Developing a Community of Practice in Blended Learning at the University of Winchester

Dr Bex Lewis

Assignment submitted for “PE4078: Using the LN to Support Innovation in Learning”

August 2010

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Abstract [Write abstract here, 200 words?] Appendices Appendix 1: Twitter for Students? Survey May-June 2010 Appendix 2: Blended Learning Survey May-June 2010 Appendix 3: E-Toolkit (in development since November 2009)

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Changes within the Higher Education (HE) sector have been accelerated by the financial crisis. We expect increasing numbers of students who are living at home, part-time, mature, or from overseas. Students will expect better access to online courses, and a more flexible approach to learning, with ‘pick-and-mix’ degrees and opportunities to gain vocational experience through universityprivate-sector partnerships.1 Academics need to be prepared for change, but as Cross indicates “people do not know what they like; they like what they know”.2 In November 2009, I was appointed as ‘Blended Learning Fellow’ at the University of Winchester,3 a fractional post that had been inaugurated by Dr David Rush in 2006. The creation of the post was a recognition by the University that it was valuable to have someone promoting Blended Learning, but what does that mean? The term ‘Blended Learning’ is a contested term, but most commonly associated with the introduction of online media into a course or `programme, whilst at the same time recognising that there is merit in retaining face-to-face contact and other traditional approaches to supporting students.4 Cross questions whether the term “blended learning” has any value, unless “the ‘blend’ to be considered can include any mix and may not include any face-toface at all”.5 Macdonald recognises that blended learning may not be the most helpful term, but it is widely used in the HE sector,6 and as more flexibility is

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BBC News (20/03/10), ‘Universities Look Into the Future’ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/8577272.stm, accessed 20/03/10. A look at any number of Times Higher Education over the past few months will demonstrate similar debates. 2 Cross, J. (2007) Informal Learning p171 3 Lewis, B., (2009), ‘The Potential Impact of Blended Learning on the Learning and Teaching Experience of Staff and Students at the University of Winchester’, http://www.slideshare.net/drbexl/university-of-winchester-blended-learning 4 Macdonald, J. (2008) Blended Learning and Online Tutoring: Planning Learning Support and Activity Design, p2 5 Cross, J. (2007) Informal Learning pp.170-1 6 Macdonald, J. (2008) Blended Learning and Online Tutoring: Planning Learning Support and Activity Design p1

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required from students,7 we need to find the right tools to meet that need, and it is those needs that need to be identified. White argues that far too much attention is paid to the technology itself, “it’s like talking about the internal combustion engine, rather than stepping back about where we’re trying to head”. The phone, which is now culturally normalised, is now “the conversations we have on it, rather than the phone”.8 In the modern world, information is so abundant, that the job market is demanding “information literacy, numeracy, adaptability, problem solving and communication, rather than acquiring a stable body of knowledge”. 9 Digital literacy is also required.10 As workplaces demand Continual Professional Development (CPD), and learners demand more flexibility, educational institutions are being networked into a grid of learning. As campuses run out of physical space, and the government imposes limits on recruitment, universities are looking for other ways to increase capacity, particularly through the use of virtual technologies.11 Machines may be able to store and process information, but it is people that transform and add value to it: ‘Tutors, mentors and online facilitators are now seen as the asset that makes all the difference to student retention, motivation and acceptance of e-learning.’ 12 We need both staff and students to be active learners, developing technological literacy, to have an ‘openness to new technologies and the willingness to try out new software and new communications opportunities are more important than expertise with a wide range of software.’13
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JISC, (2007) ‘In Their Own Words’, http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/programmerelated/2007/intheirownwords.aspx accessed 23/08/10 8 Lewis, B., quoting White, D., http://digital-fingerprint.co.uk/2010/04/dave-white-keynote-pelc10/, accessed 08/04/10 9 Beetham H., & Sharpe, R. (eds) (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age p5 10 Lewis, B., quoting Fraser, J. ‘Keynote, #Pelc10’, http://digital-fingerprint.co.uk/2010/04/josiefraser-keynote-pelc10/, accessed 07/04/10 11 Beetham H., & Sharpe, R. (eds) (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age p5 12 Mason, R. & Rennie, F. (2004) The Connecticon: Learning for the Connected Generation p6 13 Mason, R. & Rennie, F. (2004) The Connecticon: Learning for the Connected Generation p8

