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Traction Power Supply

Wei Liu (

Course Profile
Course Name: Traction Power Supply
Characteristic : Basic principle; Theoretical
calculation; Method of analysis
Previous Course: Power system analysis; Circuit
analysis; Electric machinery; Electromagnetic
Related Course: Transmission and distribution
project; Power system relay protection
Purpose of Course Study
Structure of traction power supply system;
Relationship between traction power supply system
and power grid
Knowledge of power quality
Traction computation; Calculation method for
substation feeder current
Connections and principle for traction transformer;
Method of traction network voltage calculation;
How to improve traction network voltage
Influence of negative sequence current; method of
negative sequence current calculation
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Development of electrified railway
Basic principle of power system
1.2 Outline of traction power supply system
Power supply mode for primary system
Power supply mode for traction power supply
Operation mode for traction network
Feature of traction load
External power supply requirement for traction
power supply system
1.3 System design for traction power supply
1.1 Development of electrified railway
Electrified railway worldwide
1825, First railway built by British
1881, First railway (Tangshan to Xugezhuang) built
in China
1909, Jingzhang railway designed by Zhan Tianyou.

Earliest Steam Locomotive

1879, 550m electrified railway manufactured by
Ernst Werner von Siemens and John George Hals.
The first time train powered by electricity.

Electrified railway manufactured by Siemens and Hals

May 1881, 2.45km electrified railway built at
Lichterfelde German, which is the first electrified
railway for business operation.
A new era began.
At the beginning of 20th century, electrified railway
gained rapid development worldwide.
In 2006, 240,000 km (25% by length) of the world
rail network was electrified and 50% of all rail
transport was carried by electric traction.
Advantages and disadvantages
lower running cost of locomotives and multiple units
lower maintenance cost of locomotives and multiple
higher power-to-weight ratio, resulting in fewer
faster acceleration
higher practical limit of power
higher limit of speed
less noise pollution (quieter operation)
independent from crude oil fuel
reduced environmental pollution, even if electricity is
produced by fossil fuels
Large cargo may require special cars
Electrification cost:
Electrification requires an entire new infrastructure to be built
around the existing tracks at a significant cost.
Costs are especially high when tunnels, bridges and other
obstructions have to be altered for clearance.
Another aspect that can raise the cost of electrification are the
alterations or upgrades to rail signaling needed for new traffic
Electrical grid load: adding a major new consumer of
electricity can have adverse effects on the electrical grid
and may necessitate an increase in the grid's power
Breakthrough: The Shinkansen
In October 1964, just in time for the Olympics, the
first modern high speed rail was opened, the
Shinkansen, Tkaid Shinkansen, between Tokyo and
In Continental Europe several countries started to
build new high-speed lines during the 1970s.
Italy's Direttissima between Rome and Florence
Western Germanys HannoverWrzburg and
StuttgartMannheim lines
and Frances ParisLyon TGV line (LGV Sud-Est).
The latter was the worlds fastest when it was
completed in 1983, with a maximum speed at 260
km/h and average at 214 km/h.
What is High-speed Rail
High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of passenger rail
transport that operates significantly faster than the
normal speed of rail traffic. Specific definitions
by the European Union include 200 km/h for
upgraded track and 250 km/h or faster for new
Route kilometers existing construction (HSR)
The following table shows all high speed dedicated lines
(speed of 250 km/h or over) in service and under construction,
listed by country.
Total Country
Country Region In operation (km) Under construction (km) Electrification
Belgium Europe 209 0 209 25 kV 50 Hz
China Asia/East 6158 14160 20318 25 kV 50 Hz
25 kV 50 Hz
France Europe 1872 730 2602
Germany Europe 1032 378 1410 15 kV 16.7 Hz
Italy Europe 1296 92 1388 25 kV 50 Hz3 kV DC
Japan Asia/East 2388 423 2811 25 kV 60 Hz
Netherlands Europe 120 0 120 25 kV 50 Hz
Russia Europe 780 400 1180 3 kV DC
Saudi Arabia Asia/West 0 440 440 25 kV 50 Hz
South Korea Asia/East 412 186 647 25 kV 60 Hz
Spain Europe 2665 1781 3744 25 kV 50 Hz
Switzerland Europe 35 72 107 15 kV 16.7 Hz
Taiwan Asia/East 345 0 345 25 kV 60 Hz
Asia/West and
Turkey 457 1416 1873 25 kV 50 Hz
United Kingdom Europe 113 0 113 25 kV 50 Hz
Uzbekistan Asia/East 344 0 344
Rail transport in China
August 15 1961, the first electrified railway in
China (Baocheng Railway from Baoji to Fengzhou)
Before the 1980s, most of the railways were
powered by steam, due to low labour costs and
cheap coal prices.
During the 1980s and 90s, diesel and electric
locomotives gradually replaced the steam engines
on main lines.
China maintains about twenty principal domestic
railway routes with a total length of 91,000 km by
the end of 2010.
Electrified: 27,500 km, 34.5% electrified (2008)
Double track: 29,000 km (not included in total) (2008)
According to the Ministry of Railways (MOR)' Mid-
to-Long Term Railway Network Plan (revised in
2008), the National High-Speed Rail Grid is
composed of 8 high-speed rail corridors, 4 north-south
corridors and 4 east-west corridors; together with
some less important lines the total length will be about
12,000 km. China will maintain a total length of
120,000km railway routes by 2020 (double track:
above 50%; electrified: above 60% )
Power supply mode for electrified railway
Standardized voltages
Lowest non- Lowest Highest Highest non-
Electrification Nominal
permanent permanent permanent permanent
system voltage
voltage voltage voltage voltage
600 V DC 400 V 400 V 600 V 720 V 800 V
750 V DC 500 V 500 V 750 V 900 V 1 kV
1,500 V DC 1,000 V 1,000 V 1,500 V 1,800 V 1,950 V
3 kV DC 2 kV 2 kV 3 kV 3 kV 3 kV
15 kV AC, 16.7
11 kV 12 kV 15 kV 17.25 kV 18 kV

