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Width Modulation For Speed Control Of Induction Motor

1 Student, Electrical Engineering Department, ADCET, Ashta, Sangli, Maharashtra, India

Abstract This paper presents analysis, load might be a single phase or three phase load.

Simulation and Implementation of Space Vector For example, for the variable speed drives, the

Pulse Width Modulation For Speed Control Of current production is called Harmonic distortion.

Induction Motor.. This paper focused on the study Harmonic distortion will produce a higher

and development of MATLAB/SIMULINK model of frequency where it will increase the current and

SVPWM step by step. Firstly, model of a three phase damage the electrical equipment. Thus, to reduce

Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) had investigated these harmonic distortion, space vector

based on space vector concept which is developed Modulation techniques are used. This technique is

by equation then create model based on these used because it is an advanced method that

equation. The next step is simulation of model of involves computation intensive PWM method and

SVPWM using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The principle of possibly the best technique to the variable

the SVPWM is introduced, also the modeling of each frequency drive application.

block is introduced. Experimental results of SVPWM

The PWM inverter, in many applications

inverter are presented to realize the validity of the

faces three major requirements and limitations.

SVPWM technique.

The harmonic content, the switching frequency,

Key-Words :- SVPWM Space Vector Pulse Width and the best utilization of dc link voltage.

Modulation, VSI Voltage Source Inverter Generally, drive with low harmonic content is

better. High switching frequency usually improves

1. INTRODUCTION : the quality of motor current and consequently the

whole performance of the drive system. However,

Nowadays, the demands for the electronic high switching frequency leads to more switching

products are getting higher due to the rapid losses. Also high switching frequency is limited by

advances in technology. The usage of electronic the switching capability and dead time of the

appliances now is a part of our live where it switches.

covers 80% of the performance in our daily

activities. For example, machines and motors AC / This paper presents two main PWM

DC are used by both small and large-scale techniques. Analysis and modeling of SVPWM

industries to lift or move objects. The control of technique are presented due to its more

these motors are carried out by using the advantages than the other techniques.

electronic controllers. Because the electronic Implementation and experimental results verify

controllers are more efficient. Most of the the inverter analysis and simulation.

electronic equipment is called distortion current

also known as non-linear load. This non-linear

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | April-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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1.1 VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER (PWM There are several PWM techniques each has its

INVERTER): own advantages and disadvantages. The basic

PWM techniques are described in the following

The voltage source converter performs the voltage section. The PWM techniques are:

and frequency conversion in two stages : AC to DC

as a first stage and DC to AC as a second stage. The Sinusoidal PWM Technique

PWM inverter has complex control and more

Space Vector PWM Technique

switching losses as compared to conventional

three phase six-step inverter. But the harmonic 1.2.1 Sinusoidal PWM Technique

content in three phase six-step inverter is

relatively high as compared to PWM inverter. The sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM)

Thus PWM inverter offers less harmonic content technique produces a sinusoidal waveform by

than six-step inverter. The basic three phase filtering an output pulse waveform with varying

voltage source converter is shown in fig 1. width. A high switching frequency leads to a

better filtered sinusoidal output waveform. The

desired output voltage is achieved by varying the

frequency and amplitude of a reference or

modulating voltage. The variations in the

amplitude and frequency of the reference voltage

change the pulse-width patterns of the output

voltage but keep the sinusoidal modulation.

modulating waveform is compared with a high-

frequency triangular waveform, which is called

the carrier waveform.

where the duty ratio of a pulsating wave- form is

controlled by another input waveform. The

intersections between the reference voltage

waveform and the carrier waveform give the

opening and closing times of the switches. PWM is

commonly used in applications like motor speed

control, converters, audio ampliers, etc. For Fig. 2. Principle of three phase SPWM.

example, it is used to reduce the total power

delivered to a load without losses. PWM is used to However, due to the variation of the sine wave

adjust the voltage applied to the motor. reference values during a PWM period, the

relation between reference values and the carrier

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | April-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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wave is not fixed. This results in existence of depend on the modulation index, which indirectly

harmonics in the output voltage causing undesired reflects on the inverter utilization capability.

low-frequency torque and speed pulsations. The

switching frequency is not constant and very

narrow pulses may occur depending on the

intersection between the carrier wave and the

sine reference.