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In recent years the internet has moved from an information tool, to a relationship tool, built upon relationships of trust,14 with increasing numbers using peer-topeer services.15 In 2001, Prensky coined the term ‘Digital Natives’,16 which many believe applies to all young students, who are seen as technologically savvy. At the JISC E-Learning Fair ‘digital natives’ were identified as those whose expectations were global, responsive, and flexible but with a tendency towards the facile.17 Reports such as the CLEX report18 and Childwise Monitor Report
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have identified that the use of Web 2.0 as ubiquitous from the age of 12. White, however, challenges this with a less age-dependent definition, identifying ‘digital visitors’, who see the web as a collection of useful tools, and ‘digital residents’ who see the web as a ‘place to live’.20 Arguably, whatever the definition, techsavviness is strong amongst many students, but, despite a strong drive from management, there is much resistance amongst staff. CLEX identified that staff time and support issues are critical; not just familiarity with the technology, but where they fit strategically.21 Staff need to understand that many students don’t use online tools well, lacking critical skills, and have developed shallow research habits. Teachers must respond to this.22 In the role of ‘Blended Learning Fellow’ my students, therefore, become University staff, particularly
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Jarvis, J. (2009) What Would Google Do? p86 TechCrunch ‘Wired Declares The Web Is Dead—Don’t Pull Out The Coffin Just Yet’ http://techcrunch.com/2010/08/17/wired-web-dead/, accessed 17/08/10 16 Prensky, M. (2001) ‘Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants’, On the Horizon, Vol, 9, No 5, (http://bit.ly/prenskydignat, accessed 17/08/10) 17 JISC, ‘E-Learning Fair’, November 2009 18 Melville, D., (March 2009), ‘Higher Education in a Web 2.0 World’ http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/heweb20rptv1.pdf (formerly at http://www.clex.org.uk/), accessed 29/11/09 19 Childwise (2010) The Monitor Report 2009-10
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White, D., (July 2008) ‘Not ‘Natives’ & ‘Immigrants’ but ‘Visitors’ & ‘Residents’, http://tallblog.conted.ox.ac.uk/index.php/2008/07/23/not-natives-immigrants-butvisitors-residents/, accessed 17/08/10 21 Melville, D., (March 2009), ‘Higher Education in a Web 2.0 World’ http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/heweb20rptv1.pdf (formerly at http://www.clex.org.uk/), accessed 29/11/09 22 Beetham H., & Sharpe, R. (eds) (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age p5

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academics, but also administrative staff, as we seek to encourage an institutional culture where experimentation and confidence in technology is encouraged through the development of a Community of Practice (CoP) around Blended Learning. The concept of ‘Communities of Practice’, first developed by Lave and Wenger in 1991, is ‘one of the most articulated and developed concepts within broad theories of social learning.’23 Wenger popularised the term, using the term practice to indicate professional practice and the term community as “a group of shared interests and standards”.24 A CoP provides a common sense of identity with which members of the community can associate themselves.’
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Cross likens an effective CoP to a beehive: “It organises itself,

