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National Federation of Professional Trainers

Sports Nutrition Manual


Sports Nutrition Professional

2nd Edition 2006

All rights reserved,


National Federation of Professional Trainers
&
Ron J. Clark

Written by:
Mark P. Kelly, PhD
Scott Skinner, RD
Ron J. Clark, President & CEO
Charles DeFrancessco
Frank Campitelli, BS
NFPT - ADVANCED NUTRITION SPECIALIST
*Recommended Reading NFPT Personal Trainer Manual, as well as the Weight
Training & Endurance Training Specialty Manuals for the best possible holistic educa-
tion experience!

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 SECTION III: Meal Timing . . . . . . . . . . . 30


Taking A Unique Approach To Making Cardiac Response to Eating and
Dietary Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Exercise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3,500 The Simple Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Eating Around Resistance Exercise. . . . . . 31
Pre-Workout Meal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
SECTION I: Metabolism of Nutrients . . . . 8 Post-Workout Meal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Carbohydrate Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Eating Around Aerobic & Incremental
Protein Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Exercise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Fat Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Pre-Workout Meal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Macronutrient Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Post-workout Meal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Glucose- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Discipline and Nutrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Description & Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Post Workout Force Feeding . . . . . . . . . . 35
High Glucose Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 The Questionable Role of Insulin
in Force-Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Low Glucose Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Amino Acids- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
SECTION IV: Weight Training
Description & Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
and Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
High Protein Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Nutrition & Resistance Athletes. . . . . . . . 38
Low Protein Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Body Tissue Protein Requirements . . . . . . 39
Optimizing Protein Intake . . . . . . . . . . 13
Body Tissue Energy Production . . . . . . . . 40
Fats- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
We are All Insulin Dependant. . . . . . . . . . 41
Description & Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Form & Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
More on Fats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Insulin & Amino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Heredity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Too Few Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Over-Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Too Many Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . 43
Amino Acids in Muscle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Optimal Insulin Secretions. . . . . . . . . . 43
The Role of Fat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Energy Crash Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Mitochondrial Re-Education . . . . . . . . . . 44
SECTION II: General Nutrition Issues . . . 17
Fat Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
What is Junk Food? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Negative Calorie Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
SECTION V: Unique Dietary
The Importance of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
What Makes Us Thirst? . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Different Energy Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
The Electrolytes Sodium & Potassium . . . 22 Low Level Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Carbohydrate Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Aerobic Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Optimizing Carbohydrate Intake . . . . . . . 24
Anaerobic Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Lowering Carbohydrates Will Lower
Triglycerides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Carbohydrates and Aging. . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
General Metabolic Considerations . . . . . . 28 Aging Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load . . . . . 28 Senility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Dietary Roadmap to Success . . . . . . . . . . 29 Proteins & Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Nutrition & Aerobic Athletes. . . . . . . 50 losing weight? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
What High Protein Diet is Safe? . . . . . 51 Problem: What if the weight gain
The Metabolic Continuum . . . . . . . . . 54 client stops or isnt gaining
weight? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Problem: I run all the time, and
SECTION VI: Dieting and Fat Loss . . 55 Im on a strict diet, why cant I
Nutritional Priorities & Fat lose this spare tire? . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Begets Fat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Problem: What can I do to convert
1st Nutritional Priority . . . . . . . . . 56 a starvation dieter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2nd Nutritional Priority . . . . . . . . . 56 Problem: Is there any way I can
3rd Nutritional Priority . . . . . . . . . 56 speed up my metabolism? . . . . . . . . 67
Is Fat Friend or Foe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Problem: What kind of food should
I eat to keep from getting fat? . . . . . 67
Invisible Overweight Condition . . . . . 57
Aerobics & Cardiorespiratory SECTION IX: Supplements . . . . . . . . 69
Conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
The Need for Supplements . . . . . . . . . 69
The Endomysium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Supplement Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Vitamins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
SECTION VII: Nutrition Charts . . . . 61 Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
The NFPT Dietary Advice Chart . . . . 61 40 Fundamental Nutrients . . . . . . . . . 74
Daily Expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
General Metabolic NFPT
Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Consultation Guidelines . . . . . . . . . 82
Percentage of Nutrients . . . . . . . . . 64 Master Food List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Number of Meals per Day . . . . . . . 64
Par-Q & You Form . . . . . . . . . . 90
Recommended Professional
SECTION VIII: Fitness Training
Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
and Trouble-Shooting . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Problem: How do you handle Policies & Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . 95
the weight loss client who isnt Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Candidates MUST Read Below
NFPT takes a unique physiological letic performance among apparently
look at nutrition as it applies to fitness healthy individuals. Dietitians are the
and athletics and the apparently healthy appropriate health care professionals to
individual. This manual offers insight be consulted for the planning and man-
regarding energy provision from the time aging of a patients diet in hospitals and
foods enter into the digestive process to providing specialized dietary advice.
when they are delivered to body cells and Moreover, a dietitian should be involved
most importantly how it all relates to fit- in providing nutrition advice if the client
ness and athletics. Never has the physiol- is not apparently healthy. Moreover,
ogy of nutrition been taught to the fitness Sports Nutrition Specialists cannot diag-
professional in a way that is more intrigu- nose disease and advise on treatment of
ing and comprehensive! disease. Dietitians provide nutritional
This manual content comprehensively care relating to the effects of disease on
addresses complicated body functions nutrient metabolism using diet therapy,
relating to physiological processes and nutritional assessments, and clinical
nutrient metabolism as it is affected nutrition counseling.
by all forms of exercise, and its impact Understand that your implementation
on issues ranging from general health to of nutrition methodologies discussed in
advanced sports performance. this manual are applied at your risk as
NOTE Your scope of practice as a any fitness nutrition recommendations
Sports Nutrition Specialist allows you to may result in client injury or even death
provide insight relating to the interrela- without proper screening and the
tionships between physiology and nutri- required involvement of the appropriate
tion relative to fitness, exercise, and ath- health care professional.
Introduction

Taking A Unique Approach To Making Dietary Recommendations


Teaching healthy dietary practices can be viewed from 2 totally separate perspec-
tives. One perspective, generally that of the dietitian and most fitness professionals, is
to educate from the outside. To provide for client distinction between nutritious whole-
some foods and junk foods, identifying carbohydrate, protein, and fat sources, and
offering consumer advice regarding food labeling. The other perspective is from the
inside, or physiological perspective to include an education on what the body does
with different foods once ingested, and foods positive & negative affects on physical
health and well being. Knowledge gained from both perspectives is important. However,
since education from the outside perspective is so widely practiced and made so
readily available, it may be more interesting to focus on the not so common inside
perspective in this study & reference manual.
Lets begin our studies by discussing the bodys internal nutrient provision & utili-
zation systems. The following will reflect a variety of little known facts and functions
that occur inside the body relative to educating clients in the area of enhancing positive
lifelong dietary habits, as well as ways to prevent the negative effects of poor eating
habits.
With these facts established, it seems logical that we next look at the purposes these
nutrients serve once present in the bloodstream, the positive and negative effects of
high and low levels of each, and lastly how to enhance the positives while minimizing
the negatives through dietary control.

Introduction
5
Individuals with low RMRs typically
3,500 The expend fewer calories during both daily
activity and the performance of exercise
Simple Math than do those with high RMRs who are
Why should the number 3,500 always performing the same work. When con-
stand out in your mind as a nutrition spe- sidering total daily activity expenditures,
cialist? This number has everything to do keep this in mind. With this issue
with the prescription of an overall fitness addressed we can get on with the applica-
program as it centers around the total tion of the magic number 3,500.
caloric intake. Diet & 3,500...
It has long been known that 3,500 The least attractive method used for
calories equate to a pound of bodyweight fat loss is unfortunately the most com-
in the metabolically average apparently monly used...dieting!
healthy individual with select exceptions. First of all, when one diets, there is
In this particular aspect, fitness can be always the opportunity for the body to
reduced to a mathematical equation. In a cannibalize muscles and not draw from
perfect world, you would first prefer to its fat reserves. This is unavoidable and
have the diagnostic capability to deter- can only be offset in degrees through the
mine RMR (Resting Metabolic Rate). performance of resistance exercise. Even
The term RMR is somewhat similar to during the most moderate dieting the
the term BMR. The RMR test basically body views fat reserves as being more
determines how many calories an indi- valuable than lean muscle as a starvation
vidual expends while sleeping. Each indi- fuel source to horde and will use seden-
vidual has a unique RMR. Generally tary muscles for energy instead. Through
speaking, those who have difficulty in regular resistance exercise during dieting
losing weight will have a low RMR and the body must continually adapt by the
those finding it difficult to gain weight preserving and even building of otherwise
will have a high RMR. The diagnostic useless muscle tissue in an effort to keep
determination of RMR is by far more up with your imposed strength demands.
accurate than the vague determination of This forces a greater degree of fat loss on
BMR most of us will likely be using in a low calorie diet and the preservation of
determining resting caloric consumption. metabolically active muscle tissue which
Prolonged, extremely low calorie dieting keeps the metabolic rate high.
will slow the metabolism even more and
would be reflected in a follow-up RMR Where do you draw the line when
sometime after a restricted caloric intake dieting? This is where the magic number
had been maintained. For this reason, 3,500 comes in. It is generally accepted
especially among those with already low that the optimum fat loss rate is achieved
RMRs, it is important to keep caloric by consuming 500 calories/day below an
consumption at or above RMR needs individuals weight maintenance intake
otherwise these already low RMR dieters need (RMR + daily activity + exercise
may be positioning themselves for an expenditure). This is effectively measured
even greater fat accumulation due to an in the tables provided elsewhere in this
even slower metabolism. Conversely, it is manual. At this 500 calories/day decrease,
just as important to maintain RMR mini- one should lose bodyweight at a rate of 1
mum intake among those with already pound per week (7x500=3,500). A diet
high RMRs in order to prevent an unde- any lower may result in unacceptable
sirable starvation loss of body (muscle) lean tissue loss. Conversely, those wish-
tissue. ing to gain weight should also use the