computed rather than derived through

comparison as in SPWM. The SVPWM technique

can increase the fundamental component by up to

27.39% that of SPWM. The fundamental voltage

can be increased up to a square wave mode where

a modulation index of unity is reached. Fig. 3. Switching Vectors Forming a Hexagon.

both output voltage and current applied to the

phases of an ac motor and provides a more Space vector involves a constant amplitude vector

efficient use of the supply voltage in comparison rotating at a constant frequency obtained from

with sinusoidal modulation techniques. SVPWM their three phase sinusoidal forms. The rotating

provides a constant switching frequency and vector is rotated in a stationary d-q co-ordinate

therefore the switching frequency can be adjusted frame plane and made to imitate its equivalent

easily. Although SVPWM is more complicated three phase rotating vector via two phase vectors.

than sinusoidal PWM control, it may be This is know as co-ordinate transformation.

implemented easily with modern DSP- based

control system. For three phase system,

2.PRINCIPLE OF SPACE VECTOR PWM

Where ,

SVPWM is accomplished by rotating a reference

vector around the state diagram, which is VRN = Vm sin (wt)

composed of six basic non-zero vectors forming a

hexagon. A circle can be inscribed inside the state VYN = Vm sin (wt (2*/3))

map and corresponds to sinusoidal operation. The

area inside the inscribed circle is called the linear VYN = Vm sin (wt + (2*/3))

modulation region or under-modulation region.

circle and outside circle of the hexagon is called

the nonlinear modulation region or over-

modulation region. The concepts in the operation

of linear and nonlinear modulation regions

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | April-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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2.2 STEPS IN IMPLEMENTATION SPACE

And with d-q plane ,

VECTOR PWM :

Vref = Vd + Vq

Switching times T1 & T2 for sector 1 is calculated

With this we are able to obtain an equivalent Vref during each sampling period and implemented

from three phase directly through two vector accordingly. T1 , T2 , T0 & T7 are calculated by

method as shown in fig. 4 volt-second integral of Vref for a given sampling

period in the sector.

Vd = VRN + VYN cos (2*/3) + VBN cos

We have ,

(4*/3)

Vref*Ts = V1*T1 + V2*T2 + Vz*Tz

= VRN - (1/2)VYN (1/2) VBN

Ts = T1 + T2 + TZ

= VRN + (1/2)VYN

By volt-second integral of Vref

= (3/2) VRN

= + +

Vq = VRN cos (3/2) + VYN cos (/6) + VBN

+ ]

cos (5/6)

Vref*T = V0*T0 + V1*T1 + V2*T2 + V7*T7

= 0 (3/2) VYN + (3/2) VBN

Vref*T = 0*T0 + V1*T1 + Vd (cos +

= (3/2) (VYN - VBN)

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

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T2 = m T sin T2 = m T sin

Where, m= Where, M=

Above equations are derived for sector 1 , Step 3. Determine the switching time of

similarly other sector equations are to be derived each transistor :

for their respective switching time calculations.

Switching time for every vector state is calculated

and the corresponding switches which defined the

2.3 SWITCHING TIME DURING ANY state are triggered for the calculated time. This is

SECTOR done for all the required switches.

Here, Vref and angle () are obtained through Vd The operating principle of a variable speed

electric drive controlled by through the space

vector modulation is presented in fig. 6. To

analyze the way in which the principle works, we

realize a MATLAB Simulink scheme, which uses

matrix,

And so,

= tan -1 ( ) and

Vref =

:

both simulink blocks and Sim-Power systems

Switching time is calculated based on the blocks.

volt-second integral i.e.

Fig. 6. Block Diagram of complete system.

Ts = T1 + T2 + TZ

The supply to the asynchronous motor is made

Giving results as from a DC source through the PWM Inverter. The

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

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controlled scheme contains three subsystems : integrator (PI) regulator which controls the motor

Speed Controller , Volt Hertz Algorithm and SVM slip.

generator.

