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# Chapter File Folders

Teacher Tools

Assessment Guide

## Problem of the Day

Quit Success on Standardized Tests
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Explore How Big Is a Million? P PRACTICE

Solve.
1. How many 10-by-10 grids would 2. How many thousand cubes would
you need to make a thousand cube? you need to make a million?

## 8. How many thousands are in 1,000,000?

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## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 1, pages 23. (1) NS 1.1

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Explore How Big Is a Million? R RETEACH

## You can show numbers in different ways.

You can think of 1,000
in the following ways:
1 thousand
10 hundreds
100 tens
1,000 ones
1 thousand 10 hundreds

## Complete. Name each number in different ways.

2. 10,000 3. 100,000 4. 1,000,000

## hundreds thousands ten thousands

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ones tens

ones

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 1, pages 23. (2) NS 1.1

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Explore How Big Is a Million? E ENRICH

A Million Pizzas
Skye just opened Skyes Pizzas. Her dream is to sell one million
pizzas. She wants to see how long it will take. Answer these
questions to help her find out.

1. Skye says, If I sell 100 pizzas every day, I can sell 1,000,000 pizzas
in days! She frowns. Thats a long time.

2. Suddenly Skye snaps her fingers. I know! Ill open more stores!
If I have 10 stores and each store sells 100 pizzas every day, it will
only take days to sell 1,000,000 pizzas!

## 3. Wait a minute! she exclaims. What if I have 100 stores and

each store sells 1,000 pizzas every day? How long will it take to
sell 1,000,000 pizzas?

Why dont you try to sell 1,000,000 pizzas in just 1 day? Skyes friend
Emma asks. Hmmm, Skye murmurs. How many stores would I
need? How many pizzas would each store need to sell?

4. Decide how many stores Skye would need and how many pizzas
each store would need to sell in 1 day.
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## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 1, pages 23. (3) NS 1.1

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Place Value Through Millions P PRACTICE

Write the word name and the expanded form for each number.

1. 1,420,316

2. 2,672,400

3. 12,060,072

4. 785,004,012

## Write the value of each underlined digit.

5. 842,753 6. 6,782,141

7. 153,428,090 8. 715,124,068

## Write each number in standard form.

9. one million, two hundred thousand, five

## 11. five hundred eighty million, sixty-two thousand, seventeen

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## Algebra & Functions Write the missing number.

13. 42,865  40,000   800  60  5

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 2, pages 47. (4) NS 1.1

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Place Value Through Millions R RETEACH

## Numbers in the millions have three periods.

Each period is separated by a comma.
Millions Thousands Ones

## Hundreds Tens Ones Hundreds Tens Ones Hundreds Tens Ones

7 0 1 2 2 1 3 5 4

## Expanded form: 700,000,000  1,000,000  200,000 

20,000  1,000  300  50  4
Standard form: 701,221,354
Word name: seven hundred one million, two hundred twenty-one thousand,
three hundred fifty-four

Complete.
1. 824,124 = + 20,000 + 4,000 + + +
2. 7,624,139 = 7,000,000 + + 20,000 + + + +
3. 42,521,012 = + 2,000,000 + 500,000 + + + 10 +

## Standard Form Expanded Form Word Name

3,000,000  200,000
4.  500  20

2,000,000  400,000
5.  50,000  7,000  800
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 20  1

30,000,000  7,000,000
6.  800,000  50,000
 2,000  4

40,000,000  9,000,000
7.  300,000  50,000
 2,000  6

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 2, pages 47. (5) NS 1.1

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Place Value Through Millions E ENRICH

## And the Number Is . . .

Use the digits below only once in each exercise.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1. What is the greatest number with 4 in the hundred millions place?

, ,
2. What is the greatest number with 5 in the hundred thousands place?

, ,
3. What is the least number with 6 in the millions place?

, ,
4. What is the least number with 3 in the ten thousands place?

, ,
5. What is the greatest number with 8 in the thousands place?

, ,
6. What is the greatest number with 1 in the ten millions place?

, ,
7. What is the least number with 9 in the millions place and 2 in
the ten thousands place?
, ,
8. What is the greatest number with 7 in the hundred thousands
place and 1 in the thousands place?
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, ,
9. How did you use place value to help you make the greatest
possible number? the least possible number?

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 2, pages 47. (6) NS 1.1

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Compare and Order Numbers P PRACTICE

and Money
Compare. Write >, <, or =.
1. 3,874 3,862 2. 5,741 5,862 3. \$78.24 \$77.24

## Order from greatest to least.

16. 3,421; 3,641; 3,481; 3,562

## Order from least to greatest.

20. \$64.21; \$68.78; \$87.68; \$65.43

## 22. 324,621; 324,742; 325,697

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## 23. 524,607; 525,712; 524,872

Problem Solving
24. Sean has 1,575 bird stamps and Li has 25. Seans stamp album cost \$12.75 and
2,075 bird stamps. Cindy has a Lis album cost \$18.50. Cindys album
number of stamps between Seans and cost the most. Is it \$18.75 or \$11.75?
Lis numbers. Is it 1,075 or 1,755? Explain.
Explain.

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 3, pages 811. (7) NS 1.2

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Compare and Order Numbers R RETEACH

and Money
You can use a place-value chart to compare numbers. Start at the left.
Look for the first place where the digits are different.
Compare 4,872 and 4,892.
Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones
4 8 7 2
4 8 9 2

same number same number 4,892 has more So, 4,892 4,872.
of thousands of hundreds tens than 4,872.

## Compare \$306.97 and \$319.23.

Hundred Ten One
Dollars Dollars Dollars Cents
3 0 6 97
3 1 9 23

## same number of \$319.23 has more So, \$319.23 \$306.97.

hundred dollars ten dollars than \$306.97.

## Use the place-value chart to compare the numbers. Write , , or .

1. Compare 3,234 and 3,216. 3,234 3,216

## Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

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Compare. Write , , or .
2. 8,504 8,515 3. \$25.16 \$21.12

## 10. 502,300 510,239 11. 832,077 822,077

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Compare and Order Numbers E ENRICH

and Money
Greater Numbers
Look at the value that each letter represents. Then order the letters
from least to greatest values in the boxes below.

## A. There are 9,123 public libraries in the United States.

B. There were 54,773 poodles registered by the American Kennel Club, Inc.

C. There were 54,470 beagles registered by the American Kennel Club, Inc.

## D. The area of Mexico is 761,604 square miles.

E. In the year ending December 31, 1997, there were 4,819 Maine coon cats

## H. In the 1868 United States Presidential election, Ulysses S. Grant received

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## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 3, pages 811. (9) NS 1.2

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Using the Four-Step Process Reading

Skill
process. Write a number next to each step to show the order in
which the steps are done. Write a 1 for the first step, and so on.
1. A male elk weighs 600 pounds. A male moose weighs
1,000 pounds. A male caribou weighs 300 pounds. What is
the order of the three animals from greatest to least weight?
Identify what you need to find. You need to find the order of the male
elk, the male moose, and the male caribou from greatest to least weight.
Identify what you know: A male elk weighs 600 pounds. A male
moose weighs 1,000 pounds. A male caribou weighs 300 pounds.
Make a plan for solving the problem. Order the animals by comparing
their weights two at a time. List the animals from greatest to least weight.
What is the order of the three animals from greatest to least weight?

## 2. A mink can be 20 inches long. A wolverine can be 36 inches long.

A black-footed ferret can be 18 inches long. Which animal can
grow to the greatest length?
Identify what you know. A mink can be 20 inches long. A wolverine
can be 36 inches long. A black-footed ferret can be 18 inches long.
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Make a plan for solving the problem. Order the animals by comparing
their lengths two at a time. List the animals from least to greatest length.
Identify what you need to find: Which animal can
grow to the greatest length?
Which animal can grow to the greatest length?
Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 4, pages 1213. (10) MR 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.2
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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Using the Four-Step Process Math Skills

Test Prep
A bottle-nosed dolphin can weigh up to 440 pounds. A common dolphin
can weigh up to 165 pounds. Which kind of dolphin can be heavier?
1. Which of these statements is true? 2. Which plan will help you solve the
A A bottle-nosed dolphin cannot be problem?
as heavy as a common dolphin. F Add 440 and 165.
B A common dolphin can weigh G Compare 440 and 165.
615 pounds. H Subtract 165 from 440.
C A bottle-nosed dolphin can weigh
440 pounds.

## On Friday, 660 people went to Ocean World Animal Park. On Saturday,

1,096 people went to Ocean World. On Sunday, 998 people went to
Ocean World. On which day did the most people go to Ocean World?

3. Which plan can you use to solve this 4. On which day did the most people
problem? go to Ocean World?
A Compare 660; 1,096; and 998. F Friday
B Add 660 and 1,096. G Saturday
C Add 1,096 and 998. H Sunday

Lassies Dog Walking Service walks 68 dogs per week. Doggie Express
walks 57 dogs per week. Top Dog Company walks 101 dogs per week.
List the dog walking services in order from least dogs walked per week
to most dogs walked per week.
5. Which statement is true? 6. Which plan can you use to solve the
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## A Lassies Dog Walking Service walks problem?

the most dogs per week. F Compare the numbers of dogs
B Doggie Express walks 57 dogs per walked two at a time.
week. G Find the difference between the
C Top Dog Company walks 68 dogs number of dogs walked by Top
per week Dog Company and the number
walked by Lassies.
H Find the total number of dogs
walked by the three services.
Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 4, pages 1213. (11) MR 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.2
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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Using the Four-Step Process Math Skills

Test Prep
Ocean World Animal Park needs 750 customers each day to make
money. On Monday, Ocean World had 803 customers. On Tuesday,
911 customers. On which day or days did Ocean World make money?
7. Which plan will help you solve the 8. On which day or days did Ocean
problem? World make money?
A Compare the daily customer totals F Tuesday only
two at a time. G Wednesday only
B Compare each daily customer H Monday and Wednesday only
total to 750.
C Order the daily customer totals
from greatest to least.

Solve.
9. A marlin can move at a speed of 50 10. Brandon, Timothy, and Norah have
miles per hour. A striped dolphin can pet care services. Last year, Brandon
move 19 miles per hour. A killer earned \$712, Timothy earned \$1,110,
whale can move 55 miles per hour. and Norah earned \$650. List the
List the animals in order from slowest people in order from greatest amount
to fastest. earned to least amount earned.

11. A poll shows that 311 students have 12. The pet shelter has 324 dogs in
dogs, 424 students have cats, 96 April, 411 dogs in May, and 399
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students have birds, and 38 students dogs in June. List the months in
have a different pet. Which kind of order from least number of dogs to
pet is owned by the most students? greatest number of dogs.

13. Dylan spots 48 birds. Nicole spots 51 14. In 1997, about 36,000,000 people went
birds. Who spots fewer birds? to aquariums and about 86,000,000
people went to zoos. Did more
people go to aquariums or to zoos?

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 4, pages 1213. (12) MR 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.2
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Round Numbers and Money P PRACTICE

## Round to the given place.

1. 923 to the nearest 2. \$0.93 to the nearest 3. \$6.49 to the nearest
ten ten cents dollar

## 4. \$57.52 to the nearest 5. 862 to the nearest 6. \$46.47 to the nearest

dollar hundred dollar

## 7. 4,357 to the nearest 8. \$73.96 to the nearest 9. 8,553 to the nearest

thousand ten cents hundred

10. 380,256 to the nearest 11. 61,479 to the nearest 12. 1,555 to the nearest
hundred thousand ten thousand hundred

13. \$34.06 to the nearest 14. 7,502,475 to the 15. 2,653,789 to the
ten cents nearest million nearest hundred thousand

## Algebra & Functions Find the rule. Complete the table.

16.

Rule:
Input 57,124 64,142 91,722 234,162 478,234

Output 60,000
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Problem Solving
17.The radio announcer said that there 18.Joes class bought a bird feeder for
were 1,532 bluebird sightings on the \$38.75. To the nearest dollar, what
island. To the nearest hundred, how was the cost?
many sightings were there?

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 5, pages 1417. (13) NS 1.3

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Round Numbers and Money R RETEACH

40,000 41,000 42,000 43,000 44,000 45,000 46,000 47,000 48,000 49,000 50,000

## Round 46,208 to the nearest ten thousand.

Think: 46,000 is closer to 50,000 than 40,000.
So, 46,208 rounds up to 50,000.

\$6.00 \$6.10 \$6.20 \$6.30 \$6.40 \$6.50 \$6.60 \$6.70 \$6.80 \$6.90 \$7.00

## 12. 7,832,010 13. 7,289,999

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## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 5, pages 1417. (14) NS 1.3

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Round Numbers and Money E ENRICH

Mystery Numbers
1. If you round me to the nearest hundred, you get 400.
If you round me to the nearest ten, you get 430.
The sum of my digits is 8.
What number am I?

## 2. If you round me to the nearest thousand, you get 3,000.

If you round me to the nearest hundred, you get 2,600.
Three of my digits are the same.
The sum of my digits is 17.
What number am I?

## 3. If you round me to the nearest thousand, you get 4,000.

The sum of my digits is 10.
If you read me forward or backward, I am the same.
What number am I?

## 4. If you round me to the nearest ten thousand, you get 50,000.

My first two digits add up to 10.
The digit in my hundreds place is one more than 2.
My last three digits add up to 8, and round (to the nearest hundred) to 400.
What number am I?

5. The sum of my seven digits is 60. Six of the digits are the same.
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## Rounding me to the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand,

or million will give you the same number.
What number am I?

## 6. If you round me to the nearest 100,000, you get 600,000.

Each of my six digits is the same.
What number am I?

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 5, pages 1417. (15) NS 1.3

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Problem Solving: Strategy P PRACTICE

Make a Table
Make a table. Use data from the table to solve problems 1 and 2.
What is your favorite kind of pet?
Elliotdog Howarddog Janebird Rebeccabird
Marioncat Norikobird Tericat Melaniecat
Paulafish Barrycat Brucedog Noreenfish
Samcat Juandog Mikecat Sylviacat

3. Mark cuts out letters to make a sign. 4. Which letter does Mark need to
The sign says, "Get Pet Kittens for make the most of? How many of
Free." How many different kinds of these letters does Mark have to
letters does Mark need to make? make?

## Mixed Strategy Review

Solve. Use any strategy.
5. A pet store sold 137 bags of dog 6. In 1999, The Pet Palace made about
food called The Vets Choice. It sold \$100,000. In 2000, The Pet Palace
249 bags of a dog food called Fidos increased this amount by \$10,000.
Friend. How many more bags of How much did The Pet Palace make
Fidos Friend than The Vets Choice in 2000?
were sold?
Strategy:
Strategy:
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7. Science Adult sun bears usually 8. Create a problem you would make
weigh from 60 to 100 pounds. Adult a table to solve. Share it with others.
grizzly bears weigh from 350 to 500
bear weighs the least?

Strategy:

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Make a Table
Page 21, Problem 2
Which type of fish has the greatest number of varieties?
Different Varieties of Tetras, Goldfish, and Angelfish
tetrasblack neon tetra goldfishfan tail goldfish goldfishlionhead
goldfishblack moor tetraswhite skirt tetrasblack neon tetras
angelfishgold angel tetrassilver dollar angelfishsilver angel
tetraslemon tetra angelfishmarble angel

Step 1
Be sure you understand the problem.
What do you know?
There are different varieties of ,
, and .
What do you need to find?
You need to know how many different varieties of
, , and
there are.

Step 2
Make a plan.
Plan Choose a strategy.
Make a Table or List A table can help you organize what you know.
Write a Number Sentence
Make a table to solve the problem.
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Work Backward
Act it Out
Find a Pattern
Make a Graph
Guess and Check
Logical Reasoning
Solve a Simpler Problem
Draw a Picture

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 6, pages 2021. (17) NS 1.2; SDP 1.3; MR 1.1, 2.3, 3.2
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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Make a Table

Step 3
Solve Make a table to solve.

## Tally the number of for each fish. Write a

number for each set of tallies. Compare the numbers.

## Complete the table.

Type of Fish Tally of Different Number
Varieties
Tetras
Goldfish 3
Angelfish

## There are different kinds of tetras.

There are different kinds of goldfish.
There are different kinds of angelfish.
There are more varieties of than either of the other
two kinds of fish.

Step 4
Is the solution reasonable?
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Practice
1. Jack lists the fish in his aquarium. He has 2. Alex, Brian, and Yumi each like one kind
a fan tail goldfish, a lionhead goldfish, a of dog. The dog is either a terrier, a
gold angel angelfish, a lemon tetra, and retriever, or a poodle. Alex does not like
a black neon tetra. Of which type of fish retrievers. Brian does not like poodles or
does Jack have the least? retrievers. Who likes poodles?

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 6, pages 2021. (18) NS 1.2; SDP 1.3; MR 1.1, 2.3, 3.2
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Count Money and Make Change P PRACTICE

1. 2. 3.

8 8 8 8

8 8 8 8

## Find the amount of change.

7. Price: \$0.59 8. Price: \$2.45 9. Price: \$7.81
Amount given: \$1.00 Amount given: \$5.00 Amount given: \$10.00

## 10. Price: \$0.86 11. Price: \$3.09 12. Price: \$9.25

Amount given: \$5.00 Amount given: \$10.00 Amount given: \$10.00
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Problem Solving
13. Andy gives the cashier \$5.00 to pay 14. Lowanda receives 1 quarter, 2 dimes,
for a \$3.75 calendar. How much and 1 nickel in change. How much
change does he receive? money is that?

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 7, pages 2223. (19) NS 1.0; MR 2.4
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Count Money and Make Change R RETEACH

To make change, start with the cost. Then count up to the amount
given to you. Use the fewest number of bills and coins possible.

## You sell a pen for \$2.49.

Someone gives you \$5.00 for the pen.

## \$2.49 \$2.50 \$2.75 \$3.00 \$4.00 \$5.00

Cost
Count the bills and coins to find the change: \$2.51.

## Count up. Find the amount of change.

1. Amount given: \$6.00

\$5.34
Cost

Amount of change:

## 2. Amount given: \$10.00

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SCHOOL MONEY
8 8

8 8

\$3.79
Cost

Amount of change:

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Count Money and Make Change E ENRICH

Money Detective
Use the clues to find which coins and bills are inside each bank.
1. 2.

\$0.47 \$0.58

3. 4.

\$0.73 \$0.81

5. 6.

\$1.00 \$7.45

## Clue: 19 coins, but only two kinds Clue: 3 bills, 3 coins

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7. 8.

\$15.55 \$23.00

## Clue: 2 bills, 3 coins Clue: 5 bills, 3 coins

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Negative Numbers P PRACTICE

## Compare. Write  or . You may use a number line to help.

  
11. 0 9 12. 2 3 13. 4 2 14. 5 6

    
15. 4 7 16. 0 8 17. 3 0 18. 3 3

   
19. 1 12 20. 6 10 21. 12 12 22. 7 15

   
23. 5 2 24. 12 24 25. 10 0 26. 9 9

    
27. 4 8 28. 17 13 29. 15 9 30. 0 11

  
31. 11 11 32. 0 8 33. 6 11 34. 13 3

     
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## 35. 6 1 36. 2 10 37. 4 4 38. 12 7

Problem Solving
39. Manuel deposited a check for \$25 in 40. An airplane descended 1,000 feet. Ten
his savings account. Then he withdrew minutes later, it climbed 9,500 feet.
\$30. Write a number to represent Write a number to represent each
each situation. situation.

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 8, pages 2425. (22) NS 1.8

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Negative Numbers R RETEACH

You can use a number line to understand and compare positive and
negative numbers.

## less than zero greater than zero

           
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

## Numbers to the right are greater than numbers to the left.


2 is to the right of 2, so 2  2.
 
0 is to the right of 4, so 0  4.

3 is to the right of 6, so 3  6.

Complete.

5 is to the right of 3, so 5  
1. 3.

of 1, so 1 
2. 1 is to the 1.

of 6, so 5 
3. 5 is to the 6.

of 1, so 4 
4. 4 is to the 1.

5. 6 is to the of 6, so 6 
6.

of 4, so 2 
6. 2 is to the 4.
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## Compare. Write  or . You may use a number line to help.

       
7. 14 14 8. 13 31 9. 9 15 10. 20 18

       
11. 12 21 12. 25 5 13. 8 2 14. 20 20

       
15. 6 15 16. 10 12 17. 2 12 18. 4 4

      
19. 7 7 20. 8 2 21. 9 8 22. 0 10
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Negative Numbers E ENRICH

## Are You Positive or Negative?

Play with a partner.

## Each player writes five different negative and five

different positive integers, one on each card.
They should use the integers from 10 to 10.
Each player mixes up their cards and spreads them
out face down.

## To play, each player touches one of these cards.

One player announces Mine is greater than
(or less than or equal to) yours. Both players
turn over their card. If the statement was correct,
that player gets both cards. If not, they go to the 
original player. 9
Repeat touching cards and taking turns making
the statements. When all cards are collected, the
player with the most cards wins. 7 8



2 6

1 3
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0 5

4

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 8, pages 2425. (24) NS 1.8

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19
Problem Solving: Application Part
A WORKSHEET

Decision
Applying Place Value Making

## Cost of 20 Pounds Cost of Gas for

Store
of Dog Food Trip to Store

Pet Supply

Animal World

Pets Place

## Discount Pet Food

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## What is your recommendation for Stacia? Explain.

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 9, pages 2627. (25) NS 1.2; MR 1.1, 2.3
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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

Science

## Data for Data for Are the two

Student 1 Student 2 sets of data
the same or
close to
being the
same?

each night

in 30 seconds

right now

drank yesterday

## 7. Length of your arm from shoulder

to wrist
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## 9. Number of times you breathe in

one minute

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 1, Lesson 9, pages 2829. (26) NS 1.2; MR 1.1, 2.3, 3.3
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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

## How do you compare with your partner? Math &

Science

1. How many times were you and your partner the same? different?

2. Explain how you decided whether you and your partner were the
same. Did the numbers have to be exactly alike? Why or why not?

3. In which areas did you vary the most from your partner?

4. In which areas did you vary the least from your partner?
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 5. Why is it good to have variation in nature?

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Use Properties of Addition P PRACTICE

## Complete the set of related number sentences.

1. 5 , 3, 8 2. 6, 8, 14 3. 6, 9, 15
5n8 68n n  6  15
n38 8  n  14 6  n  15
85n 14  6  n 15  n  6
8n5 14  n  8 15  6  n

4. 3, 7, 10 5. 22, 5, 27 6. 34, 4, 38
3  n  10 22  n  27 34  n  38
37n 5  22  n 4  n  38
n37 n  22  5 38  n  34
10  n  3 27  5  n n  4  34

## Find the sum or difference. Write the related number sentences.

7. 2  9  8. 35  4  9. 54  0 

## Write the related number sentences for the set of numbers.

10. 4, 5, 9 11. 11, 24, 35 12. 0, 46, 46
McGraw-Hill School Division

## Problem Solving 14. Meg has 13 coins in her collection.

Then she gives 7 coins to her cousin.
13. Ken has 6 coins in his collection.
How many coins does Meg have now?
Barb has 5 more coins than Ken.
How many coins does Barb have?

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Use Properties of Addition R RETEACH

## Every number sentence in a set of related number sentences uses

the same numbers.
The model below shows a set of related number sentences.
538 Commutative Property:
358 } 5  3  8 is the same as 3  5  8.
835
853

You can also use the properties and the idea of related sentences
with greater numbers.

1. 2.

## Find the sum. Write the related number sentences.

3. 8  3  n 4. 2  7  n 5. 18  0  n
McGraw-Hill School Division

## Write the related number sentences for the set of numbers.

6. 26, 17, 43 7. 0, 56, 56 8. 9, 45, 54

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Use Properties of Addition E ENRICH

## Complete each number sentence. Then write the property

or rule you used.

1. MNM N

2. A  BB

3. CDC D

4. HH

5. JJ

6. Z0

7. QQP

8. 0W
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 9. ANB 10. DEF

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## Complete the pattern.

1. 8  8  n 2. 7  6  n
80  80  n 70  60  n
800  800  n 700  600  n
8,000  8,000  n 7,000  6,000  n
80,000  80,000  n 70,000  60,000  n
800,000  800,000  n 700,000  600,000  n

3. 5  9  n 4. 8  9  n
50  90  n 80  90  n
500  900  n 800  900  n
5,000  9,000  n 8,000  9,000  n
50,000  90,000  n 80,000  90,000  n
500,000  900,000  n 800,000  900,000  n

5. 500  400  6. 3,000  9,000 

## 11. 100,000  900,000  12. 800,000  500,000 

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
13. A music store made \$50,000 selling 14. The Green Hornets sold 800,000
CDs and tapes in December. In copies of their first CD. They sold
January, the store made \$30,000. 500,000 copies of their second CD.
How much did the store make How many CDs did the Green
in all? Hornets sell in all?

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You can use addition facts and patterns to add multiples of ten mentally.
Add the front digits. Then write a zero to match each place value.

## 5  7  12 5 5,000  7,000  12,000 5,000

7  7,000
12 12,000
50  70  120 50 50,000  70,000  120,000 50,000
 70  70,000
120 120,000
500  700  1,200 500 500,000  700,000  1,200,000 500,000
 700  700,000
1,200 1,200,000

## Complete the pattern.

1. 3  8  n 2. 5  9  n
30  80  n 50  90  n

## 300,000  800,000  n 500,000  900,000  n

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 11. 300  700  12. 80,000  90,000 

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Pascals Triangle
The triangle below is called Pascals Triangle. Each row begins and
ends with the number 1. Every other number is the sum of the two
numbers above it.

## Complete this Pascals Triangle.

Row 1 1

Row 2 1 1

Row 3 1 2 1

Row 4 1 3 3 1

Row 5 1 6 1

Row 6 1 1

Row 7 1 1

Now complete this Pascals Triangle. Each row begins and ends with 200.

Row 1 200

## Row 3 200 400 200

McGraw-Hill School Division

## Row 7 200 200

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Add Whole Numbers and Money P PRACTICE

## Find each sum.

1. 688 2. 574 3. 757 4. \$8.72
 207  434  529  1.38

## 5. \$2.98 6. 989 7. 8,489 8. \$3,824

 0.59  624  2,467  962

## 9. 5,174 10. \$12.57 11. 6,672 12. \$78.29

 327  7.43  878  45.32

## 13. 12,345 14. 43,802 15. 24,316 16. 183,462

 67,890  7,526  893  570,184

## 17. \$3,421.78 18. 204,177 19. 741,243 20. \$427,535

 1,657.18  678,687  85,278  6,280

## 25. 42,608  7,709  3,047  26. 782,070  879,162  115,603 

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
27. At the Lakeside School, 522 students 28. Last week, \$325 worth of play tickets
ride the bus and 714 students walk and \$729 worth of carnival tickets
or are driven to school. How many were sold. How much money was
students attend Lakeside School? collected altogether?

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 2, Lesson 3, pages 4851. (34) NS 3.1

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Add Whole Numbers and Money R RETEACH

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Regroup if necessary. Regroup if necessary. Regroup if necessary.

H T O H T O H T O

1 1 1 1 1

5 8 7 5 8 7 5 8 7
2 6 9 2 6 9 2 6 9
6 5 6 8 5 6

## 7 ones  9 ones  16 ones 1 ten  8 tens  6 tens 1 hundred  5 hundreds 

16 ones  1 ten 6 ones  15 tens 2 hundreds  8 hundreds
15 tens  1 hundred 5 tens

## Find each sum.

1. 413 2. 336 3. \$4.80 4. 327
 228  574  2.57  425

## 5. \$828 6. 187 7. 534 8. \$9.34

 16  219  394  3.68

## 9. 692 10. \$7.99 11. 1,245 12. \$31.15

 810  7.99  3,717  85.29
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 13. 6,289 14. 8,147 15. 5,326 16. 71,128

 764  3,988  383  3,511

## 17. 87,421 18. 25,784 19. 399,625 20. \$62.41

2,032 4,408 99,990 7.38
 5,857  64,726  437,487  1.21

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Add Whole Numbers and Money E ENRICH

The Hindu people of ancient India added numbers from the left and
moved to the right.
Here is an example of Hindu addition.

8  8  16. Regroup Regroup to the tens place.
to the hundreds place. The sum is 1,371.
589 589 589
 782  782  782
12 126 1261
3 37

Use the Hindu method of addition to find the sum. Show your work.
1. 56 2. 96 3. 538 4. 322
 35  87  247  489

## 5. 289 6. \$9.63 7. 238 8. 766

 556  8.75  849  984

## 9. \$1.87 10. 874 11. 385 12. \$6.11

McGraw-Hill School Division

##  7.58  496  496  9.97

Compare the Hindu method of addition to the method of addition you use. Which
method do you like best? Explain.

