TOS).

Critical interfaces exist between System 4 and:

1. Communications (System 5), for use of the communications backbone subsystem.

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

2. Operations Control Center (System 6), for supervisory train control.
3. Track (System 3), at all locations for broken rail protection as well as at interlockings for route selection
(turnout operations) and routing assurance (switch point detection).
4. Rolling Stock (System 1) the on-board equipment mounted on the LRV for ATP, as well as shunting
sensitivity for track circuits.
5. Traffic Operations System (System 9) for identification of train arrival, through the automatic TWC, at
intersections. Note that the bar signal which indicates that a train may enter an intersection, does not
convey vital information regarding the status of the track or intersection is not provided with enforcement
aboard the vehicle. It is therefore considered as part of the Traffic Operations System.
6. Electrification (System 2), for avoidance of unsuitable traction power return which could adversely effect
track circuits and for the provision of signal power to the CIH and AIH locations. A primary interface
exists at the audio-frequency impedance bonds which provide a low impedance path for the return of
traction power.

Two major sub-contract boundaries exist within Train Control; these include the final design and manufacture of
CIHs/AIHs by a specialty sub-contract and installation of cable and standardized equipment by a sub-contractor.

The sub-systems comprising the Train Control System include:

4.1 Interlockings/Train Routing and Train Separation (CIH)

4.2 Train Separation (AIH)
4.3 Signal Power
4.4 Wayside Equipment
4.5 Intrusion Detection
4.6 Carborne Equipment
4.7 Grade Crossing Protection
4.8 Track Circuits



The Communications System provides the link between systems and subsystems in the field, and the indication,
control, and communication functions available in the Operations Control Center (OCC). The 5.4 Communications
Backbone (redundant fiber-optic trunk cables) is the primary path for indication and control signals to and from the
OCC. The Multiplexers and Fiber Optic Equipment, located in the Traction Power Substations, serve as the
marshalling points for communications from the Station Platforms. The Station Platforms are connected to the
commu nications rack by cables containing 50 twisted pair copper conductors.

Much of the indication, control, and communication function available in the OCC is provided by the Integrated
Control System (ICS), which communicates via the Communications Backbone to System 4.0 Train Control (4.1.2
VHLCs and 4.4.3 TWCs in the 4.1.1CIHs), and System 2.0 Electrification (RTU). The RTU also provides the ICS
with the communications connection to the Station Platforms for the purposes of Intrusion Detection (Ticket Ve nding
Machines, Communications Locker, Standalone Validators, and Elevator Tower Rooms) and Fire Detection (Elevator
Tower Rooms). The ICS also accepts messages (voice and data) from the 5.2.0 Passenger Information System (PIS)
and communicates them to the vehicle via the Radio Control Computer and vehicle radios and modems.

The Telephone Subsystem uses the Communications Backbone to connect field telephones (ETS, Emergency
Telephones, Domestic Phones) to the PBX.

The following listed sub-systems commu nicate directly to their associated field devices via the Communications

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

System/Subsystem Field Device
5.3.1 Call for Aid (via PBX) 5.3.2 CCTV
9.0.0 Traffic Operations 9.3 Area Controllers
5.2.0 Passenger Information 5.2.1 Public Address Loudspeakers
5.1 PBX 5.3.1 Call For Aid Audio
5.1.3 Domestic Telephones
2.1.1 ETS Telephones
ETEL Phone (parking lot)



The Integrated Control System (ICS) is a state-of-the-art centralized Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
(SCADA) located in the Operations Control Center (OCC) within the office complex located within the Communipaw
LRV Maintenance Shop Building. The ICS communicates via the Communications Backbone to equipment in the
field, providing OCC Personnel with indication, control, and communication capabilities. Besides using the
Communications Backbone, the ICS interfaces directly with other subsystems also located in the OCC.

The ICS interfaces via the Communications Backbone with the systems/subsystems listed below:

4.0 Train Control

4.1.2 VHLC (located in CIHs)
4.4.4 Vetag (TWC)
2.0 Electrification
2.1.5 SCADA Interface (Remote Terminal Units)

The ICS interfaces with the following listed systems/subsystems also located in the OCC:

5.5.0 Radio
Radio Data Controller
5.2.0 Passenger Information System (PIS)
PIS Central Controller

The Integrated Control System is also defined to include specialized the furniture (such as consoles
and chairs) within the OCC, and the UPS equipment. The ICS does not include the rooms and the
associated building utilities; these are included within the shop (System No.14)



This system consists of specialty equipment supplied and maintained by New Jersey Transit. It includes
machines for collecting monies and dispensing and validating tickets. It also includes the off-site
equipment necessary for systems maintenance. Major interfaces exist to the communications system
(for purposes of security and surveillance) as well as to station/stops (for location and access).