buzzes with activity, and produces honey for the markets”, whilst “newcomers learn the ropes from working alongside veterans.” 26 “In a community of practice, peers learn from one another” rather than thinking that knowledge has to be trickled from the top down,27 and people can’t be forced to join them. 28 At #iblc10, Solent discussed their efforts to create a Blended Learning CoP. They had developed lots of relationships with individuals, which wasn’t efficient, but people liked it, and thus good will was developed.29 Salmon identifies the importance of socialisation, including technological socialisation, in the development of a CoP. 30 White echoes this, indicating that it is key to ‘recreate those conversations that you can best have down the pub’. The best institutions have a centralised person, dragging people out of their Faculties and into crosssubject discussions, but often we have to recognise that the innovations come
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Barton, D. & Tusting, K. (eds) (2005) Beyond Communities of Practice: Language, Power and Social Context p1 24 Wenger. E. (2006) Communities of Practice: a brief introduction, http://www.ewenger.com/theory/index.htm, accessed 30/07/10 25 Mason, R. & Rennie, F. (2006) Elearning: The Key Concepts pp24-28 26 Cross, J. (2007) Informal Learning pp.151 -2 27 Cross, J. (2007) Informal Learning p153 28 Lewis, B., quoting Fraser, J. ‘Keynote, #Pelc10’, http://digital-fingerprint.co.uk/2010/04/josiefraser-keynote-pelc10/, accessed 07/04/10 29 Lewis, B., quoting Lee, B. & Moxon, D., http://digital-fingerprint.co.uk/2010/06/creating-acommunity-in-blended-learning-using-the-talents-of-all-iblc10/, accessed 17/06/10 30 Salmon, G. (2004) EModerating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online, p34

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from grass roots. There is a recognition that e-learning strategies shouldn’t be developed around the technology but about the communications strategies, which can be a difficult and delicate job. Cakes are essential to this process.31 Key to the development of a Blended Learning CoP at the University of Winchester have been a number of events, including a Collaborative Enhancement of Teaching (CET) lunch,32 a number of visits to Faculty,33 and individual meetings which have provided spaces for discussion. For 2010/11, a series of workshops has been prepared to engender confidence in using both the online tools that the students would be using, and the Wimba package to enable more flexible learning.34 The workshops are intentionally ‘optimally unprepared’ for workshops, with a strong basic schedule, but allowing time for flexibility, allowing space for “exploring, experiencing and learning”.35 The material that feeds into these meetings has been collected not only from texts and online materials, but also from developing an external CoP amongst the global Blended Learning community, in listening to and presenting conference papers,36 and making connections upon Twitter including Steve Wheeler,37 James Clay,38 Josie Fraser,39 Christian Payne,40 Sarah Knight (JISC),41
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Lewis, B., quoting White, D., http://digital-fingerprint.co.uk/2010/04/dave-white-keynote-pelc10/, accessed 08/04/10 32 Lewis, B. (2010) ‘The 21st Century Learner: Blended Learning Tools and the Use of Social Networks’, http://www.slideshare.net/drbexl/the-21st-century-learner-blended-learning-tools-andthe-use-of-social-networks 33 Lewis, B. (2010), ‘Department of English and Creative Writing’, http://www.slideshare.net/drbexl/blended-learning-forenglishcreativewritingfeburary2010, ‘Faculty of Education, Health and Social Care’, http://www.slideshare.net/drbexl/blended-learning-foreducation-event-april-2010, ‘Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences’, http://www.slideshare.net/drbexl/blended-learning-for-fac-hss-april-2010-edit. 34 Lewis, B., (2010) ‘Workshops 2010/11’, http://wblb.wordpress.com/workshops/, accessed 15/08/10 35 Chambers, R. (2002) Participatory Workshops, p.xvi 36 Add information on conferences attended “Floods? Snow? Swine Flu? Terrorist Threats? “Keep Calm and Carry On”: Internal Collaboration” April 2010; “Good CoP? Bad CoP? Twitter for Communities of Practice” June 2010 37 Wheeler, S. ‘Learning with ‘e’s’ http://steve-wheeler.blogspot.com/ accessed 16/08/10 38 Clay, J., ‘Elearning Stuff’ http://elearningstuff.wordpress.com/ accessed 16/08/10 39 Fraser, J. ‘SocialTech’ http://fraser.typepad.com/socialtech/ accessed 16/08/10 40 Payne, C. ‘Our Man Inside’ http://ourmaninside.com/ accessed 16/08/10 41 Knight, S., ‘Twitter Feed’ http://twitter.com/sarahknight accessed 16/08/10