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 2, Lesson 3, pages 4851. (36) NS 3.1

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Use Mental Math to Add P PRACTICE

1. 32  45  2. 21  64 

3. 35  13  4. \$39  \$24 

5. 48  31  6. 298  311 

## Algebra & Functions Find each missing number.

17. 36  a  86 18. b  61  81

## 25. 1,650  n  3,300 26. r  \$750  \$1,500

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
27. There are 38 dogs and 24 cats at the 28. The pet show committee spends
pet show. How many cats and dogs \$316 on dog treats and \$299 on cat
are there in all? treats. How much does the
committee spend on treats?

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Use Mental Math to Add R RETEACH

## You can use these two strategies to add mentally.

Compensation
Use compensation when a number is close to a ten or a hundred.

## 197 200 Add 3 to make 200: 197  3  200.

 254  251 Subtract 3 from the other number: 254  3  251.
451

Zig-zag
Use the zig-zag method to add 356  627.
Take apart 627.
627  600  20  7
356 356 956 976
 627  600  20  7
956 976 983

1. 62  39  2. 54  17 

## 11. \$268  \$441  12. 298  465 

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 23. \$6,512  \$950  24. 1,783  5,097 

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Use Mental Math to Add E ENRICH

Countdown!
Move from left to right. Add each pair of numbers mentally.
Shade any box that is the sum of the previous two boxes.
Example:
In row 1, add 19 and 53. The sum is 72. Shade the box with 72 in it.
Add 53 and 72. If the sum is 125, then shade the box with 125 in it.

## 19 53 72 125 197 232 429 661 1,090 1,000 3,090 4,090

195 302 402 67 469 12 480 115 595 110 805 915

## 1. Look at the shaded boxes. What number do the boxes form?

2. Which method did you use to add pairs of numbers mentally when:

## the sum of the digits was less than 9?

one number was close to 10, 100, or 1,000?
the sum of the digits was greater than 9?

## How is mental math different from estimation?

McGraw-Hill School Division

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Estimate Sums P PRACTICE

## Estimate each sum. Show your work

1. 478  597

2. \$8.65  \$7.15

3. \$0.32  \$0.65

4. 4,990  405

5. 2,188  5,621

6. 47,522  3,721

7. 863,122  254,087

8. 621  308  9. 2,188  5,621 

## Compare. Write  or  to make a true sentence.

12. 176  335 400 13. 243  50 300

## 20. 22,152  28,174 60,000 21. 49,912  2,839 5,000

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
22. Julio wants to buy drawing paper 23. The fourth-grade students make
for \$8.50 and brushes for \$19.95. 268 posters about bicycle safety.
About how many posters do the
students make altogether?

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Estimate Sums R RETEACH

To estimate a sum, you can round each number. Then add the
rounded numbers.
Estimate 252  49. Estimate \$5.95  \$7.25.
Round each number 252  49 Round each \$5.95  \$7.25
to the nearest ten. number to the
250  50 nearest dollar. \$6.00  \$7.00

## So, 252  49 is about 300. So, \$5.95  \$7.25 is about \$13.00.

To which place will you round each number? Circle the digits in
that place. Then estimate each sum. Show how you rounded.

## 7. 469  563 8. \$9.08  \$12.75

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 15. 896,455  11,321 16. 477,995  865,311

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Estimate Sums E ENRICH

Star Estimates
There are five paths. Each path has six numbers. Round each
number to the nearest hundred. Then estimate the sum of the
rounded numbers on each path of the star. Write your estimate in
the box at the end of each path.

3. 30,800
23,724

5,627 3,846

1. 47,600
Start 225 45,672 152 172 429 874
5. 44,100
810 126,582

381 714

825
McGraw-Hill School Division

524 418,670

174 41,321

432 645
2. 129,600 4. 447,700

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

Skill
Solve. Explain why you gave an estimate or an exact answer.
1. James, Max, and Melba collect baseball cards. James has 870 cards,
Max has 569 cards, and Melba has 812 cards. Do the three friends
have more than 2,000 baseball cards?

2. Nicki has a collection of 79 shells and 64 rocks. How many items are
in her collection?

3. Kelly has a coin collection. Her quarters are worth \$104.50. Her
dimes are worth \$75.10. Her nickels are worth \$27.75. What is the
total value of Kellys coin collection?

4. The Comic Book Show sells 474 tickets on Friday and 396 tickets on
Saturday. About how many tickets does the Comic Book Show sell?

5. Eldon has 98 rock CDs, 121 classical CDs, and 25 folk music CDs.
How many CDs does Eldon have?
McGraw-Hill School Division

6. Molly has 221 stamps from the United States and 395 stamps from
other countries. About how many stamps does Molly have?

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

Test Prep

## Jenny has a collection of 249 football cards. Ken has a collection of

329 football cards. Are there more than 500 cards in these two
collections altogether?
1. Which of the following statements is 2. Which number sentence will help
true? you solve the problem?
A Jenny has more cards than Ken. F 249  329  500
B Ken has more than 500 cards. G 329  249  500
C Jenny has 249 cards. H 500  249  500

Paco has 129 toy cars. His brother has 167 toy cars. How many toy
cars do they have in all?
3. Which plan can you use to solve the 4. How many toy cars do they have
problem? in all?
A Estimate the sum of 129 and 167. F 300
B Add 129 and 167. G 296
C Compare 129 and 167. H 200

Hiroshi has 429 football cards, 278 baseball cards, and 97 hockey
cards. Does Hiroshi have more than 1,000 cards in all?
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 5. Which of the following statements is 6. What do you have to do to solve this

true? problem?
A Hiroshi has 278 baseball cards. F Find the exact sum for
429  278  97.
B Hiroshi has 429 cards in all.
G Estimate to tell if 429  278 is
C Hiroshi has 97 football cards.
greater than 1,000.
H Estimate to tell if 429  278  97
is greater than 1,000.

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

Test Prep

## On Friday, 529 people see the museums collection of antique dolls.

On Saturday, 994 people see the collection. On Sunday, 812 people
see the collection. How many people came to see the antique doll
show during the three days?

7. Which plan can you use to solve the 8. How many people came to see
problem? the antique doll show during the
three days?
A Estimate the sum of 529, 994,
and 812. F 2,335
B Add 529, 994, and 812. G 2,300
C Order 529, 994 and 812 from H 1,523
least to greatest.

Solve.
9. Chelsea has 635 postcards from the 10. Gus has 65 autographs from sports
United States, 291 postcards from players, 97 autographs from actors
Canada, and 456 postcards from and actresses, and 27 autographs
Europe and Asia. Does she have from singers. About how many
more than 2,000 postcards? autographs does he have?

11. Miles has 75 old movie posters, 12. Evan has 4,212 cards. His sister has
63 concert posters, and 54 posters 5,349 cards. If they put their cards
from plays. How many posters does together, will they have more than
McGraw-Hill School Division

## Miles have? 9,000 cards?

13. Nina has 379 stamps from the 14. Morris has a collection of
United States and 458 stamps from 44 quarters, 92 dimes, and
other countries. How many stamps 89 pennies. About how many
does she have? coins does he have?

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Subtraction Patterns P PRACTICE

## Complete the pattern.

1. 12  8  n 2. 16  7  n
120  80  n 160  70  n
1,200  800  n 1,600  700  n
12,000  8,000  n 16,000  7,000  n
120,000  80,000  n 160,000  70,000  n
1,200,000  800,000  n 1,600,000  700,000  n

3. 11  5  n 4. 15  8  n
110  50  n 150  80  n
1,100  500  n 1,500  800  n
11,000  5,000  n 15,000  8,000  n
110,000  50,000  n 150,000  80,000  n
1,100,000  500,000  n 1,500,000  800,000  n

Subtract mentally.
5. 1,200  600  6. \$8,000  \$3,000 

## 11. 140,000  50,000  12. 1,200,000  600,000 

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
13. A video store rented 900,000 videos 14. The price for a house is \$120,000.
last year. This year the store rented Ms. Smith decides to make an offer
1,500,000 videos. How many more that is \$30,000 less than the price.
videos did it rent this year? How much does Ms. Smith offer
for the house?

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Subtraction Patterns R RETEACH

## You can use subtraction facts and patterns to subtract multiples of

ten mentally.
Subtract the front digits. Then write a zero to match each place value.
12  7  5 12 12,000  7,000  5,000 12,000
 7  7,000
5 5,000
120  70  50 120 120,000  70,000  50,000 120,000
 70  70,000
50 50,000
1,200  700  500 1,200 1,200,000  700,000  500,000 1,200,000
 700  700,000
500 500,000

## Complete the pattern.

1. 11  8  n 2. 14  5  n
110  80  n 140  50  n

## 1,100,000  8,000,000  n 1,400,000  500,000  n

Subtract mentally.
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 11. 1,800,000  900,000  12. 120,000  40,000 

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Subtraction Patterns E ENRICH

## Subtraction Squares (Diffy)

Each subtraction square is made up of eight numbers. To find the
missing numbers, subtract the two corner numbers in each square
and write the difference in between the numbers. Find the missing
numbers. Subtract until you reach the center of the square.

150 70 80

10 30 40

20 20 0
0 0 0
60 10 20 0 0 20 30 30
0 0 0
0 20 20

20 10 10
McGraw-Hill School Division

90 40 50
2. What happens in the center of the squares?

3. What do you think will happen if you choose four other corner
numbers for the largest square? Try it and check your prediction!

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Explore Subtracting Whole Numbers P PRACTICE

Subtract.
1. Use models to subtract 525  272.

 2 7 2

## Subtract the tens. 5 2 5

Regroup 1 hundred 2 7 2
as 10 tens.

## Subtract the hundreds. 5 2 5

2 7 2

Subtract.
2. 187 3. 612 4. 356 5. 923 6. 319
 95  74  127  707  79
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 7. 711 8. 425 9. 857 10. 562 11. 227

 380  258  79  348  138

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 2, Lesson 8, pages 6263. (49) NS 3.1

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Explore Subtracting Whole Numbers R RETEACH

## Use models to subtract 322  145.

Step 1 You need to 322
Model the subtract 145, 145
or 1 hundred
greater number. 4 tens 5 ones.

Step 2 1 12

Subtract the 3 2/ 2/
ones. Regroup a Subtract 145
5 ones.
ten for 10 ones, 7
if necessary.
Step 3 2 11 12

Subtract the 3/ 2/ 2/
tens. Regroup a 145
hundred for 10 77
tens, if necessary. Subtract 4 tens.
Step 4 2 11 12

Subtract the 3/ 2/ 2/
hundreds. 145
177
Subtract 1 hundred.

1. 724 2. 916 3. 568 4. 428 5. 353
 318  108  59  247  182
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 6. 964 7. 735 8. 327 9. 863 10. 651

 281  586  299  575  93

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 2, Lesson 8, pages 6263. (50) NS 3.1

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Explore Subtracting Whole Numbers E ENRICH

## Crack the Code

Find each difference. Match the code number beside each problem
with the correct code letter.
Problems Code Numbers Code Letters
1. \$3.63  \$1.77 6 761  S
2. \$4.25  \$2.86 4 88  A
3. 181  92 9 \$1.39  U
4. 573  397 13 176  T
5. 426  326 14 304  C
6. 880  119 5 \$1.59  N
7. 625  317 2 89  V
8. 682 594 12 \$1.86  E
9. 170  98 7 308  M
10. 590  399 15 100  I
11. 731  427 11 77  N
12. \$9.05 \$7.89 3 191  O
13. \$6.52  \$4.93 16 47  A
14. 464  387 8 138  A
15. 222  175 1 72  O
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 16. 832  694 10 \$1.16  O

Use this code to solve the riddle. Write the correct letter above each number.
Riddle: What animal is gray and has a trunk?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 2, Lesson 8, pages 6263. (51) NS 3.1

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Subtract Whole Numbers and Money P PRACTICE

1. 757 2. \$582 3. 693 4. 851
 28  492  516  569

## 5. \$2.48 6. 2,345 7. \$67.89 8. \$11,321

 1.95  1,658  18.95  979

## 9. 4,672 10. 3,523 11. \$33,572 12. 74,125

 873  2,846  13,689  65,239

## 13. 49,785 14. 98,142 15. \$224.39 16. \$4,561.71

 8,998  617  15.87  291.68

## 17. 389,243 18. \$672,145 19. 914,617 20. \$7,211.53

 136,354  98,276  117,814  5,926.84

## 27. 982,561  678,984  28. \$2,176.53  \$1,993.76 

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
29. A toy factory made 32,154 board 30. A store earned \$12,415 selling
games on Monday. On Tuesday it puzzles this week. Last week it
made 31,687 board games. How earned \$9,326 selling puzzles.
many more board games did the How much more did the store
factory make on Monday? earn this week?

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Subtract Whole Numbers and Money R RETEACH

## Subtract 7,617  5,789.

Step 1 Step 2
Subtract the ones. Regroup if necessary. Subtract the tens. Regroup if necessary.
TH H T O TH H T O

5 10 17
0 17 0/
7 6 1/ /
7 7 6/ 1/ /
7
5 7 8 9 5 7 8 9
8 2 8

Step 3 Step 4
Subtract the hundreds. Subtract the thousands.
Regroup if necessary.
TH H T O TH H T O

15 10 17 15 10 17
6 5/ 0/ 6 5/ 0/
7/ 6/ 1/ /
7 7/ 6/ 1/ /
7
5 7 8 9 5 7 8 9
8 2 8 1 8 2 8

## Use the same steps to subtract money.

1. 577 2. 872 3. \$6.21 4. 3,457 5. \$2.49
 385  465  4.43  965  0.98
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 6. 4,872 7. 7,501 8. 8,142 9. 12,435 10. \$6,423

 3,785  6,874  6,527  8,679  2,496

11. 24,652 12. \$56,716 13. 347,072 14. \$6,192.48 15. 743,219
 9,788  39,897  59,687  1,671.39  19,733

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 2, Lesson 9, pages 6465. (53) NS 3.1

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Subtract Whole Numbers and Money E ENRICH

Sumerian Numbers
The Sumerians were an ancient civilization. Sumerians were one of the first
people to develop a written number system and compute with it. They had
five number symbols.
The chart shows the value of each symbol.

1 10 60 600 3,600

Example:

## Solve the Sumerian subtraction problems. Translate the

Sumerian symbols to the numbers in our system and subtract.
Then write the difference using Sumerian symbols.
1. 2. 3.
133 1,263 7,280
 
125  626   4,861

8 637 2,419
McGraw-Hill School Division

4. 5. 6.
1,821 3,750 1,242
 
 1,205   3,650  922

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Regroup Across Zeros P PRACTICE

1. 804 2. 701 3. \$500 4. 600
 565  387  244  58

## 5. 300 6. 3,000 7. 9,000 8. 4,050

 108  2,987  5,431  2,542

## 9. 2,000 10. 8,000 11. \$15,000 12. 70,700

 784  2,450  7,641  8,633

## 13. 50,000 14. 80,000 15. 30,000 16. 600,003

 25,625  35,189  7,984  25,178

## 17. \$900,000 18. 400,707 19. 210,303 20. 575,000

 321,229  39,698  101,506  89,342

## 27. 160,000  149,999  28. 307,000  198,621 

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
29. Crystal Lake School held a dance 30. At the festival, 39,251 people
festival. There were 3,000 dancers at watched the dancers. Another
the festival. Of those dancers, 2,682 700,000 people watched the festival
did not win prizes. How many on television. How many more people
dancers did win prizes? watched the festival on television?

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Regroup Across Zeros R RETEACH

## Subtract 500  185.

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
No ones. Regroup the tens. Subtract the ones, the tens,
No tens. and then the hundreds.
Regroup the hundreds.
H T O H T O H T O

4 10 9 9
5/ /
0 4 /
10 10 4 /
10 10
/
5 0/ 0 /
5 0/ 0/ /
5 0/ 0/
1 8 5 1 8 5 1 8 5
3 1 5

## 5 hundreds  4 hundreds 10 tens  9 tens 10 ones 10 ones  5 ones  5 ones

10 tens 9 tens  8 tens  1 ten
There are not enough ones 4 hundreds  1 hundred 
to subtract 9 ones. 3 hundreds

1. 602 2. 700 3. \$900 4. 800 5. 304
 314  203  306  523  150

## 6. \$4,000 7. 2,005 8. 3,000 9. 5,000 10. 6,000

 1,527  1,083  2,225  259  1,326
McGraw-Hill School Division

11. 68,000 12. 80,000 13. 74,800 14. \$40,050 15. 45,000
 11,770  5,287  27,862  32,037  2,374

## 20. 60,000  29,730  21. \$500,600  \$50,250 

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Regroup Across Zeros E ENRICH

Missing Digits
Find the missing digits.
1. 8 0 5 2. 5, 0 8 2 3. 9 8
 7  2, 3 7  2 6
7 1 , 7 3 7 3

4. 3 0 8 5. 2, 0 3 6. 5, 1 0
 9  1, 9 8 1  5 8
1 7 9 2 4, 6 4 5

7. 6, 0 4 8. 6 6 9. 5, 0
 3, 8 4 7  3  3, 5 8

, 2 0 7 3 7 1 2, 2 8 3

## 10. 7 0 11. 0 12. 7, 3 0

 2 6 2  3 8 6  3, 0 8 5
4 2 1 6 , 2 1 5

## 13. 9 8 14. 6, 5 7 15. , 0 7

 3 9  3 2 9  4, 8 8 1
McGraw-Hill School Division

6 7 , 5 2 , 1 4

## 16. 5 7 17. 0 0 18. 7 , 1

 2 0  2  , 2 3 4
5 7 3 3 3 5, 7 6

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Problem Solving: Strategy P PRACTICE

## Write a Number Sentence

Write a number sentence to solve.
1. Meg buys candle-making supplies for 2. Sally has finished 86 squares in her
\$37. She has \$25 left. How much quilt. The quilt will have 100 squares.
money did Meg have before she How many squares does Sally still
bought the supplies? have to make?

3. Eric sells a painting for \$125. He sells 4. Noah has saved \$42. How much
a sculpture for \$390. How much more money does he need to buy a
money does Eric earn in all? rare coin for \$90?

## Mixed Strategy Review

Solve. Use any strategy.
5. Howard has 75 shells. On a trip, he 6. Tom makes letters for a sign that
collects another 16 shells. How many says Arts and Crafts Fair. Which
shells does he have now? letter does Mark need to make the
most of?

Strategy:
Strategy:

7. Social Studies During the 1800s, 8. Create a problem which you could
sailors made carvings called scrimshaw write a number sentence to solve.
McGraw-Hill School Division

## on whale teeth, whalebone, and Share it with others.

tortoise shells. Suppose a sailor made
a carving in 1805. A collector buys the
carving in 2000. How many years old
is the carving?

Strategy:

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

## Write a Number Sentence

Page 69, Problem 2

Ms. Green had 29 buttons to sew on dolls. She has 14 buttons left.
How many buttons has she already sewn on?

Step 1
Be sure you understand the problem.
What do you know?
Ms. Green had buttons to sew on dolls.

## She has buttons left.

What do you need to find?
You need to find how many
.

Step 2
Make a plan.
Plan Choose a strategy.
Make a Table You can write a number sentence to solve the problem.
or List
Write a Number Since you know the original total and the number left,
Sentence
you can write a subtraction sentence.
Work Backward
Act It Out
Find a Pattern
Make a Graph
McGraw-Hill School Division

## Guess and Check

Logical Reasoning
Solve a Simpler
Problem
Draw a Picture

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

## Write a Number Sentence

Step 3
Solve
You know Ms. Green had buttons to sew on dolls.

## Write a subtration sentence to represent the situation.

29  n  14
number of buttons buttons left
Then use a related sentence to solve.
 
number of buttons left buttons already
She has already sewn on buttons.

Step 4
Is the solution reasonable?
Did you answer the question? Yes No
What other stategies could you use to solve the problem?
McGraw-Hill School Division

Practice
1. Keshawn spends \$45 on glass and 2. Melanie sells a model sailing ship and
copper molding. He pays with a a model airplane for a total of
hundred-dollar bill. How much \$40.95. She receives \$23.49 for the
change does Keshawn get back? ship. How much money does Melanie

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Subtract Using Mental Math P PRACTICE

Subtract mentally.
1. 46  7  2. 81  36  3. 53  19 

4. 99  19  5. \$78  \$49  6. 92  28 

7. 74  38  8. 95  37 9. 64  37 

## 28. 775  n  200 29. r  300  1,456

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
30. Josh buys a wooden horse for \$4.89. 31. A bicycle shop has 309 water-bottle
He gives the cashier \$5.00. How holders in stock. Ashley buys 259
much change should Josh receive? water-bottle holders from the shop.
How many water-bottle holders does
the store have left?

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Subtract Using Mental Math R RETEACH

## You can use these two strategies to subtract mentally.

Compensation
Use compensation when one number is close to a ten or a hundred.
Add or subtract the same number from both numbers.
95 97 Add 2 to 28 to make 30: 28  2  30.
 28  30 Add 2 to the other number: 95  2  97.
67
103 100 Subtract 3 from 103 to make 100: 103  3  100.
 45  42 Subtract 3 from 45: 45  3  42.
58
Zig-zag
Use the zig-zag method to subtract 95  28.
Take apart 28.
28  20  8
Then subtract each place separately.
95 95 75
 28  20  8
75 67
Subtract mentally.
1. 26  7  2. 84  32  3. 79  31 

4. \$58  \$17  5. 94  38  6. 86  24 

## 7. 196  49  8. \$253  \$42

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 21. 657  312 22. 648  305

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Subtract Using Mental Math E ENRICH

Crossnumber Puzzle
Subtract mentally to complete the crossnumber puzzle.

A B C D
4 8 5 8 1 4
E F
2 2 5 3 3
G H I J
9 7 1 2 8 4
K L M
6 5 4 3 2
N
2 4 5 5 7
O
9 8 6 3 7

Across Down
A. 596  111 A. 626  197

## E. 281  28 D. 237 105

G. 192  95 F. 591  76

## H. 383  99 I. 950  113

McGraw-Hill School Division

## Look at N. Down. What method did you use to subtract mentally?

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Estimate Differences P PRACTICE

## Estimate each difference. Show your work.

1. 467  215

2. 2,835  1,487

3. \$13.95  \$7.25

4. 65,074  15,472

5. 174,921  18,421

## Subtract. Estimate to check that each answer is reasonable.

6. 835 7. \$81.79 8. 6,984 9. 242,003 10. 654,026
 487  31.55  322  49,887  529,620

## Compare. Write  or  to make a true sentence.

13. 4,173  2,589 2,000 14. 8,329  957 7,000

## 19. 42,345  16,174 20,000 20. 48,592  961 4,000

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
21. There were 787,897 copies of the 22. The Hoop Store spends \$129.99 for
Science Monthly sold last year. This an ad in the Science Monthly. The
year, 914,632 copies were sold. store spends \$19.29 for an ad in the
this year? more does the store spend on
than in the Allentown News?

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Estimate Differences R RETEACH

## To estimate a difference, you can round each number.

Then subtract the rounded numbers.
Estimate 486  27. Estimate \$6.98  \$4.59.
Round each number 486  27 Round each number \$6.98  \$4.59
to the nearest ten. to the nearest dollar
490  30 \$7.00  \$5.00
Subtract. 490  30  460 Subtract. \$7.00  \$5.00 
\$2.00
So, 486  27 is about 460.
So, \$6.98  \$4.59 is about \$2.00.

To which place will you round each number? Circle the digits in that place.
Then estimate each difference. Show how you rounded.

## Estimate each difference.

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 15. 232,500  83,900 16. 809,765  528,750

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Estimate Differences E ENRICH

A-Mazing Differences
Estimate each difference. Circle the correct answer.
1. 961  472 2. 874  215 3. 4,971  2,364 4. 729 346
A. 400 A. 500 A. 3,000 A. 300
B. 500 B. 600 B. 2,000 B. 400
C. 600 C. 700 C. 1,000 C. 500

## 5. 526  481 6. \$8.16  \$1.92 7. \$72.59  \$24.71 8. 9,742  6,381

A. 0 A. \$5.00 A. \$30.00 A. 2,000
B. 100 B. \$6.00 B. \$40.00 B. 3,000
C. 200 C. \$7.00 C. \$50.00 C. 4,000

9. 5,692  3,766 10. 42,874  16,422 11. 69,124  31,346 12. 892,617 85,600
A. 1,000 A. 20,000 A. 40,000 A. 700,000
B. 2,000 B. 30,000 B. 30,000 B. 800,000
C. 3,000 C. 40,000 C. 20,000 C. 900,000

7A
9C

6B

7C
6C
t
ar

6A
5A
St

7A

5B

7B
8A

9B
5C
1A

4B

8C
C
10
4A
1C

4C
1B
McGraw-Hill School Division

B
10
2B

10
C
11
2C

A
11
3C

8B

C
11

12
3A

sh
12
3B
2A

ni
Fi
B
12

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 2, Lesson 13, pages 7273. (66) NS 2.1, 3.1; MR 2.1, 2.5
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Problem Solving: Application Part
A WORKSHEET

Decision

## Burgers-to-Go Rubys Healthy Diner Carnival Lunch Menu

McGraw-Hill School Division

Where do you think The Outdoor Club should eat? Explain.

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 2, Lesson 14, pages 7475. (67) MR 1.1; NS 3.1
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214
Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

Science

## Material used as blocker Number of paper clips Find the difference.

that the magnet can hold (Number of paper clips a
when this material is magnet can hold with
used as a blocker no blocker)
minus
(Number of paper clips a
magnet can hold when
this material is used
as a blocker)

Magnet only

## Magnet with foil

McGraw-Hill School Division

## Magnet with tape

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 2, Lesson 14, pages 7677. (68) NS 1.2, 3.1; MR 1.1, 3.1
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214
Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

Science

## 1. What is the difference between the number of paper clips a magnet

can hold with no blocker and the number of paper clips a magnet
can hold with each of the different blockers you used?

## 3. Explain the results of your activity in terms of shielding.

4. What are some other materials that you think would be good
blockers? Explain.
McGraw-Hill School Division

5. What are some other materials that you think would be bad
blockers? Explain.

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Tell Time P PRACTICE

1. 2. 3.

9 48

## Choose the most reasonable units of time. Write seconds, minutes,

or hours.
4. Debbie spends 20 at the dentist.

## Tell how much time.

8. 120 minutes = hours 9. seconds = 3 minutes
1
10. 2 hour = minutes 11. 15 minutes = hour

## 12. minutes = 2 12 hours 13. minutes = 1 41 hours

McGraw-Hill School Division

## Algebra & Functions Describe and complete the conversion patterns.

14.
Minutes 60 120 180 240 300

Hours 1 2

15.
Minutes 1 2 3 4 5

Seconds 60 120

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Tell Time R RETEACH

## You can read time in different ways.

5 40

after five six or twenty minutes to six
Write: 5:40

## Write the time in as many different ways as you can.

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

4 15 3 20 2 50
McGraw-Hill School Division

7. 8. 9.

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Tell Time E ENRICH

Patterns in Time
The times shown on the clocks are in a pattern.
What time would the next clock show? What is the pattern?
1.
11 12 1 11 12 1 11 12 1
10 2 10 2 10 2
9 3 9 3 9 3
8 4 8 4 8 4
7 6 5 7 6 5 7 6 5

## Time: Pattern: Increase by hour.

2.
5 :45 5 :30 5 :15
Time: Pattern: Decrease by hour.

3.
11 12 1 11 12 1 11 12 1
10 2 10 2 10 2
9 3 9 3 9 3
8 4 8 4 8 4
7 6 5 7 6 5 7 6 5

## Time: Pattern: Increase by hour.

4.
3 :10 3 :00 2 :50
McGraw-Hill School Division

## Time: Pattern: Decrease by hour.

5.
11 12 1 11 12 1 11 12 1
10 2 10 2 10 2
9 3 9 3 9 3
8 4 8 4 8 4
7 6 5 7 6 5 7 6 5

## Time: Pattern: Increase by hour.

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Elapsed Time P PRACTICE

## How much time has passed?

1. Begin: 12:00 P.M. 2. Begin: 1:15 A.M. 3. Begin: 11:05 P.M.
End: 2:20 P.M. End: 1:50 A.M. End: 1:00 A.M.

## 4. Begin: 2:25 A.M. 5. Begin: 3:40 P.M. 6. Begin: 5:45 A.M.

End: 5:40 A.M. End: 12:00 A.M. End: 12:15 P.M.

## 7. Begin: 8:10 P.M. 8. Begin: 9:30 A.M. 9. Begin: 10:35 P.M.

End: 1:55 A.M. End: 2:10 P.M. End: 8:00 A.M.

10. 11. 12.

8 50

## Algebra & Functions Write the missing numbers.

13. 5:16 A.M. is minutes after 5:00 A.M.

## 15. 7:22 P.M. is hours minutes after 7:00 P.M.

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 16. 9:58 A.M. is minutes before A.M.