25 kV AC, 50 Hz 17.5 kV 19 kV 25 kV 27.5 kV 29 kV

Direct current traction power supply
Early electric systems used low-voltage DC. 43% of the
electrified railways are still powered by DC traction
power supply system.
The advantage of DC traction power supply
Simplified vehicle equipment. (DC motor is directly fed by
direct current)
Good mechanical and speed adjusting performance for DC
series excitation motor which controlled using a combination
of resistors and relays that connected the motors in parallel or
Less voltage and power loss compared to AC traction power
supply which is beneficial to voltage stability.
Low voltage restriction by rated voltage of dc traction
Short transmission distance (<20~30km). With the same
traction power, low voltage will cause large current and
power loss. Increasing the number of traction substation.
Harmonic distortions caused by three phase rectifier.
Metal corrosion caused by stray current .
Single phase low frequency AC
(Many Western Europe country: Austria, Norway, Sweden, German)
Two constitution form:
Dedicated traction power supply system is applied in some Europe countries
at early stage. An entirely independent low frequency AC traction power
supply system is built. Single phase low frequency current is generated by
power plant and transmits through high voltage transmission system. At
traction substation, voltage is lowed and feed to traction network.
Another low frequency AC system. Energy is obtained from power grid.
Through voltage and frequency conversion, 15kV 16.7Hz AC is fed to
traction substation.

Step down Step up
transformer Inverter transformer
Grid equipment

Self service
Single phase industrial frequency AC
Energy is obtained from 3 phase power grid. Voltage
conversion is applied at traction substation.

Compare with DC traction power supply, single phase low

frequency AC improves traction network voltage and increases
the distance between traction substations. However, because of
device complication, the economic application is limited.
Single phase industrial frequency AC:
Simple structure
No need with rectifier and inverter
Improve traction network voltage, ensuring power requirement for
large power vehicle, increasing tonnage rating, vehicle speed and
substations distance.
Better adhesive and traction performance for AC electric locomotive.
Slight metal corrosion, no need for dedicated protect device.
1.2 Traction power supply system
Rail transit traction power supply
A traction network or traction power network is an
electricity grid for the supply of electrified rail
Rail transit power supply system converts
electricity to mechanical energy, driving rail train,
electric multiple units and urban train.
AC traction power supply system
DC traction power supply system
DC traction power supply G
Step down and rectified at 220kV
Regional Area network
DC traction substation, then Substaion Substation

supply urban rail train. Power Main Substation 110kV

Step down voltage to MV Network 35~10kV
380/220V supporting
station equipment(e.g., DC traction
Step down
electromechanical substation

equipment, lighting load,

DC Traction Network
communication signals)
AC traction power supply G
Power from state grid Power
Voltage and frequency Regional Substaion

conversion at AC traction Traction
substation Substation

Supply railway train with

required electricity
Traction electricity
transition and distribution Section
1 Composition of Traction Power Supply System
Traction power supply system obtains energy
from power grid and transits it to electric
locomotive after voltage step down.
A traction power supply system is composed of
traction substation and traction network.
To Regional To Power Grid
To Power Plant Substation