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David Hopkins,42 ProfHacker,43 and Jane Hart.44 I also sit upon a number of committees, including the Learning and Teaching Committee, the Wimba Working Group and the Learning Network Working group. For Wimba, a specific strategy was defined,45 and the participation in the project ‘Bringing Organisational Development Guidance into IT’,46 funded by JISC, has provided both theoretical and practical perspectives on undertaking change management projects. [Identify the conversations have had with people, and the surveys undertaken – to start to change the kind of resources that will be using (e.g. planning to circulate some paper based information now there’s a solid structure for the BL blog). In many ways uptake in the Community is slow, but this is not unexpected : “learning of practices as processes of participation in which beginners are initially relatively peripheral in the activities of a community and as they learn the practices their participation becomes more central.”47 There are a large number (148) of people signed up the ‘Blended Learning Network’,48 but not all are engaging with the associated offline activities. A Becta report from 2004 indicated that the key internal barriers for teachers were: ‘lack of confidence, resistance to change and negative attitudes, and no perception of the benefits’. Added to that were the external barriers: ‘lack of access to resources; lack of time; lack of effective training; technical problems’.
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John & Wheeler identify four types of teacher response to new technologies:

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Hopkins, D., ‘Don’t Waste Your Time’ http://www.dontwasteyourtime.co.uk/ accessed 16/08/10 Chronicle of Higher Education ‘Profhacker’ http://chronicle.com/blog/ProfHacker/27 accessed 16/08/10 44 Hart, J., ‘Centre for Learning and Performance Technologies’, http://www.c4lpt.co.uk/ accessed 17/08/10 45 Lewis, B., Stuart, E., and El-Hakim, Y. , (2009) ‘Wimba Strategy’, http://learn.winchester.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=50013, 46 http://www.work-with-it.org.uk/EmbeddingWorkwithIT/WinchesterODG.aspx 47 Beetham H., & Sharpe, R. (eds) (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age p19 48 http://learn.winchester.ac.uk/user/index.php?contextid=32327 49 John, P.D. and Wheeler, S. (2008) The Digital Classroom: Harnessing Technology for the Future p2 1

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First are the enthusiasts. They see the enormous potential in digital technology and try to master its complexities. They also see its use as a professional and pedagogic challenge and an opportunity. Second are the pragmatists. They support the appropriate and alternative uses of information and communication technology (ICT), are mildly critical of some of its excesses but see its potential to improve aspects of learning. Third are traditionalists who prefer to resist the advance of new technologies in schools to preserve a more esoteric order of learning based on human interaction and long-established pedagogy. Finally, there are the ‘New Luddites’ who are so critical of new technology that they seek to undermine its potential and use at every turn by seeking to undermine the profession’s dependence on it.50 We need to involve people in “discovering the potential of e-learning for themselves”,51 with the responsibility shifting onto the individual learner, who is offered a climate supporting effective and appropriate learning.52 As the University of Canterbury demonstrates in its DEBUT model, staff are offered the opportunity to build up confidence in a range of e-tools, rather than directives towards specific tools. The package is particularly focused on the less-confident learners, and this all counted towards CPD: Awareness, Confidence, Evaluation, Reflection, Adaptability.53 The Internet has introduced to all educational settings a ‘wealth of new materials and ideas previously unobtainable.’ Some teachers viewed technology as a Trojan Horse, designed to deprofessionalise their roles, whilst others simply view
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John, P.D. and Wheeler, S. (2008) The Digital Classroom: Harnessing Technology for the Future p2 51 Fee, K. Delivering E-Learning (2009) Delivering E-Learning: A complete strategy for design, application and assessment, p.42 52 Sloman, M. (2003) Training in the Age of the Learner, p.xiii 53 Lewis, B., quoting Westerman, S. ‘DEBUT #iblc10’ http://digital-fingerprint.co.uk/2010/06/debutiblc10/ accessed 16/06/10

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ICT as another ‘costly, time-consuming and problematic addition to a profession already replete with challenges’.54 For many there is scepticism as the benefits, or fear of using e-tools, so the role of the Blended Learning Fellow is to sell the benefits and present case studies.55 With the emphasis on ‘impact’ there’s a need for scholars to have their work known in a wider field, as I did with my research on ‘Keep Calm and Carry On’.56 If we agreed with the term ‘digital natives’ students are already familiar with the Web 2.0 world, which is: is fast, fluid and personal, and the number of people it can reach is breathtaking. Blogs, podcasts, and social networking sites such as YouTube and Twitter are the new marketplace or the dissemination of news and ideas. What drives all media is the story, reporting information that is new and has relevance to their audiences.’ 57 Staff therefore need to engage with this also. Some refuse to engage, and say that ‘e-learning is not for them’, but this is akin to saying that “they wanted to learn but they didn’t like reading books” … something no employer would expect.58 We need to encourage staff to share the knowledge, through the elearning blog I have created,59 contribute to the Wiki that I plan to build on the Learning Network, and come out from the silos to provide information that I can share.