Problem Solving
17. Lisa leaves her house at 8:45 A.M. 18. The Big Beach bus leaves the city at
She gets to karate class 35 minutes 6:40 P.M. The bus arrives at the
later. At what time does Lisa get beach at 8:25 P.M. How long is the
to karate class? trip to the beach?

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Elapsed Time R RETEACH

Elapsed time is the amount of time that passes from the start to the
end of an action. Follow these steps to find how much time has
elapsed from 8:20 A.M. to 11:35 A.M.
First count the number of hours. Then count the number of minutes.

## From 8:20 to 11:20 is 3 hours. From 11:20 to 11:35 is 15 minutes.

So, 3 hours 15 minutes have passed.
How much time has passed?
1. Begin End 2. Begin End

## 3. Begin End 4. Begin End

12 15 3 15
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 5. Begin End 6. Begin End

6 00 10 30 2 15 2 35

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Elapsed Time E ENRICH

Flying Time
time. Remember to include the time zone; for example, 7:00 A.M. Central Time.
Pacific Time Mountain Time Central Time Eastern Time
11 12 1 11 12 1 11 12 1 11 12 1
10 2 10 2 10 2 10 2
9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3
8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4
7 6 5 7 6 5 7 6 5 7 6 5

Seattle

## Los Angeles Atlanta

Phoenix Dallas

Miami

1. It takes about 5 hours to fly from Los Angeles to New York City.
If a plane leaves Los Angeles at 8:00 A.M., at what time will it arrive
in New York City?
2. It takes 4 hours 30 minutes for a plane to fly from Atlanta to
Phoenix. If a plane departs from Atlanta at 10:00 A.M., at what
time will it arrive in Phoenix?
3. A plane flew from Seattle to Atlanta. It arrived in Atlanta at
1:05 A.M. The flight lasted for 5 hours 40 minutes. At what
time did it depart from Seattle?
4. The flight between Dallas and Miami takes 2 hours 41 minutes.
Complete the flight schedule below.
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 11:20 A.M. CT 6:57 P.M. ET

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Calendar P PRACTICE

Use the calendars for July and August for exercises 18.

## July 2000 August 2000

S M T W T F S S M T W T F S
1 1 2 3 4 5
Nick
arrives!
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Independence
Day!
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Football
practice
begins!
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 27 28 29 30 31

30 31

## 1. What is the date of the fourth 2. On which day of the week is

Thursday in July? Independence Day?

3. Cindy will return from vacation on 4. If soccer camp runs from July 7
the Monday after Nick arrives. On through the following Saturday, how
which date will Cindy return? long is soccer camp?
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 5. Justin is moving to a new town on 6. Jason has a violin lesson every

August 1. The movers are coming Wednesday. How many lessons will
4 days before that. On which date he have in July and August?
will the movers arrive?

## 8. Pat saw the dentist on July 25. He has

7. Nick will leave on August 30. another appointment 10 days later. On
For how many weeks will he visit? which date is Pats appointment?

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Calendar R RETEACH

## You can use a calendar to find elapsed time.

Suppose today is May 8. How many days is it until Mothers Day?
Count on from May 8 to May 14. It is 6 days from May 8 to May 14.

## May 2000 June 2000

S M T W T F S S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Mothers Flag
Day Day
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Fathers
Day
28 29 30 31 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

## Use the calendars above for exercises 18.

1. How long is it from Flag Day to 2. How long is it from Mothers Day
Fathers Day? to the following Sunday?

3. Sports camp runs from June 19 through 4. How many weeks are there from May
June 30. How long is camp? 1 to June 5?
McGraw-Hill School Division

5. On which day of the week is Flag Day? 6. Memorial Day is celebrated on the last
Monday in May. Which date is that?

7. Dave will return from vacation on the 8. The last day of school is June 7. Toms
Monday after Flag Day. On which birthday is 5 days before that. When
date will he return? is Toms birthday?

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Calendar E ENRICH

Calendar Calculations
Use the calendar to solve the problems.

## January February March April May June

S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S
1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 27 28 29 26 27 28 29 30 31 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 28 29 30 31 25 26 27 28 29 30
30 31 30

## July August September October November December

S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S
1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 1 2
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 27 28 29 30 31 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 29 30 31 26 27 28 29 30 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
30 31 31

1. Jamie will start basketball practice 2. John plans to go on a skiing trip the
on the first Monday in September. third Friday in December. He must
two weeks before practice begins. the flight. He wants to make the
On which date will basketball plane reservations 4 weeks before
practice begin? Which is the latest buying the ticket. Which is the latest
date on which she can buy her date on which he should make his
sneakers? plane reservations?

3. George's team has its first game on 4. Holly wants to run her best race the
May 15. They plan to spend four second Saturday in June. To train, she
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## Saturdays practicing. Then they will wants to do speed workouts for 5

spend a week practicing every day weeks. Before she begins speed
after school. Which is the latest training, she must do endurance runs
date on which they should start for 4 weeks. Which is the latest date
practicing? on which she should begin training?

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Line Plots P PRACTICE

1. Complete the tally table and line plot for the following data.

Number of Miles Run Each Day by the Members of the Fleet-Footed Club
3 2 5 4 6 3 1 5 4 3 2 6
4 3 5 3 2 2 1 5 4 3 6 3
2 5 3 1 4 2 5 6 2 3 2
Number of Miles Run Each Day
Number of Miles Run Each Day by the
by Members of The Fleet-Footed Club
Members of the Fleet-Footed Club

Number of
Tally Total
Miles

6
1 2 3 4 5 6
Use the line plot to answer the questions.
2. How many miles did the greatest number of students run?

## 4. How many members ran 4 miles or more a day?

5. How many more members ran 4 miles a day than ran 1 mile a day?

## 6. How many members are in the club?

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Use the data below to make a tally table and line plot on a separate sheet of paper.
Ages of Fleet-Footed Club Members
8 11 12 9 13 14 12 11 8 12 10 12
11 9 13 12 11 9 12 14 11 12 13 10
9 12 10 13 9 12 11 14 10 9 13
7. What statement can you make about the data in your line plot?

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Line Plots R RETEACH

## Marcia counted the number of letters in each word in a story. The

data is shown below.
Number of Letters in Words in a Story
3 3 5 6 4 2 1 5 6 3 4 7
3 2 3 5 2 8 4 5 3 3 5 2
5 6 3 5 1 4

## You can organize the data in a tally table.

To compare the data, you can make a line plot.
Example: For the first number, 3, make a tally mark in the table. Cross out
the 3 in the data above. Then record and cross out the remaining
3s. In the line plot, use an X to stand for each word in the story.

## Number of Letters in Words in a Story Number of Letters in Words in a Story

Letters in Tally Number 1 letter. 5 letters.
Words of Words
1 2 X
X
X 6 letters.
3 8
X
4
X X
5
X X X
6 X X X
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7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8

## Use the line plot. How many words had:

1. 3 letters? 2. 2 letters? 3. 8 letters?

## 6. How many letters did the greatest number of words have?

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Line Plots E ENRICH

Mystery Plot
Use the clues below to complete the line plot.

5 6 7 8 9 10
Clues
There are 4 students who read 5 books The number of students who read 8
a month and 3 times as many who read books a month is 2 less than the
7 books a month. number of students who read 6 and 9
books a month combined.
The number of students who read 6
books a month is 7 less than the number The number of students who read 9
of students who read 7 books a month. books a month is twice as many as the
number of the students who read 6
The number of students who read 10
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books a month.
books a month is half the number who

## Use the line plot to answer the questions.

1. How many students were surveyed?

2. How many books were read by the greatest number of students each month?
About how many was that a week?
3. How many books were read by the least number of students?

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Range, Median and Mode P PRACTICE

## The third-grade class at Blue Hill School collects and recycles

aluminum cans. The line plot shows how many cans the students
collected in March. Use data from the line plot for exercises 13.

1. Find the range, median, and mode Number of Aluminum Cans Collected
from the line plot. in March

Range: X
X
Median:
X X
Mode: X X
X X
2. What does the mode tell you about
X X X
this data?
X X X X X
X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X X
3. What does the median tell you about 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
this data?

## Data Order Data from Range Median Mode

Least to Greatest
4. 6, 8, 8, 9, 5, 4, 8, 7, 5
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## 9. \$9, \$13, \$23, \$15, \$13

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Range, Median and Mode R RETEACH

You can analyze data using the range, median, and mode.
Use the line plot to help you find the range, median, and mode.
Range: the difference between the Time It Takes to Get to School
greatest and least numbers X
Range: 25  5  20 X
Median: the middle number when the X X
data is arranged in order from least to X X X
greatest X X X
The data in the line plot is arranged in X X X
order. There are 29 Xs, so the middle X is X X X
the 15th X. The 15th X in the line plot is X X X X
above 10, so the median is 10. X X X X
Mode: the number that occurs most often X X X X X
The greatest number of Xs is above 10, so 0 5 10 15 20 25
10 is the mode. Minutes

Order the data from least to greatest. Then find the range, median, and mode.
1. Data: 6, 4, 3, 3, 0, 5, 8
List in order from least to greatest: , , , , , ,
Range: 0 =
Median:
Mode:
2. Data: 83, 96, 72, 91, 83
List in order from least to greatest: , , , ,
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Range: 96 =
Median:
Mode:
3. Data: 56, 88, 100, 34, 96, 56, 92
List in order from least to greatest: , , , , , ,
Range:
Median:
Mode:
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Range, Median, and Mode E ENRICH

## The Case of the Missing Math Tests

Ms. Lee's math class is divided into three groups. Each group
found the range, median, and mode of the group's scores.
Use the data for each group to find the missing scores.
1.
Group 1s Test Scores Students Scores for Group 1

## Mode 94 Gregory 84 Alison 94

Brian 86 Nancy

2.
Group 2s Test Scores Students Scores for Group 2

## Mode 94 Melissa 94 Leroy 90

Serena 98 Carl 80

3.
Group 3s Test Scores Students Scores for Group 3

## Median 92 Beth 92 Sally 96

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Mario 86 Rita 92

## 4. Explain how you found each missing test score.

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Identify Extra and Missing Information Reading

Skill
Circle the question that you need to answer. Cross out any extra
information. Then solve or tell what information you need to solve
the problem.
1. Fiona is taking a train from Boston to 2. On Tuesday, September 7, Noah
Providence on May 6th. The train bought a ticket for a flight that
arrives in Providence at 3:54 P.M. leaves on September 20th. The ticket
How long is the train trip? cost \$329. On what day of the week
is Noahs flight?

3. Marion and her daughter fly from 4. A train leaves Washington, D.C., at
Atlanta to Dallas. The round-trip fare 5:45 A.M. and arrives in Philadelphia
for Marion is \$349. The fare for at 8:00 A.M. A train from New York
Marions daughter is the same. This City arrives in Washington, D.C., at
fare costs \$50 more than the fare 8:10 A.M. Which train ride takes
the last time Marion flew. What was more time?
the round-trip fare the last time
Marion flew?

## 5. Kendra wants to fly from Atlanta to 6. A round-trip coach ticket on Flight

Philadelphia. Flight 17 leaves Atlanta 54 from New York City to San
at 11:39 A.M. and arrives in Francisco costs \$399. A round-trip
Philadelphia at 1:43 P.M. Flight 20 first-class ticket on Flight 54 costs
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## leaves Atlanta at 8:40 P.M. and \$1,609. A round-trip coach ticket on

arrives in Philadelphia at 10:54 P.M. Flight 98 from New York City to San
A coach ticket on Flight 17 is \$109. Francisco costs \$438. How much
This is \$20 more than a ticket on more expensive is a round-trip coach
Flight 20. Which flight is shorter? ticket on Flight 98 than on Flight 54?
How much shorter is it?

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Identify Extra and Missing Information Math Skills

Test Prep
Flight 81 leaves Salt Lake City at 2:55 P.M. and arrives in Phoenix at
4:30 P.M. Flight 62 from Salt Lake City, which is sold out, arrives in
Phoenix at 3:45 P.M. Which flight is faster?
1. Which of the following statements 2. What important information is
is false? missing?
A Flight 81 takes less than 2 hours. F the time that Flight 81 leaves Salt
B Flight 62 arrives in Phoenix after Lake City
Flight 81 does. G the time that Flight 81 arrives in
C Flight 62 is sold out. Phoenix
D Flight 81 arrives in Phoenix before H the time that Flight 62 leaves Salt
5:00 P.M. Lake City
J the time that Flight 62 arrives in
Salt Lake City
An express train leaves Grand Terminal at 5:05 P.M. The train arrives
at the first stop at 5:21 P.M., the second stop at 5:46 P.M., and the
last stop at 6:04 P.M. How long is the train ride?
3. Which extra information is not 4. How long is the train ride?
needed to solve the problem? F 16 minutes
A the time the train leaves Grand G 41 minutes
Terminal H 59 minutes
B the time the train arrives at the J 61 minutes
second stop
C the time the train arrives at the
last stop
D none of the above
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## A train leaves Chicago at 4:20 P.M. on Wednesday, November 24. It arrives in

Houston at 11:50 A.M. the next day. How long does the train ride take?
5. Which extra information is not 6. How long does the train ride take?
needed to solve the problem? F 4 hours 30 minutes
A the time the train leaves Chicago G 7 hours 30 minutes
B the time the train arrives in H 8 hours 30 minutes
Sacramento J 19 hours 30 minutes
C the date the train leaves
D none of the above

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Identify Extra and Missing Information Math Skills

Test Prep
Ty wants to take a nonstop flight that leaves Miami at 7:25 A.M. and arrives
in Cincinnati at 9:55 A.M., but the flight is sold out. Instead, he takes a
9:00 A.M. flight from Miami to Atlanta. Then Ty takes a flight from Atlanta to
Cincinnati. That flight leaves Atlanta at 12:00 noon. How much later does Ty
arrive in Cincinnati than he would have if he had taken a nonstop flight?
7. Which of the following statements 8. What information do you still need
is false? to solve the problem?
A Ty catches a 12:00 noon flight. F the time the 12:00 noon flight
B Ty catches a 9:00 A.M. flight. from Atlanta arrives in Cincinnati
C The nonstop flight takes less than G the time the 9:00 A.M. flight from
3 hours. Miami arrives in Atlanta
D Tys trip to Cincinnati takes H the time the 7:25 A.M. flight from
3 hours. Miami arrives in Cincinnati
J the time the 7:25 A.M. flight from
Miami arrives in Atlanta
Solve. Identify extra or missing information in each problem.
9. A round-trip first-class ticket from St. 10. A train leaves Rocky Mount, NC, at
Louis to San Diego costs \$1,600. A 1:16 P.M. The train arrives in Petersburg,
round-trip coach ticket costs \$359. VA, at 2:45 P.M. and in Richmond,
The Howards buy 3 tickets. How VA, at 3:22 P.M. How long is the trip
much do they spend? from Rocky Mount to Richmond?
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11. A bus leaves the terminal at 6:10 P.M. 12. Samantha takes a train to New York
It makes its first stop at 6:30 P.M. and City. She catches the train at 7:25 A.M.
its second stop at 6:55 P.M. When The train stops in Newark at 7:41 A.M.
will the bus arrive at its third stop? The train arrives in New York at
7:59 A.M. How much time does
Samanthas ride take?

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Problem Solving: Strategy P PRACTICE

Work Backward
Work backward to solve.

## 1. Bill wants to arrive 15 minutes early 2. It takes Sandy 35 minutes to walk

for a movie that starts at 7:45 P.M. It from school to the mall. She spends
will take him about 20 minutes to 45 minutes at the mall. Sandy leaves
walk to the theater. When should Bill the mall at 4:20 P.M. When did she
leave home? leave school?

3. Nick spent \$21.50 on a theater ticket 4. Sally spends \$16.50 on gas, \$2.25
and \$12.50 on a meal. He has on tolls, and \$2.75 on a snack. She
\$14.25 left. How much money did has \$32.10. How much money did

## Mixed Strategy Review

Solve. Use any strategy.

5. Barry makes letters for a sign that 6. Mr. Carlson has \$424. He spends
reads Free Field Trip Sign-Up Sheet. \$29 on gasoline. How much money
Which letter does Mark need to does Mr. Carlson have left?
make the most of?

Strategy:
Strategy:
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## 7. Health Walking a mile burns about 8. Create a problem which can be

110 calories. About how many solved by working backward. Share
calories would you burn if you it with others.
walked 2 miles?

Strategy:

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Work Backward
Page 109, Problem 1

Mindy wants to eat before the 7:40 P.M. show. She needs about 45 minutes
to order and eat her dinner. What is the latest time she can order?

Step 1
Be sure you understand the problem.
What do you know?
Mindy needs about minutes to order and
eat her dinner.

## She wants to eat before .

What do you need to find?
You need to find the latest time that Mindy
.

Step 2
Make a plan.
Plan Choose a strategy.
Make a Table You can work backward to solve the problem.
or List

Write a Number Start at the time of the show.
Sentence
Work Backward Then work backward to find the time that Mindy needs

Act it Out to order.
Find a Pattern
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Make a Graph
Guess and Check
Logical Reasoning
Solve Simpler
Problem
Draw a Picture

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Work Backward

Step 3
Solve
Mindy needs about minutes to order and
eat her dinner.

## She wants to finish eating by .

Start at 7:40 P.M.
Think: Mindy wants to finish eating
by 7:40 P.M. She needs to order
45 minutes before that time.
Move backward 45 minutes.

## The latest time that Mindy can order

is .

Step 4
Is the solution reasonable?
Did you end at 7:40 P.M.?
What other strategies could you use to solve the problem?
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Practice
1. Laurel wants to watch a show that 2. Paul plays basketball for 30 minutes
begins at 8:30 A.M. Before she can and Frisbee for 15 minutes. Then he
watch TV, she has to practice piano walks home.The walk takes 20 minutes.
for 1 hour 15 minutes. At what time If Paul gets home at 2:30 P.M., at what
does Laurel have to start practicing? time did he start playing basketball?

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Explore Pictographs P PRACTICE

1. Complete the table. Then use the table to complete the pictograph.

## Which Modern Invention Do You Which Modern Invention Do You

Like the Most? Like the Most?
Invention Tally Total Computer
Computer
CD Player
CD Player
Car
Car
Television Television

## Use the pictograph for exercises 25.

2. Which item do people like the most?

3. How many more people like their computers than their televisions?

## Use the table to make a pictograph on a separate piece of paper.

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## 6. 7. How many more students like pizza

Favorite Lunches
more than spaghetti?
Lunch Tally
Pizza
8. How many students took part in
Hamburgers
the survey?
Spaghetti
Chicken

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Explore Pictographs R RETEACH

## Evan and Jenny surveyed students to find Favorite Colors

out whether their favorite color is red, blue,
or yellow. This is the data they collected. Red 10
Blue 11
Yellow 6
Here is how to make a pictograph of the data. Favorite Colors
Step 1: Write a title. List the categories. Red
Step 2: Choose a picture to show the data.
Blue
You can use 1 picture to represent 2
students. So, half of a picture will Yellow
represent 1 student. Use the picture
to make a key. Key: Each stands for 2 students.
Step 3: Use the key to draw pictures to show
Key: Each stands for 1 student.
the data for each category.

## Use the data in the table to complete the pictograph.

1. How many people chose oranges? 2. How many people chose apples?

How many faces will you draw? How many faces will you draw?

## Favorite Fruit Favorite Fruit

Fruit Tally Total Apples
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Apples 9
Pears
Pears 5
Oranges
Oranges 10
Plums 4 Plums

## Key: Each stands for 1 person.

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Explore Pictographs E ENRICH

Stamp Collecting
Use the clues below to complete the pictograph.

Stamps of birds

## Stamps from other countries

Stamps of flowers

## Key: Each stands for 2 stamps.

Clues
Sarah has 5 fewer stamps from other countries than stamps of
famous people.
Sarah has twice as many stamps of famous events as stamps from
other countries.
Sarah has 3 more stamps of famous landmarks than stamps from
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other countries.
Sarah has 1 more than twice as many bird stamps as stamps of
famous events.
If Sarah had 6 more flower stamps, she would have an amount
equal to the number of bird stamps.
Would you use 1 stamp to stand for 8 stamps in the key? Why or why not?

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Bar Graphs P PRACTICE

Complete the table below. Then use it to complete the bar graph
Favorite Types of Music

Country

Classical

Jazz

Rap

## Favorite Types of Music

16
14
Number of People

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Country Classical Jazz Rap Rock and Roll
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## 4. Did more adults or teenagers choose jazz as their favorite

music?
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Bar Graphs R RETEACH

## You can use single-bar graphs or double-bar graphs to show data.

A single-bar graph presents one set of data. A double-bar graph
presents two sets of data.

## When you create a double-bar graph, you need to make a key to

represent each set of data. Write a title, headings for the vertical
and horizontal sides, and select a scale just as you would for a
single-bar graph. Remember to include different headings for both
sets of data.

## 1. What is the favorite

Favorite Vacation Spots
vacation spot? How many 20
people chose it? 18
16
Number of People

14
12
10
8
6
2. Did more people choose 4
2
France, Hawaii, or Greece as
0
their favorite vacation spot? Hawaii Greece Florida France Australia

## Favorite Vacation Spots

3. How many more boys than 10
girls chose Hawaii as their 9
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8
Number of People

## favorite vacation spot?

7
6
5
4
4. Which vacation spot shows 3
the greatest difference 2
between boys and girls? 1
0
Hawaii Greece Florida France Australia
Boys Girls

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Bar Graphs E ENRICH

The bar graph shows the earnings of Bayside Auto Plaza and Auto World.
1. The bar for Auto World is twice as
high as the bar for Bayside Auto Earnings of Car Sales
Plaza. Does this mean that Auto \$150,000
World earns twice as much as
Bayside Auto Plaza?
\$140,000

## 2. What is the actual difference in the \$130,000

earnings of the two stores?

\$120,000
3. Is the graph misleading? Explain.
0 130,000 150,000
Bayside Auto
Auto Plaza World

## A car salesperson made Graphs A and B to show the number of

cars she sold in one year.
Car SalesGraph A Car SalesGraph B
Number of Cars Sold

## Number of Cars Sold

50 100
40 80
30 60
20 40
10 20
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0 0
March

April
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.

Oct.
Jan.

Sept.
July
June

Dec.

Month Months
4. Do both bar graphs show the same data?

5. Which graph do you think the salesperson showed her boss? Tell why.

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Coordinate Graphing P PRACTICE

## Give the ordered pair for each place on the grid.

1. mall 12
11
school
10
2. library 9 post office
library
8
bank
3. park 7
park
6
4. school 5 mall
fire station
4
3
2
pool
1
0
Name the place at each location. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112

6. (9, 1) 7. (1, 9)

8. (4, 5) 9. (3, 8)

## Give the ordered pair for each place on the grid.

12
city hall
10. jail 11
police station
10 jail
9
11. movie theater court house
8 pet store
7
12. police station 6
movie theater
5 grocery store
4
13. grocery store 3
2 soccer field
1
Name the place at each location. 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112
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## 16. (8, 9) 17. (4, 8)

18. A drive-in diner is being built 19. A parking garage is being built
3 blocks down from the pet between the city hall and the
store. What ordered pair names court house. What ordered pair
this location? names the garages location?

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Coordinate Graphing R RETEACH

## The grid shows the location of 10

rides at an amusement park.
9
Where is the Space Ride located?
Sky Ride Ferris Wheel Carousel
Start at 0. Go right 1, and then 8
go up 2. You can write the
location of the Space Ride as the 7
ordered pair (1, 2). 6
Tidal Force
In an ordered pair, the first
5
number tells you how far to go to
the right. The second number Log Ride Roller Coaster
4
tells you how far to go up.
3
Shells Scrambler
Try this. Go right 5, Go up 1.
2
(5, 1) ordered pair Space Ride
Tea Cups
1
Which ride do you find?
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

## The ordered pair is (8, ). The ordered pair is ( , 4).

What is here? What is here?

## The ordered pair is . The ordered pair is .

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## Use the grid above to tell which is at each location.

5. (5, 8) 6. (2, 3)

7. (4, 6) 8. (1, 6)

## 9. (6, 4) 10. (8, 8)

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Coordinate Graphing E ENRICH

## Find the Hidden Picture

Locate each ordered pair on the grid below. Label it with the
exercise number. Then connect the dots in order.
1. (17, 3) 2. (11, 7) 3. (10, 0) 4. (9, 7)

## 5. (3, 3) 6. (7, 9) 7. (0, 10) 8. (7, 11)

9. (3, 17) 10. (9, 13) 11. (10, 20) 12. (11, 13)

13. (17, 17) 14. (13, 11) 15. (20, 10) 16. (13, 9)

20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
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6
5
4
3
2
1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
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Explore Line Graphs P PRACTICE

## Toy Sales at Toy City Toys Sold at Toy City

Month Amount \$3,200
\$3,000
July \$1,700 \$2,800
\$2,600

Amount
August \$1,000 \$2,400
\$2,200
September \$1,700 \$2,000
\$1,800
October \$2,500 \$1,600
\$1,400
November \$2,700 \$1,200
\$1,000
December \$3,200 0
July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Month

## Use the line graph to answer the questions.

1. In which month was the greatest 2. In which two months were sales
dollar amount of toys sold at Toy City? the same?

3. During which month did sales 4. During which month did sales
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## decrease? increase the most?

5. What is the difference in sales 6. In how many months did Toy City sell

between the highest and lowest more than \$1,600 worth of toys?
points on the graph

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Explore Line Graphs R RETEACH

## A line graph shows change over a period of time.

The table below shows the number of ice-cream cones sold over a
year at the Ice-Cream Cottage. You can also show this information
in a line graph.
Ice-Cream Cones Sold
Ice-Cream Cone Sales 900

## Number of Cones Sold

Month Number 800
July 800 700
600
August 900
500
September 700
400
October 650 300
November 350 200
December 100 100
0
July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Show the data from the table in Month
the line graph.

## In October, 650 cones were sold.

Draw a dot across from 650 on the
graphs scale (650 is half way
between 600 and 700).
Draw a dot for each of the other months number of sales.

## Use the line graph to answer the questions.

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1. In which month was the greatest 2. How many ice-cream cones were
number of ice-cream cones sold? sold in July?

3. How many more ice-cream cones 4. Between which two months did the
were sold in July than in December? greatest decrease in sales take place?

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Explore Line Graphs E ENRICH

Population Trends
Use the clues to complete the line graph.
Clues
Foxwood had 200 more people in 1930 than it did in 1920.
The population was the same in 1940 as it was in 1930.
In 1950, the number of people increased by 200.
There were 1,600 people living in Foxwood in 1960.
The number of people decreased by 200 in 1970 and 100 in 1980.
The population in 1990 was 200 more than in 1980.
Population Changes in Foxwood
2,200
2,100
2,000
Number of People

1,900
1,800
1,700
1,600
1,500
1,400
1,300
1,200
1,100
0
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Year

Write the years during which each event most likely happened.
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Event Years

## For the first time in 30 years, the between and

population began growing again.

## A computer factory opened. People between and

moved to Foxwood for jobs.

## The town's toy factory closed. Many between and

people lost their jobs.

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 3, Lesson 11, pages 118119. (102) SDP 1.1, 1.3
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312
Problem Solving: Application Part
A WORKSHEET

Decision
Applying Time and Data Making

Show how the Sequoia Nature Club can spend its time. Make a
schedule.
Activity Starting Time of Activity Ending Time of Activity

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Which activities did you choose for the Sequoia Nature Club?

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 3, Lesson 12, pages 120121. (103) MR 1.1, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6, 3.1
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312
Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

Science

## Attempt Time Needed to Complete the Puzzle

10
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## 1. Describe what happened to the time you needed as you

repeated the puzzle over and over.

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 3, Lesson 12, pages 122123. (104) NS 1.2; SDP 1.1, 1.3; MR 2.3, 3.2
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312
Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

## Does practice make perfect? Math &

Science
2. How many times did you have to work the puzzle until you
mastered it?

## What happened to the line on the graph after you mastered

the puzzle?
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5. Explain how you used your short- and long-term memory to learn
the puzzle.

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The Meaning of Multiplication P PRACTICE

1. 2.

3. 4.

## Find each product.

5. 6 6. 7 7. 3 8. 7 9. 6 10. 7
6 7 5 3 0 5

## 11. 5 12. 8 13. 4 14. 9 15. 6 16. 4

8 7 6 5 8 8

## Algebra & Functions Find the missing number.

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29. 2  (n  5)  30 30. (j  7)  4  56

31. (2  v)  6  48 32. (3  r)  8  72

Problem Solving
33. Jason practices his violin 2 hours 34. Sheila arranges her pennies in 9
every day. How many hours does rows with 6 pennies in each row.
he practice in 7 days? How many pennies does Sheila have?