Introduction
6
number 3,500 to regulate their weight calorie/day increase in calories. Once
gain. When gaining weight, using resis- again, this is the ideal weight loss rate.
tance training in the process to optimize Keep in mind when exercising for fat loss
the lean weight increase and minimize the though, that intense aerobic activity
fat increase, the participant needs to keep causes lean tissue loss, and also that resis-
additional calories at approximately 500/ tance exercise needs to be performed
day over their weight maintenance intake during fat loss dieting to minimize the
(RMR + daily activity + exercise expendi- lean weight loss while dieting.
ture). Once again, this is effectively mea- For the weight gain fitness program
sured in the tables provided elsewhere in
participant, it is not recommended that
this manual. Generally, these additional
he/she perform a significant amount of
3,500 calories (500 calories/day increase)
aerobic activity opting of course to per-
will result in weight gain at a rate of 1
form heavy resistance training to opti-
pound per week.
mize lean weight increase. Unlike the fat
Both fat loss as well as weight gain loss participant, the best method of
diets that are too extreme end up being weight gain is to increase calories, taking
counter-productive resulting in either too care to perform resistance exercise at
much muscle loss during weight loss diet- moderate to high intensity to insure
ing, or too much fat increase during against undesirable fat accumulation.
weight gain dieting. Never, under any cir-
cumstances, prescribe a diet that is less Diet & Exercise...
than is required for RMR needs (approx. Combining proper caloric intake with
11 x LBW discussed elsewhere in this the right exercise program is the preferred
manual). method of achieving any weight mainte-
Exercise & 3,500... nance goal, fat loss or weight gain.
The healthiest, however most difficult, Understand that if the participant is exer-
way to lose fat is to exercise. If one could cising and dieting each of these two vari-
perform activity with a caloric expendi- ables need to be considered. For example,
ture of 500/day, he/she will lose weight at if a fat loss fitness program participant is
a rate of 1 pound per week. With this in expending 300 calories/day during exer-
mind, where weight maintenance is con- cise, the daily caloric intake need only be
cerned, an increased expenditure of 500 reduced by 200 calories. If the weight
calories/day through exercise amounts to gain participant is expending 300 calo-
the same as reducing calories at a rate of ries/day during exercise, the diet needs to
500/day. Conversely, a reduction of activ- be increased by 800 calories offsetting
ity expenditure in the amount of 500 cal- this expenditure to arrive at the desirable
ories/day amounts to the same as a 500 500 calorie/day increase.

Introduction
7
SECTION I

Metabolism
of Nutrients

Carbohydrate Metabolism
Carbohydrates are ingested; enter into the stomach, and then into the
small intestine, where almost all digestion occurs. The principle enzyme
that breaks down carbohydrates in the small intestine is amylase. These
enzymes then break down carbohydrates into simple sugars such as
fructose, galactose, glucose, and smaller chains of glucose molecules
(glucose polymers).
These simple sugars are then absorbed through the lining of the small
intestine and transported to the liver through the portal vein where the
liver then converts all these simple sugars into the common sugar glucose.
Glucose is the only usable form of simple sugar in the body.

Metabolism of Nutrients
8
The liver, the most active organ in the they will be taken up into the blood too
body, performs some 64 vital functions. quickly. The pancreas then reacts quickly
The liver releases this new glucose into resulting in an over-release of insulin.
the bloodstream to raise blood sugar Since the muscle tissues and liver take up
levels to where they are supposed to be. blood-glucose very slowly, the surplus of
If the supply of this newly ingested glu- insulin-carried blood glucose will bypass
cose is too high, it raises the blood sugar the two, and be rapidly stored in fat cells.
level. The excess glucose must be elimi- Also, since the hormone insulin over-
nated from the bloodstream. The pan- reacts in this situation, and its function is
creas houses the hormone insulin. When to eliminate sugar from the blood, within
the blood sugar reaches increasing levels, 20 to 30 minutes, blood sugar levels may
insulin is released to transport and/or fall below resting levels (hypoglycemia).
make available the excess glucose to body This reduces the glucose supply to the
tissues. The muscle tissue is then the first central nervous system having a notice-
stop for insulin-carried glucose, espe- able effect on higher brain function,
cially after exercise when muscle energy making you feel sluggish, tired, and run
stores are low. Insulin actually opens up down.
receptor sites on muscles allowing for the
The liver is then responsible for cor-
uptake of glucose to replenish depleted
recting this low blood sugar problem
muscle energy stores. Once glucose is
absorbed into the cell it is used for energy, with the help of another hormone called
the unused portion of this new glucose is glucagon, which is also released from the
then converted and stored in the muscle pancreas. Glucagon is released in response
as glycogen. Glycogen is then saved in to low blood sugar levels. The glucagon
the muscle cells for anaerobic (heavy) then triggers the liver to release stored
activities. It is important to note that glycogen as glucose to replenish blood-
muscle tissues can only take up glucose at sugar levels. This intermittent release of
a gradual rate. If too much insulin-car- stored glycogen from the Liver to regu-
ried glucose is available at one time in the late bloodsugar primarily for brain func-
bloodstream, insulins next stop for the tion is known as glycogenolysis.
storage of this abundant glucose is the If glucagon reaches the liver and for
liver. some reason, such as extreme dieting, or
Not unlike muscles, the liver can only overexertion, the liver cannot provide
take up glucose at a gradual rate. The glucose for the blood, a sequence of
liver has the potential to store between events occur resulting in the eventual
300 and 400 calories of glycogen. This breakdown of blood proteins, and the
liver glycogen, in contrast to muscle gly- undesirable cannibalism of organ and
cogen, is primarily used for brain func- muscle tissue for the needed glucose
tion as well as for aerobic activities. energy. This process of tissue breakdown
When the liver stores are full, and there is for energy is known as gluconeogenesis.
still a considerable amount of excess
insulin-carried glucose in the blood-
stream, it will be taken off and stored as Protein
fat in adipose tissue. Unlike muscle &
liver, fat (adipose) cells store blood glu- Metabolism
cose quite rapidly. The body has the life sustaining abil-
It is important to note that if the car- ity to transform ingested proteins into
bohydrates ingested are already simple living body tissues through a series of
sugars, or are low in soluble dietary fiber, metabolic processes.

Metabolism of Nutrients
9
When a protein is ingested it moves important to note that too much protein
from the stomach into the small intestine, intake may place undue stress on the liver
where almost all digestion occurs. The and kidney in the case of a pre-existing
enzyme pepsin acts to break down pro- condition. In order to minimize this stress
teins into smaller proteins (peptides) and while on a high protein intake, ingest
individual amino acids. Complete pro- large quantities of fluids.
teins need to be ingested every 3 to 4
hours to insure the availability of all pos-
sible combinations of amino acids for Fat Metabolism
cellular uptake. Ingested fats travel through the stom-
Since the body cannot store individual ach and into the small intestine. The lipo-
amino acids, they are collected and lytic enzymes bile and lypase act upon
exchanged in the liver, the blood, and the them, which is an emulsifier. Once broken
interstitial spaces (space surrounding down by these enzymes into phospholip-
individual muscle fibers), and cannot be ids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, they
used for cellular protein synthesis until are packaged back into chylomicrons and
all of the right combinations are present bypass the liver, entering directly into the
at once. The amino acids that are present bloodstream through the lymphatic
are useless for protein synthesis until system. These chylomicrons are taken up
they are combined with the required by adipose tissue or eventually make it to
missing amino acids. If the missing amino the liver where they are broken back
acids are not provided within 3 to 4 down into phospholipids, triglycerides,
hours, the existing amino acids are and LDL and VLDL cholesterol. It is
deaminated and are no longer useful for interesting to note that the VLDLs and
protein synthesis. LDLs that are ingested are exactly the
The liver uses amino acids to build same as that cholesterol the liver makes.
and store cannibalistic enzymes as well, The phospholipids are released into
for their release during times of physical
the blood for transport to cells for struc-
stress. The liver builds blood proteins
tural membrane formation. Some of the
using amino acids. When the diet is insuf-
triglycerides are broken down into fatty
ficient in protein sparing carbohydrates,
amino acids are deaminated by liver acids and glycerol. The fatty acids, which
enzymes and used to produce glucose are the bodys abundant source of energy
energy with a toxic by-product of ammo- during both low level and steady state
nia. This by-product is further broken aerobic activity, are released into the
down by the liver into urea toxins and blood. Glycerol is converted to glucose
excreted in the urine. and either stored as glycogen, or released
into the blood as well. Remaining triglyc-
The above amino acid deamination
erides are either stored in the liver, or
occurs via a process called gluconeogen-
released into the blood for storage in fat
esis, and usually occurs during strict diet-
tissue, and possible collection in the inter-
ing, overexertion, and/or while on a very
high protein intake. This process is obvi- stitial spaces (compartments surrounding
ously undesirable because amino acids muscle fibers) for adaptive purposes,
should be spared to rebuild tissues and which will be discussed elsewhere.
make structural repairs. The most effec- The LDL and VLDL cholesterol is
tive way of sparing amino acids for this released into the blood and are responsi-
purpose is to insure the ingestion of suf- ble for platelet formation in cardiovascu-
ficient amounts of carbohydrates to pro- lar tissue contributing to cardiovascular
vide for imposed energy needs. It is also diseases.

Metabolism of Nutrients
10
A typical healthy diet, according to ing excess insulin-carried glucose is the
some medical and scientific sources, con- adipose (fat) tissue. Also, it is important
sists of about 20 to 30 percent fat. This is to realize that insulin-carried glucose
a little on the high side. There is abso- uptake occurs much more rapidly in adi-
lutely no reason for not being able to find pose tissues than in liver and muscle tis-
sufficient healthy carbohydrate and pro- sues. The order of uptake above reflects
tein sources to enable a person to keep the desirable sequence of energy repletion
their total fat intake down to about 20- under ideal conditions of recovery from
25% of total calories consumed. activity.
High Glucose Levels
Macronutrient When gross increases in blood glucose
occur (carbohydrate overindulgence or
Elements simple sugar ingestion), the release of
insulin will be exaggerated resulting in
the immediate removal of most if not all
Glucose- circulating insulin-carried blood-glucose
since insulins function is to remove its
Description & Purpose attached glucose molecule from the blood
The nutrient glucose is the bodys most at all costs. Furthermore, due to the more
preferred source of energy during daily rapid glucose uptake by adipose tissues,
the majority of this overabundance of
activity. Under normal conditions glucose
insulin-carried glucose will end up in adi-
is converted and used for energy more pose tissues. This, of course, is clearly
rapidly than any other nutrient. The aver- undesirable, and if continued, can result
age adult cardiovascular system has the in overweight conditions, pancreas disor-
capacity to maintain approximately 80 ders, and blood sugar abnormalities
calories of blood glucose. When circulat- (Hypoglycemia or Type II Diabetes).
ing glucose rises above this level, the hor-
mone Insulin is released from the Low Glucose Levels
Pancreas, and its function is to rid the When glucose levels are low (low cal-
circulatory system of the excess glucose orie dieting, low carbohydrate intake,
in any way possible. In order for glucose negative energy balance, post-workout
to be taken up from the blood by all body energy depleted state, aftermath of high
tissues and organs (except by the brain), calorie simple sugar intake), the Pancreas
releases a hormone called Glucagon
the hormone insulin must accompany it,
whose function it is to stimulate the liver
hence the familiar term insulin-carried to convert and release its stored glycogen
glucose. Insulin-carried glucose is gradu- (glucose) into the bloodstream
ally taken up by the liver and converted (Glycogenolysis). When liver stores are
to its storage form, glycogen if its stores exhausted (typical under the above listed
are low. The livers capacity is approxi- conditions), catabolic and cannibalistic
mately 300-400 calories of stored glyco- enzymes and hormones are released into
gen. When the liver glycogen stores are the blood that break down amino acids,
full, abundant muscle tissues, as needed, blood proteins, and body tissues (mostly
take up remaining insulin-carried glucose muscle), for energy. If a low blood glu-
in the event the muscles are recovering cose condition is prolonged and extreme,
from some sort of strenuous muscular metabolic acidosis and death may occur
activity. The final destination for remain- as a result of the toxicity of the bi-prod-

