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Unit of Work 102085:

Site Details: Muru Mittigar, Penrith.

Site Description: Muru Mittigar is a Indigenous education centre located in Penrith. They facilitate cultural workshops including bush tucker, yarning,
boomerang throwing, music and art workshops and cultural talks.

Group member Lesson plan Outline Curriculum area covered and link to your site
number X/10

1. Isabelle King 3 Science | Ecology | Connection to land and the relationship between living (biotic) and non-living
(abiotic) factors in the environment.

2. Joshua Jacobs 8 Science | Physics | Energy transfer and objects in motion


3. Matilda Russell 2 Music | Composing and performing using traditional Indigenous musical instruments, while
incorporating the music concept of tone colour.

Unit description Resources

Over a period of ten lessons, students will relate the site visit to lessons from Board of Studies NSW. (1995). Invasion and resistance: untold stories, kit,
the Stage 5 Science and Music Syllabus. The program develops student Board of Studies NSW, Sydney.
understanding and appreciation for Indigenous culture. It does this through Board of Studies. (2003). Music year 7-10: Syllabus. Board of Studies,
reflecting on Indigenous cultural concepts and linking them to modern day NSW, Sydney.
principles. Board of Studies. (2015). Science year 7-10: Syllabus. Board of Studies,

NSW, Sydney.
Time allocation 10 60-minute lessons Local community resources including AECG, Land Council, ASPA.
Information on local historical sites, including from the local council and
the local historical society.
Korff, J. (2015). Aboriginal fire management. Retrieved from Creative
Spirits Website.
Pascoe, B. (2014). Dark Emu: Black seeds agriculture or accident?.
Broome, Western Australia: Magabala Books.
Pearson. (2014). Ecosystems. In 9 (pp. 292-325). Melbourne: Pearson

Targeted outcomes

5.1: performs repertoire with increasing levels of complexity in a range of musical styles demonstrating an understanding of the musical concepts
5.3: performs music selected for study with appropriate stylistic features demonstrating solo and ensemble awareness
5.4: demonstrates an understanding of the musical concepts through improvising, arranging and composing in the styles or genres of music selected for
5.7: demonstrates an understanding of musical concepts through the analysis, comparison, and critical discussion of music from different stylistic, social,
cultural and historical contexts

SC5-10PW: applies models, theories and laws to explain situations involving energy, force and motion
SC5-11PW: explains how scientific understanding about energy conservation, transfers and transformations is applied in systems
WS7.2.b: describing relationships between variables
WS6.e: reporting data and information, evidence and findings, with accuracy and honesty
LW2.a: recall that ecosystems consist of communities of interdependent organisms and abiotic components of the environment
LW2.d: analyse how changes in some biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem affect populations and/or communities
LW2.e: assess ways that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' cultural practices and knowledge of the environment contribute to the conservation
and management of sustainable ecosystems.


Lesson 1 Music 5.7. demonstrates an

understanding of This lesson will introduce students to Indigenous culture through the
musical concepts terms respectful, connected and mindful. Students will work together
through the analysis, to deconstruct these terms and relate their significance to Indigenous
comparison, and culture.
critical discussion of
music from different Engage: The beginning of this lesson is to engage students by conducting
stylistic, social, a mind-map activity. This activity will ask students to think about what
cultural and historical they already know about Indigenous culture. Students will write down
contexts answers on a mind map drawn in their books, and share with the class.
The teacher will then ask for students for answers and will discuss them
as a class.

Explore: The second part of this lesson is introducing students to the

terms respectful, connected and mindful In a think-pair-share
activity students will explore what these meanings mean to them and
explain with their partner what these words mean. The teacher will then
engage all learners and as a class, discuss the different meaning of these
words and how they connect with students.

The last part of this lesson is working together as a class, looking at

maps and information to understand the importance of song lines and
their relationship with the environment. Students will build upon their
knowledge about song lines in this task from what was previously learnt
at Muru Mittiga. The teacher will provide sample maps of Australia,
which show the Indigenous countries and how song lines are shown on
the map.

Students learnt how song lines are like a song of a person's life. As one

would travel into new countries, they would encounter different
animals, and people, which are like notes and instruments of a song,
thus creating part of the songline.