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The Meaning of Multiplication R RETEACH

## The numbers you multiply are the factors.

First factor:
number of rows 5
Second factor:
number in each row 6

6 factor
6  6  6  6  6  30 You can write 5  6  30 or  5 factor

factor factor product 30 product

## Number Number in Number Multiplication

of Rows Each Row in All Sentence

1.

2.

3.

## Find each product.

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4. 4 5. 7 6. 6 7. 5 8. 3 9. 6
3 3 4 0 5 5

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The Meaning of Multiplication E ENRICH

## Factors, Products, and Rectangles

To show all the facts with a product of 6, draw as many rectangles
as you can that contain 6 squares. Count the number of squares in
each column and row.

## List the numbers you count.

Those are the factors.
The factors of 6 are 1, 2, 3, and 6.
616 166 326 236

## Draw as many rectangles as you can to show different facts for

each product. Then list the factors.
1. 12 2. 18

3. 20 4. 24
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## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 4, Lesson 1, pages 138139. (108) AF 1.1

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Properties of Multiplication P PRACTICE

## Find the product. Then use the Commutative Property to write a

different multiplication sentence.
1. 9  8  2. 8  7  3. 5  2 

4. 9  4  5. 3  4  6. 9  2 

7. 6  9  8. 2  3  9. 7  4 

## 25. 9 26 3 26. 6 79 4 27. 4 48 8

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Problem Solving

28. Joe plants pine seedlings in 7 rows. 29. Tanya has 9 pencils in each package.
He puts 6 seedlings in each row. How She has 6 packages. How many
many seedlings does Joe plant? pencils does Tanya have in all?

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Properties of Multiplication R RETEACH

Commutative Property
The order of the factors does not change

428 248
Identity Property Zero Property
The product of 1 and any number is The product of any number and
that number. zero is zero.

400

070

## Find each product. Then use the Commutative Property to write

another sentence.
1. 3  9  2. 5  7  3. 4  6 

9  27 5 6 

4. 2  8  5. 1  4  6. 0  5 
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## Multiply. Tell which property you used.

7. 1  8  8. 0  7  9. 5  1 

## 10. 6  0  11. 0  4  12. 1  9 

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Properties of Multiplication E ENRICH

## Crack the Code!

What number does each symbol in the table below stand for? Use the
Commutative, Identity, and Zero properties of multiplication to help
you find out. Write the number next to the symbol in the code key.

    

    

1. 6  6 2. 6  26

7 8 5  10

3. 90 4. 6  

5 0 6 

5. 9   6.  8

 9  
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7.  05 8.  4

  10  6

## 9. If you know that   ,

what other multiplication fact do you know?

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Multiply by 2, 3, 4, and 6 P PRACTICE

## Write the multiplication sentence.

1. 2.

Multiply.
3. 7  4  4. 1  6  5. 8  2  6. 3  3 

7. 9  6  8. 5  4  9. 0  6  10. 5  3 

## 19. 4 20. 5 21. 2 22. 3 23. 4 24. 9

3 6 2 6 8 6

## 25. 4 26. 2 27. 2 28. 7 29. 6 30. 1

4 3 0 6 2 6

## 31. 4 32. 6 33. 2 34. 6 35. 3 36. 4

6 8 5 6 9 7

## Algebra & Functions Find the answer.

37. If   3, then how much is    ?
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## 39. If   4, then how much is     ?

Problem Solving

40. Cars are parked in 2 rows. There are 41. Four parents are needed on each of
8 cars in each row. How many cars 9 committees. How many parents are
are parked? needed?

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Multiply by 2, 3, 4, and 6 R RETEACH

## You can skip count to multiply by 2 and 3.

Find 2  8. Think: Skip count by 2s eight times.
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 These are multiples of 2.
       
2  8  16

## Find 7  3. Think: Skip count by 3s seven times.

3 6 9 12 15 18 21 These are multiples of 3.
      
7  3  21

## You can double a fact you know to multiply by 4 and 6.

Double a fact to multiply by 4. Double a fact to multiply by 6.
4  5  (2  5)  (2  5) 6  5  (3  5)  (3  5)

10  10  20 15  15  30


 


1. 2  7  2. 6  2  3. 2  8  4. 9  2 

5. 6  3  6. 3  8  7. 9  3  8. 3  7 
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9. 6  8  (3  8)  (3  ) 10. 4  7  (2  )  (2  )
   

11. 7  6  (7  )  (7  ) 12. 8  4  (8  )  (8  )
   

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 4, Lesson 3, pages 142145. (113) NS 4.1

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Multiply by 2, 3, 4, and 6 E ENRICH

Triangle Math
In each triangle, the number on the bottom left is the product of
the middle left and the top number. The number on the bottom
right is the product of the middle right and the top number.
Complete the triangles. The top number must be a 2, 3, 4, or 6.
1. 2. 3. 4.
2 3 6 4
1 6 6 3 3 1 8 3

2 12 18 9 18 6 32 12

5. 6. 7. 8.
6 2 4 3
7 5 7 8 2 6 7 8

42 30 14 16 8 24 21 24

## 9. 10. 11. 12.

2 6 3 4
9 5 6 8 9 5 5 9
18 10 36 48 27 15 20 36

## 13. 14. 15. 16.

3 4 6 2
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1 4 4 7 4 9 2 3
3 12 16 28 24 54 4 6

17. Explain how you found the answer to the triangle in exercise 3.

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Multiply by 5 and 10 P PRACTICE

Multiply.
1. 5  4  2. 5  8  3. 6  10  4. 1  5 

5. 0  5  6. 3  10  7. 7  5  8. 4  10 

## 25. 5 26. 10 27. 5 28. 10 29. 5 30. 10

6  3 3  8 2  5

## 31. 10 32. 5 33. 5 34. 10 35. 10 36. 5

 9 1 5  6  4 4

## 37. 10 38. 5 39. 5 40. 10 41. 10 42. 5

 7 8 0  0  2 7

## 43. 10 44. 5 45. 6 46. 9 47. 8 48. 3

 1 9 5 5 5 5

## Tell whether the number is a multiple of 2, 5, or 10.

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 49. 18 50. 30 51. 35 52. 40

Problem Solving

53. Gene has 5 boxes of crayons with 54. Jan places 5 rows of 8 stars in a
10 crayons in each box. How many rectangle to make a design. How
crayons does Gene have? many stars does she use?

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Multiply by 5 and 10 R RETEACH

## You can skip count using nickels to multiply by 5.

Find 7  5 Think: Skip count by 5s four times.

## five ten fifteen twenty twenty-five thirty thirty-five

5 10 15 20 25 30 35
7  5  35

## You can skip count using dimes to multiply by ten.

Find 8  10. Think: Skip count by 10s three times.

## ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
8  10  80

## Skip count to find the answer.

1. 2.

65 5  10 

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3. 4  5  4. 3  10  5. 5  10  6. 6  5 

7. 9  5  8. 6  10  9. 7  5  10. 7  10 

## 15. 10 16. 5 17. 10 18. 10 19. 5 20. 10

 8 8  5  9 9  4

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 4, Lesson 4, pages 146147. (116) NS 3.2

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Multiply by 5 and 10 E ENRICH

True Sums
Write multiplication sentences to make each sum true. Each
multiplication sentence must have a 5 or a 10 as one of its factors.

## Product Product Product

1. 2  10 20 2. 10  1 10 3. 7  10 70
5 4 20 5 2 10 8 5 40
40 Sum 20 Sum 110 Sum

## Product Product Product

4. 5 3 15 5. 5  6 30 6. 4 5 20
10  10 100 8 10 80 10  9 90
115 Sum 110 Sum 110 Sum

## Product Product Product

7. 5  7 35 8. 9 5 45 9. 5  1 5
5 10 50 10  8 80 5 10 50
85 Sum 125 Sum 55 Sum

## Product Product Product

10. 3  10 30 11. 4  10 40 12. 5 5 25
5 9 45 5 10 50 10  6 60
75 Sum 90 Sum 85 Sum
McGraw-Hill School Division

Can you follow the rules and find other numbers that will give
a true sum for exercises 1 and 4?

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 4, Lesson 4, pages 146147. (117) NS 3.2

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Multiply by 7, 8, and 9 P PRACTICE

Multiply.
1. 5  7  2. 9  7  3. 1  8  4. 9  9 

5. 3  8  6. 8  7  7. 4  9  8. 2  8 

## 21. 5 22. 7 23. 9 24. 9 25. 8 26. 7

9 2 8 3 0 9

## 27. 8 28. 2 29. 7 30. 6 31. 9 32. 9

8 8 1 7 1 6

## 33. 8 34. 9 35. 7 36. 8 37. 7 38. 8

4 2 3 3 5 6

Algebra & Functions Find the rule. Then complete the table.
39.
Rule:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 9 18 27
40.
Rule:
McGraw-Hill School Division

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 8 16 24

Problem Solving

41. Nathan puts 6 cards on each of 8 42. A marching band has 5 rows with
pages in an album. How many cards 9 students in each row. How many
does he put in the album? students are in the marching band?

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Multiply by 7, 8, and 9 R RETEACH

## You can use known facts to multiply by 7, 8, and 9.

Add to a known fact to Subtract from a known Double a fact to multiply
multiply by 7. fact to multiply by 9. by 8.

## You know 7  5  35. Double 4  7.

You know 6  10  60.
Think: Think: (4  7)  (4  7)
35  7 is the same as 7  6. 60  6 is the same as 6  9.
28  28  56
35  7  42 60  6  54

7  6  42 6  9  54 8  7  56

Multiply.
1. 7  5  2. 8  6  3. 9  8 

4. 8  8  5. 9  7  6. 7  7 

7. 9  9  8. 7  9  9. 8  10 
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 13. 5 14. 8 15. 4 16. 3 17. 6 18. 4

9 9 7 9 7 8

## 19. 10 20. 4 21. 5 22. 4 23. 10 24. 9

 9 6 8 9  7 8

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Multiply by 7, 8, and 9 E ENRICH

Multiplication Game
Play with a partner. You will need:
Cut out the game markers. Two sets of number cards. Each set
One player puts the glove on START. contains number cards from 0 through
The other puts the baseball on START. 10. Label one set A and the other set B.

Take turns.
Pick a card from A and a card from B. Find the product of the two numbers.
Have your partner check the product. If the product is correct, move
forward two spaces. If the product is wrong, move back one space.

## Ball is Lost in Woods.

Go to equipment box.
x nt
Bo me
uip

Woods
Eq

## Ball bounced Tripped

in puddle. over feet.
Go back to Go back
Start. 3 spaces.

Puddle
pa ack ud.
Go e in ped
3s b m
v p
glo Dro

s.
ce
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Field

Markers

Start

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

Skill
Solve. Tell how you chose the operation.
1. Georgia puts coins in an album. There are 8 pages in the album. Each page
has slots for 8 coins. How many coins can Georgia put in the album?

## 2. Dina has 37 international dolls. Maxine has 26 international dolls.

Who has more dolls? How many more does she have?

## 3. Ben buys 9 packs of dinosaur stickers. There are 6 stickers in each

pack. How many stickers does Ben buy?

## 4. Melanie has a collection of 242 stamps. At a stamp convention, she

buys 19 more stamps. How many stamps does Melanie have now?

## 5. James collects model cars. He has 48 model cars. On his birthday,

James gets 7 more cars. How many model cars does James have in all?
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 6. Wendy has 10 flower stickers. She gives away 7 flower stickers.

How many flower stickers does Wendy have left?

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Choose an Operation Math Skills

Test Prep
Juan buys 6 packs of stickers. Each pack has 4 stickers.
How many stickers does Juan buy in all?
1. Which of the following statements 2. Which of the following can you use
is true? to solve the problem?
A Juan has 4 packs of stickers. F 64
B Juan has 10 stickers. G 64
C Juan has 24 packs of stickers. H 64
D Juan has 24 stickers. J 64

## Warren has 9 silver dollars. At a coin show, he buys 3 silver dollars.

How many silver dollars does Warren have now?
3. What do you have to do to solve 4. How many silver dollars does
this problem? Warren have?
A find how many silver dollars are left F 3 silver dollars
B find the total of 2 unequal groups G 6 silver dollars
of silver dollars H 12 silver dollars
C find the total of 3 equal groups of J 27 silver dollars
silver dollars
D find how many silver dollars there
are when you split 9 into 3 equal
groups

Nadia collects souvenir flags. She puts the flags in her bookcase in 3 rows.
There are 7 flags in each row. How many flags does Nadia have?
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## 5. What do you have to do to solve 6. How many flags are there?

this problem? F 21 flags
A find the total of 2 unequal groups G 10 flags
of flags H 4 flags
B find the total of 2 equal groups J 3 flags
of flags
C find the total of 3 equal groups
of flags
D find how many flags are left
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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Choose an Operation Math Skills

Test Prep
Selena has 42 movie posters. Her brother has 26 movie posters.
How many movie posters do they have in all?
7. What operation could you use to 8. How many movie posters do Selena
solve this problem? and her brother have in all?
B subtraction G 26
C multiplication H 68
D division J 78

Solve.
9. Lois sells 10 rock-star posters. She 10. Morris has 16 kites. He buys 4 more
gets \$8 for each poster. How much kites. How many kites does Morris
money does Lois receive? have now?

11. Janell has 472 baseball cards. Lou 12. Kevin buys 7 packs of football cards.
has 397 baseball cards. How many There are 4 football cards in each
more baseball cards does Janell have pack. How many football cards does
McGraw-Hill School Division

13. Brian displays his trophies in his 14. Barbara puts photos of France in
bedroom. He puts his trophies in a photo album. The photo album
3 rows. There are 6 trophies in can hold 94 photos. Barbara has
each row. How many trophies 78 photos. How many more photos
does Brian have? can she put in the album?

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Multiplication Table and Patterns P PRACTICE

## Complete the table.

 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0 0
1 0 1 2 4 8
2 2 4 12
3 3 9 21 27 36
4 8 20
5 15 30 40 50 60
6 36 66 72
7 7 77
8 16 32 96
9 54 108
10
11 22 55 88 99 121 132
12 24 84 120 144

## Use the table to multiply.

1. 9  8  2. 3  12  3. 11  11  4. 4  12 

5. 12 6. 12 7. 12 8. 10 9. 11 10. 12
 8  12  7  10  7  9
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11. What is the pattern of odd and even 12. What is the pattern of odd and even
numbers in the 3 row or 3 column? numbers in the 4 row or 4 column?

Compare. Write , , or .
13. 6  3 33 14. 15  7 27 15. 4  8 25  4

## 16. 9  7 6  11 17. 9  7 44 18. 12  4 23

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Multiplication Table and Patterns R RETEACH

## To find 8  9, draw arrows to show where the 8 row and the

9 column meet in the table. The 8 row and the 9 column meet
at 72. So, 8  9  72.
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
3 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36
4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
6 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72
7 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84
8 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96
9 0 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90 99 108
10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
11 0 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 121 132
12 0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132 144

1. 6  8  2. 8  12  3. 8  4 

4. 7  7  5. 10  5  6. 9  11 

7. 7  4  8. 3  8  9. 4  9 
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 13. 9 14. 8 15. 8 16. 9 17. 12 18. 11

 12 7  11 8  10  7

## 19. 11 20. 8 21. 9 22. 12 23. 11 24. 11

 12 8 7  12  3  11

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Multiplication Table and Patterns E ENRICH

Twisted Tables
Complete each multiplication table. Fill in the missing factors.
1. 2.
 
10 15 20 42 14 28
12 18 24 18 6 12
14 21 28 30 10 20

3. 4.
 
36 42 54 24 12 28 0 8
6 7 9 4 24 56 0 16
12 14 18 8 3 7 0 2
30 35 45 20 9 21 0 6

5. 6.
 
72 63 42 21
28 24 72 40
27 6 18 9
7 6 2 0

7. 8.
 
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56 28 15 35
16 18 0 18
16 36 21
24 6 42

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Multiply Three Numbers P PRACTICE

Multiply.
1. (2  5)  4  2. 3  (2  8)  3. (4  2)  3 

4. 6  (3  2)  5. 4  (4  2)  6. 7  (2  5) 

7. (5  2)  4  8. (2  2)  2  9. (9  3)  0 

## Complete the multiplication sentence.

28. 5  4  5 29. (  8)  7  0

30. (9  3)   27 31. 5  6  5  (3  )

 (3  5)  9  5 33. 4  4  2  (2  )  (4  2)
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32.

Problem Solving

34. The school gives each basketball 35. In a baseball game of 9 innings,
player 2 shirts. Each shirt costs \$8. each of the 2 teams gets 3 outs
What is the total cost of shirts for per inning. How many outs are there
6 players? in a game?

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Multiply Three Numbers R RETEACH

## Find: (3  5)  2 Think: 3  2 is a known fact.

(5  3)  2 Use the Commutative Property to change the order.
5  (3  2) Use the Associative Property to regroup the numbers.
56 Multiply inside the parentheses first.

Think: 3 twos

5  6  30 Multiply again.

Think: 5 sixes

Multiply.
1. (2  5)  4 2. 3  (4  3) 3. (2  6)  3

## (5  )4 3(  ) (6  )3

5(  ) (  )4 6(  )
5 4 6

4. 2  (2  3)  5. (2  4)  3  6. (5  2)  3 
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7. (7  1)  3  8. (4  8)  1  9. 3  (3  2) 

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Multiply Three Numbers E ENRICH

## The Search for 48

Circle each combination of numbers that has a product of 48. You
can multiply up to four numbers. Look across, up, down, and
diagonally. Can you find all 26 combinations?

4 3 4 2 3 7 8

4 9 2 2 4 6 4

5 2 3 2 4 8 8

6 6 6 7 6 6 3

7 4 9 4 3 4 2

2 2 2 8 3 2 9
McGraw-Hill School Division

Choose one of these numbers: 24, 36, 64, or 72. Make your own
number search and give it to a friend to solve. Be sure to keep a
copy with the solution!

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Relate Multiplication P PRACTICE

## and Division Facts

Write a related multiplication fact and complete the
division sentence.
1. 18  9 2. 15  3 3. 16  4

9  18 3  15 4  16
18  9  15  3  16  4 

Divide.
4. 6  2  5. 18  2  6. 15  5 

7. 8  4  8. 27  3  9. 14  2 

## 13. 48  6  14. 35  7  15. 42  7 

7 3 8 6 5
16. 3 21 17. 7 21 18. 2 16 19. 3 18 20. 5 25

9 8 3 6 3
21. 5 45 22. 7 56 23. 8 24 24. 9 54 25. 3 9

7 5 9 4 8
26. 8 56 27. 9 45 28. 9 81 29. 9 36 30. 8 64

9 9 6 9 7
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## 31. 7 63 32. 6 54 33. 4 24 34. 4 36 35. 9 63

Problem Solving

36. It takes 4 horses to pull a coach. How 37. Groups of 6 visitors can take tours of
many coaches can 20 horses pull? an old western town. How many
groups can 24 people make?

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Relate Multiplication R RETEACH

## and Division Facts

Find 15  5. Think: How many groups of 5 are in 15?

5  ?  15 5  3  15
There are 3 groups of 5 in 15. So, 15  5  3.
Write a related multiplication fact and complete the division sentence.
1. 18  6 2. 16  8 3. 12  3

6  18 8  16 4  12
18  6  16  8  12  3 

4. 20  5 5. 21  7 6. 24  6

20  5  21  7  24  6 

7. 30  5 8. 27  9 9. 28  4
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30  5  27  9  28  4 

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Relate Multiplication and E ENRICH

Division Facts
Word Puzzle
Use the letters in the table below to complete the word puzzle.
Words have to connect as they do in a crossword puzzle.

Letter Values

## Letter Value Letter Value

A 10  3  ? L 45  5  ?

B 25  5  ? N 49?

D 12  6  ? O 30  3  ?

E 36? S 55?

F 45? T 67?

G 36  4  ? U 42  7  ?

J 10  4  ? Y 54  6  ?

Rules
Use each letter in the table only once.
You cannot move the vowels in the puzzle.
Try to get the highest score you can. To find your score, complete
the multiplication or division to find the value of each letter you
used. For example, if you placed the letter B in the top left square,
you would get 5 for that square (25  5  5). Then add to find
the value of each word. Finally, add the values of all four words.
McGraw-Hill School Division

J O G
E U
T A N
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Problem Solving: Strategy P PRACTICE

Act It Out
Use act it out to solve.
1. The Rare Book Club invites its 2. Len delivers 16 bottles of juice and
25 members to a dinner. Square soda. A small box will hold 6 bottles
tables seat 4 people and round and a large box will hold 8 bottles.
tables seat 5 people. If the club Which box should Len use if he
wants full tables, which tables wants to put an equal number of
should the club use? How many of bottles in each box? How many
these tables will be needed? boxes will he need?

## 3. Courtney is making a display of 4. The Sailing Club puts 12 of its 48

42 shells. She arranges the shells in trophies in a large display case. There
rows of 6. How many rows does are 6 smaller cases. How can the
Courtney make? club arrange the rest of the trophies
so that each smaller case has an
equal number of trophies?

## Mixed Strategy Review

Solve. Use any strategy.
5. Yoki has 20 posters of science-fiction 6. Art For posters, Nancy has a piece
movies. She puts an equal number of of poster paper that is 9 feet by
these posters on each of 4 walls. 2 feet. She cuts 3-foot by 1-foot
How many posters does Yoki put on rectangles from it. How many
each wall? posters does she make?
McGraw-Hill School Division

Strategy: Strategy:
7. Dinner starts at 6:00 P.M. It will take 8. Create a problem which you could
Robert 45 minutes to get there. On act out to solve. Share it with others.
his way, he wants to stop at the
library for 30 minutes. What time
does Robert need to leave to get to
the dinner on time?

Strategy:
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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Act It Out
Page 163, Problem 2

## For placemats, Meg is going to cut 2-foot by 1-foot rectangles from a

piece of fabric with a starry background. The fabric is 4 feet wide and 3
feet long. How many placemats can she cut from one piece of fabric?

Step 1
Be sure you understand the problem.
What do you know?
The placemats are by .

## Meg is going to cut the placemats from a piece of

fabric that is by .
What do you need to find?
You need to find how many
.

Step 2
Make a plan.
Plan Choose a strategy.
Make a Table To solve the problem, you can act it out
or List
using models.
Write a Number
Sentence
Draw a rectangle that represents the
Work Backward
piece of fabric. A rectangle that is 4
Act it Out
McGraw-Hill School Division

## feet by 3 feet would be very large, so

Find a Pattern
draw a rectangle that is 4 centimeters
Make a Graph
by 3 centimeters to represent the
Guess and Check
piece of fabric.
Logical Reasoning
Solve a Simpler Make rectangles that represent the
Problem
placemats. Since the placemats are
Draw a Picture
2 feet by 1 foot, cut out rectangles that
are 2 centimeters by 1 centimeter.

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Act It Out

Step 3
Solve
Fill the large rectangle with small rectangles.

## The large rectangle represents .

Each small rectangle represents .
Meg can cut placemats from the piece of fabric.

Step 4
Is the solution reasonable?
Did you answer the question? Yes No
What other stategies could you use to solve the problem?

Practice
McGraw-Hill School Division

1. Randy wants to cut name tags from 2. Ted has 54 model train cars. He has
a piece of poster paper. The poster large boxes that will each hold 8
paper is 18 inches by 24 inches. Each train cars. He has small boxes that
name tag will be 3 inches by 4 inches. will each hold 6 train cars. Which
How many name tags can Randy cut type of box should Ted use if he
from the piece of poster paper? wants to put an equal number of
cars in each box? How many of
those boxes will he need?

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Divide by 2 Through 12 P PRACTICE

Divide.
1. 12  2  2. 24  3  3. 32  4 

4. 35  5  5. 54  6  6. 56  7 

7. 64  8  8. 81  9  9. 40  8 

## 16. 90  10  17. 121  11  18. 144  12 

9 6 6 2 2
19. 2 18 20. 3 18 21. 4 24 22. 7 14 23. 8 16

9 7 7 9 9
24. 7 63 25. 6 42 26. 9 63 27. 5 45 28. 8 72

6 7 8 9 9
29. 12 72 30. 11 77 31. 10 80 32. 11 99 33. 12 108

Algebra & Functions Find the rule. Then complete the table.
34.
Rule:
0 9
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

35.
Rule:
0 7
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0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Problem Solving

36. There are 42 tomato plants in rows of 37. There are 45 tomatoes on 5 tomato
6 plants in each row. How many rows plants. Each tomato plant has the
of tomato plants are there? same number of tomatoes. How
many tomatoes are on each plant?

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Divide by 2 Through 12 R RETEACH

## Find 48  6. Think: How many groups of 6 are in 48?

6  ?  48 6  8  48
There are 8 groups of 6 in 48. So, 48  6  8.
Complete the division sentence.
1. 2. 3.

30  5  24  8  16  4 

## Divide. Draw models if you wish.

4. 12  2  5. 21  3  6. 20  5 

7. 14  7  8. 24  6  9. 16  2 

## 10. 32  8  11. 18  3  12. 28  4 

9 9 12
13. 2 18 14. 4 36 15. 3 36

3 6 5
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 16. 5 15 17. 7 42 18. 9 45

3 3 3
19. 10 30 20. 11 33 21. 12 36

9 8 8
22. 6 54 23. 5 40 24. 10 80

9 2 9
25. 9 81 26. 12 24 27. 11 99

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Divide by 2 Through 12 E ENRICH

## Win the Division

Play this division football game with a partner. Youll need a number
cube and 2 two-color counters to use as game pieces.
Rules
Place your game pieces at the START positions on the 50-yard
line. Each player can only move in the direction of the arrow.
Take turns rolling the number cubes. Add the number cubes to
get a divisor.
If the number in the circle on the next 10-yard line can be evenly
divided by the divisor, move to that circle.
Keep rolling the number cubes until one of you scores a touchdown.

42 TOUCHDOWN!
16
G

28
10

15
20

36
30

12
40

Start
50
Start
24
40
McGraw-Hill School Division

18
30

30
20

54
10

10
G
TOUCHDOWN! 35

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Fact Families P PRACTICE

## Complete each fact family.

1. 4  8  q 2. 9  5  a 3. 8  9  m
8  r  32 5  b  45 8  n  72
32  8  s 45  5  c 72  8  o
32  t  8 45  d  5 72  p  8

## Find the missing factor.

4. 5  k  30 5. h  7  56 6. 9  g  72
30  5  k 56  7  h 72  9  g

7. 9  w  54 8. 9  y  63 9. d  8  48
54  9  w 63  9  y 48  8  d

Write a multiplication and division fact family for each group of numbers.
10. 8, 5, 40 11. 3, 9, 27 12. 6, 7, 42 13. 9, 8, 72

## 14. 5, 7, 35 15. 4, 5, 20 16. 6, 9, 54 17. 5, 9, 45

McGraw-Hill School Division

## Divide. What patterns do you see?

18. 4  4  88 99 66

## 19. 0  7  08 01 05

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Fact Families R RETEACH

## Multiplication and division sentences that are related make up a

fact family. Every sentence in a fact family uses the same numbers.
Fact Family Fact Family
3  4  12 5  2  10
4  3  12 2  5  10
12  3  4 10  5  2
12  4  3 10  2  5

1. 2.

3  5  15 9 
5   
15  5  4
15    [9] 

## Write the fact family for each set of numbers.

3. 4, 6, 24 4. 3, 7, 21 5. 35, 7, 5 6. 54, 6, 9
McGraw-Hill School Division

## Find the missing numbers.

7. 5  n  30 8. n  7  56 9. n  8  64 10. 3 n  27
30  5  n 56  7  n 64  8  n 27  3  n
n n n n

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Fact Families E ENRICH

Chain Reaction
Write the missing numbers to complete each chain.

## 2. 98 72  12  6 6 1 0 0

3. 8 6  48  4  12 4 48 6 8

4. 66  11    30  6  9
6 5 5 45

5. 5  12  60  10 69 54 6 9
McGraw-Hill School Division

6.
81 9 93 3 3 9 9 81

7. 45  9  5  9  45  5  9 3 27

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413
Problem Solving: Application Part
A WORKSHEET

Decision
Applying Multiplication and Division Making

Capacity: Number
Number of
Storage Unit of trophies or Total Cost
Units Used
medals per unit

Shelf

Frame
(small or large)

McGraw-Hill School Division

## What is your recommendation for Lily? Explain.

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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

Science

## Ramp height Distance traveled Use division.

How many times farther
did the crayon travel on
this ramp than it did on
the 1-book ramp?
Round to the nearest
whole number.

1 book

2 books

3 books
McGraw-Hill School Division

4 books

5 books

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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

## Ramp races: How does height affect distance? Math &

Science

1. On which ramp did the crayon travel the farthest? On which ramp
did the crayon travel the shortest distance?

## 2. Use division to calculate how many times farther the crayon

traveled for the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-book ramps than it did for the
1-book ramp. Do your calculations in the table and then list your
answers here. Round to the nearest whole number.