Metabolism of Nutrients
11
ucts of protein and body tissue cannibal- calories, a level of protein intake that is
ism (Ketone bodies). greater than the bodys need will likely
result in a positive nitrogen balance, but
at the expense of over stressing the liver.
Amino Acids- Remember that through deamination the
liver is charged with breaking down the
Description & Purpose toxin ammonia into urea for excretion.
Amino Acids are the end result of pro- This requires more work on the part of
tein ingestion. Amino acids are used for the liver. The greater the excess amino
three basic functions in the body. #1-the acids the harder the liver has to work.
building blocks for body tissue repair and Overabundant amino acid presence in
synthesis. #2-the synthesis of hormones, the blood accelerates metabolism and
enzymes, and blood proteins. #3-for more water is lost during these increased
energy production through deamination. chemical reactions, possibly causing
Amino acid use in building body tissue dehydration in varying degrees. An alter-
is well known. Specific amino acid com- native to decreasing the protein intake
binations are predetermined through under these stated conditions is the con-
genetic nitrogenous base coding, to be sideration of increasing the intensity of
synthesized into living body tissues, exercise. This will minimize the excess
muscle tissues, hormones, even blood circulating amino acids. The best way to
proteins (to include antibodies). While optimize protein intake is through UUN
other specific amino acid combinations testing (discussed elsewhere) and then
are destined to be synthesized by the liver altering resistance training intensity.
into the very enzymes and hormones that #2-In the absence of sufficient calo-
convert free amino acids, blood/body ries, whether protein ingestion is high or
protein and fatty tissue, into energy not, a high level of circulating broken-
through deamination, catabolism, and down body proteins and resulting amino
cannibalism. acids will indeed result in a negative
It is important to note that whenever nitrogen balance, as well as the livers
energy is produced a degree of amino production of keto acids (toxic to brain
acid deamination is unavoidable. It is function). This, low calorie, overabun-
equally important to realize that free dant amino acid presence is clearly a
amino acids are available in the blood- more critical metabolic situation than
stream for 3-4 hours for combining with when total calories are sufficient as out-
other amino acids for the uptake and lined above, and is undesirable regardless
synthesis of body tissues. If after this of health and fitness goals. This situation
approximate length of time, amino acids occurs during prolonged and extreme
are still free in the bloodstream, they will dieting and or overexertion. Remember
be degraded and/or deaminated by liver that fat loss goals and appearance take a
enzymes into energy. This amino acid back seat when health is threatened.
deamination results in the toxic bi-prod- Maximizing fat loss results does some-
uct ammonia, which the liver then con- times call for a substantial restriction of
verts into urea nitrogen for excretion. total calories, however, using Keto-stix
High Protein Levels (available at most drug stores), will reveal
There are two primary metabolic con- threatening trace measurements of ace-
ditions during which an undesirably high tate. A positive Keto-stix reading is a
protein level exists. serious matter and requires immediate
action. Reduce intensity and frequency of
#1-In the presence of sufficient total resistance exercise, increase total calories,

Metabolism of Nutrients
12
reduce protein intake, spend more time #2-In the absence of sufficient total
recovering between sessions, drink more calories, while performing little or no
fluids, and/or minimize aerobic activity. strenuous activity, it is likely that few
Any one or a combination of several amino acids will escape the deamination
above recommended actions should result process. Furthermore, the synthesis of
in a safer metabolic condition. Keep in protein based hormones, enzymes, blood
mind that increasing the protein intake proteins and various body tissues will be
while reducing the carbohydrate intake compromised at best. The performance
with fat loss in mind will have positive of strenuous resistance exercise under
fat loss effects since amino acid deamina- these low calorie, low protein dietary
tion constitutes more work and acceler- conditions will result in the continued
ates metabolism. It is not suggested to cannibalism of various structural body
maintain an extremely low calorie, high tissues that may include muscle and organ
protein intake for periods longer than 3- tissues.
4 weeks, and increased water intake must Optimizing Protein Intake
be an integral part of this short-term
In an effort to maintain a positive
dietary fat loss measure.
nitrogen balance (ingesting more nitro-
Low Protein Levels gen than excreting), the intention should
#1-In the presence of sufficient total be to provide a steady flow of ingested
calories, low protein ingestion will not protein (every 3-4 hours), consisting of a
easily accommodate the building of new wide variety of amino acids allowing for
tissue. It becomes extremely important, if all possible combinations. In this way
ingesting little or no protein, that energy you will be insuring the continued syn-
needs are being completely provided for thesis of body tissues, hormones and
through ingested carbohydrates and fats, enzymes (positive nitrogen balance). It is
freeing up what few amino acids are pres- important to realize that amino acids are
ent in the blood for the synthesis of body most effectively spared from the process
proteins listed earlier to include muscle of deamination in the presence of suffi-
tissues. When too little protein is being cient blood-glucose energy that results
ingested and intense resistance training is primarily from carbohydrate ingestion in
performed, catabolism is prolonged and the apparently healthy individual. So, as
a long-term negative nitrogen balance long as protein intake is sufficient, the
can be anticipated. While there is argu- ingestion of more total carbohydrate cal-
ment that several natural complex carbo- ories will contribute to a positive nitro-
hydrates contain protein, it is admitted gen balance. Furthermore, since not
that several amino acids are missing from unlike glucose, insulin must carry amino
these carbohydrates (argument made by acids into muscle tissues, and carbohy-
vegetarian). In most cases when ingested drate ingestion causes insulin release, it
proteins are insufficient even for the would make good sense to ingest proteins
required synthesis and repair of vital with carbohydrates to optimize insulin-
blood proteins and organ tissues, cata- carried amino acid uptake and utilization
in body tissues.
bolic enzymes and cannibalistic hor-
mones are dispatched to degrade and All protein foods have varying Protein
cannibalize existing low priority body Efficiency Ratios (PERs), with milk and
tissues using their bi-products as building egg proteins rating highest on the list of
blocks instead. Since antibodies, for complete proteins.
example, are among these unneeded The steady provision of protein
body tissues that are cannibalized, the throughout the day will generally result
bodys immune system suffers. in a positive nitrogen balance. Where

Metabolism of Nutrients
13
activity is concerned, the greater the and bi-products of this process are
intensity and duration of resistance exer- excreted.
cise, the greater the required protein Cholesterols (mostly LDL) are taken
ingestion. up by various body tissues, to include
Here is a suggestion to those of your muscle, for tissue component repair. It is
clients who are not currently training for thought that LDL uptake increases linear
size & strength. Let your activity dictate to intensity and duration of exercise.
your protein intake. If you trained today HDL, otherwise known as the good
with a greater degree of intensity than cholesterol, is a bi-product of this uptake
usual, then ingest additional proteins of LDL by body tissues. It stands to
every 3-4 hours. If your exercise intensity reason then that exercise decreases circu-
level was somewhat low today, then con- lating LDLs while increasing circulating
centrating on your protein intake will not HDLs. Also, it is important to note that
be as important; unless you are practic- the Liver can synthesis its own choles-
ing a high protein low carbohydrate diet. terol, usually in the form of VLDLs. Keep
As mentioned elsewhere, as an endur- in mind that it is the increasing ratio of
ance athlete performing aerobic activity circulating LDL to HDL that represents
for 90+ minutes in a single session, con- the greater threat of cardiovascular dis-
sider the ingestion of proteins during the ease, not simply the total circulating
activity instead of complex carbohy- levels of cholesterol.
drates. Protein ingestion may act to main- Triglycerides circulate in the blood-
tain blood-sugar levels longer. stream and are broken down into fatty
acids and glycerol to meet immediate
energy needs during rest, low level activ-
Fats- ity and during the performance of aero-
bic activity. When in abundance, triglyc-
Description & Purpose erides are stored in the liver and adipose
Contrary to popular belief, fats are a tissues as fat.
required nutrient in the diet. However, it
is suggested that a balanced diet consist-
ing of proteins and carbohydrates usually
contains all the essential fats making
More on Fats
The first thing you should advise your
deliberate fat ingestion unnecessary for
client to do is to consume moderate
the apparently healthy individual. This is
amounts of saturated fats and cholester-
the position of the National Federation
ols. These food sources include dairy
of Professional Trainers.
products, fast foods, red meats, fried
As discussed elsewhere, ingested fats foods, and cooking oil that is solid at
are broken down in the stomach & small room temperature.
intestine into phospholipids, cholesterols
There are three basic reasons for a
and triglycerides. In turn, these fatty
client to have high total cholesterol levels
tissue components are packaged into
over 240 mg/dcl, inactivity, heredity,
bundles called chylomicrons and enter
over-consumption.
the bloodstream through the lymphatic
system where the liver once again breaks Heredity
them back down. Since there was very minimal choles-
Phospholipids generally remain in the terol in the diet long ago the human body
bloodstream to maintain circulating adapted by calling on the liver to make
blood lipids. These phospholipids its own cholesterol. Tendencies toward
undergo gradual hormonal degradation high cholesterol production in the liver

