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Basic Physical Chemistry Formulae List

@2018 Mr Chong Chemistry Tuition. Whatsapp 98935144. http://www.alevelchemistrysg.com

For Cambridge-Singapore A levels H2 Chemistry 9729

1. Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry – Page 2
2. Gases – Page 2
3. Chemical Bonding – Page 2
4. Chemical Energetics – Page 3
5. Reaction Kinetics – Page 3
6. Chemical Equilibrium – Page 4
7. Ionic Equilibrium – Page 4
8. Electrochemistry – Page 5
@2018 Mr Chong Chemistry Tuition. Whatsapp 98935144. http://www.alevelchemistrysg.com

1. Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

Amount (in moles) = mass (g) / molar mass (g mol-1)

n=m/M

Amount of a gas = volume (dm3) / molar volume (dm3)

Amount = number of particles (ions, molecules, atoms) / Avogadro constant

n=N/L

At s.t.p. (standard temperature and pressure of 1 bar and 273 K), molar volume of a gas is
22.7 dm3.

At r.t.p. (room temperature and pressure of 1 atm and 293 K), molar volume is 24.0 dm 3.

Limiting reagent is the reactant that is not in excess and is completely used up in the reaction.

Concentration in g dm-3 = mass of solute (g) / volume of solution (dm3)

Concentration in mol dm-3 = Amount of solute (mol) / volume of solution (dm3)

Concentration in g dm-3 = concentration in mol dm-3 x Molar mass (g)

In dilution,

Amount of solute in original solution = Amount of solute in dilute solution

C original conc x V original vol. = C diluted conc. x V diluted vol.

Combustion of a hydrocarbon:

CxHy + (x + y/4)O2  xCO2 + (y/2)H2O

2. Gases
pV = nRT
R : gas constant (8.31 J K-1 mol-1)
P : pressure in Pa
V : volume in m3
T : Temperature in Kelvins

3. Chemical Bonding
|𝑞+ ∗ 𝑞−|
Ionic Bond strength α |𝑟+|+|𝑟−| q : charge r: ionic radius

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4. Energetics

Q = mc∆T

Q : Heat change

M : mass

c : specific heat capacity

∆T : change in temperature
𝑄
∆H = ± 𝑛

∆H : Enthalpy change

Q : Heat change

n : Amount (mol)

∆H = ∑Hc (reactants) - ∑Hc (products)

∆Hsolution = ∆Hhydration – Lattice Energy

∆GƟ = ∆HƟ – T∆SƟ

∆GƟ : Standard Gibbs Free Energy

∆SƟ : Entropy change

If ∆GƟ < 0, reaction is spontaneous.

If ∆GƟ = 0, reaction is in equilibrium.

If ∆GƟ > 0, reaction is non-spontaneous.

5. Kinetics

A+BC+D

Rate = k[A]m[B]n

m, n : orders of reaction with respect to reactants A and B

k : rate constant

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First order reaction

Half life, t1/2 = ln 2 / k

Half life is constant for a first order reaction.

6. Chemical equilibrium

aA + bB cC + dD

Kc = ([C]c [D]d) / ([A]a [B]b)

Kc = equilibrium constant

[X] = concentration of X in mol dm-3

For a system involving gases,

aA (g) + bB (g) cC (g) + dD (g)

Kp = Pcc PDd / PAa PBb

Kp = equilibrium constant expressed in terms of equilibrium partial pressures

Px = partial pressure of X in atm, bar or Pa

Kc = kforward reaction / kbackward reaction

∆GƟ = -RT ln K

K : equilibrium constant

7. Ionic equilibria

pH = - log [H+]

Consider a weak monoprotic acid, HA, which dissociates partially in water :

HA (aq) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + A- (aq)

At equilibrium,

Ka =
H A  
HA 
[H+] = √Ka [HA]

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Ka : acid equilibrium constant

Base dissociation constant, Kb. B + H2O BH+ + OH-

Kb =
HB  OH  
B
B : weak base

Kw = [H+][OH-]

Kw : Ionic Product of water

pKw = pH + pOH

= 14 at 25 0C

Buffers

Acidic buffer:

pH = pKa + log [salt]/[acid]

Alkaline buffer:

Salt 
pOH = pKb + log10
Base 
Solubility Equilibria

aA(s)⇌cC(aq)+dD(aq)

Ksp=[C]c[D]d

Solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt, A : Ksp

8.Electrochemistry

EcellƟ = EreductionƟ – EoxidationƟ

EcellƟ : standard cell potential

Anode is where oxidation takes place; cathode is where reduction takes place.

EcellƟ > 0, reaction is feasible

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∆GƟ = -nFEcellƟ

n : amount of electrons transferred in the electrochemical reaction

F : Faraday constant (96500 C mol-1)

Q = It

Q = neF

Q : amount of charge in C

I : current

t : time

ne : amount of electrons
𝑅𝑇
EcellƟ = 𝑛𝐹 ln K

K : equilibrium constant

n : amount of electrons transferred in the electrochemical reaction

Mass of substance liberated in electrolysis α Q

F = Le

L : Avogadro constant

e : charge on one electron (1.60 x 10-19 C)

The End. ☺

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