## 3. Do you see a pattern? Describe it.

4. If the pattern continues, how far will a crayon travel if released from a
10-book ramp? a 20-book ramp? Explain how you made these estimates.
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 5. Explain the activity in terms of speed.

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Patterns of Multiplication P PRACTICE

Complete.

1. 3  2  a a 2. 5  8  e e
3  b  60 b 5  c  400 f
c  200  600 c g  800  4,000 g
3  2,000  d d 5  8,000  h h
Multiply. Use mental math.

3. 80 4. 70 5. 40 6. 60 7. 90
6 8 5 7 6

## 8. 400 9. 800 10. 700 11. 2,000 12. 3,000

 5  6  9  4  6

## 22. a  5  300 23. b  4  320 24. 2  c  180

a a c
25. 3  a  900 26. 6  b  3,600 27. c  8  72,000
McGraw-Hill School Division

a b c
Problem Solving

28. Stamps are sold in rolls of 100. How 29. A ream of paper is 500 sheets of
many stamps are in 9 rolls? paper. How many sheets are in
7 reams?

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Patterns of Multiplication R RETEACH

## 2  4 ones  8 ones 2  4 tens  8 tens 2  4 hundreds  8 hundreds

248 2  40  80 2  400  800

## Complete the pattern.

1. 3  3  2. 6  3  3. 4  5 

3  30  6  30  4  50 
3  300  6  300  4  500 
3  3,000  6  3,000  4  5,000 

## Multiply. Use mental math.

4. 70 5. 90 6. 70 7. 60 8. 800
8 4 4 7  9

## 9. 200 10. 500 11. 3,000 12. 7,000 13. 6,000

 8  7  8  3  8
McGraw-Hill School Division

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Patterns of Multiplication E ENRICH

History Riddles
Find each missing number. Then find the letter in the table that
matches that number. Solve the riddles. Write the letter in the blank
above the same exercise number.
1.  5  100 2. 60   24,000 3. 7   350

## 22.  7  2,100 23. 6   4,800 24. 7   210

20 30 40 50 80 200 300 400 500 800 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 8,000

E N B A M T S H O I F W U K Y

## What did Paul Revere say at the end of his ride?

7. 2. 9. 3.
McGraw-Hill School Division

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Explore Multiplying 2-Digit Numbers P PRACTICE

by1-Digit Numbers
1. Multiply 4  15. Draw squares to multiply.

## Find each product.

2. 62 3. 38 4. 91 5. 46 6. 78
2 4 3 5 6

7. 98 8. 76 9. 24 10. 56 11. 48
5 6 9 7 8

6 7 3 4 9

7 8 5 4 7

## 25. 38  4  26. 7  22  27. 9  49 

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 28. 8  67  29. 35  4  30. 99  3 

Problem Solving

31. Katy arranges oranges in 5 layers in a 32. Band members march in 24 rows.
crate. Each layer has 24 oranges. There are 8 members in each row.
How many oranges does she put in How many members are in the
the crate? band?

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Explore Multiplying 2-Digit Numbers R RETEACH

by 1-Digit Numbers
Find 5  21.
You can draw an array to multiply.
Find the total number of dots.

5 dots 5  21  105

21 dots

## Draw an array to multiply.

1. 4  18  2. 5  24 

4 dots 5 dots

18 dots 24 dots

## Find each product.

3. 19 4. 24 5. 25 6. 13 7. 12
6 5 8 9 9

## 8. 46 9. 37 10. 58 11. 28 12. 23

3 4 5  7  6
McGraw-Hill School Division

4 5 3 6 9

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Explore Multiplying 2-Digit Numbers E ENRICH

by1-Digit Numbers
The Abacus
The abacus is a computing tool that is thousands of years old.
To multiply 3  32 H T O Next, multiply H T O
using a Russian 3 tens by 3. Move
abacus, first 9 beads to the
multiply 2 ones by bottom of the tens
3. Move 6 beads to column to show
the bottom of the 3  3 tens  9 tens.
ones column to
show 3  2  6.
each column.

## There are 9 tens 6 ones, so 3  32  96.

Use the abacus to find each product. Show the answer by drawing
the beads you moved down. Cross out the beads you moved down
from the top.
1. 4  22  2. 2  34  3. 3  31 

H T O H T O H T O
McGraw-Hill School Division

4. 5  43  5. 4  212  6. 3  304 
H T O H T O H T O

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Multiply 2-Digit Numbers P PRACTICE

by 1-Digit Numbers
Multiply.

1. 73 2. 44 3. 31 4. 68 5. 32
3 5 7 8 9

6. 65 7. 33 8. 96 9. 88 10. 74
5 6 3 4 5

4 6 2 8 3

4 7 9 8 6

## 32. Multiply 37 by 6. 33. Multiply 45 by 5.

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 34. Multiply 56 by 7. 35. Multiply 82 by 3.

Problem Solving
36. A rectangle is 5 tiles wide by 37. Books are stacked in 3 stacks with
13 tiles high. How many tiles are 17 books in each stack. How many
in the rectangle? books are in the stacks?

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Multiply 2-Digit Numbers by R RETEACH

1-Digit Numbers
You can multiply using models or pencil and paper.

## Find 4  26. You can record

Show 4 groups of 26. this way:

Step 1 26
4
Multiply the ones.
24
4  6 ones  24 ones

26
Step 2 4
Multiply the tens. 24
4  2 tens  8 tens  80

26
Step 3 4
 80
104

Complete to find the product. You may use models to help you.
1. 23 2. 44 3. 31 4. 52 5. 45
5 3 8 7 9
McGraw-Hill School Division

6. 45 7. 64 8. 78 9. 86 10. 92
5 6 3 4 5

## 14. 5  83  15. 2  88  16. 48  6 

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Multiply 2-Digit Numbers E ENRICH

by 1-Digit Numbers
Lattice Multiplication
You can use lattice multiplication to multiply. Multiply 7  48.
Write 48 over the top Multiply 7  8. Write Multiply 7  4. Write 28 in
boxes. Write 7 on the 56 in the first box. the second box. Add on the
right. diagonals. Start at the right.
Regroup as you would in

4 8 4 8 4 8
48
5 2 5
7 7 3 7  7
6 8 6 336

3 6

## Use lattice multiplication to find the products.

1. 2  27  2. 5  34  3. 4  56 
2 7 3 4 5 6

1 1 2 2 2
2 1 5 2 4
4 4 5 0 0 4
5 4 7 0 2 4

4. 8  37  5. 8  63  6. 7  79 
McGraw-Hill School Division

3 7 6 3 7 9

2 5 4 2 4 6
2 8 5 8 5 7
4 6 8 4 9 3
9 6 0 4 5 3

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Estimate Products P PRACTICE

## Estimate each product.

1. 5  21  2. 3  39  3. 7  \$46 

4. 85  6  5. 17  9  6. 81  3 

## 19. 41 20. 28 21. 96 22. 17 23. 31

 6  7  2 8 9

24. 255 25. 488 26. 563 27. 2,307 28. 7,596
 4  3  5  5  6

## 35. 5  423 6  523 36. 3  666 2  366 37. 4  712 3  412

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving

38. The volunteer ambulance group 39. An ambulance travels about 386
orders 6 first aid kits. Each kit costs miles a day. About how many miles
\$39. About how much does it cost does it travel in a week?
for 6 kits?

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Estimate Products R RETEACH

You can round to estimate products. Round the greater factor to its
greatest place and multiply using patterns.

Estimate 8  287.
Round 287 to the 8  287
nearest hundred.
8  300
287

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

## Multiply using the

rounded number 8  300  2,400 So, 8  287 is about 2,400.

## Estimate each product.

1. 2  74 2. 3  42 3. 6  36

4. 6  \$58 5. 9  18 6. 3  71

## 13. 31 14. 58 15. \$66 16. 17 17. 51

2 3  4 5 6

18. \$454 19. 512 20. 498 21. \$637 22. 845
 7  8  9  4  2
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23. 7,809 24. \$6,047 25. 4,524 26. \$2,107 27. 8,596
 6  3  8  6  4

28. 2,537 29. 5,088 30. \$6,409 31. 3,623 32. \$7,522
 4  2  7  8  9

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Estimate Products E ENRICH

Target Practice
Estimate to find the factors whose product is closer to the target
number. Circle the letter of the answer.
1. Target Number: 150 2. Target Number: 160 3. Target Number: 180

S. 57  3 H. 37  4 D. 3  67

T. 52  3 I. 32  4 E. 3  61

## 4. Target Number: 540 5. Target Number: 420 6. Target Number: 560

S. 88  6 T. 7  62 O. 76  8

T. 83  6 U. 7  68 A. 72  8

## 7. Target Number: 2,700 8. Target Number: 630 9. Target Number: 4,500

T. 3  879 T. 79  9 E. 9  490

U. 3  849 U. 72  9 F. 9  430

10. Target Number: 3,600 11. Target Number: 5,600 12. Target Number: 6,000

## O. 889  4 F. 680  8 M. 2,898  3

13. Target Number: 6,400 14. Target Number: 7,200 15. Target Number: 2,400

## J. 899  8 B. 782  9 F. 352  8

16. Target Number: 25,000 17. Target Number: 32,000 18. Target Number: 35,000

## Q. 4,175  5 T. 7,825  4 Y. 4,762  7

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## Write the circled letters above each exercise number to

I lift my lamp beside the golden door! Who am I?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Use an Overestimate or Underestimate Reading

Skill
Form a conclusion about whether you would use an overestimate or
an underestimate. Then solve each problem.
1. On Wednesday, a group of 98 students will visit the national forest.
Each student will get a nature guide fact book. These books come
in boxes of 32. The park rangers have 3 boxes of fact books. Are
there enough fact books so each student can get a book?
Should you use an overestimate or an underestimate to solve this
problem? Explain.

Are there enough fact books so each student can get a book?
2. The park charges \$16 per day to use a campsite. The Nolans want
to use a campsite for 4 nights. They have \$80 set aside for using a
campsite. Have the Nolans set aside enough money?
Should you use an overestimate or an underestimate to solve
this problem? Explain.

## Have the Nolans set aside enough money?

3. A total of 184 people are taking a desert hike. Each hiking group
can have up to 36 people. There are enough hike leaders and
helpers to lead 6 groups. Are there enough hike leaders and helpers
McGraw-Hill School Division

## so that all of the people can go on a hike?

Should you use an overestimate or an underestimate to solve
this problem? Explain.

Are there enough hike leaders and helpers so that all of the
people can go on a hike?

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Use an Overestimate or Underestimate Math Skills

Test Prep
There are 146 students going on a trip to the desert. The school has
3 buses. Each bus can hold 48 students. Should a fourth bus be
ordered for the trip?
1. Which statement is true? 2. To make sure that 3 buses are enough
A There are 48 students going on a to hold 148 students, you should
trip to the desert. F underestimate the number of
B Each bus can hold 48 students. students the buses can hold.
C Three buses can hold exactly 150 G overestimate the number of
students. students the buses can hold.
H underestimate the number of
students going on the trip.

## The cafeteria in the national forest visitors center has 23 tables.

Each table seats 6 people. A group of 120 is visiting the forest. Are
there enough tables so that all 120 people can eat in the cafeteria
at once?
3. Which statement is not true? 4. To make sure there are enough tables
A Each table can seat 23 people. to seat 120 people, you should
B The cafeteria has 23 tables. F overestimate the number of seats.
C Each table can seat 6 people. G underestimate the number of
tables.
H overestimate the number of tables.

There are 7 river tours per day. Each river tour has room for
48 people. Each person on the river tour receives a pamphlet.
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The tour leaders have 400 pamphlets. Are there enough pamphlets
for a day of river tours?
5. How would you use estimation to 6. Which estimate would you use to
solve this problem? solve the problem?
A overestimate the number of F 7  40  280
people G 6  50  300
B underestimate the number of H 7  50  350
tours
C underestimate the number of
people
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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Use an Overestimate or Underestimate Math Skills

Test Prep
The Wildlife Committee is selling books to raise \$400. The
committee makes \$8.75 on each book it sells. If the committee
sells 50 books, will that be enough to raise \$400?
7. How would you use estimation to 8. Which estimate would you use to
solve this problem? solve the problem?
A overestimate the amount made on F \$9 x 50 = \$450
each book
G \$8 x 50 = \$400
H \$8 x 40 = \$320
on each book
C underestimate the number of
books

Solve.
9. The river tour has 4 boats. Each boat 10. There are 5 groups of 25 students
has room for 24 people. Are there each. The rangers have 150 forest
enough boats to take 76 people T-shirts. Do they have enough T-shirts
on a tour? to give a T-shirt to each student?

11. The forest rangers have 5 boxes of 12. Phyllis takes 118 photos of the
wildlife guides. Each box contains desert. She buys a photo album
36 pamphlets. The rangers need with 24 pages. Each page can hold
200 pamphlets. Should they order 6 photos. Can all the photos fit in
McGraw-Hill School Division

## another box? the album?

13. The motel in the national park costs 14. It costs \$89 to rent a sport utility
\$39 per night. Nick sets aside \$150 vehicle (SUV) for one day. Will \$650
to pay for the motel. Is this enough be enough to rent an SUV for a
money to pay for 5 nights? 7-day trip through the desert?

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Multiply Greater Numbers P PRACTICE

## Multiply. Check for reasonableness.

1. 693 2. 907 3. 368 4. \$601
 4  5  9  3

 2  7  8  4

## Algebra & Functions Complete the table.

17.
Input 12 15 18 21 24

Output 48 60

18.
Input 1 2 3 4 5

Output 37 74
McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving

19. Maria made 9 trips between 20. A company buys 8 computers. Each
New York City and Los Angeles. Each computer costs \$2,245. How much
trip cost \$498. How much did the does the company spend on the
9 trips cost? 8 computers?

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Multiply Greater Numbers R RETEACH

numbers.
Find 2  357.
Show 2 groups of 357. You can record
this way:
Step 1
1
Multiply the ones.
357
2  7 ones  14 ones
Regroup.  2
14 ones  1 ten 4 ones 4

Step 2
Multiply the tens. 11
2  5 tens  10 tens 357
10 tens  1 ten  11 tens 14

Step 3
Multiply the hundreds. 11
2  3 hundreds  6 hundreds 357
6 hundreds  1 hundred  7 hundreds 714

## Multiply. Check for reasonableness.

1. 234 2. 146 3. 357 4. \$4.62
 5  3  4  6
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 2  7  8  9

## 9. \$1,530 10. 2,681 11. 9,275 12. \$7,452

 4  2  6  5

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Multiply Greater Numbers E ENRICH

Deducing Digits
Find the missing digits. Write them in the boxes.

1. 3 2. 1 3. 4. 3
 8  7  3 
184 98 174 111

5. 4 6. 3 7. 2 8.
 5    7
1 0 138 416 434

9. 1
4 10. 1 4 11. 3 12. 3 1
 6   7 
744 770 1,666 1,564

## 13. 2 14. 46 15. 25 16.

 3  4  9  3
735 , 64 7, 5 2,400

## 17. \$1,0 8 18. ,6 2 19. 6, 7 20. 8, 76

McGraw-Hill School Division

 5   9 
\$5, 9 7, 56 5 ,06 7 ,184

## 21. 4,38 22. 29, 75 23. \$3 ,3 3 24. 0,3 9

 7   4 
31 ,6 5 74,450 \$1 3, 32 82,472

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Problem Solving: Strategy P PRACTICE

Find a Pattern
Use find a pattern to solve.
1. Annie makes an arrangement of 2. In one desert area, the rabbit
chestnuts. She puts 3 chestnuts in the population is estimated at 25 in one
first row, 6 chestnuts in the second year, 50 the next year, 100 the third
row, and 9 chestnuts in the third row. year, and 200 the next year. Describe
Describe the pattern. How many the pattern. Then estimate the rabbit
chestnuts will be in the fourth row? population for the fifth year.

3. Rangers examine trees that fell 4. Stan counts robins nests on his
during a storm. The first tree has block. One year he counts 4 nests.
3 annual rings. The second tree has The next year he counts 9 nests. The
9 rings. The third tree has 27 rings. third year Stan counts 14 nests. The
The fourth tree has 81 rings. If the fourth year he counts 19 nests. If the
pattern continues, how many annual pattern continues, how many nests
rings does the fourth tree have? will he count in the fifth year?

## Mixed Strategy Review

Solve. Use any strategy.
5. Nick took 40 photos of the desert. 6. Social Studies Colorados state
He has one photo album with 8 parks cover 347,000 acres.
pages and another with 12 pages. Connecticuts state parks cover
Nick wants to put the same number 176,000 acres. How many more
of photos on each page. Which acres do state parks cover in
McGraw-Hill School Division

## album should he use? Colorado than in Connecticut?

Strategy: Strategy:

## 7. Create a problem for which you

would find a pattern to solve. Share
it with others.

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Find a Pattern
Page 211, Problem 1

As a plant cell grows, one cell divides into two cells. Two cells divide
into four cells, four into eight, and so on. Describe the pattern. How
many cells will there be after seven divisions?

Step 1
Be sure you understand the problem.
What do you know?
One cell divides into cells, two cells divide into
cells, and four cells divide into cells.
What do you need to find?
You need to find how many
.

Step 2
Make a plan.
Plan Choose a strategy.
Find a Pattern Finding a pattern will help you solve the problem.
Guess and Check
Work Backward Start 1st cell 2nd cell 3rd cell 4th cell 5th cell 6th cell 7th cell
Make a Graph division division division division division division division
Make a Table Number
or List of Cells 1 2 4 8
Write a Number
McGraw-Hill School Division

Sentence
Find the pattern in the number of cells after the 1st, 2nd,
Draw a Picture
and 3rd cell divisions.
Solve a Simpler
Problem
Continue the pattern to find the number of cells after the
Logical Reasoning
7th cell division.
Act it out

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Find a Pattern

Step 3
Solve
You know the number of cells after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd
cell divisions.
1st cell 2nd cell 3rd cell 4th cell 5th cell 6th cell 7th cell
Start division division division division division division division

Number
of Cells 1 2 4 8

Find the pattern in the number of cells after the 1st, 2nd,
and 3rd cell divisions.

## Continue the pattern to complete the chart. If the pattern

continues, there will be cells after the 7th cell division.

Step 4
Is the solution reasonable?
Did you find a pattern and continue it? Yes No
What other strategies could you use to solve the problem?
McGraw-Hill School Division

Practice
1. Kate hikes 2 miles the first day, 2. The Support-Our-Forests Fund has
5 miles the second day, and 8 miles goals of \$3,000, \$6,000, \$12,000, and
the third day. If the pattern \$24,000 for its first four fund drives. If
continues, how many miles will the pattern continues, what will the
she hike the fourth day? goal be for the fifth fund drive?

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Functions and Graphs P PRACTICE

## Complete each table. Then write an equation.

1. Roger runs 7 miles more each week 2. One plant produces 8 times more
than another boy. peppers than another plant.
x 1 2 3 4 5 r 1 2 3 4 5
y 8 9 s 8 16

3. One number is 4 less than 3 times 4. One number is 8 greater than 2 times
another number. another number.
c 4 5 6 7 8 m 1 2 3 4 5
d 8 11 n 10 12

## Complete each table. Then graph the function.

5. Stella works 4 times as many hours as 6. Liz swims 2 more than 2 times as
Jana does. many laps as Sunny does.
y  4x a  2b  2
x 0 1 2 3 4 b 0 1 2 3 4
y 0 4 a 2 4

7. s  2r  2 8. n  3t  1
r 1 2 3 4 5 t 1 2 3 4 5
s 0 2 n 4 7
McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving

9. Each of 4 people orders a \$8.95 10. Ben buys 3 toys that cost \$3 each.
lunch. How much do the 4 lunches How much do the toys cost? Write
cost? Write and solve an equation. and solve an equation.

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Functions and Graphs R RETEACH

## The numbers in a function table relate to one another to form a pattern.

One number is 1 greater than 2 times a number.
x 1 2 3 4 5
y 3 5 7 9 11
Think: How can I find the value of y?
x 1 2 3 4 5

Equation  2x  1 2x  1 2x  1 2x  1 2x  1

y 3 5 7 9 11
In each case, multiply by 2 and add 1.

## The values in the table form ordered pairs.

x 1 2 3 4 5
y 3 5 7 9 11
(x, y) (1, 3) (2, 5) (3, 7) (4, 9) (5, 11)
You can graph these ordered pairs

## Complete each table. Then write an equation.

1. One number is 2 greater than 2. One number is 4 times another
another number. number.
Think: Add 2 to x to get y. Think: Multiply x by 4 to get y.
x 1 2 3 4 5 x 1 2 3 4 5
y 3 4 y 4 8
McGraw-Hill School Division

Complete each table. Write the ordered pairs. Then graph the function.

3.y  2x 4.y  2x  2
x 0 1 2 3 4 x 0 1 2 3 4
y 0 2 y 2 4

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Functions and Graphs E ENRICH

## When Are Houses Like Books?

To answer this riddle, find the points on the grid. Then write the
letter for each point on the lines.

## (1, 3) (7, 8) (0, 6) (7, 1) (3, 0) (7, 8) (0, 6) (4, 4)

(7, 8) (4, 7) (2, 2) (0, 6) (6, 5) (3, 0) (1, 1) (6, 2) (9, 5) (0, 6) (6, 5)

12
11
10
9
H
8
A
7
E
6
S I
5
Y
4
W
3
V R
McGraw-Hill School Division

2
O N
1
T
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

If you are given the points (2, 2) and (6, 2), name two other points
that would make a square.

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59
Problem Solving: Application Part
A WORKSHEET

Decision
Analyze and Make Decisions Making

## Item Name Cost of Number of Total Cost Total Cost

Item per Units of Item of Meal or
Unit Snack

Breakfast
Items

Lunch
Items

Dinner
Items

Snack
Items
McGraw-Hill School Division

one dinner, and snacks)?

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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

Science

## Place You Number of Times Amount of Water Total Amount

Use Water a Day You Use This for Each Use of Water
Source of Water
McGraw-Hill School Division

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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

Science

## 2. If a cup of water costs \$0.10, how much money do you spend on

water each day? Show your work.

Work Space

3. How much water is being used by your whole class each day?

## 4. Is clean water a renewable or nonrenewable resource? Explain.

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 5. Give some other examples of renewable and nonrenewable resources.

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Patterns of Multiplication P PRACTICE

Complete.
1. 6  8  s s 2. w  3  21 w
60  t  480 t 70  3  x x
60  80  u u y  30  2,100 y
60  800  v v 70  300  z z

## Multiply. Use mental math.

3. 60  70  4. 20  60  5. 80  800 

6. 30  200  7. 50  40  8. 400  30 

## Algebra & Functions Find each missing number.

24. 30  j  9,000 j 25. s  70  2,800 s
26. 60  b  24,000 b 27. 400  t  12,000 t
28. 90  q  8,100 q 29. p  600  30,000 p 
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 30. n  300  6,000 n  31. r  800  40,000 r

Problem Solving
32. ABC Hardware has 50 cartons of 33. Handy Hardware has 500 boxes of
nails. There are 4,000 nails in each hinges. Each box has 90 hinges. How
carton. How many nails does the many hinges does the store have?
store have?

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Patterns of Multiplication R RETEACH

## 2  3  6 basic fact 4  5  20 basic fact

20  30  600 40  50  2,000
1 zero 1 zero 2 zeros 1 zero 1 zero 2 zeros
20  300  6,000 40  500  20,000
1 zero 2 zeros 3 zeros 1 zero 2 zeros 3 zeros
20  3,000  60,000 40  5,000  200,000
1 zero 3 zeros 4 zeros 1 zero 3 zeros 4 zeros

## Complete the pattern.

1. 4  3  2. 7  2 

40  30  70  20 
40  300  70  200 
40  3,000  70  2,000 

3. 5  6  4. 8  5 

50  60  80  50 
50  600  80  500 
50  6,000  80  5,000 

## Multiply. Use mental math.

5. 3  6  6. 30  60  7. 30  600 
McGraw-Hill School Division

8. 4  9  9. 40  90  10. 40  900 

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Patterns of Multiplication E ENRICH

Clueless Puzzle
This puzzle has all the answers, but no clues. Each answer is a
product of two factors.
Make up clues for each answer.

3 4

Across Down
1. 80  8,000 1. 70  90,000
McGraw-Hill School Division

2. 2.

3. 3.

4. 4.

5. 5.

6. 6.

Name

## Explore Multiplying Print This

P 62 Page
PRACTICE
by 2-Digit Numbers
Multiply.
1. 36 2. 27 3. 38 4. 23 5. 49
 12  41  14  22  13

6. 47 7. 46 8. 17 9. 45 10. 48
 34  14  25  35  20

## 11. 38 12. 32 13. 45 14. 14 15. 26

 27  15  25  15  34

## 16. 32 17. 31 18. 12 19. 36 20. 28

 18  25  46  36  44

## 21. 16 22. 17 23. 37 24. 19 25. 49

 40  17  26  27  30

## 35. 70  14  36. 32  20  37. 25  25 

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving

38. The art teacher wants to decorate 39. There are 35 buses waiting for
each classroom with 28 balloons. students after school. Each bus carries
How many balloons does he need for 45 students. How many students
18 classrooms? ride the buses?

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Explore Multiplying R RETEACH

by 2-Digit Numbers 19
Find 12  19. Think: 12  10  2

19
 12
10
38 2 19
 190 10 19
228

38  190  228
1. 14  15  2. 11  19 

Multiply.
McGraw-Hill School Division

3. 28 4. 35 5. 42 6. 49 7. 32
 14  26  33  27  18

## 8. 18 9. 23 10. 24 11. 45 12. 27

 41  17  52  28  27

## 13. 32  21  14. 41  32  15. 26  17 

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Explore Multiplying by 2-Digit Numbers E ENRICH

Napiers Bones
In the seventeenth century, John Napier invented a simple calculator
that multiplied by adding. It became known as Napiers Bones.
Here is a way to use Napiers Bones to multiply 49  37.
Place the strips headed 4 Fold the strips so that Add diagonally to find
and 9 next to each other. the rows headed 3 and 7 the product. Start at
Place the index beside on the index are the bottom with the
the two strips. next to each other. ones. Remember to
carry.
INDEX INDEX INDEX
4 9 1 4 9 1 4 9 1
1 1 2 1 2
8 8 2 2 7 3 2 7 3
1 2 2 6 2 6
2 7 3 8 3 7 8 3 7
1 3
6 6 4
2 4
0 5 5
2 5
4 4 6 37
2 6
8 3 7
3
2
7
2 8  49
3 8
6 1 9

Cut out the ten strips of Napiers Bones below. Use them to find each product.
1. 57  34  2. 61  76  3. 85  29 

4. 32  33  5. 94  65  6. 56  48 

7. 39  68  8. 75  38  9. 89  21 

Napiers Bones

INDEX
McGraw-Hill School Division

1 1 1 1 1
8 6 4 2 0 8 6 4 2
2 2 2 1 1 1
7 4 1 8 5 2 9 6 3
3 3 2 2 2 1 1
6 2 8 4 0 6 2 8 4
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5
5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1
4 8 2 6 0 4 8 2 6
6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1
3 6 9 2 5 8 1 4 7
7 6 5 4 4 3 2 1
2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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Multiply by Multiples of 10 P PRACTICE

Multiply.

1. 26 2. 47 3. 91 4. 87 5. 23
 40  30  20  10  90

## 6. 17 7. 135 8. 207 9. 399 10. 756

 80  50  60  50  30

11. 498 12. 1,038 13. 2,226 14. 3,510 15. 5,503
 70  40  20  60  50

16. 2,375 17. 4,009 18. 2,490 19. 6,967 20. 9,075
 20  40  70  10  80

## Algebra & Functions Find the missing number.

33. 34  j  680 j 34. q  72  2,160 q
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 35. 99  a  7,920 a 36. 56  m  1,680 m

37. 861  b  77,490 b 38. 1,002  n  70,140 n
39. s  2,108  63,240 s  40. 898  c  53,880 c
Problem Solving
41. Classroom chairs cost \$39. 42. A computer costs \$2,345.
How much will 30 chairs cost? How much will 20 computers cost?