Traction Traction Substation
Substation Section Post Substation
Feeder OCS


Schematic diagram
Power grid and transmission line
Voltage level is 110kV or 220kV. Traction power is
level 1st load (Priority). Enough capacity and
reliability are required.
Traction Substation
Traction substation convert power grid electricity to
traction used energy. The kernel component is
traction transformer which has backup.
Traction network
A traction network or traction power network is an
electricity grid for the supply of electrified rail
Traction network
A feeder is a wire which connects between traction
substation bus and OCS. Power goes through it and transfers
to electrified railway.
Overhead contact system/line (OCS) hangs above the track
along the railway.
Current goes through it and returns to substation.
Return Line
A return line is a wire which connects between traction
substation and track. Current goes through and returns to
traction transformer.
Feeding section
At normal power supply mode, a feeding section is from
traction substation feeder to the end of the OCS.
Phase split
A phase split is an OCS component which is series
connected in the OCS to separate and keep insulation
between two adjacent feeding sections.
Usually installed at substation exit and section post.

Phase Split Substation
Feeder OCS
Return Line
Switching Station
OCS is divided to several sections for operation
requirement when some large loads are far away from
the traction substation, e.g., junction station, depot. If
these sections are directly powered by adjacent traction
substation, it will increase not only the complexity but
also the length of the feeder. Switching station is built
near the large loads to reduce the investment.
Traction Traction
Substation 1 Substation 2


Feeding Passenger Feeding

Section 1 Station Section 2
Section Post
To improve power supply reliability and operation
flexibility, section post is installed at the dividing line of
two adjacent substations for insulation.
At single track unilateral power supply section, neutral
section insulator is installed with parallel connected
disconnect switch which is used for over zone feeding.

Traction Traction Traction

Substation 1 Substation 2 Substation 3
Section Post
Section Post
Neutral Section
Auto Transformer Post (ATP)
Auto transformer is installed at every ten kilometers in auto
transformer power supply mode. If section post or switching
station is set, auto transformer can combine together,
otherwise ATP is set up separately.

Circuit breaker
Lightning or fuse
Auto Transformer
2 Power Supply Mode for Primary System
Power supply mode for primary system is the
connection mode between power grid and traction
power supply system. It depends on voltage level
of the traction load and power grid distribution.
TB 10009-2005, Design Instruction for Railway
Traction Power Supply System: Electrified
traction load is level 1st load. Traction substation
shall have dual power source. When any power
supply fails, other can resume normal power
supply. Dual power source can input from different
regional substation or different power bus at same
substation or different bus split section.
Principle: Power reliability, power source capacity
and economy
To Regional To Power Grid
To Power Plant Primary System Substation

Traction Traction Substation
Substation Section Post Substation
Feeder OCS

Single source double line feeding mode
Dedicated double feeding line connected from regional
substation or power plant to traction substation


Poor reliability and flexibility.

Short transit distance. The number of traction substation
shall be less than 2.
Entry line uses double T connection.
Power source fault and repair have much influence on
traction power supply
Double source loop feeding mode
Dual sources of traction substation come from different
regional substation.
Entry/exit lines of traction substations construct a loop
transferring active power simultaneously.
When any power source or line fault or repair,
uninterrupted power supply can be ensured.