(C) AREMA (R) 2000


This system includes the Management Information sub-system (MIS), the Maintenance Management Sub-system,
payroll sub-systems, and other sub-systems which support HBLR administration. Included in this system is special
dedicated hardware and peripherals, as well as software.

Direct interface to operating systems is primarily via the OCC. Train delays or other critical operational events that
are captured and logged by OCC are transferred to the MIS for further treatment and disposition. These items may be,
in turn , passed on to other systems. The Adminis trative are important to the determination and recording of SDQI.


This system includes all traffic control software, computer hardware, equipment and devices which control the
movement of LRVs across signalized street and roadway crossings Highspeed, grade crossings with railroad style
gated crossings are not included; such equipment is considered as part of the train control system.

Traffic system equipment in the field includes the notorious bar signal, which is used to convey a non-vital aspect to
the train regarding the Status of the intersection or crossings. Bar signals are not considered to be railroad signals and
their aspects are considered as informational. At certain locations the railway or highway configuration requires
special rules on interpreting bar signals and wayside railroad signals that are in close relationship to each other. This
is considered to be a special interface between the Train Control and Traffic Operating Systems which is addressed, in
part, by operating rules and procedures.

At the OCC the TOS includes a computer which indicates status of crossings and is capable of exerting control of said
crossings. Coordination of supervisory control of train movements and of traffic is through the human element i. e.,
the controller at the OCC.


Included in shelter stops/stations are civil/structural components such as platforms and the canopy, as well as
building system components such as station (A.C.) power, elevators, plumbing and lighting. Interface to traction
power is at local distribution panel or transformer. Local communications such as Public Address and telephone are
included in the stations; such local communication interfaces and operates through with communication system. The
track structure through the stations is considered part of the Track (System No. 3.0), but has significant interface to the
station (platform height and offset) through the LRV and other rolling stock. This system also includes the approach
walkways, driveways, and special site work (e.g. landscaping) which is peculiar to the station/shelter stop. Park and
Rides are considered to be a sub-system of stations/shelter stops. Fare collection, and traffic operating equipment may
be located in stations but is not considered part of system 10.0.


This system is composed of all at-grade right of way; it includes subgrade and drainage structures. It also includes
duct bank and buried conduit, but does not include cable. Right of Way supports the track (the physical interface to
ballasted track is at top of the subgrade), and stations (interface is also at top of sub-grade). A secondary function of

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

Right of Way is to provide drainage; this is not independent of the support function as adequate drainage is essential
to the strength of geo-structure.

Deep foundations (caissons, piles) other than those associated with System 13.0 are part of the right of way, as are
culverts, drainage pipes and short span bridges. The viaduct and the tunnel are each considered as separate systems,
however, and are not considered part of the right of way. This system also includes streets, pavers and curbs for in-
street portions of the HBLR. A number of safety-related interfaces exist between right of way, the human, and other
systems. Typical of these are signal preview and site lines, control of access to the track, and the guarding of access to
energized traction power sub-systems.


A double-track tunnel of approximately 1 mile in length exists on the SOS; there is no tunnel on the IOS. The
Tunnel System includes the structure, as well as specialized sub-systems which are necessary in order to make the
tunnel suitable for Light Rail passenger rail operation. Such sub-systems include ventilation, Ingress (Access), 60
cycle electrical, drainage, and fire protection.

The station located within the tunnel is Bergen line Avenue and is not considered to be a tunnel system. Likewise the
railway systems are considered separately, and are not part of the tunnel system, however because of the relationship
between the tunnel floor and the tunnel structure, the tunnel floor is considered to be a tunnel sub-system.

Although the tunnel is part of the SOS, it is included in the System Integration process for the IOS due to the major
interface to OCC for command and control of tunnel sub-systems. This function provides for supervisory status and or
control of elevators, lighting, tunnel communications, and fire suppression. This tunnel is presently utilized by freight
trains and lacks these sub-systems. In addition the tunnel design must interface with the LRV and with work equipment
(sub-system 1.2.0). For this reason the tunnel design has been progressed to 100% during the IOS phase.


The Guideway consists of special-built structure whose purpose is to elevate the tracks for distances longer than the
length of a bridge. There are two guideways on the HBLR, the viaduct which grade-separates the rail from
automotive traffic in portions of downtown Jersey City, and the trestle, which spans Long Slip, providing entry into
Hoboken terminal.