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Multiply by Multiples of 10 R RETEACH

## Find 20  37. Think: 37  30  7

20  (30  7) 37
(20  30) (20  7)  20
6 0 0  1 4 0  740 740

## Complete to find each product.

1. 10  28 2. 30  33

10  (  8) (  3)

(  20)  (  8) (  ) (  )

   

3. 80  27 4. 50  64

 (20  )  (60  )

(  )(  ) (  ) (  )

   

Multiply.
5. 34 6. 27 7. 38 8. 43 9. 18
 40  30  40  10  50
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 10. 24 11. 35 12. 19 13. 22 14. 57

 80  20  30  10  60

## 18. 10  39  19. 16  30  20. 20  39 

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Multiply by Multiples of 10 E ENRICH

Missing Digits
Find each missing digit.
1. 7 4 2. 8 3. 6 2 4. 3
 1  3 0  0  5 0
7 4 0 2, 4 9 0 3, 7 2 0 1, 6 5 0

5. 9 6. 4 6 7. 8 1 8. 4
 9 0  0  0  7 0
6, 2 1 0 1, 8 4 0 1, 6 2 0 6, 5 8 0

## 9. 4 8 10. 5 8 4 11. 9 1 12. 7 2 1

 8 0  0  9 0  0
3 8, 6 4 0 3 5, 0 4 0 8 2, 0 8 0 2 1, 6 3 0

## 13. 2 1 1 14. 53 15. 6 7 16. 8 6

 0  6 0  3 0  8 0
1 0, 5 5 0 3 3, 7 8 0 2 0, 1 9 0 6 6, 8 8 0

## 17. 4 6 18. 8 3 19. 7 8 20. 5 6

 7 0  4 0  8 0  9 0
5 2, 2 2 0 3 3, 5 6 0 3 8, 2 4 0 5 0, 4 9 0

## 21. 1 4 22. 9 5 23. 7 1 6 24. 6 5

McGraw-Hill School Division

 8 0  2 0  0  7 0
2 5, 1 2 0 1 8, 5 0 0 6 4, 4 4 0 4 7, 2 5 0

## 25. 2 5 26. 5 4 27. 6 3 6 28. 7 4

 8 0  4 0  0  5 0
7 4, 0 0 0 2 1, 7 6 0 5 7, 2 4 0 3 9, 2 0 0

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

Skill
Then solve the problem.
1. A group of travelers rents 5 boats for 8 hours each. Boats cost
\$12 an hour to rent. What is the total fee for this rental?
What is the total number of hours that the 5 boats are rented for?
What is the total number of boats that are rented in a day?
Solution:

## 2. A swimming instructor has 4 classes with 8 students in each class.

Each student pays a total of \$50 for the classes for the season. How
much money does the swimming instructor receive?
What amount does the instructor charge per hour?
How many students in all does the swimming instructor have?
Solution:

3. Burkes Bluff Beach sells 25 guest passes in one day. Condor Cove
Beach sells 2 times as many guest passes that same day. Estimate
the total number of guest passes that beaches will sell in 3 days.
How many guest passes does Condor Cove Beach sell in 1 day?
How many guest passes will Burkes Bluff Beach sell in 2 days?
Solution:
McGraw-Hill School Division

4. Miguel charges \$30 per hour to take people on his boat. Miguel
rents his boat for 3 hours per day for 12 days. How much money
How many hours in all does Miguel rent his boat?
How much would Miguel receive if he rented his boat
12 hours per day?
Solution:

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Solve Multistep Problems Math Skills

Test Prep
Lana and Ken rent 2 sets of scuba equipment for \$16 an hour each.
They rent a boat for \$24 per hour. They use the boat and the
equipment for 7 hours.
1. Which of the following statements 2. One hidden question you must
is true? solve is:
A Lana and Ken pay \$40 per hour F How much do they pay to rent
to rent a boat. 2 sets of scuba equipment for
B Lana and Ken pay \$168 to rent 7 hours?
the boat. G How many hours do they use
C Lana and Ken rent the boat and the boat?
equipment for 16 hours. H How much do they pay for the
boat each hour?
On a school trip, 3 buses of students go to Ocean Land. Each bus
has 44 students. Each student spends \$10 on admission and a
special show. How much money do the students spend altogether?
3. Which question do you have to answer 4. How much money do the students
before you can solve the problem? spend altogether?
A How many students are in each F \$1,320
bus? G \$440
B How many hours are the students H \$10
at Ocean Land?
C How many students in all visit
Ocean Land?
Olive catches 3 fish in 1 hour. Her sister catches 3 times as many fish.
McGraw-Hill School Division

Estimate the number of fish the girls will catch if they fish for 3 hours.
5. Which of the following statements 6. One hidden question you must
is true? solve is:
A Olive and her sister catch 9 fish. F How many fish did Olive catch
B Olives sister catches 3 fish. in 1 hour?
C Olives sister catches 3 times as G How many fish did Olives sister
many fish as Olive does. catch in 1 hour?
H How many hours have they fished
so far?
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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Solve Multistep Problems Math Skills

Test Prep
The Beach Shack rents out 12 umbrellas for 5 hours each. Umbrellas
cost \$6 per hour. How much money does The Beach Shack make?
7. Which question do you have to 8. How much money does The Beach
answer before you can solve the Shack make?
problem?
F \$30
A How much does it cost to rent
G \$72
1 umbrella for 12 hours?
H \$360
B How much does it cost to rent
1 umbrella for 5 hours?
C How many umbrellas does The
Beach Shack have?

Solve.
9. The Diving Club offers 4 beginning 10. A fishing guide charges \$25 per
diving classes each day. Each class hour. He works 6 hours per day for
has room for 6 people. How many 5 days. How much money does the
people can take classes in 30 days? guide earn?

11. During one week, 5 sailboats are 12. The aquarium charges \$12 admission
rented for a total of 16 hours each. and \$6 for a tour. A group of 20
The rental cost is \$25 per hour. people goes to the aquarium and
Altogether, how much is paid for takes the tour. How much money
these rentals? does the group spend?
McGraw-Hill School Division

13. Amanda rents a canoe and a life 14. Jenny rented a rowboat from
preserver from 2:00 P.M. to 5:00 P.M. 10:45 A.M. to 1:00 P.M. After lunch,
A canoe costs \$12 per hour. A life she rented another rowboat from
preserver costs \$2 per hour. How 1:45 P.M. to 4:45 P.M. For how many
much does Amanda spend? minutes did she rent the boat?

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Multiply by 2-Digit Numbers P PRACTICE

## Find each product

1. 26 2. 73 3. 44 4. \$0.56 5. 29
 35  51  87  83  19

6. \$46 7. 59 8. 77 9. 55 10. 44
 35  47  22  15  46

## 11. 79 12. 94 13. \$0.63 14. 68 15. 51

 73  61  58  24  34

## 29. (90  5)  (10  1)  q

30. (60  6)  (50  5)  c
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 31. (20  8)  (70  7)  s 32. (40  3)  (80  4)  b

Problem Solving
33. A fence has 28 sections with 34. Horses on a ranch eat 28 bales
18 boards in each section. How of hay each day. How many bales
many boards are in the fence? do they eat in 31 days?

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Multiply by 2-Digit Numbers R RETEACH

You can use a place-value chart to help you multiply 2-digit numbers.

Multiply 47  25.
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Multiply by the ones. Multiply by the tens. Add the products.
Regroup if necessary.

TH H T O TH H T O TH H T O
2 2
3 3 3
2 5 2 5 2 5
 4 7  4 7  4 7
1 7 5 1 7 5 1 7 5
  1 0 0 0  1 0 0 0
1 1 7 5

## Complete. Find each product.

1. 2. 3.
H T O TH H T O TH H T O

1 5 3 2 5 9
 4 5  8 7  9 3
5 2 4 7 7
 6 0 0  2 5 6 0  5 3 1 0

4. 16 5. \$15 6. 23 7. \$0.27 8. 38
 23  42  39  51  26
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 9. 46 10. 67 11. 59 12. \$31 13. 72

 44  29  31  28  53

## 14. 85  43  15. 96  35  16. \$0.39  66 

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Multiply by 2-Digit Numbers E ENRICH

## Patterns for Eleven

Multiply 11 by a 1-digit number.
1. 2  11  2. 3  11  3. 4  11  4. 5  11 

5. 6  11  6. 7  11  7. 8  11  8. 9  11 

## Multiply 11 by a 2-digit number.

9. 11 10. 11 11. 11 12. 11
 31  32  33  34

## 13. 11 14. 11 15. 11 16. 11

 53  62  27  18

## Use the pattern to find these products.

17. 11 18. 11 19. 11 20. 11
 41  22  38  16
McGraw-Hill School Division

21. 44  11  22. 55  11 

23. 64  11  24. 72  11 

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Estimate Products P PRACTICE

## Estimate each product.

1. 49  59 2. 55  65

3. 41  52 4. 18  29

5. 98  402 6. 71  874

7. 61  \$216 8. 42  605

## 21. 59  689 22. 49  188 23. 224  41

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 24. 26  42 34  21 25. 15  47 59  68 26. 34  82 37  58

Problem Solving
27. The price of a bus ticket is \$58. 28. An airline ticket costs \$375.
About how much will tickets for a About how much will tickets cost
group of 62 passengers cost? for a group of 25 people?

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Estimate Products R RETEACH

## You can round to estimate products. Round each number to its

greatest place. Then multiply using patterns with zeros
Estimate 42  59. Estimate 74  229.
42 40 1 zero 227 200 2 zeros
 59  60  1 zero  74  70  1 zero
2,400 2 zeros 14,000 3 zeros

1. 2. 3.
54 \$29 788
 19  32  51

## Estimate each product.

4. 37  49 5. 23  51

6. 69  19 7. 26  \$72

8. 19  315 9. 85  263

## 10. 72  803 11. 48  1,056

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 16. 55  4,830 17. 92  1,568

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Estimate Products E ENRICH

Estimation Maze
Estimate to find your way out of the maze. First, estimate to find
the box in which the answer could be 858. Start in that box. Then,
in order, estimate to find and go through the boxes in which the
3,060 7,308 3,822 2,278 16,910 6,123 15,092 33,888 52,416 36,344

78 34 42 57
 11  90  19  14

I M P C

26 87 39 67
 34  84  98  34

B O U T

## 172 178 157 196

 24  95  39  77

R H F O

## 953 706 819 616

 48  48  64  59

W E R E
McGraw-Hill School Division

Write the letters from the boxes you go through in order. What message do you find?

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Multiply Greater Numbers P PRACTICE

## Multiply. Check that each answer is reasonable

1. 653 2. 908 3. 412 4. 714
 27  43  65  36

## 5. 279 6. 309 7. \$1.26 8. 305

 64  32  98  77

## 9. 4,084 10. 7,016 11. 9,148 12. \$50.09

 43  25  16  31

## 13. 2,007 14. \$39.85 15. 6,618 16. \$82.35

 75  74  91  72

## 17. 21,107 18. 46,118 19. 92,306 20. \$123.95

 42  27  31  18

## 23. 36  19,962  24. 71  23,401 

Algebra & Functions Given each set of digits, make the greatest
and least product possible by multiplying by a 2-digit number. Use
each digit one time.
McGraw-Hill School Division

25. 5, 2, 6, 1 26. 7, 9, 2, 0

Problem Solving
27. A box holds 250 ping pong balls. 28. Pencils are packaged with 144 pencils
How many ping pong balls can be in a box. How many pencils are there
packaged in 85 boxes? in 50 boxes?

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Multiply by Greater Numbers R RETEACH

## You can use a place-value chart to multiply greater numbers.

Multiply 25  3,188.
Estimate: 30  3,000  90,000
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Multiply by the ones. Multiply by the tens. Add the products.
Regroup if necessary. Regroup if necessary.
Thousands Ones Thousands Ones Thousands Ones
1.
H T O H T O H T O H T O H T O H T O

1 1 1 1
3 4 3 4 3 4
3 1 7 8 3 1 7 8 3 1 7 8
 2 5  2 5  2 5
1 5 8 9 0 1 5 8 9 0 1 5 8 9 0
  6 3 5 6 0  6 3 5 6 0
7 9 4 5 0

## Since 79,450 is close to the estimate of 90,000, the answer is reasonable.

Multiply.
Thousands Ones Thousands Ones Thousands Ones
1. 2. 3.
H T O H T O H T O H T O H T O H T O

2
1 4 5 7 1 2 9 3 2 0 0 6
 2 5  1 8  1 3
McGraw-Hill School Division

  

## 4. \$3.69 5. 518 6. 6,735 7. 8,098

 18  49  37  66

## 8. 4,484  72  9. 85  \$116.95  10. 52  19,071

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Multiply Greater Numbers E ENRICH

Quick Check
Here is a quick way to check the product for 14  1,456.
Step 1
Add the digits in each number.
Add again if the sum has two digits.
1,456 1  4  5  6  16, 167
 14 1  4  5
20,384 2  0  3  8  4  17, 178

Step 2 Step 3
Multiply the two numbers you got from Compare the sum you got from adding the
adding the factors. digits in the product for 14  1,456 to the
Then add the digits in the product. sum you got in Step 2.
8  8, so the product 20,384 is correct.
7 3
5 5
35 8

## Use the method shown above to check each problem. Draw an X

next to any incorrect product. Then find the correct product.
1. 314 2. 815 3. 742 4. 689
 57  32  68  24
17,896 26,090 50,456 16,536
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 5. 537 6. 496 7. 2,214 8. 3,418

 49  71  88  92
26,213 35,216 193,832 314,456

## 9. 4,372 10. 8,432 11. 7,498 12. 9,455

 15  37  45  76
65,480 311,984 337,410 707,580

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Problem Solving: Strategy P PRACTICE

Make a Graph
Make a graph for the data in the table. Use data from the graph to
solve problems 1 and 2.

## Boat Rentals at Lake Willow in July and August

Type of Boat Income from Boat Rentals
Sailboats \$1,300
Rowboats \$1,100
Canoes \$1,000

1. Which type of boat generated the 2. Which type of boat generated the
most income? least income?

3. A beach sells 1,000 passes in 1998; 4. Suppose you make a graph for the
1,200 passes in 1999; and 1,100 passes data in problem 3 in which each
in 2000. Suppose you make a symbol stands for 100 passes.
pictograph in which each symbol stands How many symbols would you
for 200 passes. How many symbols make for each year?
would you make for each year?

## Mixed Strategy Review

Solve. Use any strategy.
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 5. Time Elliot returns from the beach at

4:30 P.M. He spent 2 hours at the 6. Create a problem for which you
beach. It takes 15 minutes for Elliot would make a graph to solve.
to travel from his home to the Share it with others.
beach. What time did Elliot leave
home to go to the beach?

Strategy:

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Make a Graph
Page 255, Problem 2
Sandcastle Building Contests
most people? The least? Location Number of People
Port Aransas, TX 1,250
Wenatchee, WA 1,675
Seal Beach, CA 1,775
Atlantic City, NJ 1,525
Malibu, CA 1,375

Step 1
Be sure you understand the problem.
What do you know?
You know how many
.
What do you need to find?
You need to find
.

Step 2
Make a plan.
Plan Choose a strategy.
Guess and Check
McGraw-Hill School Division

## Work Backward Make a bar graph to solve the problem.

Make a Graph
Make a Table or
List
Write a Number
Sentence
Draw a Diagram
Solve a Simpler
Problem
Logical Reasoning
Act it Out

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Make a Graph

Step 3
Carry out your plan. Make a bar graph.
Solve
Sandcastle Building Contest

Port
Aransas,TK
Wenatchee,
WA
Location

Seal Beach,
CA

Atlantic
City, NJ

Malibu, CA
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800

Number of People

## The contest at:

has the most people.
has the least people.
Step 4
Is the solution reasonable?
the problem? Yes No
What other kind of graph could you use to compare the data?
McGraw-Hill School Division

Practice
1. The Lakefront Swim Club had 400 2. In which year did the Lakefront Swim
members in 1970, 250 members in Club have the most members? the
1980, 600 members in 1990, and least members?
550 members in 2000. Make a
graph that displays this data.

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Multiply Using Mental Math P PRACTICE

## Multiply. Use mental math.

1. 12  30  2. 40  21  3. 34  11 

4. 55  18  5. 60  14  6. 70  31 

7. 44  22  8. 80  51  9. 90  9 

## Algebra & Functions Complete each table.

31.
Rule: Multiply by 35.
Input 20 31 42 110 130
Output 700 1,085 1,470 3,850 4,550

32.
Rule: Multiply by 16.
McGraw-Hill School Division

## Input 15 25 75 100 220

Output 240 400 1,200 1,600 3,520

Problem Solving
33. Teams of 16 students are helping 34. Students are going on a field trip
clean the park. There are 21 teams. in 20 buses. Each bus carries 35
How many students in all are helping students. How many students are
clean the park? going on the field trip?

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Multiply Using Mental Math R RETEACH

## Compensation Compatible Numbers

Multiply one factor by a number. Break apart one number and multiply.
Divide another factor by the same number. Then add.
25  16  (25  2)  (16  2) 25  16  (25  10)  (25  6)

## 1. 35  40  (35  )  (40  ) 2. 60  25  (60  )  (25  )

     
Multiply mentally. Use compatible numbers.

## 3. 15  16  (  16)  (5  ) 4. 22  30  (  30)  (  30)

     
Multiply. Use mental math.

5. 20  45  6. 15  28  7. 11  72 

8. 75  20  9. 36  40  10. 50  23 

## 14. 99  10  15. 60  73  16. 45  36 

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 29. 62  10  30. 25  45  31. 50  88 

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Multiply Using Mental Math E ENRICH

Circle Race
You will need:
Play with a partner. 10 index cards
Write each of these numbers on an index card:
12 15 18 25 30 35 50 60 200 400
Mix up the cards and then place them facedown between you
and your partner. Draw a card. Write the number in the center
of your circle. Use mental math to multiply each number on the
circle by the number in the center. The first person to complete
the circle with correct answers scores 1 point.
Erase the number in the center. Repeat the activity until all the
cards have been drawn.
The person with the greater number of points wins.

18 33
24 14

16 40
McGraw-Hill School Division

300 22

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Problem Solving: Application Part
A WORKSHEET

Decision
Applying Multiplication Making

## Sailboats Rowboats Paddle boats Canoes

McGraw-Hill School Division

Which boat or boats will the family rent? How long will they ride? Explain.

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 10, pages 258259. (199) NS 1.2, 3.3; MR 1.1, 2.3
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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

How many times does your heart beat each day? Math &
Science

## Time Estimate Actual Heart Beats

Each minute

Each hour

Each day

Each year

Show how you estimated the number of heart beats in each hour,
each day, and each year.

## Each hour Each day Each year

McGraw-Hill School Division

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 10, pages 260261. (200) NS 3.2, 3.3; MR 1.1, 3.3
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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

How many times does your heart beat each day? Math &
Science
1. Why would it be difficult to count the number of heart beats in a

2. Round the number of beats for a day to the nearest 10,000. Collect
the data for the whole class. What was the range of heartbeats?

## What number was most common?

3. Make a bar graph to display the data 4. Martys heart beats 70 times each
from the class. minute. Tamaras heart beats 60
times each minute. How many more
times does Martys heart beat each
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 5. Explain how exercise can reduce the

number of times your heart beats
each day.

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Division Patterns P PRACTICE

Complete.
1. 48  6  2. 35  5  3. 16  4 
480  6  350  5  160  4 
4,800  6  3,500  5  1,600  4 
Divide.
206 R2 50 \$70 80
4. 3 620 5. 5 250 6. 6 \$420 7. 7 560

80 \$90 60 70
8. 2 160 9. 3 \$270 10. 4 240 11. 8 560

## 800 700 700 \$700

12. 9 7,200 13. 5 3,500 14. 4 2,800 15. 6 \$4,200

## \$600 400 600 4,000

16. 7 \$4,200 17. 9 3,600 18. 3 1,800 19. 2 8,000

## Algebra & Functions Write the missing number.

32. 200   50 33. 450  5  34. 630   90
35.  6  40 36. 200   40 37.  8  80
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 38.  4  600 39. 1,500   500 40. 3,000  5 

Problem Solving
41. There are 150 students in 3 buses. Each 42. A pet shop has 160 fish in
bus carries the same number of students. aquariums. Each aquarium has
How many students are on each bus? 40 fish. How many aquariums
of fish are there?

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Division Patterns R RETEACH

You can divide mentally by using basic division facts and looking for
a pattern.

## Divide. Count the zeros.

Think: Think:
The basic fact is 12  3  4. The basic fact is 40  8  5.

12  3  4 no zeros 40  8  5 no extra zeros

120  3  40 1 zero 400  8  50 1 extra zero

1,200  3  400 2 zeros 4,000  8  500 2 extra zeros

Complete.
1. 15  3  2. 20  5 

150  3  200  5 
1,500  3  2,000  5 

3. 32  4  4. 30  6 

320  4  300  6 
3,200  4  3,000  6 

5. 35  5  6. 45  9 

350  5  450  9 
3,500  5  4,500  9 

7. 48  8  8. 64  8 
McGraw-Hill School Division

480  8  640  8 
4,800  8  6,400  8 

## 15. 4,200  7  16. 2,700  9  17. 4,900  7 

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Division Patterns E ENRICH

Geography Riddles
Find each missing number. Solve the riddles by placing the letter
from each exercise in the blank above the matching answer number.

1. 140  7  M 2.  9  40 U
3. 4,200  700 O 4.  2  800 A
5. 3,500   700 H 6.  4  30 N
7.  3  700 E 8. 320   80 A
9. 2,800   400 S 10.  9  90 R
11. 5,600   700 S 12. 240   80 I
13. 5,400   600 L 14. 2,700  3  E
15. 720  9  I 16. 800   400 R
17. 150  3  M 18.  7  60 E
19. 120  2  S 20.  8  400 I
21.  5  800 C 22. 810  9  N

## What state reminds you of part of a lion?

20 4 3 120 420
McGraw-Hill School Division

2 6 50 900

## Which people are always in a hurry?

810 360 60 7 3,2001,600 90 8

## What country is always cold?

4,000 5 80 9 2,100

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Explore Division P PRACTICE

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

## Find each quotient. You may draw place-value models.

3 R2 3 R5 9 R1 3 R6
7. 6 20 8. 8 29 9. 4 37 10. 9 33

12 R3 13 R1 13 11 R6
11. 4 51 12. 5 66 13. 6 78 14. 7 83

16 R3 14 27 R1 49 R1
15. 6 99 16. 7 98 17. 2 55 18. 2 99

## 25. 67  6  26. 77  7  27. 43  2 

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving

28. Books are packed in boxes of 9. 29. Ping pong balls are packed in boxes
If 67 books are packed, how many of 6. If 59 ping pong balls are packed,
full boxes will there be? How many how many full boxes will there be?
books will be left over? How many ping pong balls will be
left over?

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Explore Division R RETEACH

Divide 86  3.

## Show 86. Place 2 tens in each of 3

groups. Regroup the 2
tens that are left as 20
ones. You can divide the
26 ones into 3 groups of
8 with 2 left over.

## You can divide 86 cubes

into 3 groups of 28 with
2 left over.
So, 86  3  28 R2.

1. 2.

58  4  37  2 

3. 4.
McGraw-Hill School Division

49  4  68  3 

Divide.
5. 43  2  6. 25  2  7. 42  4 

8. 82  5  9. 48  4  10. 78  9 

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Explore Division E ENRICH

Remainder Rules
You can use divisibility rules to find out if a number will have a remainder.
Divisibility Rules
A number is divisible by:
2 if the ones digit is 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8. 6 if it is divisible by both 2 and 3.
3 if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3. 9 if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9.
5 if the ones digit is 0 or 5. 10 if the ones digit is 0.

How do you know?

## 2. If you divide 691 by any 1-digit number, will there be a remainder?

How do you know?

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 3. Think about dividing a 3-digit number by each of the following

1-digit numbers: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
Which divisions will have remainders?
Which divisions will not have remainders?

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Divide 3-Digit Numbers P PRACTICE

## 349 \$135 130 R1 112 R1

1. 2 698 2. 5 \$675 3. 3 391 4. 7 785

## 111 R2 28 R7 \$0.67 124 R3

5. 5 557 6. 8 231 7. 4 \$2.68 8. 8 995

99 R2 \$1.12 311 R2 91 R2
9. 4 398 10. 6 \$6.72 11. 3 935 12. 5 457

## 129 361 R1 119 R3 93 R1

13. 7 903 14. 2 723 15. 7 836 16. 8 745

## 111 62 R5 \$37 111 R2

17. 9 999 18. 6 377 19. 8 \$296 20. 7 779

## Algebra & Functions Find each missing number.

30. 1,065  n  213 31. c  4  168 32. 690  m  345

## 36. (250 + 14)  x  44 37. (700 + y)  7  106 38. 756  (r + 3)  126

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
39. Morgan is planting 906 pine seedlings 40. The school bought 2,880 tickets to
in rows. She plants 8 pine seedlings in the circus. The tickets will be divided
each row. How many rows are there? equally among 9 classes. How many
How many seedlings are left? tickets will each class get?

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Divide 3-Digit Numbers R RETEACH

Divide 8 425 .
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Divide the hundreds. Divide the tens. Divide the ones.
Think: 4  8. Bring down the tens. Bring down the ones.
There arent enough Divide the tens. Divide the ones.
hundreds.
5 53 R1
8 425 8 425 8 425
40 Multiply: 8  5  40 40
2 Subtract: 42  40  2 25
24 Multiply: 8  3  24
1 Subtract: 25  24  1
The remainder is 1.
Complete.
1. 2. 3.
2 2 8 1 4 3 R 2 8 9 R 1
36 8 4 57 1 7 76 2 4
6 5 5 6
8 2 1 6 4
 6  2 0  6 3
2 4 1 7 1
 2 4  1 5
0 2
Find each quotient.

143 R1 69 R4 152 R4 41 R6
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 248 R1 139 94 R8 288 R2

8. 3 745 9. 7 973 10. 9 854 11. 3 866

## 15. 745  3  16. 680  5  17. 571  6 

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Divide 3-Digit Numbers E ENRICH

Short Division
Short division is a quick way to divide. Here is how it works.

Divide 6 892 .
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Divide the hundreds. Divide the tens. Divide the ones.
Multiply and subtract Multiply and subtract Multiply and subtract
mentally. Write the mentally. Write the mentally. Write the
difference in front of the difference in front of the remainder as part of the
digit in the tens place. digit in the ones place. quotient.
1 14 1 4 8 R4
6 8292 Think: 6  1  6 6 82952 Think: 6  4  24 6 82952 Think: 6  8  48
862 29  24  5 52  48  4

Divide 8 653 .
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Divide the hundreds. Divide the tens. Divide the ones.
8 8 1R5
8 653 Think: 8  1  8, not 8 6513 Think: 8  8  64, 8 6513 Think: 8  1  8,
enough hundreds. 65  64  1. 13  8  5.

## Use short division to divide.

171 253 R2 155 R3
1. 2 342 2. 3 761 3. 4 623

## 164 R3 157 131 R1

4. 5 823 5. 6 942 6. 7 918
McGraw-Hill School Division

111 R6 96 R3 73 R5
7. 8 894 8. 9 867 9. 6 443

72 52 R1 61 R4
10. 6 432 11. 7 365 12. 7 431

65 R2 69 R3 61 R4
13. 5 327 14. 9 624 15. 8 492

118 95 R7 131 R5
16. 8 944 17. 9 862 18. 6 791

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Zeros in the Quotient P PRACTICE

1. 206 R2 2. 209 R1 3. 10 R2 4. 209 R3
3 620 2 419 9 92 4 839
5. 6. 7. 8.
\$105 \$1.07 \$1.09 102
6 \$630 8 \$8.56 7 \$7.63 9 918
9. 10. 11. 12.
109 R4 106 R6 101 R4 409 R1
5 549 7 748 8 812 2 819
13. 14. 15. 16.
103 R2 10 R8 70 R1 206 R3
6 620 9 98 3 211 4 827
17. 18. 19. 20.
108 R4 106 R7 109 R3 305 R2
5 544 8 855 6 657 3 917
21. 490 R1 22.
208 R3 23.
103 R6 24.
50 R6
2 981 4 835 7 727 8 406

## Find only those quotients that are greater than 200.

34. 992  3  35. 920  9 

## 36. 619  3  37. 747  4 

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 38. 818  2  39. 540  2 

Problem Solving
40. Jenna earns \$636 in 6 months by 41. A family of 4 spent \$824 during their
babysitting. If divided evenly, how vacation. If divided evenly, how much
much is that a month? is that per person?

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Zeros in the Quotient R RETEACH

## Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

Divide the hundreds. Divide the tens. Divide the ones.
Think: 3  2  600 Bring down the tens. Bring down the ones.
The first digit is in There are not enough Divide the ones.
the hundreds place. tens to divide. Trade 2
tens for 20 ones.

2 20 209 R2
3 629 Multiply: 3  2  6 3 629 There are not enough 3 629
6 Subtract: 6  6  0 6 tens to divide. Write 6
0 Compare: 0  6 02 a 0 in the quotient. 029
Compare: 0  4 27 Multiply: 3  9  27
2 Subtract: 29  27  2

Complete.
1. 2. 3.
3 0 8 R 2 1 0 7 2 0 R 3
39 2 6 66 4 2 71 4 3
9 6 1 4
2 6 4 2 3
 2 4  4 2
2 0
Divide.