Metabolism of Nutrients
14
can be passed from generation to genera-
tion as genetic traits. Cholesterol is essen- Amino Acids in
tial for the production of hormones and
for the repair of certain body tissues to Muscle
include muscle. When hormones are syn- Once amino acids have been taken up
thesized, LDLs (low density lipoproteins) into the muscle, there are two basic cel-
and VLDLs (very low density lipopro- lular functions they are called upon to
teins) are needed. When tissues are dam- perform. The first, and most vital func-
aged through the performance of work, tion is to become cellular catalysts. These
cholesterol is needed for repair. In fact, catalysts perform cellular work, and the
the HDLs (high density lipoproteins), rate of their depletion is directly related
which are considered to be the good cho- to the amount and duration of cellular
lesterols, are actually secreted from the work performed. Without catalysts, the
liver into the blood to assist with the muscle fiber would no longer function.
uptake and use of LDLs and VLDLs For this reason, catalyst replenishment
for tissue repair after the performance takes precedence over repairing tissue.
of strenuous work such as resistance The second function in the case of muscle
training. conditioning is the use of surplus amino
It is not surprising then that we acids as the building blocks used to create
encourage those with an inherited choles- and repair body tissues. This process is
terol overproduction problem, to per- commonly known as protein synthesis
form resistance exercise to increase the in muscle tissue.
good HDL cholesterols, because HDLs in If the duration of intense exercise is
turn attract and eliminate the bad LDL too great, catalysts are depleted and must
and VLDL cholesterols from the blood- be replaced immediately in order for
stream. Simply cutting down on dietary them to perform survival functions. The
intake for those with an inherited choles- absorbed amino acids that are intended
terol problem may not in itself have an for protein synthesis are the first to be
optimal effect. converted into catalysts. If there are insuf-
Over-Consumption ficient amino acids present, the muscle
The other case of high cholesterol is tissue itself will be used (gluconeogene-
simply due to over-consumption, and can sis). This constitutes overtraining and is
obviously undesirable.
easily be determined through your pre-
liminary dietary review. If the clients The simplest way for your client to
food selection consists of considerable avoid this type of catalyst depleting
saturated fats, which are high in choles- overtraining is to consume adequate total
terol, you may wish to recommend he or calories to include complete protein every
she have a complete blood profile per- 3 to 4 hours.
formed with special emphasis on their Also, since the body prefers to use car-
total cholesterol and the LDL to HDL bohydrates for energy, insure the client is
cholesterol ratio (no greater than 5 to 1). consuming an adequate amount of car-
It is very important that the client bohydrates which spares protein. Last, of
know it is not simply the total cholesterol course, set up a routine for your client
being too high that represents a problem. that is not over exertive, and there will be
The ratio of LDL to HDL is a major con- sufficient post-workout recovery cata-
cern as well, and should be no greater lysts and energy present to immediately
than 5 to 1. initiate anabolism and avoid continued
catabolism (tissue breakdown). It is inter-
esting to note that the individual amino
acids Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine

Metabolism of Nutrients
15
make up almost 60% of all muscle tissue. metabolism is slow however, the quality
They are believed, therefore, to be the of the low calorie diet becomes more
primary amino acids that are most read- important.
ily taken up and converted into catalysts, Even with this understanding, it is
sparing other amino acids for protein obvious that avoiding excess fat intake is
synthesis and energy production. still the healthy thing to do. There is no
benefit for a healthy diet to consist of
The Role of Fat more than 20-25% fat.
The Role Fatty Acids Play in
The body is an adaptive mechanism. Carbohydrate Replacement
Fat is actually transported and stored in
It is a scientific fact that fatty acids are
different locations based on the exercise
the muscles desired source of energy at
and activity needs imposed on the body
rest. Fatty acids are taken up into the cell
and genetics.
and used to make ATP that fuels the cell
Ingested fat is of 3 types, the newest allowing it to perform daily functions.
man-made addition to the fat family, While recovering from high volume resis-
trans-fats which are by far the worst to tance training workouts, there is a con-
ingest and are very high in cholesterol; siderable amount of glycogen that needs
saturated, containing cholesterol; and to be replaced using fatty acids at rest as
unsaturated, which does not contain cho- the source of fuel enabling the muscle to
lesterol. All contribute equally to fat replenish its reserves. No fatty acids...no
accumulation. It is also interesting to energy to replenish glycogen reserves.
note that in the absence of dietary fat, Simple. It is almost humanly impossible
excess carbohydrates and proteins are to not be able to produce sufficient fatty
converted and stored as fat. The end acids at rest to provide for this recovery
result being the same, only the process is function. Fat loss will always be the end
slower. For this reason, a calorie, is a cal- result of recovery from energy exhaustive
orie, is a calorie. A high total caloric resistance training while on the appropri-
intake, even low in fat, is more likely to ate nutritional program.
contribute to fat accumulation than a
low total caloric intake consisting of Fatty acids are the desired source of
moderate to high levels of ingested fat. ATP energy production at rest. When
Under temporary restrictive dietary con- near O body fat exists (3% body fat is
ditions (pertaining to those individuals normally required to support live tissue),
with average metabolisms), the body is and the muscles are still not completely
deprived of its needed total calories in the carbohydrate loaded, the introduction of
first place, and it becomes desperate for dietary fat while carbohydrate loading
ingested calories it can use for energy, will once again provide fatty acids for the
even if they are fat calories. When the production of ATP energy necessary to
bodys demand for total calories is once enable the muscle to efficiently perform
again met, it then becomes important to the tasks of storing glycogen to the point
restrict the now overabundant fat calorie of super-saturation. In order to elaborate
consumption, because now these fat cal- on the above, there have been reported
ories are surplus, and will be readily deaths among high level professional
stored in fat cells. In relation to low calo- bodybuilders who drove their body fat
rie diets, the bodys priority system places and fat ingestion so low as to result in
quantity first and then quality. If your related conditions.

Metabolism of Nutrients
16
Section II

General
Nutrition Issues

Strictly following a proper diet can at times be extremely difficult, if


not impossible. It takes practice! It may take up to a year to completely
change current bad eating habits into good ones. Suggest to your client
that he/she work on their diet one meal at a time. Work on the first meal
for a period of a week, two weeks, or as long as it takes to make this
particular meal healthy, then move on to the next.
DO NOT associate the word diet with starvation! This is one of the
worst things a person can do to himself or herself both physically and
mentally. When their body senses starvation, it will go into a survival
mode, and conserve body fat, instead opting to use amino acids, blood
proteins, and muscle & organ tissue as primary sources of energy.

General Nutrition Issues


17
Mentally they are destined to break down When discussing diet, it is essential to
and feast on junk food, later viewing this mention the bodys most immediate needs
as a personal failure. Starvation as a are oxygen and water. Adequate fluid
means of fat loss should be practiced only intake is extremely vital to many internal
by a qualified physician for the treatment body functions. If your clients are like
of severe cases of obesity. As the client most, and physical appearance dominates
learns more about their diet, they may be their motivation to exercise and eat prop-
surprised at their required number of cal- erly, consider the following. In addition
ories. Not everyone has the same caloric to muscle cannibalism caused by starva-
needs. Stick to a consistent number of tion and muscle atrophy caused by inac-
calories, monitor body fat percentage, tivity, there is similar muscle shrinkage
and when this percentage levels off, you due to dehydration. A considerable
will then know exactly what the partici- amount of muscle is fluid. When the body
pants caloric needs are. This will then senses dehydration, it retains water.
During this period, a portion of the fluids
allow you to make adjustments to their
in the muscle will be given up to help
diet for weight loss or weight gain. Also,
with various needs elsewhere in the body.
keep in mind that one gram of fat is more
Not unlike starvation, dehydration will
than double the number of calories found cause fat cells to increase in size. Only
in one gram of protein or carbohydrates. this time these fat cells are pulling in sur-
Think of food simply as energy. The vival stores of water (more on water
purpose of this energy is for oxidative retention later in this manual). Since
functions of the body. So, generally during dehydration a large portion of this
speaking, if you are eating lower quality water taken up by fat cells comes directly
energy, your body functions are of lower from muscle tissues, your body composi-
quality. tion will suffer tremendously.
Because of todays hectic lifestyles it is Since we spend so much time and
common to take in lower quality energy effort training to improve our physical
(fast foods, etc.). Our western civilization appearance, it only makes sense for
has developed one of the worst, if not the us to avoid inactivity, starvation &
worst, diets in the entire world. We prac- dehydration.
tically have a monopoly on heart disease
and certain cancers. As the age old saying
goes, you are what you eat! What is
Following a proper diet may mean for
some the transformation of one big meal
Junk Food?
a day into 4-5 smaller meals. Eating only Posing this question to the average
1-2 large meals per day may mean that person will usually elicit a response of
their body spends time in the starvation thats easy, food thats not good for
mode for many hours at a time. Also, me! Is this an accurate statement? Close
eating more calories at a given time than enough?
can be readily used, may result in fat stor- There are regulatory agencies in place
age. Eating 4-5 small meals each day applying stricter nutritional guidelines
causes digestion to take place for longer for the care of domestic animals than
periods throughout the day, which actu- human beings!
ally raises the metabolism. Following a To be more specific, in terms of
proper diet will usually mean, for most describing junk food, consider the fol-
people, to lower fat intake. lowing definition. Any man-made