Expand: Students will gain a deeper meaning of songlines though this

lesson by participating in group and whole class discussions, along with
a video about songlines
RKTFIo and afterwards working on worksheets asking questions about;
What are song lines? What did song lines mean in terms of know the
land and animals? Locate Darug on the map and name countries around

Evaluate: The activities in this lesson, will allow students to work

together, brain-storm ideas, and build on background knowledge learnt
from the site visit. Students will gain knowledge by sharing ideas,
listening and writing activities which will engage all learners. Students
learning will be assessed through their participation in discussion and
group work.


Lesson 2 Music 5.3. performs music This lesson focuses on students learning about traditional instruments
selected for study created by Indigenous Australians. Students will learn how the
with appropriate instruments are played and what materials they are made of. During the
stylistic features cultural talk and demonstration of the didgeridoo and clapsticks,
demonstrating solo students were introduced to traditional instruments, how they are
and ensemble played and how they sound on the site visit.
The first part of this lesson will require students to engage in whole class
5.4. demonstrates an activities;Explain: Reviewing the traditional Indigenous instruments -
understanding of the what they look and sound like and what materials they are made of. The
musical concepts teacher will provide videos and pictures to engage students.

through improvising, Video of how to play the didgeridoo and what it is made of;
arranging and
composing in the
styles or genres of Engage:The next step of the lesson is to engage students with
music selected for instrument roles and their significance within different songs. Clapsticks
study - rhythm, voice - melody, didgeridoo - drone. The music concept of
Tone colour will be discussed, allowing students to use describing
words to explain the sound of each instrument, ie; bright, dark, bubbly,
twangy, rough, sharp, etc.
Students will learn this information by watching and discussing videos
about these aspects. - Jacinta Tobin;
Use of voice and clapsticks - Traditional
Aboriginal music; voice, didgeridoo, clapsticks

Expand: Students will then be able to use this knowledge and work in
groups to compose a piece which resembles instrument roles, using
clapsticks for girls and didgeridoos for the boys; Students will engage
with this information through videos going more in depth about the
instruments to give students ideas for their composition and how it can
relate closer to the roles of specific instruments.

Getting into groups, students will then compose a piece of music to

resemble the instrument roles, using elements that were discussed and
heard in the videos.

Evaluate: Students will then perform their piece for the class and discuss
how their performance incorporated roles for each instrument and how
the use of tone colour was used through each instrument. Students will
be assessed through the performance within a group and ability to
incorporate instrument roles and tone colour into the performance.

Lesson 3 Science LW2.a: recall that The next three lessons (3-5) will follow a 5E model sequence relating
ecosystems consist of Indigenous and modern Scientific understandings of land and
communities of relationship to land.
organisms and abiotic Engage: To start the lesson students will to make a mind map in groups
components of the answering the questions, what is our environment? and what
environment relationships exist within our environment? They will recall the cultural
talk from Muru Mittigar about connection to land and totems. Students
WS6. e. reporting will include what they remember about ecosystems (specifically food
data and information, chains, food webs and abiotic environment components) from Stage 4.
evidence and Students will identify the interconnectedness of the environment.
findings, with
accuracy and honesty Explore: Students will then complete a practical to measure and observe
abiotic/biotic components of the environment. Students will be
separated into two groups and measure air-temperature, soil
temperature, soil pH, air pressure, humidity, populations present and
population size. Group one will measure these in an open area and
group two will measure these in a shaded area. Before conducting the
experiment, students will make predictions on what they think will
happen. Afterwards, students will write their answers up on the board
and write down the answers from the other groups in their books.

Homework: students are to look through the results and write a short


Lesson 4 Science WS7.2. b. describing Explain: At the start of the lesson students will go over the abiotic
relationships measurements they took and engage in a discussion of the results. They
between variables will look at how the abiotic factors relate to the biotic populations

present and how the results related to their predictions.
LW2. d. analyse how
changes in some Elaborate: Students will then recall the concept of totems from the
biotic and abiotic cultural talk at Muru Mittigar. Specifically, the concept that an individual
components of an is responsible for monitoring their totems and will bring any potential
ecosystem affect issues back to a council (e.g. if their totem is an animal and the
populations and/or population of that animal starts to go down). Totems can be abiotic (e.g.
communities rocks) or biotic (plants and animals). Students are asked to discuss what
this means about connections to land and between factors in the
LW2. e. assess ways environment. Ask students what does this way of thinking show us
that Aboriginal and about Indigenous cultural beliefs on the importance of the land and
Torres Strait Islander connection to land?
peoples' cultural
practices and Using this concept, students are then given an example of a local
knowledge of the ecosystem from the Blue Mountains and are asked to analyse how
environment changes in abiotic and/or biotic factors of the community may impact
contribute to the each other. Students are asked to draw a visual representation of these
conservation and interactions. Using the idea of totems and connection to land, students
management of connect the values and knowledge gained at Muru Mittigar to learning
sustainable about abiotic/biotic factors.