Multi-source hybrid power supply
Multi-source feeding
Double line
Radial distribution network
Power Grid

Ren Jia Qin Lin Feng Zhou


Guangyuan Erlangmiao
Substation Substation

Power Grid

Shaxiba Dalu
3 Power supply mode for traction system
Direct power mode (TR)


Traction current goes through train and returns to

traction substation from rail and earth.
Less investment and maintance cost.
Under large traction current situation, high rail to
earth potential causes electro-magnetic
interference on extra low voltage (ELV) system.
Boost transformer power supply (BT)
Boost Transformer Boost Transformer
Return Line


27.5kV Train

Boost transformer is serial connected between catenary and

negative return line. Traction current returns to traction
substation through negative return line.
Better performance on electro-magnetic interference,
less environment influence.
Lower rail potential.
Boost Transformer Boost Transformer
Return Line


27.5kV Train

Boost transformer is serial connected in to the system at
each 1.5km~4km interval .
Increase traction network impedance and voltage loss
Feeding section is divided into several sections.
Operation safety and train speed are influenced.
Direct power with return line mode
Return Line


Major part of the traction current returns from

negative return line.
The remain current returns from rail.
Simple structure, less investment and maintance,
high reliability as directly power mode.
Direct power mode with return line
Compared with direct power mode
Rail potential and communication interference are
Because of low rail potential and traction network
impedance reducing, power feeding length is increased
to extend 30%.
Less interference on ELV system.
Compared with BT mode
Simple structure
Less investment and maintance,
Reducing traction network impedance, increase feeding
Auto transformer power mode (AT)


Negative Feeder

Traction current goes through train and returns

from negative feeder.
Increase feeding voltage, appropriate for large power
traction load, improve power transmission capacity.
Increase feeding length, reduce substation

Train Track

Negative Feeder

Reduce section post. So train speed loss (when train
pass through the neutral section, no power supports) is
Reducing communication interference.
Complexity catenary system, large amount of equipment
Difficulty in operation and maintance.
Compare with different traction power supply mode
Characteristic of AT power supply mode
Compared direct power supply, 225kV systems voltage
is doubled. Voltage loss reduces to 1/4. Impendence per
unit length is about 1/4 of direct power supply. Power loss
is reduced.
Distance between traction substations is increased. Reduce
project task and investment.
Reduce insulator counts, advantageous to high speed
Traction network loop is balanced which is advantageous
to reduce electromagnetic interference.
Characteristic of AT power mode
Negative return line is required which is more
complexity than direct power mode. However, at large
load section, enhanced conductor is not required (the
same as direct power mode).
Compared with direct power mode, the count of traction
substation is reduced. However AT substation is
required. (Distance spacing is about 10~20km)
Complexity structure, conductor quantity increased,
spacing required for across structure and tunnel
Increase investment and maintance cost.
Characteristic of direct power with return line mode
Simple structure in substation and catenary. However, if
enhanced conductor is used at catenary, the complexity of
catenary is the same as AT.
Voltage and power loss is larger than AT power mode.
Distance between traction substation is short. The count
of phase split is increased. Investment and project
quantity for power grid is increased.
The traction network loop is unbalanced. Anti-
interference cost is increased.
The structure of traction network loop is simple.
Investment and maintance cost is less than other mode.
Direct power with return line mode is appropriate for
sections which have less anti-interference problem and
less power grid investment. Busy, overload and high
speed railway is also suitable.
Determination of power supply mode depends on
technical and economic comparisons among
railway, power grid, communication requirement,
In general situation, direct power supply with
return line is used. Part of section where
communication anti-interference required, BT
mode can be selected. While busy main railway,
heavy load railway and fewer power source section
situation, AT mode is the appropriate choice.
Different power supply modes can be used in the
same railway project when necessary.
4. Operation Mode for Traction Network
Unilateral power supply at single rail track
Traction Substations work independently. Train
obtains power from a substation. Usually, phase
split insulator is installed at the exit of the
substation and section post. If one of the substation
faults, switches at the both ends section post will
close to support over-zone feeding.