## \$204 109 R2 105 R1 109 R2

4. 4 \$816 5. 4 438 6. 3 316 7. 7 765
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 307 R1 180 R1 209 R1 \$70

8. 2 615 9. 2 361 10. 3 628 11. 3 \$210

## 15. 965  6  16. 905  3  17. 734  7 

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Zeros in the Quotient E ENRICH

Pick a Winner
Pick divisors from the list below to create 20 division exercises.
Then complete the exercises. If you have a zero in the quotient,
give yourself 2 points. If you do not have a zero in the quotient,
give yourself 1 point.
Divisors: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

## 302 390 R1 106 R4 101 R4 103 R1

1. 2 604 2. 2 781 3. 8 852 4. 5 509 5. 6 619

## 110 R5 105 R3 170 109 R3 201R6

6. 7 775 7. 4 423 8. 1 170 9. 8 875 10. 9 1,815

90 R3 120 R5 70 R1 160 R1 50 R4
11. 4 363 12. 6 725 13. 3 211 14. 2 321 15. 7 354

## 20 R4 109 40 R3 302 403

16. 5 104 17. 5 545 18. 8 323 19. 3 906 20. 2 806

## Total Points Earned:

21. Think about dividing a 3-digit number by a 1-digit number.
McGraw-Hill School Division

When will you get a quotient with a zero in the tens place?
Give an example.

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

Skill
Circle the correct word(s) or number(s) to make each statement true.
1. The Art Club sells T-shirts for \$8. Ms. Demming has \$92.
1
Ms. Demming can buy 11 11 2 12 T-shirts.
If Ms. Demming buys the greatest possible number of
T-shirts, she will have \$ 0 \$4 \$8 left.

2. There are 124 people at the Howard School Sports Dinner. They sit
at tables that have 8 seats each.
The school needs 15 16 tables.
There are 7 7 or 8 people at each table.

3. Manny and two friends are paid \$100 for setting up a new computer
in the schools math lab. They each do the same amount of work.
Manny earns more than the same as his friends.
Each friend earns more than less than \$30.
McGraw-Hill School Division

4. There are 75 students going to the art museum. They will ride in
vans that can hold 6 students.
There will be 12 13 vans.
There are 5 5 or 6 students in each van.

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Interpret the Remainders Math Skills

Test Prep

There are 94 people who volunteer to clean the park. They will form as
many groups of 4 as possible. How many groups of 4 can they make?
1. Which of the following statements 2. How do you interpret the remainder
is true? to solve this problem?
A They will make 4 groups. F Use only the quotient.
B Everyone can be in a group of 4. G Use only the remainder
C There are 94 volunteers. H Add 1 to the quotient.

## The after-school baseball league wants to buy 250 baseballs. The

baseballs come in boxes of 6. How many boxes will the league need?
3. How do you interpret the remainder 4. How many boxes will the
to solve this problem? league need?
A Use only the quotient. F 41 boxes
B Use only the remainder. G 42 boxes
C Add 1 to the quotient. H 43 boxes

The Computer Club has \$80 to buy disks. A box of disks costs \$7. There
is no sales tax. How many boxes of disks can the club buy?
5. Which of the following statements 6. How do you interpret the remainder
is false? to solve this problem?
McGraw-Hill School Division

## A Each box of disks costs \$7. F Add 1 to the quotient.

B All of the money will be spent. G Use only the quotient.
C The computer club has \$80 to buy H Use only the remainder.
disks.

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Interpret the Remainders Math Skills

Test Prep

The Art Club makes \$4 on each T-shirt it sells. How many shirts does the
club need to sell to raise \$75?
7. How do you interpret the remainder 8. How many shirts does the club need
to solve this problem? to sell to raise \$75?
A Add 1 to the quotient. F 3 shirts
B Use only the quotient. G 18 shirts
C Use only the remainder. H 19 shirts

Solve.
9. There are 72 students in the Hockey 10. The Hockey Club buys 128 ounces of
Club. How many teams of 5 can juice. How many 7-ounce cups can
they make? they pour?

11. Paint sets cost \$6. The Art Club has 12. There are 132 students at a meeting.
\$93. If the club buys as many paint The seats are arranged in rows of 8.
sets as it can, how much money will How many rows of seats are needed?
be left over?

13. There are 64 members in the Science 14. There are 83 students. They will sit in
Club. They travel to the science fair rows of 6 seats each. They will start
in cars that can hold 5 members at the front row and fill as many
McGraw-Hill School Division

each. How many cars are needed? rows as they can. How many
students will be in the last row?

15. Each song played by a DJ is 16. The DJs assistant distributes neon
4 minutes long. How many songs sunglasses to 50 people at a party.
does he play in a music set that is There are 6 glasses in a box. How
30 minutes long? many boxes should she open?

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Estimate Quotients P PRACTICE

## Estimate. Choose compatible numbers.

1. 20 2. 20 3. 90 4. 70
2 43 4 71 6 521 7 501
5. 50 6.
40 7. 70 8. 30
3 159 4 171 2 131 9 286

## 9. 80 10. 40 11. 90 12. 300

8 650 5 209 9 831 7 2,011

6 3,124 4 3,105

## 15. 2,000 16. 5,000

3 5,896 9 46,999
17. 65  3 18. 98  5 19. 22  3

## 29. 4,124  6 30. 1,912  9 31. 1,714  2

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 32. 2,186  4 33. 2,904  7 34. 4,711  8

Problem Solving
35. Marta travels a total of 850 miles every 36. Jeff went on a bike trip of
month to San Francisco for business. If 173 miles to Austin. It took him
she goes 3 times a month, about how 9 days. About how many miles
many miles is each round trip? did he travel each day?

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Estimate Quotients R RETEACH

## Compatible numbers are numbers you can divide easily.

You can use compatible numbers to estimate quotients.
Estimate 351  4. Estimate 435  7.
Think: What basic division fact is Think: What basic division fact is
close to 35  4? close to 43  7?
36  4  9 42  7  6
360  4  90 420  7  60
So, 351  4 is about 90. So, 435  7 is about 60.

Complete.
1. Estimate 430  9. 2. Estimate 279  3.
Division fact: 45  9  Division fact: 27  3 
Estimate: 450  9  Estimate: 270  3 
3. Estimate 299  5 4. Estimate 319  4.
Division fact: Division fact:
Estimate: Estimate:
5. Estimate 562  6. 6. Estimate 631  8.
Division fact: Division fact:
Estimate: Estimate:

## Estimate. Circle the letter of the division sentence with the

compatible number. Then complete the division.

## 7. 122  4 a. 120  4  b. 100  4 

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 11. 453  9 a. 480  9  b. 450  9 

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Estimate Quotients E ENRICH

## The Treasure State

Rewrite each exercise using compatible numbers.
Write the estimated quotient.

1. 60 2. 200 3. 80
7 428 420 3 605 600 4 316 320
4. 900 5. 1,000 6. 500
9 8,140 8,100 5 5,165 5,000 8 3,999 4,000
7. 600 8. 100 9. 20
6 3,546 3,600 2 196 200 4 85 80
10. 10 11. 90 12.
1,100
9 98 90 8 725 720 5 5,620 5,500
13. Write the estimated quotient beside each exercise number
below. The first one is done for you. Then cross out the
letters above quotients with two digits. Circle the letters
above quotients with three or more digits.

H I A D N N

11. 90 9. 5. 10. 2. 4.

T M O B P A
McGraw-Hill School Division

6. 8. 7. 1. 3. 12.

14. Rearrange the circled letters to spell the name of the Treasure State.

## 15. Show how to estimate 605  3.

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Divide 4-Digit Numbers P PRACTICE

1. 2. 3. 4.
1,487 \$4,028 1,306 R3 2,027 R2
5 7,435 2 \$8,056 4 5,227 3 6,083

5. 6. 7. 8.
303 431 901 R5 \$811
7 2,121 8 3,448 6 5,411 9 \$7,299

## 17. Divide \$4,032 by 8. 18. Divide 1,526 by 3. 19. Divide 5,732 by 9.

Compare. Write  or .
20. 1,6442 1,9323 21. 2,814 7 2,4186 22. 4,9497 3,598  4

Problem Solving
McGraw-Hill School Division

23. The mountain bike club wants to 24. The Lets Grow club makes and sells
raise \$4,464 for 9 new bicycles. If hot sauce. The club grows 1,083
each bicycle costs the same amount, peppers. Each jar of hot sauce
how much does each bicycle cost? contains 3 peppers. How many jars
can the club make?

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Divide 4-Digit Numbers R RETEACH

## When you divide 4-digit numbers, begin by deciding

where to place the first digit in the quotient.
You can see the
Divide 3,154  6. quotient will have
3 digits.

## Think: You cannot 5_ _

divide 3 by 6. Divide 31 by 6. 6 3,154
Write 5 in the quotient
above the 1.

Complete.
1. 2. 3.
5 1 6 R 1 1 9 1 3 R 1 4 7 8 1 R 1
3 1, 5 4 9 4 7, 6 5 3 2 9, 5 6 3
1 5 4 8
4 3 6 1 5
 3  3 6  1 4
1 9 0 5 1 6
 1 8  4  1 6
1 1 3 0 3
 1 2
 2
1 1
Divide.
4. 5. 6. 7.
694 R2 712 R2 \$656 457 R2
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 5 3,472 7 4,986 4 \$2,624 3 1,373

8. 9. 10. 11.
1,159 R3 1,009 R1 2,558 R1 1,090 R8
8 9,275 6 6,055 2 5,117 9 9,818

## 14. 3,393  4  15. \$6,426  3 

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Divide 4-Digit Numbers E ENRICH

## Greatest Remainder Game

Play with a partner. Take turns.
Place your marker on START. Solve one of the exercises below. Then
move your marker the same number of spaces as the remainder.
The winner is the first player to reach END.

## 203 R1 868 R3 1,165 R4 653 R3

6 1,219 8 6,947 5 5,829 7 4,574

## 965 R3 285 R7 863 R7 1,084 R3

4 3,863 8 2,287 9 7,774 4 4,339

## 967 R2 606 R5 985 451 R4

6 5,804 6 3,641 7 6,895 5 2,259

## 674 R1 1,222 R5 904 R3 921 R4

4 2,697 6 7,337 4 3,619 9 8,293

## 349 R3 877 R1 709 R2 665 R5

5 1,748 3 2,632 8 5,674 6 3,995

## 1,377 R1 1,151 R2 607 R3 430 R3

7 9,640 5 5,757 5 3,038 4 1,723
McGraw-Hill School Division

T D
AR EN
ST

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Divide 5-Digit Numbers P PRACTICE

1. 2. 3. 4.
13,168 19,208 26,994 \$15,064
5 65,840 4 76,832 2 53,988 6 \$90,384

5. 6. 7. 8.
4,220 R7 6,447 R2 \$6,475 3,056 R1
8 33,767 7 45,131 3 \$19,425 9 27,505

## 9. 10. 11. 12.

7,073 R1 5,333 4,615 R4 9,316 R1
2 14,147 6 31,998 5 23,079 7 65,213

## Algebra & Functions Find each missing number.

19. \$26,480  n  \$5,296 20. 71,910  v  7,990 21. 44,356  r  11,089

Problem Solving
McGraw-Hill School Division

22. The King School held Junior Olympic 23. The King School raised \$75,288 by
games in its sports stadium for selling Junior Olympic banners. Each
3 days. Each day, every seat in the banner cost \$6. How many banners
stadium was full. A total of 17,748 did the school sell?
people sat in the stadium. How
many seats does the stadium have?

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Divide 5-Digit Numbers R RETEACH

Divide 19,834  4.

## Think: You cannot

divide 1 by 4. Divide 19 by 4.
Write 4 in the quotient
above the 9. The quotient will have 4 digits.

4 19,834
 16
38
36
23
 20
34
 32
2

## Step 3: Check your work. 4,958  4  19,832; 19,832  2  19,834

Divide.

1. 2. 3. 4.
5 68,084 3 94,391 4 52,273 2 \$26,856

5. 6. 7. 8.
7 23,042 6 44,738 5 31,619 9 82,445
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 13. 74,472  8  14. \$33,496  4 

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Divide 5-Digit Numbers E ENRICH

Crossnumber Puzzle
Divide to complete the crossnumber puzzle.
Then create and solve your own Across and Down clues.
Across Down
1. 37,351  6  1. 43,393  7 

## 54. 65,829  3  6. 17,037  9 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70.

71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80.
McGraw-Hill School Division

81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90.

91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100.

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Find the Better Buy P PRACTICE

## Find each unit price. Compare to find the better buy.

1. 2 ounces for \$6.80 2. 3 gallons for \$59.91

## 9. What is the unit price for a 2-pound

bag of wild bird seed? Sa
Wild le on
Bird
Seed
2-pou !
nd ba
10. What is the unit price for a 5-pound g
\$3.96 for
bag of wild bird seed?
McGraw-Hill School Division

5-pou
nd ba
g for
\$9.4
5
11. What is the unit price of a 9-pound bag 9-pou
nd ba
of wild bird seed? g for
\$15.7
5

## 12. Which bag of wild bird seed is the best

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Find the Better Buy R RETEACH

## Products often come in different sizes. You can find the

better buy by comparing the unit price of each size.

## Find the better buy: a 6-ounce jar of pickles for \$1.92, or

an 8-ounce jar of pickles for \$2.80.

Step 1 Step 2
Find the unit prices. Compare the unit prices.
Divide the price by the number of ounces. \$0.32  \$0.35

## So, the 6-ounce jar of

\$0.32 \$0.35 Think: Write the
6 \$1.92 8 \$2.80 pickles is the better buy.
18 24 dollar sign and the
12 40 decimal point
 12  40 in the quotient.
0 0

## Find each unit price. Compare to find the better buy.

1.
3 gallons of paint 5 gallons of paint
for \$43.62 for \$75.00

## 4 pints for \$4.96 5 gallons for \$6.60

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 8 cups for \$31.52 9 quarts for \$80.01

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Find the Better Buy E ENRICH

## Beat This Price!

Two grocery stores, the Food Barn and Best Foods, are across the street
from each other. The Food Barn placed the ad below in the newspaper.

## Food Barn s Weekend Specials!

Greek olives Cheddar cheese Six-pack of
\$2.60 for a \$34.75 for a cranberry juice
O lives 4-ounce jar

ice

ice
5-pound wheel boxes \$4.74

Ju

Ju
\$0.65/ounce \$6.95/pound \$0.79/box

## Dog food Three cans NEW! Fresh

Dog pasta \$3.15
Food \$10.88 for a T UNA of tuna

a
st
pa
8-pound bag T UNA \$4.86 for 9 inches
\$1.36/pound T UNA \$1.62/can \$0.35/inch

Best Foods says its prices are lower than the Food Barns prices. Find
the unit price for each item in the Food Barn ad. Then create an ad
for Best Foods. Use the same items, but different amounts; for
example, a 7-ounce jar of Greek olives.

## Item/Amount Our Price Our Unit Price

McGraw-Hill School Division

Greek olives: oz

Tuna: cans

## Fresh pasta: inches

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Problem Solving: Strategy P PRACTICE

## Guess and Check

Use the guess-and-check strategy to solve.
1. Teri is putting 57 dolls in a display 2. A group of friends choose cards
case. She puts the same number on equally from a deck of 52 cards.
each shelf and has 3 dolls left. The There are more than 6 friends. After
case has more than 7 shelves. How they have chosen, 4 cards are left.
many shelves does the case have? How many friends are there? How
How many dolls does each shelf hold? many cards does each friend have?

## 3. Jamal buys 59 stickers. Stickers come 4. There are 36 students in an

in packs of 5 or 8. How many of auditorium. There are twice as many
each kind of pack does Jamal buy? girls as boys. How many girls are
there? How many boys are there?

## Mixed Strategy Review

Solve. Use any strategy.
5. Warren is making a display. He puts 6. Social Studies Each of the 50
1 photo in the first row, 4 photos in states in the United States has a
the second row, 7 in the third row, state flag. Evelyn wants to make a
and 10 in the fourth row. If the drawing of each state flag. She has
pattern continues, how many photos 3 more flags to draw. How many
will Warren put in the fifth row? flags has Evelyn drawn?
McGraw-Hill School Division

Strategy: Strategy:
7. Sally wants to arrive 20 minutes early 8. Create a problem which can be
for her job. She starts work at 4:15 P.M. solved by using the guess-and-check
It will take her about 20 minutes to strategy. Share it with others.
walk from school to the job. When
should Sally leave?

Strategy:

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

## Guess and Check

Page 301, Problem 2

## Jenny is making sand art. A bottle holds 8 inches of sand. Jenny

wants to have 2 inches more of red sand than blue sand. How
many inches of sand will she pour?

Step 1
Be sure you understand the problem.
What do you know?
A bottle holds inches of sand.
There will be of red sand than
blue sand.
What do you need to find?
You need to find how many
.

Step 2
Make a plan.
Plan Choose a strategy.
Find a Pattern List the information you know.
Work Backward
Use Logical Use what you know to make a guess.
Reasoning
Guess how many inches of each color sand can be used to
McGraw-Hill School Division

Write a Number
Sentence make a total of 8 inches.
Make a Table Check your guess.
or List
Revise the guess and try again if it is wrong.
Guess and Check
Make a Graph Guess, check, and revise until you find the answer that
Solve a Simpler makes sense.
Problem
Draw a Diagram
Act it Out

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

## Guess and Check

Step 3
Solve
You know that the bottle holds inches of sand.
You know that Jenny wants to have more
inches of sand than sand.
Guess Start with two numbers that have a sum of 8. Try 6 and 2.
Check 6 + 2 = 8
inches of red sand, inches of blue sand
There are more inches of red sand.
Does that answer fit the problem?
Revise 5 + 3 = 8
inches of red sand, inches of blue sand
There are more inches of red sand.
Does that answer fit the problem?

Step 4
Is the solution reasonable?
McGraw-Hill School Division

Practice
1. A group of friends share 30 stickers 2. Erica bought 9 pens. Each pen costs
equally, with 3 stickers left over. either \$2 or \$3. If the total cost was
There are more than 5 friends. How \$23, how many \$2 and \$3 pens did
many friends are there? How many Erica buy?
stickers does each friend get?

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Explore Finding the Mean P PRACTICE

## Use the connecting cubes to find the mean.

Redraw the cubes so that the rows are all the same length.
1. 4, 9, 5 2. 7, 6, 3, 4 3. 5, 6, 4, 3, 2

## Find the mean. You may use connecting cubes.

4. 2, 2, 9, 9, 8 5. 15, 0, 6 6. 1, 9, 12, 5, 3

## 16. 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 17. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 18. 10, 8, 6, 4, 2

McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
19. The students in Homeroom 101 20. Alison played in a basketball
collected soup labels this week. tournament this week. She scored
The number of labels brought in to the following numbers of points
class each day were 8, 6, 10, 6, and in 5 games: 20, 17, 12, 8, and 18.
5. What was the mean number of What was her average point total?
labels brought in each day?

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Explore Finding the Mean R RETEACH

## You can find the mean of a set of numbers by

finding the sum of the numbers and then
dividing the sum by the number of addends.

## Here is how to find the mean of 2, 3, 5,

and 6 using connecting cubes.

## Connect the cubes into one long row.

You should have 16 cubes connected together.

## Divide the cubes into 4 equal groups.

You should have 4 cubes in each group.

## So, the mean of 2, 3, 5, and 6 is 4.

McGraw-Hill School Division

1. 5, 6, 8, 1 2. 4, 8, 5, 7 3. 12, 10, 2

4. 2, 9, 3, 5, 6 5. 11, 5, 2, 2, 10 6. 5, 5, 3, 3, 9

7. 7, 6, 3, 4 8. 7, 8, 2, 4, 3, 6 9. 10, 15, 5

## 10. 5, 5, 0, 1, 4, 3 11. 10, 20, 40, 2, 10, 20

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Explore Finding the Mean E ENRICH

## January in Los Angeles

In Los Angeles, California, from 1961 to 1990, the average,
or mean, high temperature in January was 68 Fahrenheit.
1. Imagine that the average high temperature for the month below is 68F.
Complete the calendar by writing different temperatures for the days.
When you add the temperatures and divide by 31, you should have an
average temperature of 68F.

January

## Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

70
8 9 10 11 12 13 14

73
15 16 17 18 19 20 21

63
22 23 24 25 26 27 28

29 30 31
McGraw-Hill School Division

68

## 2. Explain how you chose the temperatures.

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Find the Mean P PRACTICE

## Find the mean.

1. 8, 4, 6, 7, 5 2. 11, 18, 13, 14

## 7. Number of minutes Jason practiced 8. Number of miles traveled each day:

violin this week: 30, 40, 20, 40, 20. 125, 85, 115, 100, 85, 90

9. Number of rolls of film used each day 10. Number of gallons of gas used
to take class pictures: 6, 4, 8, 3, 2, 1, 4 each day: 8, 6, 9, 11, 11, 9

11. Number of miles Dorothy ran each 12. Number of miles a pilot flew each
day: 6, 8, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 day: 980, 760, 590, 910, 630

13. Number of books Emily read each 14. Height of six boys in inches: 60, 54,
month: 2, 3, 5, 6, 1, 1. 62, 64, 66, 60

## 15. Number of bottles of juice on 16. Number of boxes of cereal eaten by

each shelf: 60, 80, 120, 40, 70, campers each week: 24, 14, 18, 26, 13
80, 90, 140
McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
17. Kathy trades baseball cards. 18. From Thursday through Sunday, Pizza
She traded 42, 38, and 40 cards Guy sold 97, 116, 208, and 151
the last three Saturdays. What is pizzas. What is the average number
the mean number of cards she of pizzas sold each day?

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Find the Mean R RETEACH

You can use connecting cubes to help you record the steps for finding a mean.
Find the mean of 7, 6, 3, and 4.
Using Connecting Cubes Using Pencil and Paper

Step 1 Step 1
Build each number with connecting cubes. Add the numbers.
7
6
3
4
20
Connect the cubes into one long row. You
should have 20 cubes connected together. Step 2
Divide the sum by the number of addends.
5
4 20
Step 2
Divide the cubes into 4 equal groups. So, the mean of 7, 6, 3, and 4 is 5.
You should have 5 cubes in each group.

## So, the mean of 7, 6, 3, and 4 is 5.

Find the mean.
1. 4, 5, 7, 4, 5 2. 12, 10, 2 3. 16, 13, 12, 15
McGraw-Hill School Division

4. 21, 15, 12, 12, 20 5. 3, 14, 12, 11 6. 16, 15, 19, 13, 27

7. Weight of five dogs in pounds: 42, 8. Number of miles Lance bicycled each
35, 21, 38, 54 day: 74, 69, 80, 57

9. Number of hawks the ranger saw 10. Number of cars that used the parking
each day: 19, 7, 22, 8, 9, 13, 13 garage each day: 563, 709, 661,
842, 805

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Find the Mean E ENRICH

Missing Pins
The computer at the bowling alley is down, so teams have to keep track
of their scores on cards. The scorecards below show the scores for the
first five frames, or rounds. A cat with muddy paws ran across the cards.
Complete the scorecards by writing the correct numbers in the paw
prints. Then fill in the teams total score and mean score.
Team A
Jason Deanna Serena eric
12 21 6 6
4
22
13 5 9
19
10 18 4 30
7 16 Total: 15
8 5 10
Total: 50 Total:
45 Total:
Mean: 65 Mean: 80
10 Mean: 13 9 Mean: 16

## Team As Total Score: Mean Score per Person:

Team B
Steven Annie Chris Lindsey
12 5 16 20
13 12 18
9 11
10 12
17
16
9 18
McGraw-Hill School Division

Total: 10 15
10 12 15
60 Total: 50 Total: Total:
Mean: Mean: 65 85
12 10 Mean: 13 Mean: 17

## Team Bs Total Score: Mean Score per Person:

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 7, Lesson 12, pages 304305. (237) NS 3.4; SDP 1.2
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Problem Solving: Application Part
A WORKSHEET

Decision
Applying Division Making

## Record your data and notes.

Bus

Train

Car

McGraw-Hill School Division

What is your recommendation for the club? Should they take a bus, train,
or car to the aquarium? Explain.

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 7, Lesson 13, pages 306307. (238) NS 3.4; MR 1.1, 2.3, 3.1
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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

## Do light or heavy objects fly farther? Math &

Science

Safety: Wear goggles to protect your eyes and work away from
other people.

## Record your data in the table below.

Distance Traveled

Object 1 2 3 4 5 Mean

Paper Clip

Eraser

each object.

## Paper Clip Eraser

McGraw-Hill School Division

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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

## Do light or heavy objects fly farther? Math &

Science
2. Which object traveled farther? How do you know?

## 3. Use division to decide how many times farther one object

traveled than the other. Show your work.

Work Space

## 4. In your own words, explain what gravity is.

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 5. Explain the results of the activity in terms of gravity.

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Division Patterns P PRACTICE

Complete.
1. 36  9  n 2. 64  8  s 3. 18  b  6

360  90  n 640  80  s b  30  6
3,600  90  n 6,400  80  s 1,800  30  b
36,000  90  n 64,000  80  s 18,000  30  b
360,000  90  n 640,000  80  s 180,000  30  b

## Divide. Use mental math.

4. 5. 6. 7.
2 70 500 7,000
60 120 40 2,800 70 35,000 80 560,000
8. 9. 10. 11.
\$40 \$300 \$50 5,000
10 \$400 70 \$21,000 40 \$2,000 90 450,000

## Algebra & Functions Find each missing number.

22. 140  a2 23. d  70  7 24. 3,000  60  x
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 25. t  60  70 26. 28,000  b  400 27. 40,000  50  y

Problem Solving
28. A box of 400 stickers is to be divided 29. If 6,300 books are divided equally
equally among 80 students. How many among 90 libraries, how many
stickers will each student receive? books will each library get?

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 8, Lesson 1, pages 324325. (241) NS 3.2

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Division Patterns R RETEACH

To divide mentally, you can use basic division facts and look for a pattern.

Find the basic division fact. Then count and subtract zeros.
This will tell you how many zeros the quotient will have.

## The basic fact is 6  2  3.

60  20  3 1 zero  1 zero  0 zeros
600  20  30 2 zeros  1 zero  1 zero
6,000  20  300 3 zeros  1 zero  2 zeros

## The basic fact is 20  4  5.

200  40  5 1 extra zero 1 zero  0 zeros
2,000  40  50 2 extra zeros 1 zero  1 zero
20,000  40  500 3 extra zeros 1 zero  2 zeros

## Complete the pattern. Count and subtract the zeros.

1. 24  3  2. 12  4 

240  30  120  40 
2,400  30  1,200  40 
24,000  30  12,000  40 

3. 63  9  4. 30  5 

630  90  300  50 
6,300  90  3,000  50 
63,000  90  30,000  50 
McGraw-Hill School Division

5. 9  3  6. 90  30  7. 900  30 

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 8, Lesson 1, pages 324325. (242) NS 3.2

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Division Patterns E ENRICH

Move Along
Circle the correct answer for each exercise. Then use the remaining
two answers to write the next division sentence. Repeat until you
finish the page.

## a. 3,200 b. 800 c. 80 a. 40 b. 4,000 c. 50

3. 4.

a. 90 b. 80 c. 4,500 a. 4,200 b. 60 c. 50

5. 6.

a. 70 b. 4,000 c. 80 a. 50 b. 2,800 c. 40

7. 8.

9. 10.

## a. 900,000 b. 900 c. 90 a. 10 b. 10,000 c. 100,000

11. 12.
McGraw-Hill School Division

## a. 100,000 b. 10,000 c. 20 a. 5,000 b. 500 c. 50

13. Look at exercise 12. How did you decide how many zeros were in the quotient?

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Explore Dividing by 2-Digit Numbers P PRACTICE

Divide.
1. 2.

130  10  143  30 
3. 4.

121  14  156  18 

## Divide. You may use place-value models.

5. 6. 7. 8.
6 R9 9 R2 7 R9 8 R13
13 87 15 137 12 93 14 125

## 9. 10. 11. 12.

18 R5 13 R14 13 R11 17 R16
16 293 17 235 19 258 25 441

## 13. 135  16  14. 134  14  15. 115  15 

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 16. 282  18  17. 230  19  18. 269  24 

Problem Solving
19. The dividend is 280. The divisor is 23. 20. The dividend is 160. The divisor is 12.
What are the quotient and What are the quotient and
remainder? remainder?

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 8, Lesson 2, pages 326327. (244) NS 3.2

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Explore Dividing by 2-Digit Numbers R RETEACH

Find 148  12. Think: How many groups of 12 are there in 148?

Show 148 using Exchange Divide the tens. Exchange tens for
place-value 1 hundred for Make as many ones so you can
models. 10 tens. groups of 12 as keep grouping
you can. 1 ten and 2 ones.
You can make
12 equal groups
of 12 with 4 ones
remaining.