General Nutrition Issues


18
digestible or partially digestible substance know, we need calories to manufacture
lacking sufficient enzymes, or the enzyme energy both for exercise and for recover-
producing elements required to break ing from exercise?
down the host substance, thus calling After performing some research, there
upon the body to produce the appropri- may actually be some truth to this inno-
ate enzymes on its own taxing related vative perspective on the composition of
body systems. some foods.
One of the many locations in the All right, in fact, there really is no such
human body where enzymes are pro- thing as negative calorie foods! That is to
duced is actually in the lining of the small say, not until after these particular foods
intestine itself. It has been theorized that have been ingested. What happens after
in the beginning of mans existence, there that, however, may come dangerously
was no need for the body to create close to what could ultimately be inter-
enzymes (mainly in the intestinal tract),
preted as truly a fat loss response on the
because in that time, all natural sources
part of resulting internal metabolic pro-
of nutrients contained ample enzyme
producing elements for the proper assim- cesses.
ilation of the host foods. Over the years All foods have a caloric (calories),
then, starting with procedures as seem- macro-nutrient (carbohydrate, fat, pro-
ingly innocent as food preparation and tein), and vitamin & mineral content,
cooking, our bodies have gradually with many having their own enzymes.
adapted by learning to produce addi- For the purpose of this subject area, we
tional enzymes on their own. While this will concern ourselves with the calorie &
is an interesting theory, it remains just enzyme producing components of foods.
that, a theory. It has been simplified by researchers, that
It would seem significant at this point vitamins can be considered biochemicals
to losely define healthy foods. In contrast found in foods that, among their many
to the above definition of junk foods, by other functions, stimulate living tissues
reversing, if you will, the definition of to produce enzymes. Ideally foods con-
junk foods, you arrive at a functional tain and cause the production of suffi-
definition of healthful foods. cient enzymes to breakdown that partic-
ular foods caloric nutrients. Therefore,
Negative for our purposes, one relative result of
vitamin ingestion is the production of
Calorie Foods enzymes.
As a side note, this lay definition of
Is this possible? Can a food actually vitamins paves the way for a more clear
have not only no calories, but also even understanding of empty calories (junk
negative calories? No way! And, if it were
food) as well. Foods falling into this
possible, what effect would ingesting
empty calorie category would be foods
negative calories really have? Could you
literally eat your way to fat loss...the with too little enzyme producing ele-
more you eat the more you lose? And, on ments, vitamins & minerals, while con-
the down side, would the ingestion of taining a surplus of calories. The inges-
negative calories potentially off-set tion of empty calorie foods requires the
your positive calorie energy reserves, body to produce significant amounts of
canceling out the effectiveness of your its own enzymes (usually in the lining of
strength training...because, as we all the intestinal tract) to be able to convert

General Nutrition Issues


19
these empty calories into usable energy. scribed exercise program, this constitutes
Obviously, these enzyme-producing func- a dramatic weight loss that could only be
tions in the body should be reserved for attributed to the consumption of various
the performance of other internal, and fruits & vegetables and could point to
more vital metabolic reactions. foods in this fruit and vegetable group as
It is a given these days, that it is diffi- having a negative calorie effect.
cult to find foods that contain a sufficient Reference #2:
amount of vitamins & minerals to alone In an article in the January, 94 Issue
break down their own host caloric
of Self Magazine, contributed by Dr. Neal
nutrients (purely natural food). This situ-
Barnard M.D., author of Food For Life
ation can be attributed to nutrient rob-
(Harmony Books), he basically supports
bing pesticide application, processing,
the concept of negative calorie foods
the use of preservatives, and various com-
monly used poor cooking practices. (keep in mind there were no research
studies referenced in this article to sup-
Surprisingly, in the case of the foods in port his claims).
question, not only are there sufficient
vitamins & minerals, there is actually a Lets speculate for a moment. With the
surplus of these enzyme producing bio- above information in mind, while obvi-
chemicals! This simply means that once ously not conclusive, let us assume the
ingested, these negative calorie foods transport of these surplus digestive
enzymes into the blood is a given. Now
provide for enzyme production in quanti-
then, the fact is, enzymes are responsible
ties sufficient to break down not only its
for the acceleration of ALL chemical
own host calories, but additional calories
reactions in the body. The acceleration of
present in digestion as well! Is this dis-
chemical reactions in the body then
covery truly a tremendous breakthrough?
equates to a faster metabolism (this effect
Not really. Unless of course, research is
is implied by the earlier referenced stud-
performed confirming that these surplus
ies performed by Dr. Dean Ornish, M.
enzymes produced in digestion are in
D.). Now then, this conclusive discovery
some way transported into the blood-
would truly be a tremendous break-
stream. As likely as this enzyme transport
through. The greater value then, in iden-
would seem, until now there has been no
tifying and ingesting these negative cal-
real evidence to support this conclusion.
orie foods, is not in their ability to break
Reference #1: down other existing calories in digestion
According to a recent study performed at all. The true potential benefits lie in
by Dr. Dean Ornish, M.D. of the the increased enzymes produced, being
University of California, at San Francisco, absorbed through the mucosa in the small
research subjects adhered to, a vegetarian intestine thus entering into the blood-
diet consisting mostly of fruits and vege- stream where they can positively affect
tables, as an experimental study on the the rate of metabolism. Based on the
reversal of heart disease. As a result, each above, this may possibly be the case.
of the research subjects (all suffering from In building upon the above conjec-
heart disease), lost an average of 20 tures, to optimize this metabolic accelera-
pounds without cutting calories, or lim- tion, these researched & identified neg-
iting serving sizes. In light of the fact that ative calorie foods should preferably be
these subjects were 40 years and older ingested in the absence of additional
(with relatively slowed metabolisms), and enzyme robbing empty calories (junk
the research performed involved no pre- food). This would insure that an opti-

General Nutrition Issues


20
mum amount of enzymes are produced system. Water is in part responsible for
for absorption into the bloodstream and the transmission of light and sound in the
not wasted during digestive processes on eyes and ears.
assimilated calories from foods with poor The bodys average daily loss of fluids
vitamin and nutrient content. through excretion, respiration, chemical
All things considered then, stocking reactions, and perspiration varies from
your kitchen with negative calorie about 1 to 3 quarts. A high protein intake
foods (most fruits & vegetables), coupled calls for an even greater amount of
with the frequent ingestion of these foods fluids.
in the absence of empty calories, could At 2% dehydration, the bodys work
actually contribute to a continued capacity decreases by 12 to 15%. Also,
increase in the metabolic rate. A higher body temperature and heart rate increase
metabolic rate offers incredible health during periods of dehydration. The
and fat loss benefits. It would be unfair bodys prevention mechanism is osmore-
not to offer up a list of what have been cepter transmission to the brain stimulat-
determined to be negative calorie foods. ing a sensation of thirst prior to the
Below is a list of some of the foods Dr. occurrence of dehydration.
Barnerd claims to have a negative calorie
The primary contributor to life threat-
effect. Because some of the foods listed
ening dehydration occurs with vomiting
by Dr. Barnerd were not fruits and vege- and diarrhea during illness, calling for
tables and were to us questionable, we not only the replenishment of fluids but
are only providing you with the fruits & also electrolytes and minerals. Conversely,
vegetables from his list. We feel more moderate exercise induced fluid loss
comfortable doing this since there was seldom requires significant need for elec-
more validity to Dr. Ornishs studies, and trolyte replacement in the absence of
it is clear that the foods used in his sweating.
research study were fruits & vegetables
almost exclusively. In any case, when the body is deprived
of fluids, it will pull water from any or all
Citrus fruits (of all varieties); Corn; reserves earlier mentioned in an effort to
Broccoli; Spinach; Carrots; Potatoes; maintain critical blood volume and a safe
Chickpeas; Sweet Potatoes; Green Beans; body temperature. A prolonged low fluid
Black Beans; Green Peas; Lentils. intake, high sodium ingestion, or exces-
sive prolonged use of diuretics such as
Importance caffeine, alcohol, and others, can trigger
a variety of hormonal responses resulting
of Water in the survival storage of surplus fluids.
By increasing fluid intake, this survival
An estimated 60% of total body fluid storage response will be effectively
weight is water. Water helps to maintain reversed and a desirable loss of excess
body temperature and allows for over water weight will occur.
50% of all chemical reactions occurring Fluid imbalances contribute to a host
in the body. It is also responsible for the of metabolic disorders, and you can easily
movement of nutrients, digestion, absorp- reduce all of these potential health threats
tion processes, circulation, and the excre- simply by getting into the habit of drink-
tion of wastes. ing more water, at least 8 to 10 glasses
Water also is a vital component in daily.
synovial fluid (which is a joint lubricant), Water can be absorbed from the small
and cerebrospinal fluid in the nervous intestine at a maximum rate of 8 to 10

General Nutrition Issues


21
ounces every 20 minutes, and should be concentrations of sodium in the blood.
ingested during and after exercise (espe- When the concentration reaches a certain
cially in hot, humid climates). Cold water level the thirst centers in the brain are
enters the small intestine faster, and is triggered to create the sensation of thirst.
therefore suggested. Upon the ingestion of additional fluids,
In preparing for exercise when profuse the sodium concentration is diluted down
sweating is anticipated, simply weigh in to acceptable levels shutting down the
prior to and after, and then ingest 16 thirst center in the brain.
ounces of water per pound of weight lost,
at the above prescribed rate (8 to 10
ounces every 20 minutes). A sports drink The Electrolytes
may be used.
Never take in large amounts of
Sodium &
sodium during exercise. The temporary
hypertonic concentration of sodium in
Potassium
the blood will result in an osmotic shift In better understanding these electro-
of fluids out of the working muscles. This lytes and their significance relating to the
causes severe cramping and increased subject matter, it is accurate to say that
susceptibility to heat injuries (such Potassium is the electrolyte that pulls
as heat stroke and heat exhaustion.) fluids into the muscles while Sodium pulls
However, if activity is very intense water out of the muscles. When sodium
and/or lasts longer than about 60 min- is more concentrated outside the muscle
utes, and produces profuse sweating a than the potassium is inside the muscle
sports drink can be used that is 6 to 8% water shifts out of the muscle (undesir-
sugar solution (over 10% may interfere able). This will cause cramping and heat
with fluid absorption), and a sodium injuries. When sodium is less concen-
concentration of about 100 mgs/8 ozs trated outside the muscle than the potas-
of fluid. Sweat rates vary and may sium is inside the muscle water shifts into
increase the need for fluid and electro- the muscle (desirable). An ongoing chem-
lyte replacement. Also, it is advised to ical reaction called the sodium/potas-
drink between 16 and 24 ozs of fluids sium pump works continuously in an
within 30 minutes after event completion. effort to maintain a balance of these elec-
Also, stay away from any amino acid trolytes. In fact, 2/3 of all the energy
supplement that is produced by a process being used at rest is needed by this
called hydrolysis. Some amino acids are pump to maintain this crucial water
compromised and rendered useless, or balancing act. Moreover, be aware that
these supplements could include toxic by- water is also brought into the muscles
products formed during processing. along with carbohydrates (Insulin-carried
glucose), at a ratio of 3 to 1. This is a
What makes us thirsty? contributing factor to muscle size increase
Sodium, being the electrolyte respon- during carbohydrate loading.
sible for fluid retention, holds the key to There is no established dietary require-
why we thirst. Throughout the day, active ment for sodium but it is generally
or not, there is a gradual reduction in observed that the usual intake far exceeds
blood fluids from chemical reactions. Of the need. The average American ingests
course this occurs much more rapidly 6-18 grams of sodium chloride each day.
during exercise than at rest, but never the The National Research Council recom-
less it occurs constantly. mends a daily sodium chloride intake of
When fluids are lost and sodium 1 gram per kilogram of water consumed.
remains, there is a steady increase in the An excess of sodium ingestion may cause