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John, P.D. and Wheeler, S. (2008) The Digital Classroom: Harnessing Technology for the Future pp15-24 55 Workshops are a good place to do this, see: http://prezi.com/8tpmp_ulevnd/twitter-for-theuniversity-of-winchester/, http://prezi.com/gld20g5qrwtk/facebook-groups/, http://prezi.com/dok9yjzrvhjt/introduction-to-blogging-software-wordpress/, and http://prezi.com/j_iiee86hbqr/blogging-strategically/, which allow staff to gain confidence in frequently used tools online. The development of a new course for 2010/11, which relies heavily upon social media is also significant: http://manipulating-media.co.uk/ 56 http://ww2poster.co.uk/publications/ 57 Tyson, W. (2010) Pitch Perfect: Communicating with Traditional and Social Media for Scholars, Researcher, and Academic Leaders, p16 58 Fee, K. Delivering E-Learning (2009) Delivering E-Learning: A complete strategy for design, application and assessment, pp.11-12 59 LTDU, ‘Winchester’s Blended Learning Blog’ http://wblb.wordpress.com, accessed 16/08/10

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Part of the rationale for visiting Faculties was that Beetham and Sharpe indicate that Attempts to create communities of e-learning practitioners and/or to share their knowledge have been notoriously difficult. Rather than creating a new community, it is likely that for the time being, there will be a substantial role for developers in working across already established communities. By acting as boundary-crossing agents they can represent other people’s practices to each community in a way tailored to prompt reflection and development.
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There are benefits to working with existing communities and networks with which practitioners are already affiliated. Practitioners experience a feeling that there’s a genuine sharing of their concerns, and are then within a group of people with whom they can identify.
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The fact that I remain an active lecturer

has been helpful in belonging to a community of practitioners in teaching and learning, and also offers the opportunity to use appropriate tools in my own teaching.62 As Wenger et al indicate: Technology stewards are people with enough experience of the workings of a community to understand its technology needs, and enough experience with or interest in technology to take leadership in addressing those needs. Stewarding typically includes selecting and configuring technology, as well as supporting its use in the practice of the community.63

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Beetham H., & Sharpe, R. (eds) (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age p122 Beetham H., & Sharpe, R. (eds) (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age p123 62 Lewis, B. ‘Clickers – Taught Session for Media Studies’ http://wblb.wordpress.com/2010/04/07/clickers-taught-session-for-media-studies/, accessed 07/04/10 63 Wenger, E., White, N., Smith, J.D., (2009) Digital Habitats: Stewarding Technology for Communities, p.25

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Achieving an understanding of how a community functions “will require a combination of direct involvement, observations, and conversations with community members.” 64 With roles at the University of Winchester since 1994, from student, research student, to staff, I have a good understanding of the institution, and its needs from a range of perspectives. As Fee indicates, the elearning advocate will need to enact a change management plan: “ It will not be a single great act, but an accumulation of lots of events, activities and discussions over a period of time. Implementing this change management plan will not be quick or easy, but in most organisations, winning support from senior management, and making the plan explicit, should help accelerate the process. “65 As was outlined at #iblc10, it’s important to know your stakeholders, understand their needs and the key messages that need to be communicated to them. Through a series of case studies, you then need to plan how you are going to get the message across.66 Albert Einstein said “Setting an example is not the main means of influencing another, it is the only means”.67 Salmon offers the example of a tutor experimenting with using an eforum within teaching for the first time. No one wanted to be the first to post, so the students were forced to with specific questions and a deadline. Once students started they really enjoyed it and interacted well. It’s like standing on the side of a pool waiting to be the first to jump in – do you ‘be in the water and do the coaxing’ or ‘get behind them and do the shoving’.68 I tend to be in the water, and am developing a resource bank of materials that are easily accessible across the disciplinary areas. For example,
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Wenger, E., White, N., Smith, J.D., (2009) Digital Habitats: Stewarding Technology for Communities, pp.26-7 65 Fee, K. Delivering E-Learning (2009) Delivering E-Learning: A complete strategy for design, application and assessment, p.40 66 Lewis, B. ‘Plenary, #iblc10’, http://digital-fingerprint.co.uk/2010/06/plenary-iblc10/, accessed 17/06/10 67 Fee, K. Delivering E-Learning (2009) Delivering E-Learning: A complete strategy for design, application and assessment, p.41 68 Salmon, G. (2004) EModerating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online, p31