3.2 Volts Hertz Algorithm

3.1 Speed Controller

The purpose of the volts per hertz control scheme

The speed controller has an inputs : The reference is to maintain the air-gao flux constant in order to

speed N* Which is given by the speed reference achive higher run-time efficiency. The magnitude

block, speed N obtained from the asynchronous of stator flux is proportional to the ratio stator

motor, and output signals as : reference frequency voltage & frequency. If ratio is kept constant the

, direction , Ctrl. Which includes the signals: stator flux remains constant & motor torque will

frequency, Error and reference speed N*.The only depends upon slip frequency.

speed controller is based on a proportional

The SVM generator, whose operating principle is presented in fig. 7. It contains main five blocks

This subsystem generators three sine waves with generator generates the sine waves according to

variable frequncy and amplitude which are out of Direction , variable frequncy and variable

phase with each other by 120 0. The three phase Amplitude

2. The abc transformation

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

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3. - Vector Sector

This subsystem determines the sector (I, II, III, IV, multiply the resultant signal by the coefficient : 1,

V or VI )in which the voltage vector 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 so that the output signal is periodical,

lies,comparing the signal angle with the limits of in six stages of amplitude.

every sector : (0, 60 0), (60 0, 120 0), (120 0, 180 0),

(-180 0, -120 0), (-120 0, -60 0), (-60 0, 0) and

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | April-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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4.SIMULATION RESULTS

Simulink. The switching patterns in two different

sectors of SVPWM are given in fig. 9 and the

inverter output voltage is shwon in fig. 10.

the following steps:

1200 phase shifted from each other.

into co-ordinates.

the referance vector is determined.

time of the power switches is calculated.

to the switches of the inverter and we get the

Fig. 11 Switching pattern for two different sectors.

inverter output as shown in fig. 10.

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | April-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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and Drives, MNPERE, 2003.

Space-Vector Theory Approach, Oxford

University Press, 1992.

Parallel Three-phase Inverters Using Optimal

Control and SVPWM Technique," Proc. of 2009

IEEE International Conference on Industrial

Electronics ISIE, Seoul, Korea, July 2009.

Rahman M. A., Performance of Current

Controllers for VSI-Fed IPMSM Drive, IEEE Trans.

Ind. Appl., Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 1531- 1538,

Nov./Dec. 2000.

Vector Switching Patterns for Different

Applications a Comparative Analysis, Proc. of

2005 IEEE International Conference on Industrial

Technology ICIT, pp. 1444 1449, Hong Kong,

Dec. 2005.

and Xiaoying, S., Comparison of Three PWM

Strategies SPWM SVPWM and One Cycle control,

Fig. 12 Inverter output Voltage. The Fifth International Conference on Power

Electronics and Drive Systems PEDS, Volume 2,

5.CONCLUSION pp. 1313 1316, Nov. 2003.

Analysis of space vector pulse width modulation is [9] Leong, C.Y., Grinberg, R., Makrides, G., and

McMahon, R.A., A Comparison of Losses in Small

presented. Different patterns are introduced and

(<1 kW) Drives Using Sine and Space Vector Pulse

the most effective one is selected. Analysis, Width Modulation Schemes, The Sixth IEEE

modeling and simulation of the switching International Conference on Power Electronics

intervals generators and control signal generators and Drive Systems PEDS, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,

are introduced. Experimental results and steps of Dec. 2005.

generating SVPWM patterns using microcomputer

[10] E. Hendawi, Advanced Control of PM

are presented to verify the effectiveness of the

Machines for Servo Applications, Ph.D. Thesis,

analysis and simulation. Cairo Univ., Jan. 2009.

6.REFERENCES

Drives, Prentice Hall PTR, 2002.

Academic Press, 2001.

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | April-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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7. BIOGRAPHIES:

his B.E. (Electrical) in first class in

1981, M.E. (Electrical) in first class

in 1985 and Ph.D. in 2012 from

Shivaji University, Kolhapur. He

started his teaching career from

1985, as a lecturer in Electrical department of

Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli (India).

He has about 20 international conference and 15

national conference / seminars publications. His

areas of interest are control systems applicable to

power systems.

obtained his B.E. in Electrical

Engineering with First class

Distinction in 2014 from Shivaji

University, Kolhapur (MS). He is

pursuing his post graduation from

Shivaji University Kolhapur. His

areas of interest are Power System, Power

electronics and Power Quality.

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