General Nutrition Issues


22
an increased amount of potassium to be dation lies in the complete understanding
lost in the urine. A prolonged abnormally of the above sodium concentration con-
high amount of sodium in the body will cept as touched upon below.
result in fluid retention accompanied by If the vascular system is maintaining a
dizziness and swelling of areas such as certain concentration of sodium through-
the legs and face. An intake of 14 to 28 out, and a great amount of sodium is
grams of salt daily is considered exces- ingested in a single dose just prior to, or
sive. It should be known that diets con- during exercise, the vascular system will
sisting of excessive amounts of salt con- immediately direct fluid to the localized
tribute to the increasing incidents of high area where the sodium is now too con-
blood pressure. The simplest ways to centrated (mostly in the gut) in order to
reduce sodium intake is to eliminate the dilute this sodium down to the normal
use of table salt, processed and breaded concentration levels. This is accomplished
foods. by drawing upon reserve fluids, in
It is generally correct that blood con- most instances from the intramuscular
centrations of sodium, found in salt, is areas. This temporarily pulls desperately
directly related to the regulation of safe needed water out of the working muscles,
body fluid levels as a part of the process and in extreme cases, the heart, leading
previously discussed. Another benefit to to severe dehydration, muscle cramping,
the presence of sodium is the re-absorp- and in the case of the heart, this short-
tion of water (otherwise excreted) in the term fluid loss could result in cardiac fail-
kidneys. ure. For these reasons it is obvious that
While there are various neurotrans- salt tablet use, still practiced by some
mitter and hormonal actions that play coaching staffs on various levels of ath-
vital roles in this delicate balancing act, letics, should be discontinued.
water intake and sodium level manipula-
tion are the only means by which to con-
sciously attempt to control fluid levels Carbohydrate
(without physician assistance and/or the
use of prescription dose medication). Needs
At first glance, the ingestion of large Carbohydrates found in pasta, grains,
amounts of sodium would appear to be a vegetables, fruits, breads, cereals, rice,
must for any dehydrated condition, beans, sugar, candies, etc., are all of two
regardless of its cause. This is simply not basic types, complex and simple sugars.
the case, especially in regard to exercise If a carbohydrate contains soluble fiber it
induced fluid loss. During exercise, espe- is considered complex and is desirably
cially in a warm environment, water loss absorbed more slowly. If a carbohydrate
is attributed to perspiration, increased is lacking soluble fiber or is in other
water dissipation due to heat generated words a simple sugar, it will be absorbed
during accelerated chemical reactions, quickly into the blood (only desirable
increased respiration, and lastly, water when energy sugar is needed quickly).
losses from inside working muscles due Prolonged eating behavior that centers
to the friction caused by increased con- around the ingestion of these simple
tractile component movement. Significant sugars can lead to metabolic disorders
amounts of sodium (3.0 to 5.0 grams) such as Hypoglycemia and Type II
ingested less than 1 hour prior to the per- Diabetes; both of which are relative to
formance of intense and/or prolonged blood sugar levels and contribute to
activity in hot and humid climates, should mood swings, depression, and several
be avoided. The basis for this recommen- other mental impairments. Simply insur-

General Nutrition Issues


23
ing that each time you eat, you consume amount of available circulating glucose
at least one food that offers a soluble over the 80 calorie level which represents
fiber source can reduce the likelihood of the glucose concentration capacity of the
these occurrences. All natural complex circulatory system. It is when carbohy-
carbohydrates are sources of soluble drates are ingested in large quantities
fiber. and/or in the form of simple sugars that
While discussing fiber, it is also appro- conditions are favorable for the over-
priate to explain the role of insoluble release of insulin and subsequent unde-
fiber as well. Insoluble fiber is not digest- sirable increased adipose tissue insulin-
ible. Insoluble fiber absorbs water from carried glucose uptake. Limiting and
the small intestines, and then passes on to controlling the availability of insulin-car-
the large intestine using these fluids to ried glucose in the blood is one of the pri-
allow for smooth passage and excretion mary keys to successful fat loss.
of wastes. A diet lacking in insoluble fiber The perfect diet relative to carbohy-
will reduce the efficiency of waste excre- drate intake, would call for the consistent
tion. The longer wastes are in digestion, and controlled frequent ingestion of car-
the greater the absorption of toxic bohydrates in such amounts and with
fluids. These fluids contain bacteria, proper timing as to steadily maintain the
toxins, and carcinogens, which end up in circulating glucose slightly above the 80
the bloodstream and have been connected
calorie circulatory capacity. This, in turn,
to several types of cancers, and other
stimulating the pancreas to release only
metabolic disorders.
the amount of insulin appropriate to
When you are looking for a source of provide for daily energy needs and to
insoluble fiber, look for the word gradually replete any and all glucose
BRAN on food labels. It is important energy stores (muscle & liver glycogen),
to note that you will know when you are with an insufficient amount remaining
eating too much insoluble fiber when you for significant adipose (fat) tissue stor-
are experiencing stomach cramps within age. This well-timed appropriately mea-
about 20 to 30 minutes after eating. sured quantity of dietary carbohydrate
ingestion would cause an extremely mod-
Optimizing erate and steady release of insulin. A
closely guarded maintenance of blood
Carbohydrate sugar levels is generally accepted as being
the foundation of healthy eating. What
Intake other dietary considerations can be prac-
ticed to this end relative to carbohydrate
In reality, since adipose tissue takes up ingestion?
glucose most rapidly, in the presence of #1 When ingesting a significant amount
overabundant insulin-carried glucose, a of simple sugar (100+ calories), by
simultaneous uptake of glucose will likely also ingesting either a moderate
occur in all tissues resulting in adipose amount of complex carbohydrates,
tissues immediate competition with liver or even some protein, these
and muscular needs even when liver and combined macro-nutrients will
muscle glycogen stores are significantly digest into a chyme thereby
depleted. The generally accepted dietary compromising the absorption rate of
suggestion of eating frequent small meals the otherwise unaccompanied simple
as opposed to eating infrequent large sugar for its more gradual uptake
meals acts to regulate and minimize the into the bloodstream. This

General Nutrition Issues


24
compromised rate of absorption in empty Liver is able to store
turn desirably prevents the 300-400 calories of glycogen.
exaggerated over-release of insulin. Therefore, breakfast is the meal of
In simpler terms, if you are going the day that can arguably consist
to eat simple sugars, eat them along of the most carbohydrates with
with complex carbohydrates and/or the intention of discouraging fat
protein. Do NOT ingest over 100 accumulation. As the day wears
calories of unaccompanied simple on, in the absence of exercise
sugar in any one meal that is not consideration, carbohydrate
pre, during, or post-workout. consumption should ideally taper
#2 Knowing the difference between off up to bedtime. The metabolism
simple and complex carbohydrates naturally winds down in the
is obviously essential to regulating evening and ingested carbohydrates
blood-sugar. There is a rating system at that time will serve no purpose
known as the Glycemic Index that and be stored as fat. Then, upon
scores various foods relative to their waking, initiate this entire
unaccompanied absorption rate into carbohydrate intake cycle all
the bloodstream on a scale of 1 to over again. Remember, high
100. The higher the foods glycemic carbohydrates in the morning
index rating, the faster its sugar will and low carbohydrates at night.
end up in the bloodstream. These b. Carbohydrates and activity -
lists can be acquired by other means, Generally speaking, glucose
however, as an NFPT Certified reserves for aerobic activity come
Nutrition Specialist, you are supplied more so from the liver than from
with a Master Food List that the muscle tissues, especially once
includes Glycemic Index ratings steady state has been achieved.
(a complete index on all foods is Complex carbohydrate ingestion
not known to exist at this time). should be relatively substantial 2-
#3 Provide carbohydrates to the body 3 hours prior to the performance
when it needs them and learn how of aerobic activity to insure all
much the body needs relative to the glycogen stores are full upon
hour of the day and/or activity initiating the exercise. It was long
performed. These considerations recommended to ingest complex
will ideally minimize adipose tissue carbohydrates during aerobic
glucose uptake (fat storage). activity that is prolonged (90+
a. Carbohydrates and time-of-day - minutes). While this practice is
Realize that when waking, the still beneficial, it has since been
liver has been releasing glucose determined that proteins are the
energy throughout the night for preferred fuel of choice during
brain function and is likely low prolonged aerobic activity, since
on stored glycogen (storage form the amino acid deamination
of glucose). And, blood glucose process (which results in glucose
levels will likely be low as well production), requires more time
(80 calories or lower). This and the resulting glucose level is
should tell you that anywhere more gradual and sustained.
from 300-500 calories of ingested Blood-sugar levels remain intact
simple and complex carbohydrates for long periods when ingesting
at breakfast will likely be put to proteins and/or complex
good use since the early morning carbohydrates during prolonged

General Nutrition Issues


25
aerobic activity. It is significant to tion of fueling your muscles for a weight
know that, in seeming opposition training workout. However, it could be
to this discussion, it is the argued that a weight training bout sus-
exhaustion of muscle glycogen pected to include extremely intense
stores that result in an aerobic muscle activity for a long period may be
athlete hitting the wall. To extraordinarily exhaustive to the cardio-
explain however, it is when the respiratory systems therefore demanding
blood fails to provide sufficient a substantial high carbohydrate pre-
glucose energy during long workout meal similar to those dietary
duration aerobic performance principles discussed above concerning
(not addressing fatty acid aerobic training dietary preparation.
involvement), that the muscle
Moreover, it should be noted that any
glycogen stores are tapped into.
digestion occurring upon the initiation of
It is when these muscle stores are
finally tapped out that the resistance training, or any strenuous
aerobic athlete hits the wall. activity, might rob the muscles of energy
and oxygen rich blood. Blood is needed
After a typical aerobic exercise session in and around the intestinal region during
(20-60 minutes), while it is appropriate digestion, and therefore will not entirely
to replete carbohydrates to insure replen- be made available to the working muscles
ishment of Liver and blood-sugar levels to provide the much needed nutrients and
(300-400 exhausted liver calories + 80- oxygen. If a significant amount of food is
100 exhausted blood-sugar calories = present in digestion and the resistance
500 carbohydrate calorie maximum exercise session is relatively intense and/
requirement), there is no great urgency, or prolonged, nausea and dizziness will
as the chief energy source for the perfor- bring a quick end to any strenuous exer-
mance of steady state aerobic activity is cise session. Also, contrary to aerobic
fatty acids. exercise, the post-resistance workout
Contrary in almost every respect to meal should be rich in complex carbohy-
aerobic activity, muscle glucose reserves drates in an effort to replace as quickly as
used for anaerobic, or resistance activity, possible depleted muscle energy stores
are substantial and they require immedi- along with an appreciable measure of
ate replenishment in order to end catabo- protein as building blocks for protein
lism (stage of metabolism during all synthesis given there is sufficient inten-
forms of exercise), ward off cannibalism sity during resistance training to call
and initiate anabolism. Anaerobic energy upon this anabolic need. The above dis-
reserves used to fuel a muscle during cussed carbohydrate replenishment will
resistance exercise are chiefly exhausted spare intercellular proteins, and quicken
from the working muscles. For this the desirable metabolic shift to anabo-
reason, so long as the glycogen stores of lism. As discussed above meals following
a targeted muscle are repleted through aerobic exercise sessions require only
proper recovery (with proper nutrient moderate carbohydrate and total caloric
provision over an adequate period of intake since the chief aerobic energy
time), there is little need to make a con- source was fatty acids.
scious effort to ingest a significant mea- *More related information on this
sure of complex carbohydrates prior to a issue is covered elsewhere in this study
resistance training session with the inten- manual.

