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**Momentum and Collisions
**

Part 2

Linear momentum of an object

r r p = mv

Vector quantity, the direction of the momentum is the same as the velocity’s y

r p

p y = mv y

1

p x = mvx

x

2

Impulse

Impulse delivered to the object

**Impulse-Momentum Theorem
**

Impulse acting on the object is equal to the change in momentum of the object

r r I = F∆t

Vector quantity, the direction is the same as the direction of the force

r r r r r I = F∆t = ∆p = mv f − mv i

**In order to change the momentum of an object, a force must be applied
**

3

an alternative statement of Newton’s second law

r r r ∆p m( v f − v i ) r = =F ∆t ∆t

4

Conservation of Momentum

An isolated system is defined as a system which does not have external forces Momentum in an isolated system is conserved

**Quick Quiz 6.2 (p.168)
**

Initial: vbs=0, vrs=0 Final: vbr ∫ 0, vrs - ? Use conservation of momentum

r Fext = 0 r r r ∆p = mv f −mv i = 0

shore

5 6

Collisions

Momentum is conserved in any collision Elastic collision

both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved

Inelastic Collisions

Momentum is conserved Kinetic energy is not conserved

Some of the kinetic energy is converted into other types of energy such as heat, sound, work to permanently deform an object Perfectly inelastic collisions occur when the objects stick together

Not all of the KE is necessarily lost

Inelastic collisions

Kinetic energy is not conserved

Actual collisions

Most collisions fall between elastic and perfectly inelastic collisions

7

8

**Perfectly Inelastic Collisions
**

When two objects stick together after the collision, they have undergone a perfectly inelastic collision Conservation of momentum becomes

Elastic Collisions

Both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved

m1v1i + m2 v2i = m1v1 f + m2 v2 f 1 1 1 1 2 2 m1v12i + m2 v2i = m1v12f + m2 v2 f 2 2 2 2

m1v 1i + m2 v 2i = (m1 + m2 )v f

**Typically have two unknowns solve the equations simultaneously
**

9 10

**Elastic Collisions, cont.
**

A simpler equation can be used in place of the KE equation

**Some General Notes About Collisions
**

Momentum is a vector quantity

Direction is important Be sure to have the correct signs

Example: collision of a ball with a wall

v1i − v2i = −(v1 f − v2 f ) v1i + v1 f = v2i + v2 f

or

r vi

11

For head-on collisions only

r vf

x

r r r p i = mv i = mv r r r p f = mv f = −mv r r r r ∆p = p f − p i = −2mv

Momentum delivered to the wall

12

**Summary of Types of Collisions
**

In an elastic collision, both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved In an inelastic collision, momentum is conserved but kinetic energy is not In a perfectly inelastic collision, momentum is conserved, kinetic energy is not, and the two objects stick together after the collision, so their final velocities are the same

13

**Sketches for Collision Problems
**

Draw “before” and “after” sketches Label each object

include the direction of velocity keep track of subscripts

14

**Sketches for Perfectly Inelastic Collisions
**

The objects stick together Include all the velocity directions The “after” collision combines the masses

**Example: Problem #27
**

m = 2x104 kg vi1 =3.0 m/s vi2 =1.2 m/s a) vf-?;

vi1 Before

15

b) EKlost-?

vi2 After

16

vf

**Example: Problem #36
**

m1=10.0 g v1i=20.0 cm/s m2=15.0 g v2i=30.0 cm/s v1f - ? v2f - ?

Before m1, v1i m2, v2i

Glancing Collisions

The conservation of momentum principle implies that the total momentum of the system in each direction is conserved m1v1ix + m2 v2ix = m1v1 fx + m2 v2 fx and

After m1, v1f m2, v2f

**m1v1iy + m2 v2iy = m1v1 fy + m2 v2 fy
**

Use subscripts for identifying the object, initial and final velocities, and components

17 18

Glancing Collisions

**Problem Solving for Glancing Collisions
**

Two-dimensional problem Conservation of Energy: If the collision is elastic, write an expression for the total energy before and after the collision

Have to solve the quadratic equations

Can’t be simplified

The “after” velocities have x and y components Momentum is conserved in the x direction and in the y direction Apply conservation of momentum separately to each direction

19

20

**Problem Solving for TwoDimensional Collisions
**

There will be two equations for inelastic collisions There will be three equations for elastic collisions Solve the equations simultaneously

**Example: Problem #43
**

m1=2000 kg v1i=10.0 m/s m2=3000 kg vf=5.22 m/s q=40± v2i -?

21

v1i

v2i

22

**Example: Problem #44
**

m1=m2=m v1i=13.0 m/s q=55± vlimit=35mi/h v2i -?

v2i

23

Rocket Propulsion

The operation of a rocket depends on the law of conservation of momentum as applied to a system, where the system is the rocket plus its ejected fuel

This is different than propulsion on the earth where two objects exert forces on each other

road on car train on track

v1i

24

Rocket Propulsion, 2

The rocket is accelerated as a result of the thrust of the exhaust gases This represents the inverse of an inelastic collision

Momentum is conserved Kinetic Energy is increased (at the expense of the stored energy of the rocket fuel)

25

Rocket Propulsion, 3

**The initial mass of the rocket is M + ∆m
**

M is the mass of the rocket m is the mass of the fuel

**The initial velocity of the rocket is v
**

26

r

Rocket Propulsion

**Rocket Propulsion, final
**

The basic equation for rocket propulsion is:

M v f − v i = v e ln i M f

The rocket’s mass is M The mass of the fuel, ∆m, has been ejected The rocket’s speed has increased to

r r v + ∆v

Mi is the initial mass of the rocket plus fuel Mf is the final mass of the rocket plus any remaining fuel The speed of the rocket is proportional to the exhaust speed

27 28

Thrust of a Rocket

The thrust is the force exerted on the rocket by the ejected exhaust gases The instantaneous thrust is given by

Ma = M ∆v ∆M = ve ∆t ∆t

The thrust increases as the exhaust speed increases and as the burn rate (∆M/∆t) increases

29

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