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-Prioritats europees en lmbit de leducaci i la formaci:

2.- Key Data on Eurydice Report Teaching Languages at School in Europe 2017

-This section deals with Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL).

- CLIL is used in this report as a generic term to describe all types of provision in which a
language different to the language of schooling is used to teach certain curriculum
subjects other than languages themselves.

-The distinctive feature of CLIL provision is that pupils are taught different subjects in the
curriculum in at least two languages.

-For instance, most subjects are taught in the language of schooling but mathematics,
geography or natural sciences are taught in a different language. The objective of this type
of provision is to enhance students' proficiency in languages other than the language of

-The target language in CLIL lessons is not the subject of the study but a communication
vehicle to study another subject of the curriculum. The exposure to the target language is
thus increased without claiming an excessive share of the school timetable.

-This section does not cover arrangements for providing language support to immigrant
pupils (see Figure E14) or those whose mother tongue is not the language of instruction,
with the aim of ensuring their gradual integration into mainstream education in that
language. Programmes in international schools are also excluded.

- The first indicator analyses the possible status of the target languages in the existing
CLIL provision ('foreign language', 'regional, minority or non-territorial language' and/or
'other state language').

-The second, which focuses on CLIL provision targeting a foreign language, discusses
admission criteria for CLIL programmes.


ARE WIDELY TAUGHT THROUGH CLIL, Figure B14 shows that in nearly all European
countries some schools offer CLIL provision.

This means that part of the curriculum is taught in a language different to the state
language used as the language of schooling in order to improve students' proficiency in
another language.
There is no CLIL provision in Greece, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iceland and Turkey but
this type of provision was introduced in 2016/17 in Montenegro. In one group of education
systems, in addition to a state language which is the language of schooling, CLIL is
provided in at least two other types of language.

In 14 systems, these include a foreign language and a regional, minority or territorial

language (see Figure A1). This is the case in the Czech Republic, Germany, Estonia,
Spain, France, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Austria, Poland, Slovakia, Sweden and the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. In Belgium (French and Flemish Communities)
and Switzerland, CLIL is provided in a foreign language and another state language.

Finland is the only country where the CLIL method is used for teaching three types of
language (foreign language, another state language and a non-territorial language).

In a second group of education systems, only one type of language is targeted in CLIL
provision. In 10 education systems, the target language is a foreign language (in Bulgaria,
Denmark, Cyprus, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, the United Kingdom (England),
Liechtenstein, Norway and Serbia).

In five other education systems, only regional, minority or non-territorial languages are
targeted: Croatia (Hungarian and Czech), Slovenia (Hungarian) and, within the United
Kingdom: Wales (Welsh), Northern Ireland (Irish) and Scotland (Scottish Gaelic). In the
four remaining education systems, CLIL provision targets another state language:
German/French in the German-speaking Community of Belgium, English/Irish in Ireland,
Luxembourgish/German and Luxembourgish/French in Luxembourg and Maltese/English
in Malta.

In Spain, some schools offer CLIL provision in which three languages are used to teach
the curriculum, including the state language and one regional language. This very
infrequent arrangement is not shown in Figure B14, which relates only to the most
common situation where two languages are used for teaching the curriculum.
The combination of languages used in CLIL also depends very much on the linguistic
heritage of each country.

Almost all countries with several official state languages and/or at least one official
regional, minority or non-territorial language has some CLIL provision. They thus take
advantage of their linguistic diversity in order to try and develop students' multi-lingualism
(see Figure A1). For instance in Spain, CLIL provision exists for each of the six official
regional languages (Catalan, Valencian, Basque, Galician and Occitan). However, in
Denmark, Cyprus, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Norway and Serbia, CLIL
provision only targets foreign languages, even though at least one regional, minority or
non-territorial language is officially recognised.

Close examination of the foreign languages used as target languages (see Annexe 2),
reveals that English, French and German, and to a lesser degree Spanish and Italian, are
the most widespread target languages for CLIL provision.

The four first languages are also the most taught foreign languages in schools across
Europe (see Chapter C, Section II). In Germany and France, existing CLIL programmes
target more than 10 foreign languages. The number of target languages in the existing
CLIL provision with the status of regional, minority or nonterritorial languages also exceeds
10 in France and Hungary.

CLIL provision exists in primary, lower secondary and general upper secondary education.
There is no indication that CLIL provision is more concentrated in any particular level.

The fact that CLIL provision exists in an education system does not necessarily mean that
it is widespread within the education system (see data available in Annexe 2 of
EACEA/Eurydice, 2012). Only in Italy, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Austria, Malta and
Liechtenstein is CLIL provision available in all schools at some stage.

Since 2010 in Italy, all students in the last year of upper secondary education have to learn
one non-language subject through a foreign language. Those on the 'language' pathway
must learn one non-language subject through their first foreign language by the age of 16,
and a second through their second foreign language from age 17.

In Cyprus, CLIL is provided in all primary schools during one school year at least. In
Luxembourg, from primary level, some subjects are taught in German instead of
Luxembourgish and, in lower secondary, some are taught in French.

In Austria, foreign languages are taught through CLIL-type provision during the first two
years of primary education. In Malta, CLIL provision (Maltese/English) is available in all
state schools for all grades of primary and secondary education. In Liechtenstein, English
is taught through CLIL-type provision in the first grade of primary education. It is also the
case for part of the foreign language instruction in the second grade.