Momentum Chapter 6

Momentum and Collisions
Part 2

Linear momentum of an object

r r p = mv

Vector quantity, the direction of the momentum is the same as the velocity’s y

r p

p y = mv y

p x = mvx



Impulse delivered to the object

Impulse-Momentum Theorem
Impulse acting on the object is equal to the change in momentum of the object

r r I = F∆t

Vector quantity, the direction is the same as the direction of the force

r r r r r I = F∆t = ∆p = mv f − mv i

In order to change the momentum of an object, a force must be applied

an alternative statement of Newton’s second law

r r r ∆p m( v f − v i ) r = =F ∆t ∆t


Conservation of Momentum
An isolated system is defined as a system which does not have external forces Momentum in an isolated system is conserved

Quick Quiz 6.2 (p.168)
Initial: vbs=0, vrs=0 Final: vbr ∫ 0, vrs - ? Use conservation of momentum

r Fext = 0 r r r ∆p = mv f −mv i = 0

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Momentum is conserved in any collision Elastic collision
both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved

Inelastic Collisions
Momentum is conserved Kinetic energy is not conserved
Some of the kinetic energy is converted into other types of energy such as heat, sound, work to permanently deform an object Perfectly inelastic collisions occur when the objects stick together
Not all of the KE is necessarily lost

Inelastic collisions
Kinetic energy is not conserved

Actual collisions
Most collisions fall between elastic and perfectly inelastic collisions


Perfectly Inelastic Collisions
When two objects stick together after the collision, they have undergone a perfectly inelastic collision Conservation of momentum becomes

Elastic Collisions
Both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved
m1v1i + m2 v2i = m1v1 f + m2 v2 f 1 1 1 1 2 2 m1v12i + m2 v2i = m1v12f + m2 v2 f 2 2 2 2

m1v 1i + m2 v 2i = (m1 + m2 )v f

Typically have two unknowns solve the equations simultaneously
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Elastic Collisions, cont.
A simpler equation can be used in place of the KE equation

Some General Notes About Collisions
Momentum is a vector quantity
Direction is important Be sure to have the correct signs
Example: collision of a ball with a wall

v1i − v2i = −(v1 f − v2 f ) v1i + v1 f = v2i + v2 f

r vi

For head-on collisions only

r vf

r r r p i = mv i = mv r r r p f = mv f = −mv r r r r ∆p = p f − p i = −2mv

Momentum delivered to the wall


Summary of Types of Collisions
In an elastic collision, both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved In an inelastic collision, momentum is conserved but kinetic energy is not In a perfectly inelastic collision, momentum is conserved, kinetic energy is not, and the two objects stick together after the collision, so their final velocities are the same

Sketches for Collision Problems
Draw “before” and “after” sketches Label each object
include the direction of velocity keep track of subscripts

Sketches for Perfectly Inelastic Collisions
The objects stick together Include all the velocity directions The “after” collision combines the masses

Example: Problem #27
m = 2x104 kg vi1 =3.0 m/s vi2 =1.2 m/s a) vf-?;
vi1 Before

b) EKlost-?
vi2 After


Example: Problem #36
m1=10.0 g v1i=20.0 cm/s m2=15.0 g v2i=30.0 cm/s v1f - ? v2f - ?
Before m1, v1i m2, v2i

Glancing Collisions
The conservation of momentum principle implies that the total momentum of the system in each direction is conserved m1v1ix + m2 v2ix = m1v1 fx + m2 v2 fx and

After m1, v1f m2, v2f

m1v1iy + m2 v2iy = m1v1 fy + m2 v2 fy
Use subscripts for identifying the object, initial and final velocities, and components
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Glancing Collisions

Problem Solving for Glancing Collisions
Two-dimensional problem Conservation of Energy: If the collision is elastic, write an expression for the total energy before and after the collision
Have to solve the quadratic equations
Can’t be simplified

The “after” velocities have x and y components Momentum is conserved in the x direction and in the y direction Apply conservation of momentum separately to each direction



Problem Solving for TwoDimensional Collisions
There will be two equations for inelastic collisions There will be three equations for elastic collisions Solve the equations simultaneously

Example: Problem #43
m1=2000 kg v1i=10.0 m/s m2=3000 kg vf=5.22 m/s q=40± v2i -?



Example: Problem #44
m1=m2=m v1i=13.0 m/s q=55± vlimit=35mi/h v2i -?

Rocket Propulsion
The operation of a rocket depends on the law of conservation of momentum as applied to a system, where the system is the rocket plus its ejected fuel
This is different than propulsion on the earth where two objects exert forces on each other
road on car train on track



Rocket Propulsion, 2
The rocket is accelerated as a result of the thrust of the exhaust gases This represents the inverse of an inelastic collision
Momentum is conserved Kinetic Energy is increased (at the expense of the stored energy of the rocket fuel)

Rocket Propulsion, 3

The initial mass of the rocket is M + ∆m
M is the mass of the rocket m is the mass of the fuel

The initial velocity of the rocket is v


Rocket Propulsion

Rocket Propulsion, final
The basic equation for rocket propulsion is:

M v f − v i = v e ln i M  f

   

The rocket’s mass is M The mass of the fuel, ∆m, has been ejected The rocket’s speed has increased to

r r v + ∆v

Mi is the initial mass of the rocket plus fuel Mf is the final mass of the rocket plus any remaining fuel The speed of the rocket is proportional to the exhaust speed
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Thrust of a Rocket
The thrust is the force exerted on the rocket by the ejected exhaust gases The instantaneous thrust is given by
Ma = M ∆v ∆M = ve ∆t ∆t

The thrust increases as the exhaust speed increases and as the burn rate (∆M/∆t) increases


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