Unilateral power
supply at single
rail track
Unilateral power supply at multiple rail track
Independent power supply at up and down
Simplified relay protection; voltage loss and power loss
increase; voltage fluctuation; voltage difference between
up and down direction catenary.
Full parallel power supply
Voltage loss and power loss reduce; better voltage
quality; fault influence range increases; protection and
control complexity increase.
End parallel power supply
Widely used
Bidirectional power supply
Trains are powered by adjacent two substation as
phase split insulator is closed. When one of the
feeding section faults, breaker will open to ensure
another feeding section power supply. If catenary
system need repair with power outage, breakers
open and close operation are required under
remote control.
Section post is necessary to installed between two
adjacent substation.
Bidirectional power
supply under single
rail track
Bidirectional power supply at multiple rail track
Train current is from more than two traction substation.
Traction network power transmission capacity
requirement is alleviated.
Voltage loss and power loss are reduced. Voltage quality
is improved.
EMI is improved.
The traction network complexity is increased.
More requirement for relay protection
Two necessary conditions
Two adjacent substation shall be power by same power
grid to ensure same frequency.
Same phase is required. Otherwise, wrong phase short
circuit will happen.
Voltage magnitude and phase differences cause
unbalanced current in traction network. Whenever
traction load exist or not, voltage is fluctuated at
both traction ports, so unbalanced current still
remain. So, additional power loss exists.
5. Load Characteristic of Traction Power
Supply System
The function of traction power supply system is to
drive electrified multiple units (EMU)/train.
Load characteristic of traction power supply
system depends on trains electrical characteristic,
rail conditions and transportation plan.
When train formation plan is fixed, trains traction
load characteristic is changed as follow:
Start: Power gradually increased from minimum
(determined by start current) to maximum
(determined by max current and voltage limitation).
After that, trains work state enter into constant
power stage.
Speed adjustment: According to the speed
restriction, variable voltage, current and frequency
(VVVF) control are applied. At this time, train
works at constant power stage. While under high
speed operation, motor works at weak magnetic
operation. Power remains between min and max.
Brake: When train applies power brake, brake
energy feed back for self service e.g., air condition,
illumination.When train applies regenerated brake,
traction motor works as generator, energy feeding
back into catenary.
Trains power requirement depends on operation
condition. Main influence factors include speed
and running resistance, etc. Power requirement
range changes between traction and regenerated
(1) Electrical characteristic of electrified locomotive
AC-DC electrified locomotive
Electrified locomotive obtains power from 25kV
single phase industrial frequency AC. After voltage
steps down and rectifies, energy transfers to the
traction motor.
Pantograph AC 25kV Catenary

Circuit Breaker DC Motor

Rectifier 1500V


Auxiliary Circuit Separate Excitation
Rail Traction current return to substation from rail

Working Principle of AC-DC Electrified Locomotive

Half controlled bridge rectification is used at AC-DC electrified
locomotive. Harmonic is introduced into the system. Lower
power factor also cause power quality problem.

SS4 Freight Electrified Locomotive SS8 Passenger Electrified Locomotive

SS1 Traction Load Characteristic

5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

AC-DC-AC Electrified Locomotive
To solve the problem of AC-DC locomotive, AC drive
locomotive is developed. The first large power AC drive
electrified locomotive is invented at Germany in 1979.

Pantograph AC 25kV catenary

Circuit Breaker

Onboard Rectifier DC Inverter


AC Motor
Auxiliary Circuit

Track Traction current returns to substation from track

Working Principle of AC-DC-AC Electrified Locomotive

Four-quadrant rectification is used in AC-DC-AC electrified
locomotive. Conduction angle and distinction angle are
controlled by GTO or IGBT to change the power output. Current
waveform is close to sinusoidal wave.
Lower harmonic components.
Higher power factor

Germany ICE High Speed Train

SSJ3 Traction Load Characteristic

7000 V

4000 Pjc
3000 Pdw



(2) Load characteristic of electrified locomotive
The relationship between traction power and
traction weight: Traction power is proportional to
Freight locomotive: 4000t, 5000t, 6000t
Heavy load locomotive: 10000t, 20000t, etc.
Passenger locomotive: 800t, 1100t
Dedicated passenger railway: 400~550t, 800~1100t
Relationship between traction power and weight
Traction Power(kW)

2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Traction Weight (t)
The relationship between traction power and train
The higher trains speed is, the large air resistance is. Air
resistance is geometric growth with speed. At the same
traction weight and line gradient situation, traction power and
energy will raise rapidly with the increased speed. Especially
in the high speed, air resistance is the main factor.
Relationship between traction power and speed

Traction Power (kW)

60 70 80 90 100
Speed (km/h)

Relationship between traction power and speed

Traction Power(kW)


100 200 300 400 500

Train Speed (km/h)