Guideway consists of foundations (shallow and deep), superstructure and deck, as well as ancillary devices and sub-
systems such at stairs, equipment platforms, and right-of-way illumination. Rail systems over guideways are not
considered to be guideway. The physical interface between guideway and these systems occurs at the surface of
the deck which provides for the mounting of equipment such as signals, impedance bonds, and catenary structures.
Direct fixation track is used on the viaduct; the physical interface occurs between the plinth and the deck, with the
plinth considered as part of the track system. On the wooden trestle the physical division between track and guideway
is between the track plate and the bridge timber. As is consistent with general railway practice the plate, fasteners
and rail are considered to be part of the track system.

In addition to the normally occurring interfaces between systems, two special types of interfaces exist over guideway
portions of the HBLR. These are special man-machine (ergonomic) interfaces that pertain to rail operations on an
elevated structure. These include special needs for routine and emergency access, and limited clearance from train
movements for individuals on the structure.

The second category pertains to accommodation of special structural/mechanical loads which are exchanged between
rail systems (including the live loads imposed by the vehicle) and the guideway. These loads include thermal stresses,
(in track as well as in the structure) traction loads and lateral loads due to curving, wind, and trains diverting at
turnouts. Design for these loads requires use of special appurtenances and coordination of their location with other
equipment. Typical items whose location requires design integration on a guideway are;

(C) AREMA (R) 2000

Rail Expansion Joints
Structural Expansion Joints
Turnouts (switch points)
Wayside signals
Catenary sectionalizing
Insulated joints
Impedance Bonds

It is noteworthy that interlockings exist on, or immediately adjacent to guideway sections but that there are not
stations located on guideway. The location of each of these appartences requires careful integration with the
Civil/Structural design and signal block layout on the two guideway sections.


The shop, located in Cumminpaw yard, includes the shop building, its foundation, superstructure and all if its contents
with the exception of the enclosed track and traction power. In the case of the latter, however, the shop includes the
special traction power return which separates the shop from other return. The shop includes two types of sub-systems;
these are common building sub-systems such as lighting, HVAC, and fire suppression, and special sub-systems which
are provided for the express purpose of servicing the LRVs and other rolling stock. The shop system also includes
the rooms, cableways, chases, and building support sub-systems which house the Integrated Control System and
portions of the Communications System. Because of the wide variety of specialized equipment which is included
within the shop a relatively large number of sub-contracts are required for its deployment and hence a number of
significant interfaces exist across contract boundaries. In addition, because the shop will include the operational
headquarters for the HBLR, special emphasis is placed on operability during system design.


The yard includes all of the right of way and equipment at Communipaw Yard which exists outside of the limits of
YS, YN, and YW interlockings, with the following exceptions: it excludes equipment which is included within the
track and traction power systems, the hydraulic switch machines (which are considered as part of the train control
system), and equipment classified as part of system 14.0, the Shop.

The Car Barn (LRV storage building) is considered to be a sub-system of the yard. Other subsystems
include site, yard lighting, fencing, drainage, and duct/conduit (excluding traction power cable, and signal
which is classified as part of the appropriate rail system). The safety-critical (train routing assurance, train
separation, speed control) train control functions are not fully operational in the yard. This is consistent
with good practice in railway system design for all but high-end heavy rail rapid transit (HRT), however
it requires the implementation of special rules, procedures, and training for yard operations, as well as to
the transition from/to yard and mainline. In the latter case the design of train control will also address
operation across the yard boundary.

(C) AREMA (R) 2000



Parts. Individual fabricated, wired, or machined items.

Components. Equipment comprised of one or more parts. Components are grouped to make up assemblies.

Assembly. Portions of sub-systems, combinations of which provide one of the functions of a particular sub-system.

Sub-system. A portion of a System which provides one or more of the major functions of that system.

System. A group of equipment, which may also include computer hardware and software, designed for and is capable
of performing a specific stand alone function which directly relates to a major operability requirement of HBLR.

HBLR. The entire Hudson Bergen Light Rail Transit System.

Element. A general term used to refer to any item below the level of HBLR, i. e., system, sub-system or below.

Interface control document (ICD). A standardized format which describes parametric requirements which are
essential to performance across an interface. On this project the ICDs include a standard form with other technical
documents appended. They are primarily utilized to define interfaces across system-level boundaries, but may be
created, as required, for lower level interfaces.

Systems testing. Refers to testing and other means of check- out which occurs within a particular system, and which
does not test parameters which cross the boundary of that particular system.

Integrated testing. Refers to testing and other means of check-out which occurs across system boundaries or which
relates to HBLR system-wide operations.

Operability. Describes the total (i.e. mission requirements) and specific operating capability of the HBLR, including
the man-machine (driver, maintainer, passenger, controller) interfaces, and human element requirements..

Functionality. Describes the performance requirements of a particular system as required to support the HBLR

(C) AREMA (R) 2000