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within the Wimba working group, we have emphasised that those on the Committee at the very least need to be using the technology. I am looking to bring people into the fold, rather than being confrontational. I seek to recognise and respect others point of view, accommodate where possible, and try to understand what motivates them. I enjoy experimenting with the technology, and this conveys an infectious enthusiasm, and I am looking to embed these as practice spaces within the University: “Too often vendors, selfishly, sell products rather than solutions”.69 Some members of the University community experience a sense of overwhelm when faced with so many tools and options,70 and as other institutions have done, and as confidence is gained in a wider range of tools and software, the expectation is that the role of Blended Learning Fellow becomes one more of consultancy, and encouraging a encourage general confidence in using the tools. Salmon mentioned that the “[m]otivation to take part, and continue to take part, occurs as a balance between regular and frequent opportunities to contribute, and the capacity of learners to respond to the invitations.” What is a positive challenge to one, may be a block to another, so we need to identify opportunities to provide individual support, for instance with ‘Familiarisation’ sessions for Wimba (not labelled ‘play’ sessions, as ‘play’ will be sidelined when timetables fill up). As a personal online identity is stabilised, and group dynamics kick in, it becomes easier for participants.71 Building trust and networking are key to creating a strong community of practice, allowing flexible forms of collective action.72

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Fee, K. Delivering E-Learning (2009) Delivering E-Learning: A complete strategy for design, application and assessment, p.41 70 Wenger, E., White, N., Smith, J.D., (2009) Digital Habitats: Stewarding Technology for Communities, p.171 71 Salmon, G. (2004) EModerating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online, p32 72 Mason, R. & Rennie, F. (2006) Elearning: The Key Concepts pp24-28

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Identifying whether the resource is of benefit can be difficult to establish, but a number of factors indicate that it is. The expansion of the role from 0.2 to 0.4 from August 2010 indicates there’s a recognition of the value of the work being done, and that there is more that can be done. The number of people involved in the Blended Learning section of the Learning Network is high (148, in an institution with only 200 academics), the number of people requesting to meet with me, and coming along to the CET lunch (around 20, a high number at short notice. When messages are posted on the portal with reference to the blog, the number of click-throughs is very high. The material is designed either to be standalone or encourage people to come to sessions, and the efficacy of that can’t really be determined until the semester starts again, but even over the summer, there have been a number of attendees at workshops. Wenger identified a number of factors that would define a successful Community of Practice,73 and we are not there yet, but there are plenty of plans for the future, including ways to reach those who still aren’t interested. As with Solent, where the Emerging Technology User Group meet once a quarter (sharing practice in what people have been doing), we tend to be preaching to the converted.74 Johnson & Johnson in 2004 indicated that educators need to use the tools that are common in the social context of their day, because they are determining the way that people learn, and therefore a key part of the role is to consider open-source materials and their repurposing with an educational context.75 In 2007 Anderson (editor of Wired magazine) made three predictions that he believed would affect academics and academies. With the growing use of crowd73

