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5)

W = F∆x cos θ

1 KE = mv 2 2

PE g = mg∆y

PE s = k ∆ x / 2

2

Chapter 6

Momentum and Collisions

Wnc = E f − Ei =

(KE

f

+ PE f ) − (KEi + PEi ) E f − Ei = 0

1 2

if Wnc = 0, then

Momentum

r The linear momentum p of an

object of rmass m moving with a velocity v is defined as the product of the mass and the velocity r r p = mv

SI Units are kg m / s Vector quantity, the direction of the momentum is the same as the velocity’s

3

Momentum components

p x = mv x and p y = mv y

**Applies to two-dimensional motion
**

y

r p

p y = mv y

p x = mvx

x

4

Impulse

In order to change the momentum of an object, a force must be applied The time rate of change of momentum of an object is equal to the net force acting on it r ∆p m(v f − vi ) r = = Fnet ∆t ∆t

Gives an alternative statement of Newton’s second law

5

Impulse cont.

When a single, constant force acts on the object, there is an impulse delivered to the object r r I = F ∆t

r I is defined as the impulse Vector quantity, the direction is the same as the direction of the force

6

**Impulse-Momentum Theorem
**

The theorem states that the impulse acting on the object is equal to the change in momentum of the object

**Average Force in Impulse
**

The average force can be thought of as the constant force that would give the same impulse to the object in the time interval as the actual time-varying force gives in the interval

r r r r F∆t = ∆p = mv f − mv i

**If the force is not constant, use the average force applied
**

7

8

**Average Force cont.
**

The impulse imparted by a force during the time interval ∆t is equal to the area under the force-time graph from the beginning to the end of the time interval Or, the impulse is equal to the average force multiplied by the time interval:

**Impulse Applied to Auto Collisions
**

The most important factor is the collision time or the time it takes the person to come to a rest

This will reduce the chance of dying in a car crash

r r Fav ∆t = ∆p

**Ways to increase the time
**

Seat belts Air bags

10

9

Air Bags

The air bag increases the time of the collision It will also absorb some of the energy from the body It will spread out the area of contact

decreases the pressure helps prevent penetration wounds

11

Example: Problem #2

m = 0.06 kg v1 = 50 m/s v2 = 40 m/s I-? W-?

r vf

r vi

x

12

**Example: Problem #11
**

m = 1.5 kg vib = 0 m/s vic = -2.0 m/s a) I-? b) vfb-? c) vfc-?

13

Conservation of Momentum

Momentum in an isolated system in which a collision occurs is conserved

A collision may be the result of physical contact between two objects “Contact” may also arise from the electrostatic interactions of the electrons in the surface atoms of the bodies An isolated system will have not external forces

14

**Conservation of Momentum, cont
**

The principle of conservation of momentum states when no external forces act on a system consisting of two objects that collide with each other, the total momentum of the system remains constant in time

Specifically, the total momentum before the collision will equal the total momentum after the collision

15

**Conservation of Momentum, cont.
**

Mathematically: r r r r m1v1i + m2 v2i = m1v1f + m2 v2f

Momentum is conserved for the system of objects The system includes all the objects interacting with each other Assumes only internal forces are acting during the collision Can be generalized to any number of objects

16

**Notes About A System
**

Remember conservation of momentum applies to the system You must define the isolated system

**Example: Problem #20
**

Wr=30 N Wman=700 N mb = 5 g vb = 300 m/s vrec1-? vrec2-?

17 18

r ∆p = 0 r Fnet = 0

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