Lesson 5 Science LW2. e. assess ways Elaborate: To begin the lesson students will look at and interpret an
that Aboriginal and image of Joseph Lycetts c.1817 painting Aborigines (sic) using fire to
Torres Strait Islander hunt Kangaroos. They will be asked what they see.
peoples' cultural
practices and .articleLeadwide.620x349.1l1gv.png/1317399357733.jpg
knowledge of the
environment The teacher will explain to students that the image depicts the hunting
contribute to the method firestick farming - a sustainable agricultural method. Students
conservation and will be asked to brainstorm what they remember about the use of fire
management of from the cultural talk at Muru Mittigar.

sustainable They will then complete a scaffolded individual research activity at the
ecosystems library to learn about the use of fire as an Indigenous cultural practice
and how knowledge of environment facilitated sustainable conservation
This will include resources such as:

Key learning will include (Pascoe 2014):

Agricultural land was fired on rotating basis controlling fire
intensity to allow plant and animal survival in refuges (related
back to Darug use of fire in a circle as discussed at Muru
Time of year and prevailing weather taken into account
Fires were lit deliberately to create conditions suitable for plant
Fresh growth attracted herbivorous animals to the area to feed
making hunting easier
Growing season of particular plants avoided
Identification of the abiotic/biotic factors present

Evaluate: Students will recount their findings in groups and draw a

learning map that relates relates the cultural practices and knowledge of
Indigenous peoples to understanding of the relationship between
abiotic/biotic factors within the environment.

Homework: Students will write a short paragraph that reflects on how

this knowledge facilitated conservation of the environment.

Lesson 6 Music 5.4. demonstrates an

understanding of the While students were on the site visit at Muru Mittiga, they learnt about
musical concepts different symbols used in paintings to represent animals, weather,

through improvising, weapons, people and also what the instruments represented and how
arranging and they told a story through songs.
composing in the Expand: In this lesson students will combine this knowledge to compose
styles or genres of and perform a song, connecting music and art.
music selected for Students will demonstrate how to compose a song though the story of a
study picture, using traditional Indigenous instruments and art from the Muru
Mittiga site.
5.11. demonstrates
an appreciation, Engage:The beginning of the lesson will consist of a video to engage and
tolerance and respect refresh students knowledge on how to make animal sounds using the
for the aesthetic didgeridoo and techniques to play.
value of music as an
artform Students will also be looking back on symbols used in paintings from
To connect the music and the environment, students will view a video;, which
connects the movement of an animal, to a song. This way students can
make connections with instruments and the environment.
Explore: As students are composing their song, they are to consider the
music concepts, dynamics/expressive techniques and duration. These
concepts will allow students to explore the use of sound with the
instruments in terms of volume, techniques used to play, how long or
short phrases are and the speed or type of rhythms are being used.

Evaluate: At the end of the lesson, students will write in their books
explaining their reasoning for specific sounds, and techniques used in
their composition; relating back to the artwork chosen for
inspiration.This will allow students to reflect on their work on a deeper
level. Students will be assessed through their compositions and relating
the piece to an artwork.


Lesson 7 Music 5.1. performs At the site Muru Mittiga, students learnt about body percussion as an
repertoire with instrument and stomping/digging up the ground through dancing to
increasing levels of channel positive energy and to connect with the earth.
complexity in a range Engage: In this lesson students will build their knowledge and be
of musical styles involved in whole class activities to explore further with rhythms, using
demonstrating an body percussion and clapsticks.
understanding of the Students will view a video of Indigenous music and dance, on how they
musical concepts channel positive energy through movement.
5.4. demonstrates an
understanding of the Then students will be introduced to a practical exercise where they will
musical concepts experiment with rhythms and body percussion.
through improvising, Firstly students will watch a video, and describe how rhythms are being
arranging and made using the body,;
composing in the
styles or genres of and discuss the rhythm in terms of duration/speed.
music selected for Expand: Students are to remember the cultural talk at Muru Mittiga
study about the use of clapsticks and their role through a song; The clapsticks
are the heart-beat or pulse of an animal. The faster you hit the
clapsticks, means the animal is moving quicker; its pulse getting faster.