## So, 148  12  12 R4.

McGraw-Hill School Division

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 8, Lesson 2, pages 326327. (245) NS 3.2

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Explore Dividing by 2-Digit Numbers E ENRICH

Stick Division
What if we used a number system that used symbols instead of numerals?
In this Chinese system, numbers are written using the symbols shown.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 20 50 60 70 90 100

Example:
426
21 8,946

## Use the number system above to create four division exercises

where the divisor is a 2-digit number. Then exchange exercises with
a partner and find the quotient using symbols.

1. 2.

3. 4.
McGraw-Hill School Division

Name

## Divide 2-Digit Numbers by Multiples of 10 Print

P This
83 Page
PRACTICE

Divide.
1. 82  20  2. 75  10  3. 51  20 

4. 94  30  5. 88  20  6. 87  10 

7. 93  40  8. 71  30  9. 97  20 

## 16. 17. 18. 19.

3 R1 1 R28 2 R1 2 R3
20 61 50 78 40 81 30 63

## 20. 21. 22. 23.

7 R6 4 R15 1 R24 1 R9
10 76 20 95 60 84 40 49

## 24. 25. 26. 27.

9 R6 1 R29 2 R4 1 R9
10 96 30 59 20 44 50 59

## Algebra & Functions Find the missing number.

28. 27  m  2 R7 29. 51  k  1 R21

## 32. 71  y  3 R11 33. 90  r  2 R10

Problem Solving
McGraw-Hill School Division

34. Sam needs to put 76 pencils in 35. Kenya needs to put 84 cans of
packages. Each package should have tennis balls in boxes. Each box should
10 pencils. How many packages will have 20 cans. How many boxes will
there be? How many pencils will be Kenya fill? How many cans will she
left over? have left over?

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83 Page
RETEACH

## Using Models Using Pencil and Paper

Show 74 using place-value models. Step 1: Divide 74 by 20.
Then make as many groups of 20 as Think: 60  20  3.
you can. 3
20 74
 60

## Step 2: Subtract. Write the remainder

in the quotient.

3 R14
20 74
 60
14
You can make 3 equal groups of 20 with
14 remaining.

## Divide. You can use place-value models.

1. 63  30  2. 88  40  3. 55  10 

4. 48  20  5. 74  10  6. 93  30 

7. 85  30  8. 81  20  9. 76  10 
McGraw-Hill School Division

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 8, Lesson 3, pages 328329. (248) NS 3.2

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Divide 2-Digit Numbers by Multiples of 10 E ENRICH

Winning Start
Label the faces of a number cube 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70.
Place a marker on 72, the starting position. Take turns tossing
the number cube. Divide the number your marker is on by the
number tossed. Find the whole number quotient. Move
forward that number of spaces.

## Continue moving forward until you have gone around the

board once. After passing "Start", you may move forward or
backward. The winner is the person who lands directly on
"Start".

Start
72 85 97 100 115 120

260 138

253 149

250 150
McGraw-Hill School Division

235 164

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 8, Lesson 3, pages 328329. (249) NS 3.2

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Divide by 2-Digit Divisors P PRACTICE

Divide.
1. 2. 3. 4.
43 R6 25 R9 \$0.11 14 R4
22 952 31 784 66 \$7.26 54 760
5. 6. 7. 8.
11 17 R3 12 R2 13 R9
81 891 29 496 44 530 75 984

## 9. 10. 11. 12.

75 R4 \$0.67 61 R2 83
26 1,954 17 \$11.39 39 2,381 46 3,818

## 13. 14. 15. 16.

96 R1 71 \$0.89 74 R6
93 8,929 51 3,621 62 \$55.18 88 6,518

## Algebra & Functions Solve.

29. (1,700  53)  37  w 30. (1,000  160)  46  d
31. (1,900  100)  29  v 32. (1,600  240)  83  x
33. (2,300  70)  (12  4)  n
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 34. (1,500  80)  (11  5)  c

Problem Solving
35. Mrs. Tallos class made 234 ribbons for 36. Mr. Willows class wants to sell
the Sports Fair. Each student made the 200 tickets to the Winter Sports Fair.
same number of ribbons. There are There are 25 students in the class.
18 students in the class. How many How many tickets will each student
ribbons did each student make? need to sell?

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Divide by 2-Digit Divisors R RETEACH

You can use models to help you understand dividing by 2-digit numbers.

## Using Models Using Pencil and Paper

Use place-value models to show 165. Step 1: Divide, Think: 180  30  6
6
25 165

## Exchange the one hundred for 10 tens. Step 2: Multiply.

6
25 165
 150 6  25  150

## Then make as many groups of 25 as Step 3: Subtract. Write the remainder

you can. Exchange tens for ones. You in the quotient.
can make 6 equal groups of 25 with 6 R15
15 remaining. 25 165
 150
15 165  150  15
McGraw-Hill School Division

## Divide. You can use place-value models.

1. 164  12  2. 174  18  3. 318  21 

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Divide by 2-Digit Divisors E ENRICH

What Number Am I?
Solve. What number am I?
1. I am a number between 10 and 20. 2. I am a number between 10 and 20.
If you divide either 61 or 73 by me, If you divide either 45 or 56 by me,
the remainder is 1. the remainder is 1.

## 3. I am a number between 20 and 30. 4. I am a number between 20 and 30.

If you divide either 107 or 128 by If you divide either 68 or 134 by me,
me, the remainder is 2. the remainder is 2.

## 5. I am a number between 20 and 30. 6. I am a number between 30 and 40.

If you divide either 76 or 126 by me, If you divide either 147 or 255 by me,
the remainder is 1. the remainder is 3.

## 7. I am a number between 10 and 20. 8. I am a number between 40 and 50.

If you divide either 74 or 110 by me, If you divide either 221 or 265 by
the remainder is 2. me, the remainder is 1.

## 9. I am a number between 20 and 30. 10. I am a number between 30 and 40.

If you divide either 175 or 204 by If you divide either 74 or 214 by me,
me, the remainder is 1. the remainder is 4.

11. I am a number between 10 and 20. 12. I am a number between 20 and 30.
McGraw-Hill School Division

## If you divide either 69 or 88 by me, If you divide either 131 or 154 by

the remainder is 12. me, the remainder is 16.

13. I am a number between 10 and 20. 14. I am a number between 20 and 30.
If you divide either 110 or 144 by If you divide either 295 or 322 by
me, the remainder is 8. me, the remainder is 25.

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Estimate Quotients P PRACTICE

## Estimate the quotient. Choose compatible numbers.

1. 19 389 2. 17 211 3. 18 586

## Algebra & Functions Estimate to compare. Write  or .

22. 396  21 914  31 23. 492  68 556  71
24. 1,947  38 2,011  48 25. 1,300  21 2,300  13
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 26. 5,106  82 6,206  91 27. 3,100  82 4,700  71

Problem Solving
28. Karen drove 283 miles at a speed of 29. A jet flew 3,116 miles in 6 hours.
46 miles per hour. About how many About how many miles per hour
hours did she drive? did it fly?

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Estimate Quotients R RETEACH

## Compatible numbers are numbers you can divide easily.

You can use compatible numbers to estimate quotients.

## Estimate 3,463  73.

3,463  73 Think: A basic fact that is close is 35  7.
3,500  70  50
So, 3,463  73 is about 50.

Complete.
1. Estimate 1,785  31. 2. Estimate 2,880  29.

## Division fact: 18  3  Division fact: 27  3 

Estimate: 1,800  30  Estimate: 2,700  30 
3. Estimate 5,726  72. 4. Estimate 3,952  79.

## Division fact: Division fact:

Estimate: Estimate:

## Use compatible numbers to estimate each quotient.

5. 1,482  33 6. 6,512  78

7. 7,164  89 8. 2,207  68

## 9. 3,512  42 10. 2,587  53

McGraw-Hill School Division

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Estimate Quotients E ENRICH

Box Estimation
Choose the best estimate from each box to complete the sentence.
Then write the answer next to the letter of the box to make a code.
Use the code to answer the question.
Who was the first American in space?
A. 24 33 D. 63 53 E. 82 75

42 51 71 48 64 92

H. 27 44 L. 24 32 N. 31 42

52 38 58 44 52 28

P. 68 72 R. 68 74 S. 7 81

84 91 47 59 72 64

A D E
H L N
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P R S

B. , JR.
33 24 33 42 72 52 92 84 33 59 63
Explain how you estimated the divisors.

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 8, Lesson 5, pages 334335. (255) NS 3.2

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Divide.
1. 2. 3. 4.
7 R11 7 R7 8 R21 8 R39
34 249 26 189 56 469 41 367

5. 6. 7. 8.
2 R44 7 R38 4 R34 3 R49
51 146 84 626 79 350 63 238

## 9. 10. 11. 12.

8 R74 3 R70 5 R35 7 R11
92 810 75 295 39 230 25 186

## 13. 14. 15. 16.

8 R28 7 R24 5 R86 3 R75
56 476 69 507 92 546 88 339

## 17. 18. 19. 20.

8 R19 5 R9 3 R52 4 R56
44 371 24 129 65 247 57 284

## 21. 22. 23. 24.

5 R77 8 R10 8 R35 8 R11
81 482 22 186 45 395 36 299

## Algebra & Functions Divide only those with quotients

between \$5.00 and \$8.00.
25. 26. 27. 28.
\$5.25 \$6.15 no no
18 \$94.50 16 \$98.40 14 \$60.90 25 \$93.75

## 29. 30. 31. 32.

\$7.15 no no \$7.76
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 13 \$92.95 11 \$99.11 15 \$56.25 12 \$93.12

Problem Solving
33. Candy wants to walk 220 miles in 34. Jason wants to save \$180 in
30 days. If she walks 7 miles every 12 months. How much should he
day, will she meet her goal? save each month?

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## When you divide, sometimes your first estimate is too

high or too low. Then you must adjust the quotient.

## Divide 125  43.

Step 1:
3
Estimate: 120  40  3 43 125

Step 2:
Use your estimate to divide. 3
43 125
 129 Multiply: 3  43  129

## You cannot subtract. The estimate of 3 is too high.

Step 3:

2 R39 43
43 125 2
 86 Multiply: 2  43  86 86
39 Subtract: 125  86  39  39
Compare: 39  43 125

1. 2. 3. 4.
4 R14 7 R1 5 R3 1 R59
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## 24 110 27 190 29 148 61 120

5. 6. 7. 8.
6 R8 8 R1 6 R1 1 R61
57 350 16 129 37 223 63 124

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Hi Lo
E ENRICH

## Estimate each quotient. Write your estimate. Then divide. If your

estimate was too high, circle "Too High." If your estimate was too
low, circle "Too Low." Use the circled answers to complete the maze
below.
1. 2. 3. 4.
3 R71 9 R10 7 R30 \$3.25
73 290 65 595 31 247 21 \$68.25

Too High Down Too High Left Too High Down Too High Left
Too Low Up Too Low Right Too Low Up Too Low Right
5. 6. 7. 8.
6 R2 \$2.13 7 R7 7 R2
88 530 91 \$25.56 48 343 26 184

Too High Down Too High Right Too High Up Too High Left
Too Low Up Too Low Left Too Low Down Too Low Right

What is the fastest fish, the tallest tree, the biggest dog, and the
smallest bird?

To find out, begin at Start. Move one space in the direction given

Start
McGraw-Hill School Division

sailfish
redwood
St. Bernard
hummingbird

## swordfish Maple dolphin oak

greyhound parakeet Great Dane sparrow

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 8, Lesson 6, pages 336337. (258) NS 3.2

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Use an Overestimate or Underestimate Reading

Skill
Form a conclusion about whether you would overestimate or
underestimate. Then solve the problem.
1. A group of 118 people have signed up for the 5-kilometer run.
Each person will receive a special cap. Caps are sold in boxes of 36.
How many boxes are needed?
Should you overestimate or underestimate to solve this problem? Explain.

## How many boxes are needed?

2. The Flying Disk Club has saved \$90 to buy Disks for its
members. A package of 2 Disks costs \$8. How many
packages of Disks can the club buy?
Should you overestimate or underestimate to solve this problem? Explain.

## 3. Trophies cost \$9 each. The tournament organizers have \$60

budgeted for trophies. How many trophies can they buy?
Should you overestimate or underestimate to solve this problem? Explain.
McGraw-Hill School Division

## 4. A group of 24 students is playing catch. They share 7 softballs.

What is the least number of students who can share each softball?
Should you overestimate or underestimate to solve this problem? Explain.

## What is the least number of students who can share a softball?

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Use an Overestimate or Underestimate Math Skills

Test Prep
There are 95 volunteers working at the marathon. Each volunteer
will get a water bottle. A box contains 24 water bottles. How many
boxes are needed?
1. Which of the following statements 2. To be sure there are enough water
is true? bottles for the volunteers, you should:
A There are not enough water F underestimate the number of
bottles for the volunteers. volunteers.
B A box contains 24 water bottles. G overestimate the number of
volunteers and underestimate the
C There are 95 water bottles.
number of boxes needed.
D Four water bottles are needed.
H underestimate the number of
boxes needed.
J overestimate the number of
boxes needed.

At the game, there are 44 color guards. Each color guard will help
carry flags. There are 21 flags on 6-foot poles. What is the greatest
number of students that will have to share a flag?
3. Which of the following is not 4. To find the greatest number of students
important to solving the problem? who will share a flag, you should:
A There are 44 students carrying flags. F overestimate the number of
students per flag.
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## B Each color guard will help carry

a flag. G underestimate the number of
students per flag.
C There are 21 flags.
H overestimate the number of flags
D The flags are on 6-foot poles.
and underestimate the number of
students.
J underestimate the number of
flags per student.

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Problem Solving: Reading for Math P PRACTICE

## Use an Overestimate or Underestimate Math Skills

Test Prep
The sports committee buys a piece of fabric that is 60 feet long.
Underestimate the number of 9-foot banners that can be made
from the fabric.
5. To underestimate the number of 6. How many 9-foot banners can be
A use 63 feet for the length of the F 5
fabric. G 6
B round down the length of the H 7
fabric to 50 feet. J 8
C round up the length of each
banner to 10 feet.
D use 6 feet for the length of each
banner.

Solve.
7. Travis is making first-place ribbons 8. The soccer club makes 100 cups of
for Sports Day. He has 111 inches of fruit drink. There are 46 students in
blue ribbon. Each blue ribbon will be the soccer club. Is there enough fruit
8 inches long. Underestimate the drink for each student to have 2
number of ribbons he can make. cups? Explain.

9. There are 152 people at the Sports 10. Mark wants to buy baseball shirts of
Night Dinner. There are 33 tables. different teams. Each shirt costs \$18.
What is the greatest number of Mark has \$62. How many shirts can
McGraw-Hill School Division

## people that can sit at a table? Explain. he buy? Explain.

11. A pack of 3 pennants costs \$8. 12. A box of gold medals costs \$56. The
Maryanne has \$30. Is this enough to Sports Committee has \$185 to spend
buy 4 packs of pennants? Explain. on medals. How many boxes can the

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Problem Solving: Strategy P PRACTICE

Choose a Strategy
Choose a strategy. Use it to solve the problem.
1. The Sports Committee buys 30 yards 2. The Sand Trap Golf Shop has 132 golf
of material. The material will be cut balls in stock. The golf balls are
into banners that are 5 feet long. packed in tubes of 6. How many tubes
How many banners can be made? of golf balls does the store have?

3. Liam is building a fence around his 4. There are 115 students who want to
backyard. The backyard is 24 feet wide go to the basketball tournament.
and 60 feet long. If Liam uses sections One bus can carry 26 students. How
of fencing that are 12 feet long, how many buses will be needed?
many sections will he need?

## Mixed Strategy Review

Solve. Use any strategy.
5. Art Tina makes a display of 36 6. Francine uses a pattern to make a
autographed baseballs. She puts 12 window display for a sneaker store.
baseballs in a large display case. Tina The first row has 2 sneakers, the
also has 4 smaller display cases. How second row has 6 sneakers, the third
can she arrange the baseballs in the row has 10, and the fourth row has
smaller cases so that each smaller case 14. How many sneakers will be in
has an equal number of baseballs? the fifth row?

Strategy:
McGraw-Hill School Division

Strategy:

7. The Stadium Store sells 450 team 8. Create a problem which you could
photos and 369 individual photos. solve by drawing a diagram or by
How many photos does it sell in all? writing a division sentence. Share it
with others.

Strategy:

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Choose a Strategy
Page 343, Problem 1

Camille wants to practice sharper turns. She uses the same 20-yard
distance in the driveway and begins at the starting line. This time
she places the cones 3 feet apart. How many cones will she use?

Step 1
Be sure you understand the problem.
What do you know?
The total distance is yards.

## Camille will start at the starting line and place cones

feet apart.
What do you need to find?
You need to find the number of feet in yards.

## You need to find how many .

Step 2
Make a plan.
Plan Choose a strategy.
Find a Pattern To find the answer, you may draw a diagram.

Work Backward Find the number of feet in 20 yards.
Use Logical
Reasoning Show a distance that is that many feet long.
Write a Number Count by 3s to see how many cones Camille will use if
McGraw-Hill School Division

Sentence
they are placed 3 feet apart.
Make a Table
or List
Guess and Check To find the answer, you can also write a number sentence.
Make a Graph All the cones are the same distance apart.
Solve Simpler Use division to find how many cones Camille will use.
Problem

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Problem Solving: Strategy R RETEACH

Choose a Strategy
Step 3
Solve
How many feet are in 20 yards?
1 yard  3 feet
20  3  60
Draw a diagram. Show a 60-foot distance. Count by
3s to see how many cones Camille will use.

0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60

## Count. Camille will use a total of cones.

Write a number sentence.
The distance is feet. There will be 1 cone every feet.
Write a division sentence.  
Camille will use a total of cones

Step 4
Is the solution reasonable?
Which method do you prefer? Explain.
McGraw-Hill School Division

Practice
1. The parks department builds stands 2. Ed has 4 packs of sports stickers.
next to a baseball field. There will be There are 24 stickers in each pack.
5 rows of stands. Each row will be He divides the stickers among 3
20 feet long. How many 10-foot friends. How many stickers does
long boards will they need to build each friend get?
the stands?

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P PRACTICE

## Write which operation should be done first.

1. 2  8  7 2. 2  3  9 3. 4  10  2

4. 9  2  3 5. (3  2)  9 6. 8  (2  2)

7. 6  2  1 8. 1  3  5 9. 10  5  2

## Simplify. Use order of operations.

13. 3  2  7  14. 10  2  1 

15. 9  6  2  16. 24  2  8 

17. (2  6)  7  18. 12  12  3 

19. (4  6)  5  20. 12  3  9 

21. 20  5  2  22. 18  9  6 

23. 2  8  4  24. 20  5  4 

25. 2  6  4  3  26. 20  2  3  6 

## 27. (2  9)  (7  3)  28. 4  (14  6)  2  5 

29. 2  9  10  5  (3  2) 
McGraw-Hill School Division

Problem Solving
30. Tamara buys 6 apples for \$0.40 each. 31. Steven has 126 photos to put in an
She has a \$0.50 off coupon. Write an album. He finds 18 more photos.
expression and simplify to find her Each page holds 12 photos. Write an
final cost. expression and simplify to find how
many pages Steven will fill.

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Order of Operations R RETEACH

## Always use the order of operations to simplify expressions. The rules

for the order in which you should perform operations are given below.

Simplify (20  8)  4  2.

## Step 1: Step 2: Step 3:

Do the operations in Multiply and divide from Add and subtract from left
parentheses first. left to right. to right.

(20  8)  4  2 28  4  2 72
28  4  2 72 5

## Which operation should you do first?

1. 12  4  2 2. 4  (10  2) 3. 2  8  4

4. (3  7)  2 5. 9  3  2 6. 8  2  4

7. 6  (8  5) 8. 8  4  2 9. 12  (2  2)

## Simplify. Use the order of operations.

10. 3  (2  5)  11. 14  7  2 

12. 9  (6  2)  13. 4  2  5 
McGraw-Hill School Division

14. 8  2  2  15. 10  8  4 

16.12  3  2  17. (1  5)  4 

18. 8  8  4  19. (5  5)  2 

20. 14  10  2  21. 16  4  2 

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Order of Operations E ENRICH

Order Counts
Rewrite each number sentence. Put in parentheses to make each
number sentence true.

1. 3  8  2  1  21

2. 5 x 16 + 14 + 6 2 = 153

3. 6 9 8 = 6

4. 22 3 x 5 + 2 = 1

5. 18 2 + 1 + 1 = 7

6. 6 x 5 + 9 3 = 28

7. 5 x 10 + 1 11 = 5

8. 3 + 40 8 x 5 = 4

9. 10 6 4 = 1

10. 4 x 5 2 = 12

11. 40 10 2 = 5

12. 20 + 8 4 = 7

13. 6 + 2 x 7 = 56

14. 16 6 + 2 = 8
McGraw-Hill School Division

In your own words describe the rules for the order of operations.

## Use with Grade 4, Chapter 8, Lesson 9, pages 344345. (267) AF 1.3

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Problem Solving: Application Part
A WORKSHEET

Decision
Applying Multiplication Making

## Profit per bar for Sales needed to

Cost to the club the club at a sale reach goal for
price of \$1 \$110 in profits

hiker bars

## Boxed hiker bars

McGraw-Hill School Division

## What is your recommendation for the hiking club? Explain.

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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

Science

## Safety: Wait at least 30 minutes after eating before doing

vigorous exercise.

Number of Sit-ups

## 1. Did you do more sit-ups before or after lunch?

2. How many more sit-ups did you do? Show your work.
McGraw-Hill School Division

Work Space

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Problem Solving: Application Part
B WORKSHEET

## Does eating improve performance? Math &

Science
3. How many times more sit-ups did you do? Round to the nearest

Work Space

4. Can you conclude that the food from lunch gave you more energy?
Why or why not?

## 5. In what ways could you improve this activity?

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 6. Explain the activity in terms of energy conversion.

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Explore Customary Length P PRACTICE

Estimate and then measure. Tell what unit and tool you use.

1. length of a pencil

2. height of a desk

## 3. width of the classroom

4. length of a book

## 8. height of a fourth-grader A. 4 in. B. 4 ft C. 4 yd

9. height of a tree A. 40 mi B. 40 yd C. 40 ft

## 13. length of a crayon A. 4 ft B. 4 yd C. 4 in.

McGraw-Hill School Division

## 14. length of a football field A. 100 ft B. 100 yd C. 100 mi

Problem Solving
15. Jane can walk a mile in about 16. Marta measures the length of her
15 minutes. About how long notebook. To the nearest quarter
would it take her to walk 5 miles? 3
inch, it is 12 4 in. What does it
measure to the nearest inch?

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Explore Customary Length R RETEACH

## An inch (in.) is used to measure short lengths in

the customary system. Customary Units of Length

You can use a ruler to measure in inches. 1 foot (ft)  12 inches (in.)

0 1 2 3
1 yard (yd)  3 feet (ft)
1 mile (mi)  1,760 yards (yd)
1 mile (mi)  5,280 feet (ft)

3 14 in.

## The foot (ft) and yard (yd) are used to

measure larger units in the customary system.
1 yd

1 ft

## Use an inch ruler to measure each object. Measure to the

nearest 14 inch.
1. 2.

3.
McGraw-Hill School Division

4.

## Circle the letter of the correct estimate.

5. length of a persons foot A. 8 in. B. 8 ft C. 8 yd
6. length of a bed A. 6 in. B. 6 ft C. 6 yd
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Explore Customary Length E ENRICH

Early Measurements
In early times, distances were measured using fingers, hands,
and arms.
span
digit

cubit
digit: the width of span: the width of a cubit: the distance from
a finger stretched hand fingertip to elbow

## Choose digit, span, or cubit as the appropriate unit of

measure. Then estimate.

## 9. What is an advantage of this system? What is a disadvantage?

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10. What kinds of distance would be difficult to measure using this system
of measurement?

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Customary Capacity and Weight P PRACTICE

## Estimate and then measure the capacity of each object.

1. a water glass 2. a large pot

## Estimate and then measure the weight of each object.

6. an apple 7. four potatoes

## Circle the letter of the correct estimate.

11. A. 5 c B. 5 pt C. 5 gal

12. A. 1 c B. 1 pt C. 1 qt

13. A. 6 c B. 6 qt C. 6 gal

14. A. 2 fl oz B. 2 c C. 2 pt

## 15. A. 500 oz B. 500 lb C. 500 T

McGraw-Hill School Division

16. A. 3 oz B. 3 T C. 3 lb

Problem Solving
17. A box of Krispy Krunch cereal holds 18. Sarah buys a 48 fl oz bottle of apple
20 oz. Kyle pours 3 oz of cereal into his juice. How many cups of juice can
bowl. How much cereal is left in the box? she pour from the bottle?

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Customary Capacity and Weight R RETEACH

## Capacity is the measure of dry or liquid

Customary Units of Capacity
volume of a container. Pour water into
empty milk cartons to model the 8 fluid ounces (fl oz)  1 cup (c)
equivalent units of capacity shown below. 2 cups (c)  1 pint (pt)
2 pints (pt)  1 quart (qt)
4 quarts (qt)  1 gallon (gal)

## 2 cups  1 pint 2 pints  1 quart 4 quarts  1 gallon

(c) (pt) (pt) (qt) (qt) (gal)

Weight is the measure that tells how heavy an Customary Units of Weight
object is.
16 ounces (oz)  1 pound (lb)
2,000 pounds (lb)  1 ton (T)

A card and envelope weigh about 1 ounce. A book weighs about 1 pound.

## Circle the letter of the correct estimate.

McGraw-Hill School Division

1. weight of an apple A. 5 oz B. 2 lb C. 12 T

## 5. amount of water in a pail A. 5 qt B. 50 gal C. 500 c

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 9, Lesson 2, pages 366369. (275) MR 1.1, 2.3
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Customary Capacity and Weight E ENRICH

## Reasonable Measure Maze

boxes will form a path from start to finish.

In an hour, an A horse
A living room Your smile is
Finish is 6 yards long. 1 yard wide.
airplane flew weighs
1,780 miles. 827 oz.

## A song is A goldfish An automobile The pitcher

A pizza weighs
about 3 bowl holds 18 might weigh holds 3 qt of
144 oz.
minutes long. cups of water. 2,545 lb. lemonade.

## A girls braid A football field Jen held her

A frog can 1 A dog can
was 3 yards is 4 mile breath for
jump 475 feet. jump 17 yards.
long. long. 63 seconds.

A gallon of
You could The gate is 40 The kitten The movie
paint is enough
walk a mile in inches high. drank an lasted 107
to paint a large
20 seconds. wall. ounce of milk. minutes.

The climbing A TV
The punch A bathtub
Pat rode his rope to the commercial
bowl holds 24 holds 18 pints
bike 12 mph. tree fort was lasts about
cups of punch. 37 inches long. 600 seconds. of water.

The diving The subway A light bulb
3 yards of The train was
pool was 4 yd sandwich was weighs
fabric to 125 yd long.
McGraw-Hill School Division

## The newborn Beth ran a

A banana is A sneaker
baby drank
9 inches long.
distance of
weighs 40 oz. Start
7 oz of milk. 10,525 ft.

How did you decide if running a distance of 10,525 feet was reasonable?

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 9, Lesson 2, pages 366369. (276) MR 1.1, 2.3
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Convert Customary Units P PRACTICE

Complete.
1. 7 ft  in. 2. 21 ft  yd 3. 2 mi  yd
4. 60 in.  ft 5. 13 yd  ft 6. 2 mi  ft
7. 8 qt  gal 8. 144 in.  ft 9. 3 pt  c
10. 36 ft  yd 11. 4 ft  in. 12. 12 ft  yd
13. 12 pt  qt 14. 2 lb  oz 15. 48 oz  lb
16. 3 T  lb 17. 10,000 lb  T 18. 2 c  fl oz
19. 3 gal  qt 20. 2 qt  pt 21. 10 c  pt
22. 1 lb 10 oz  oz 23. 1 gal 2 pt  pt 24. 10 ft  yd ft
25. 4 T 800 lb  lb 26. 5 ft 8 in.  in. 27. 13 qt  gal qt

## Algebra & Functions Complete the table.

28. 29.
Gallons 1 Yards 1
Quarts 12 Feet 9
Pints 16 Inches 72
Cups 64

30. 31.
Ounces Pounds Tons 1
1
2 Pounds 6,000
3
4
16
McGraw-Hill School Division

32
48

Problem Solving
32. Amy cuts a piece of ribbon 60 in. 33. The 6 members of the Brown family
long. How many feet long is the drink a total of 3 gallons of milk each
piece of ribbon? week. How much is that per person?

Use with Grade 4, Chapter 9, Lesson 3, pages 370373. (277) AF 1.3; MR 1.1, 2.3