General Nutrition Issues


26
ferred calorie sources (as in this negative
Lowering calorie balance example), the above
stated ingested fats will ALL be converted
Carbohydrates and used for energy without significantly
measurable fat gain and quite likely a net
Will Lower weight loss due to the absence of suffi-
cient total calories. Keep in mind how-
Triglycerides ever, a prolonged low calorie diet, such as
Our society has become overly con- is used in the example above, would lead
scious of excessive fat intake ingesting to a slower metabolism and ultimately
carbohydrates at will with NO profes- would then contribute to weight gain.
sional direction. Our contesting this is Generally speaking, energy output must
not to say we should all throw caution to meet or exceed energy input or weight
the wind in terms of fat consumption. gain will occur taking precedence over
Rather, we need to be more conscious of the sources (carbohydrates, fats, pro-
the over consumption of carbohydrates teins), of the energy input. Quality of
and more educated on the surprising role calories is of greatest concern after the
the carbohydrate actually plays in the quantity of required calories are met.
accumulation of extramuscular fat. Our This is NOT a recommendation to ingest
societys pre-occupation with its war poor quality foods merely a fact for your
against fat, is getting us into even deeper consideration. Clearly, if we eat too much
trouble in terms of deteriorating health. the quality of the surplus calories MUST
The moderation of total carbohydrate be called into question.
calories for health maintenance, offers It is no secret to researchers and edu-
the more scientific approach. Science cators that the triglyeride is comprised of
would agree with the lowering of carbo- fatty acids and glycerol. So long as the
hydrates along with a slight increase in body is being provided with an abun-
protein intake. Fat intake should always dance of ingested foods, the body will
be modest but should not be dwelled prefer using these exogenous calorie
upon. The health and fitness professional sources for energy production, and tri-
advocacy of the fat begets fat position glycerides will continue to be transported
is a major contributor to the unbridled in the bloodstream, bound for storage in
over consumption of carbohydrate calo- the liver and adipose tissues. Only when
ries, by those taught to concern them- needed are these triglycerides broken
selves only with reduction in fat intake down into fatty acids and glycerols for
for fat loss while not addressing carbohy- use as energy by the body. Glycerols,
drate consumption. The simple truth is derived from the breakdown of triglycer-
that almost everything has fat in it and ides, are used for energy in exactly the
cannot be avoided among most. The con- same way as glucose. With this in mind,
trol of total calories is the dietary starting in the absence of sufficient blood glucose
point of weight maintenance and fat loss. (reduced carbohydrate intake), the over-
For example, if your clients energy needs abundant triglycerides present will be
for a given period are 2,000 calories, and broken down with the glycerols being
they ingested only 1,500 calories, even if used for glucose energy, and the fatty
all from fat in this period, according to acids being used for sedentary and low
the fat begets fat position, there would level activity. Prolonged low carbohy-
occur an accumulation of fat. This is not drate intake will therefore result in
possible. As long as the bodys total reduced triglyceride levels. It is just that
energy needs are not met by other pre- simple.

General Nutrition Issues


27
General Metabolic Glycemic Index
Considerations and Glycemic Load
There are three general categories of What Do They Mean for Your Health?
body types each with an associated type It has been assumed that simple car-
of metabolism: endomorphic, ectomor- bohydrates increased blood sugar rapidly
phic, and mesomorphic. For our pur- and that the complex, high fiber carbo-
poses, the endomorph struggles to lose hydrates had a slower impact on blood
weight, and fewer calories should gener- sugar. Research into biochemistry and
ally be recommended. The ectomorph food science has yielded the glycemic
struggles to gain weight and may need index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL)
additional calories to do so. The meso- concepts, which are altering our under-
morph category generally reflects the standing of how blood-sugar is affected
by carbohydrate consumption.
average metabolic classification. The
General Dietary Advice Chart, as pre- The GI is a number assigned to each
sented elsewhere, applies more to the food telling how fast the carbohydrate
triggers a rise in blood glucose. Some car-
mesomorphic individual.
bohydrates are fast release and will there-
In determining a clients metabolic fore have a higher number on the GI. For
category, compare client-eating habits to example table sugar or sucrose has a gly-
client appearance. For example, the client cemic value of 100. If a food has a low
who consumes a large number of calories GI value that means it is slow to release
and still appears extremely thin is ecto- its sugars, causing a slow rise in blood
morphic and should be treated as such. glucose and a slower secretion of the hor-
The client consuming few calories and mone insulin which is desirable.
who appears extremely thin should be GI basically tells you how fast a cer-
approached as an average healthy indi- tain food turns into simple sugar in the
vidual in regard to the use of the General blood. It does not tell you how much car-
Dietary Advice Chart. Conversely, the bohydrate is in a serving. To understand
how a food impacts the blood sugar, both
client who consumes few calories and
theses factors must be considered. That is
appears extremely heavy, is quite likely where the glycemic load comes in. The
endomorphic and should be treated as GL is the GI divided by 100 and multi-
such. The client consuming a large plied by the available grams of carbohy-
number of calories and who appears drates which are the (carbohydrates
extremely heavy should be approached minus the fiber in grams per serving of
as a mesomorph in regard to the use of the food.) Reading food labels will give
the General Dietary Advice Chart. you the information needed to make
It is suggested to assign a 500 calorie these calculations. The chart at the end of
this chapter is for some common non-
per day adjustment. Keep in mind this is processed foods that do not come with
purely speculative as there are varying nutritional content labels.
degrees to these categories. You will need
In order to do adequate calculations,
to make the daily caloric adjustment be aware of the high, medium, and low
decision on a case-by-case basis. Moni- values for GI and GL. A value of 70 or
toring body composition will allow you more is high GI. Medium is 56 to 69 and
to make future adjustments quite accu- low is 55 or less. For GL high is 20, medium
rately. is 11 to 19 and low is 10 or under.

General Nutrition Issues


28
Below are grams of carbohydrates contained in a REASONABLE serving size
Food serving size GI Grams GL
Apple 1 38 21 8
Banana 1 62 26.7 16.5
Orange 1 42 15.4 6.5
Pear 1 34 25 8.5
Carrots cup 92 5.5 5.06

The fascinating thing about these fig- from their clients.


ures is that some foods would not be All recommendations made by per-
considered good for you based on the GI sonal fitness trainers should be consid-
alone, but since the grams of carbohy- ered goal oriented to include dietary
drate per serving are low, the GL value recommendations. Personal fitness train-
makes these foods certainly worth eating. ers should be knowledgeable enough to
Many foods can be high on the GI but back up their recommendations with
low on the GL (GL being a better deter- explanations as to how and why their cli-
minant of sugar release associated with ents should practice them with confi-
foods). Carrots, for example, if judged dence. Translated explanations are pro-
solely on their GI would appear bad for vided for each and every recommenda-
blood sugar balance, when in reality the tion you make as an NFPT Certified
low grams/serving result in a very low Nutrition Specialist, acting in accordance
GL. with provided NFPT manuals and its
extensive library of searchable fitness
This GI vs- GL also speaks to the professional education materials. These
need for attention paid to portion sizes in in-depth NFPT resources will in turn
weight maintenance. Eating the right por- enable you to effectively answer your
tion sizes can make the ingestion of some clients how and why questions in profes-
seemingly unhealthy foods acceptable sional yet comprehensive terms. There
possibly resulting in a more palatable is also nutrition software found on the
diet. NFPT website available for NFPT cre-
For more complete information dentialed professionals.
on GI vs- GL visit the website:
www.glycemicfoodlist.com.

Dietary Roadmap
to Success
Too many personal fitness trainers
simply tell people what they already
know about nutrition from watching
television, reading the paper, and listen-
ing to the family doctor. Clients will likely
expect you to have answers to some of
their dietary questions, and trainers that
cant answer these how and why ques-
tions, may lose some degree of confidence

General Nutrition Issues


29
SECTION III

Meal Timing

Cardiac Response to Eating and Exercise


Do not eat within 2-3 hours prior to prolonged and/or intense physical
activity. There is a physiological change that takes place relative to the
cardiovascular system upon ingestion of foods. This change during
digestion acts to redirect blood flow from the muscles to digestion.
Since the bodys total blood volume desirably remains the same, the
movement of excess blood to any one part of the body requires an
enlargement (vasodilatation) of the vessels in that specific region, and a
reduction (vasoconstriction) in the size of the vessels in all other regions.
When you eat, there is a greater need for blood in and around digestion
for the purpose of carrying nutrients to the main vascular tree. When
vessels dilate around digestion, they constrict in muscular areas. If you
perform prolonged and/or intense exercise during digestion, the central
nervous system will constrict vessels around digestion and dilate vessels
in the working muscles. This nervous input and redirection of blood
flow slows digestive processes and the motility of the digesting food in the