Evaluate: In groups students will come up with their own rhythm using
body percussion and clapsticks and perform for the class, and the class
will provide them with feedback and explain how the use of duration
was used through the performance. All students will be provided with
the opportunity to play, listen and discuss to further their knowledge on
the music concept of duration/speed and rhythms. In this task, students
will be assessed on their ability to use metalanguage in discussions and
participation in performance activity.

Lesson 8 Science PW1.d: explain, using During the cultural talk at the site students were introduced to the
the particle model, concept of how the culture spreads and channels positive energy
the transmission of through vibrations. This lesson builds upon that concept by creating a
sound in different connection between scientific terminology and cultural perspectives.
The introduction of the lesson asks students to recall their time at the
site and what the Indigenous individuals told them of energy and its
relation to music. The concepts of vibrations and frequency are the
focus here. After the short discussion a video is used to engage students
and demonstrate how there are particles in the air and how they react
in response to movement.

A practical exercise is then conducted to allow students to explore how

particles travel through different types of mediums and thus create
different kind of sounds (low and high frequencies / vibrations). They
will utilise a wide range of objects for example:
Tuning forks
Indigenous musical instruments
Stomping with their feet
Cups attached with string
Chair drumming
Anything that functions as a medium

They are to use the P.O.E method; predict what will happen, make an
observation based on the sound and then explain how the particles
moved during that sound.

To conclude the lesson, students are asked to elaborate on how the

movement of particles relates to the cultural idea of channeling energy
in the Aboriginal culture. Through these steps of the 5-E model students
will draw the connection between particle theory, which is the flow of

energy, and how Indigenous culture had utilised these concepts for
many years without the deeper understanding we are privileged with

Homework: For evaluation, students are tasked with writing a summary

paragraph on the lesson and what they have learned for the teacher to
review the following lesson to gauge their understanding.

Lesson 9 Science PW2.b: explain During the boomerang demonstration and practical at the site
qualitatively the students were introduced to the concept of how Indigenous Australians
relationship between hunted with particular tools and how they function. This lesson builds
distance, speed and upon that concept by creating a connection between scientific
time terminology and the way the culture used this information to hunt

The introduction of the lesson asks students to recall their time at the
site and their participation in the boomerang practical. The concepts of
wind resistance and distance (d) over time (t) = speed (s) are the focus
here. After the short discussion a practical is used to engage the
students and demonstrate how we can utilise s = d / t. The practical is
conducted in small groups by utilising a variety of throwing equipment
and tennis/soccer balls between a measured distance and stop watching
the time it takes for them to travel the distance.

To further explore this concept students are asked to think about the
factors that are causing the practical objects to travel faster, slow,
further, shorter or any other factors (such as wind). The teacher will
then visit each of the groups and ask them to explain the factors

To conclude the lesson, students are asked to elaborate on how

Indigenous Australians used this knowledge to successfully hunt prey in

their lands. Through these steps of the 5-E model students will draw the
connection between s = d / t and how Indigenous culture utilised this
concept to with their hunting equipment.
Homework: For evaluation, students are tasked with writing a
paragraph on how they think hunting with spears was different to
hunting with boomerangs, which will then be submitted to the teacher
the following lesson to gauge the students understanding.


Lesson 10 Science / Summary of Previous This lesson functions as a culmination of the previous nine lessons in the
Music Outcomes in Lessons 1 form of an informal assessment via a poster.
To start, the teacher will facilitate a group discussion through the
Informal Assessment creation of a mind map on the board of all previous elements introduced
in the program to consolidate previous knowledge. The context is the
overarching theme of the unit respectful, connected, mindful. The
students will then be asked to consider the following questions and then
create a poster: What do these words mean to you? & What do you
think they mean to indigenous individuals?

Students are asked to design a poster demonstrating their knowledge

and understanding of the previous outcomes and place emphasis on the
particular aspects that they personally found the most interesting or
meaningful. This functions as an informal method of assessment
allowing the teacher to gauge which aspects the students grasped well
and those they may require more attention the next time the program is