The relationship between traction power and line
Trains running needs to overcome gravity when
climbing. At low speed, air resistance is small. Line
gradient is the main factor influencing traction power.
While at high speed, air resistance is the main factor.
Line gradient has less influence.
The relationship between traction power and
transportation density
Train tracing interval is the minimum departure
interval between adjacent two trains. This interval
needs to meet the requirement of transportation
and safety operation.
Train operation organization is determined
according to traffic volume and transportation plan.
The dispatch center takes charge of the dispatching
and command. Trains running shall correspond to
Single railway track: Inter-station blocking is
applied. Only one train runs in a section.
Double railway track: Section block is used (fixed
tracing interval). Currently, Freight trains tracing
interval is about 8 minutes in general. The minimum
interval is 5 minutes.
Dedicated passenger railway: Designed minimum
tracing interval is 4 minutes in the near future, 3 minutes
in the forward future.
Railway Infrastructure is planed according to the railway
capacity of forward future, but transportation devices are
configured as the near futures requirement.
(3) Load characteristic of traction substation
Traction load fluctuation of a single train
Trains current and power are fluctuated with the
variable line gradient and trains operation (start, stop,
Traction current is a random variable
Oct 11, 2005, traction load curve measured in Baise
Load fluctuation at substation
Load and voltage fluctuates when train enter into or leave
a traction substations feeding range.
Characteristic of the traction load at traction
Traction load fluctuates rapidly
Traction load of a single train fluctuates rapidly because of
complexity railway line condition (speed, line gradient, etc.).
The count of trains in the same feeding section is variable.
Magnitude of the traction load is unbalanced
The count of trains in two feeding sections of a traction substation
is variable
Trains load changes. Sometimes light load, sometimes no load,
some time heavy.
When in the holiday or restoration of normal trafficpeak power
Low load rate
Average load of traction load is small. But the design of the
feeding capacity of traction substation shall be appropriate to
the peak power requirement.
Low load rate for traction substation load. 20% in general,
30% particular.
Power feeding capacity shall meet the requirement of
the maximum load
As the infrastructure of the railway project, traction power
supply system shall meet the requirement of the railway
Designed power feeding capacity shall meet the requirement of
the maximum load
Designed power feeding capacity shall comprehensively
consider the forward future development.
(4) Load characteristic of dedicated passenger
Large traction load, High safety requirement
350km/h, maximum power 24000kW.
High load rate
Load concentrates on a short time
Rush hours
High requirement for over zone power feeding
6 Traction power supply systems
requirement to power source
Voltage deviation
Rated VoltagekV Transmit PowerMVA Transmit Distancekm
110 1050 50150
220 100150 100300
500 10001500 150850

Voltage deviation in 50Hz AC power grid is defined

as the difference between measured voltage and
rated voltage in term of rated voltages percentage.
In 35kV and above system, the absolute value of
voltages positive and negative difference below
10% of rated voltage.
Traction network voltage cant is demanding no
less than 19kV in traction power supply system
design. The minimum short circuit capacity shall
be considered that under larger system short circuit
impedance, train traction requirement shall be met.
Traction network voltage is limited by three factors:
power grid voltage loss, traction transformer
voltage loss and traction network voltage loss.
Traction substation
voltage loss
Traction network voltage loss
Power Plant Distribution System

G Transmission line L User

Generator Step up Step down T

transformer transformer M
M Dedicated high
110kV line Traction
Traction supply
substation system
Feeder Catenary Traction power
Return 27.5kV
supply sytem

Track L



U E Z S I E U Feeder
Catenary 27.5kV ()


Concept and calculation method of voltage loss


Voltage drop U U U Vector difference
U - U

Voltage loss U
difference U Ix

U I r B C
Z Smallapproximate U U c o s
In project
U U cos U
ZI ( r jx ) I Re( U )
r cos I x sin I
Calculating to the traction load port, System voltage loss can be
represented as
U rI cos xI sin (rP xQ) / U N

Ignore resistance r x
U xI sin Q
or U x
Wherex is equivalent phase reactance from traction load port, ;
Q is reactive power transmitted by catenary, kVar
UN is line rated voltage, kV;
is load power factor angle, positive as inductive load





As three phase systemSystem
110kV or 220kV
voltage loss is defined as Traction
2 Feeder
( 3U N ) Catenary 27.5kV

U X S I sin I sin Return


(3U N I ) sin ST sin (V )
Sk Sk
ST sin (kV )
1000 Sk
Where UN is line rated voltagekV
Sk is system three phase short-circuit capacity at load portMVA
St is load three phase capacitykVA is load power factor angle
Further morevoltage deviation is defined as

U 100
ST sin
10 Sk
Where Sk is three phase short circuit capacity at traction load port, MVA

ST is three phase load capacitykVA

is load power factor angle.