Wenger, E., White, N., Smith, J.D., (2009) Digital Habitats: Stewarding Technology for Communities, [Part 1, Chapter 5] 74 Lewis, B., quoting Lee, B. & Moxon, D., http://digital-fingerprint.co.uk/2010/06/creating-acommunity-in-blended-learning-using-the-talents-of-all-iblc10/, accessed 17/06/10 75 Mason, R. & Rennie, F. (2008) E-Learning and Social Networking Handbook: Resources for Higher Education p13

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sourcing, there is a threat to universities as the traditional repositories of wisdom and knowledge creation, as it draws upon the wisdom of the crowd, rather than the wisdom of the expert. The growth of an amateur culture also challenges the academy as the elite repository of knowledge. Intellectual Property (IP) debates over the huge amount of data on the internet, and the use of tools for aggregating and processing it76 is echoed by Steve Wheeler in a recent post.77 Academics need to be prepared for change, and the resources are now available for them to be aware of at least some of the technological changes. Word Count: 4024 (should be around 3000!)

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Mason, R. & Rennie, F. (2008) E-Learning and Social Networking Handbook: Resources for Higher Education p177 77 Wheeler, S., (2010) ‘The ivory towers are crumbling’, http://stevewheeler.blogspot.com/2010/08/ivory-towers-are-crumbling.html, accessed 23/08/10

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Bibliography Printed Texts Barton, D. & Tusting, K. (eds) (2005) Beyond Communities of Practice: Language, Power and Social Context Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Beetham H., & Sharpe, R. (eds) (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age Oxon: Routledge Chambers, R. (2002) Participatory Workshops London: Earthscan Childwise (2010) The Monitor Report 2009-10 Norwich Collins, T. (2009) The Little Book of Twitter London: Michael O’ Mara Cross, J. (2007) Informal Learning San Francisco: Pfeiffer Fee, K. Delivering E-Learning (2009) Delivering E-Learning: A complete strategy for design, application and assessment London: Kogan Page Garrison, D. R., Randy, D. (2003) E-learning in the 21st century : a framework for research and practice London : RoutledgeFalmer Gibbons, M. et al, (1994) The New Production of Knowledge: the dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies London: Sage Jarvis, J. (2009) What Would Google Do? New York: Harper Collins John, P.D. and Wheeler, S. (2008) The Digital Classroom: Harnessing Technology for the Future Abingdon: Routledge Laurillard, D. (2002) Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies London: RoutledgeFalmer

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Macdonald, J. (2008) Blended Learning and Online Tutoring: Planning Learning Support and Activity Design Aldershot: Gower Mason, R. & Rennie, F. (2008) E-Learning and Social Networking Handbook: Resources for Higher Education London:Routledge ------ (2006) Elearning: The Key Concepts Oxon: Routledge ------ (2004) The Connecticon: Learning for the Connected Generation Connecticut: Information Age Publishing Mroz, A. (Eds), Times Higher Education (Journal) Prensky, M. (2001) ‘Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants’, On the Horizon, Vol, 9, No 5, MCB University Press (http://bit.ly/prenskydignat, accessed 17/08/10) Rice, W.H. (2006) Moodle: E-Learning Course Development Birmingham: Packt Rowse, D. & Garrett, C. (2008) Problogger Indianapolis: Wiley Salmon, G. (2004) EModerating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online Oxon: RoutledgeFalmer Sloman, M. (2003) Training in the Age of the Learner London: CIPD Rosenberg, S., (2009) Say Everything: How Blogging Began, What’s it’s Becoming, and why it Matters New York: Crown Treadaway, C. & Smith, M. (2010) Facebook Marketing: An Hour a Day Indianapolis: Wiley Tyson, W. (2010) Pitch Perfect: Communicating with Traditional and Social Media for Scholars, Researcher, and Academic Leaders, Virginia: Stylus

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Appendix 1
Twitter for Students? Survey
May-June 2010, University of Winchester

Appendix 2
Blended Learning Survey
May-June 2010, University of Winchester

Appendix 3
E-Toolkit
 Learning Network  Twitter Feed  Facebook Group  Blog

http://learn.winchester.ac*.uk/course/view.php?id=1203

http://www.twitter.com/blwinch

http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=106375376072443&ref=ts

http://ltinpractice.blogspot.com/

http://wblb.wordpress.com/

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