Two routes to ensure national standard required
voltage deviation:
Reduce reactive power transmitted at traction network
Increase three phase short circuit capacity at load port.
System short circuit capacity relates to generating
capacity and load location. The large generating
capacity is, the larger short circuit capacity is. The
closer to the power source (voltage level higher),
the larger short circuit capacity is.
Maintaining good voltage quality is not only
traction power supply systems responsibility but
also power grid.
Larger single phase load requires enough systems
affordability. Negative-sequence power of single
phase traction substation is equal to traction load
GB/T 15543 1995 Three phase allowable voltage
unbalance factor
Less than 2% in normal voltage
Less than 4% in short term
Less than 1.3% for each user
U2 U2
Unbalance voltage factor: u 100 100
Three phase voltage unbalance factor at common
connection point (PCC)
U2 U2
u 100 100
( X S I 2 ) /1000 ( 3U N ) 2 I2
UN Sk 10U N
3I 2 ( 3U N ) 3I 2U L
10Sk 10 Sk
Where I2 is the inject negative current at PCC

Sk is three phase short circuit capacity at PCC, MVA

UN and UL is rated phase to ground voltage and phase to phase voltage,
GB/T 14549-93, content rate of harmonic is
defined as
HRUh 100
( xh I h ) / 1000 h( 3U N )2 Ih
UN Sk 10U N
3 ( 3U N )hI h 3U LhI h
10Sk 10Sk
Where Ih is hth order harmonic current at PCC, h
h is harmonic order; Sk is three phase short circuit
capacity at PCC, MVA
UN and UL is the rated phase to ground voltage and
phase to phase voltage, kV
1.3 System design outline for traction
power supply
Electrified locomotive supplies traction force.
Energy is fed from power grid and traction power
supply system.
Infrastructure of electrified railway include line,
stations, communication devices, signal devices,
traction power supply system, locomotive and
operation department.
Requirement of traction power supply system
Safety, reliable and uninterrupted power supply
Increase power quality, ensure voltage level
Increase power factor, reduce power loss and
project investment and maintance cost
Reduce negative sequence current, negative
sequence voltage and harmonic caused by single
traction load
Reduce the influence to adjacent communication
Electrified railway design divides into two steps:
Preliminary design and detail design. Traction
power supply design is part of preliminary design.
The task of traction power supply system design
Traction substation
Including traction substation number and location;
Traction substation type (transformer); capacity (Need to
consider non traction load?); transformer backup under
repair (movable backup or fixable backup)
Power supply mode of traction network
Including catenarys power mode and section split mode;
connection mode of track ground circuit and return line;
feeder, catenary and return lines cross-sectional area.
Power mode from power grid to traction substation
Providing the near future and forward future capacity of
the traction system; primary connection mode of
transformer; cooperating with power grid, estimate the
influence of negative sequence current.
Communication reconstruction
Providing communication reconstruction plan; providing
maximum traction current and short circuit which can be
used to calculate the influence and interference to
Providing instantaneous maximum feeding section
current and lowest traction network voltage for relay
protection design; supporting other electrical device
Calculate the economic index for recommendation
traction power supply system design including traction
transformer capacity and utilization ratio; lowest
traction network voltage; annual energy consumption
and power loss.
Accept task
Data connection
Transportation organization.
Traction calculation result
Lines profile chart and station relief map
Power grid data
On-site investigation
Plan compare
Design principle
Negotiation with power system
Transformer capacity related to transportation volume.
Transformer backup mode, fixable backup.
Voltage level of catenary. 19kV~29kV
Elbas: Switzerland Ltd as Engineering
Company for Electrical Railway. Founded in
June 2001.
Business fields
Traction power supply; Catenary systems;
Motive power unit technology; SCADA and
Signaling; Telecommunications.
Simulation System for AC Railways in LRT and Long
Distance Transport.
Integrated Traction Simulation and Network Calculation
It contains digital traction simulation and the nodal
potential method for electrical network calculation.
Traction simulation permits any train types both of
classical railway lines and of high speed lines.
Advance: Universal network description permits the
realization of all possible feeding situations;Considering
regenerative braking; Effect for driving behavior caused
by catenary voltage is taken into accounts;