Meal Timing
30
gut. As a result you may experience not blood flow will compromise both func-
only cramping but also nausea, dizziness, tions and lead to symptoms referred to
and a general feeling of fatigue. elsewhere in this manual. Optimal oxygen
and nutrient rich blood flow to the work-
ing muscles can be facilitated by the cir-
Eating Around culatory system only in the absence of
digestive processes.
Resistance Post-workout Meal
Exercise Sessions During and following an intense bout
of resistance exercise the body is in a
Pre-Workout Meal stage of metabolism known as catabo-
The pre-workout meal should be lism, most prevalent inside the just trained
ingested hours prior to the performance muscle fibers. This simply means that
of resistance exercise. How many hours? internal components (structural body tis-
As many as 2-3. This is about the same sues) inside these muscle fibers are being
time period as recommended before aero- broken down for the energy required to
bic activity but for a different reason. #1-remove wastes accumulated during
Consider this, in intense resistance exer- exercise, #2-repair damages to the mus-
cise, little if any energy is being provided cles incurred during exercise protein
to the muscles via the bloodstream. The synthesis, #3-to replace used up stores
shorter and more intense, the less extra- of muscle glycogen. As you can see, there
muscular energy required. This generally are obvious needs for the ingestion of a
means that energy used during most resis- high carbohydrate, high protein post-
tance exercise comes predominately from workout meal under these conditions.
sources within the working muscles. This The emphasis being placed on complex
being the case, there is less need to insure carbohydrates, with the protein needs
that liver glycogen stores are full, or even variable dependant upon the intensity of
that circulating blood-sugar is optimal the just completed resistance exercise ses-
(since intense exercise causes an Insulin- sion. The more intense the exercise ses-
like reaction in apparently healthy indi- sion was, the greater the resulting protein
viduals resulting in the conversion of synthesis and need for the ingestion of
stored glycogen to blood-glucose energy).
complete proteins.
In preparing for a resistance training ses-
sion as described above, it would be Failure to immediately ingest an
appropriate to eat a pre-workout meal as appropriate post-workout meal that
much as 2-3 hours prior that is high in would otherwise provide the energy
protein and complex carbohydrates. This required by the just worked muscles will
timing will insure that the early stages of result in continued catabolism with unde-
digestion (in the stomach and small intes- sirable tissue breakdown and muscle
tine), have been, or are nearly completed volume reduction. This condition is det-
by the beginning of the exercise session. rimental to the achievement of any and
Digestive processes taking place in the all fitness goals, as lean weight loss is the
stomach and small intestine require the end result. And, the only true method of
presence of the greatest volume of blood. avoidance is through the ingestion of an
It is best to minimize digestive activity appropriate post-workout meal as out-
when performing exercise since both lined above, at the earliest opportunity
demand blood flow. And, sharing the following the resistance workout.

Meal Timing
31
So long as proper warm up of the car-
Eating Around diorespiratory and muscular systems are
Aerobic & achieved, and exercise intensity increase
is steady and gradual, the redirection of
Incremental blood flow away from digestion will be
equally gradual and adequate to provide
Exercise Sessions oxygen and nutrients for the working
muscles less than maximum energy
Pre-Workout Meal needs. When calories are needed for exer-
In the cases of muscle and cardiorespi- cise over even longer periods, 2 hours or
ratory endurance training it would be more, if possible, it would be appropriate
appropriate to insure liver glycogen stores to ingest small quantities of additional
are full and blood-sugar is at an optimal complex carbohydrates and proteins
level at the onset of exercise. Remember during exercise performance.
however, not to overdo it in the pre-
workout meal when it comes to total cal- Post-Workout Meal
ories as the liver only has a glycogen stor- Since the preferred energy substrate
age capacity of 300-400 calories, and the during steady state aerobic and endur-
bloodstream no more than 100 calories ance activity of reasonable duration, is
of glucose. All total then, this amounts to fatty acids in the apparently healthy indi-
only a 400-500 calorie, predominately vidual, the carbohydrate source glucose
complex carbohydrate meal. If the activ- should come nowhere near exhaustion.
ity will be prolonged beyond 90+ minutes When other-than-resistance activity is
in duration, it would be suggested to
performed that is incremental & not
include another 250-500 calories (depen-
dant upon specific duration and inten- steady state, i.e. boxing, basketball, foot-
sity), in the form of complex carbohy- ball, etc., glucose expenditure increases
drates, opting for protein when possible and comprises a greater percentage of the
(explained elsewhere). If these additional total energy expended. Generally, and
calories are not provided for activity of within given parameters of intensity and
the extended duration indicated above, duration, the performance of incremental
provided energy may be insufficient and activities such as described above, will
body proteins will be cannibalized for the result in lower overall post-workout glu-
balance of energy needed. As stated ear- cose levels than both resistance and
lier, these additional calories should ide- steady state aerobic activities because
ally come from protein sources as it takes liver as well as muscle glycogen stores are
the body even longer to process and con- both being tapped.
vert ingested protein into energy than it
takes to process and convert complex The major difference between incre-
carbohydrates into energy. A more popu- mental and steady state aerobic activity
lar solution is to ingest a sports drink in relation to glucose energy expenditure
containing simple during activity. is that aerobic glucose energy comes
chiefly from the liver, while incremental
Note: While the chief energy substrate
during aerobic and endurance activity glucose energy comes not only from the
performance is fatty acids, the use and liver but in large part from the working
maintenance of circulating blood-glucose muscles. With this said, it would be
energy is crucial, predominantly originat- appropriate to apply the same basic post-
ing from carbohydrate ingestion and liver workout meal considerations to incre-
stores. mental activity performance as applied to

Meal Timing
32
moderate resistance activity performance. allowing their bodies to dictate their diet.
In short, incremental activity falls some- Eating is something to be dictated by our
where between aerobic and resistance brains and not by our bodies. Eating and
exercise. This means three things. #1 hunger should have NOTHING in
Liver glycogen depletion; #2 Muscle common regarding meal timing. Eating
glycogen depletion; #3 Moderate inten- without your body telling you to, makes
sity, moderate protein requirements. your body an unwitting accomplice to
In getting back to aerobic activity accelerated metabolism and ultimate fat
post-workout meal considerations, it is loss will result when eating by the clock
clear that glucose energy has been and not the stomach.
expended and is in need of replacement.
It is equally clear there is no measurable
means to determine carbohydrate replace- Discipline
ment amounts due to varying intensities
of effort. It is therefore recommended to and Nutrition
ingest 400-500 calories coming primarily Let us equate your pets diet to your
from complex carbohydrates with some own, or to that of one of your clients.
complete proteins in the post-workout While it is almost certain that pet food is
meal. In cases of extreme aerobic (and less palatable than lets say, a steak, or a
even incremental), energy depletion, a slice of apple pie, a properly raised and
100 calorie simple sugar is recommended well disciplined pet, having never tasted
for immediate blood-sugar replacement steak or apple pie, will want for nothing.
more quickly initiating the recovery pro-
Wouldnt it be wonderful to have been
cess. Apply these simple sugars especially
born into a world where junk food and
when signs of mental and physical fatigue
are present. This practice will bring dietary temptation never even existed?
blood-sugar levels back to a safe level We too then, would want for nothing.
within 5-7 minutes. The carbohydrates We would eat simply for the purpose of
will generally insure the repletion of liver sustaining our bodys dietary needs, and
glycogen and blood glucose levels, while never be faced with making that decision
the protein intake will facilitate the syn- between cookies and grapes. We would
thesis of various deaminated and canni- be eating nothing but natural healthy
balized blood proteins. All measures foods just like our ancestors, and just like
geared toward bringing the body back to our bodies were created to eat.
the metabolic state of equilibrium and on Imagine the difference junk-free eating
from there to the state of anabolism if would make in all of our lives. Hundreds
tissue is damaged and requires repair
of thousands of people around the world
(another purpose for post-workout pro-
tein ingestion). currently suffering from every possible
diet related disorder ranging anywhere
It should be noted also that hunger from high blood pressure to diabetes;
is not a sensation that is commonly expe-
from depression and low self esteem to
rienced immediately following a work-
out. The absence of this sensation further the hyperactivity common in our children
encourages the unwillingness of the exer- brought on by hypoglycemia; from car-
cise participant to eat. Proper pre and diovascular diseases to obesity. Just think
post-workout dietary habits can there- of how difficult it would be in terms of
fore be considered a learned dietary breaking habits and unlearning eating
behavior and YOU are the teacher. behavior to go back to totally natural
Participants should get out of the habit of foods. While this may seem somewhat

Meal Timing
33
unattainable, as a fitness professional, have their skin slowly and quite painfully
you need to make the effort. It will take peeled away, rather than having to go
you a long way down the road to client even one night without their half gallon
respect and success as a fitness profes- of ice cream. While others may be able to
sional to do so. simply put the thought of certain foods
The toughest part of eating right is in out of their minds completely and focus
the early stages when the very thought of clearly on their goals and visions of the
all your favorite foods affect your taste ultimate achievement.
buds. And, like it or not, the real prob- Strict dieting is therefore not for every-
lem doesnt exist solely in your mouth, one, as we all have different levels of tol-
but more so in the back of your mind. erance to the actions of the brain centers
No, not deep in your subconscious either, that actually control taste. This is obvi-
rather in certain centers in the brain that ously reflected in the emotional roller
are specific to causing physiological coaster ride many overweight Americans
responses such as salivation, at the very are currently on, seemingly at the mercy
thought or sight of different foods. You of their brain centers regulation of taste,
would be amazed to learn how much and the resulting failure to consume fewer
money actually goes into psychological calories, and partake exclusively of
research in putting together television healthier foods. If anyone has the moti-
advertisements for foods. The sole inten- vation to succeed it would be the obese.
tion of this research is to manipulate One must also recognize that our society
regions of our minds in order to sell us a is not exactly conducive to weight con-
food product.
trol either, with all the psychological
As you can easily see, you are defi- manipulation in the food service indus-
nitely fighting an uphill battle all the way try, outrageous restaurant portion sizes,
in declaring war on junk food. Only the confusing food product labeling, and
strong willed, and the incredibly disci- many food labeling practices bordering
plined even stand a chance for success in on being fraudulent, it is almost as though
establishing and maintaining life-long the cards are stacked against those wish-
healthy eating behaviors. Only through ing to make a positive change to their
effective and continued short-term goal dietary practices.
setting, a serious and strong source of
motivation, and a crystal clear vision of This chapter was not intended to sug-
your ultimate achievement, can you ever gest a willingness to accept a clients
hope to survive the arduous drudgery of inability to change his or her eating habits
taste bud denial in the preliminary stages on your part, on the contrary, it is
of this dietary transition. intended to encourage an element of
How long do you have to stick to a patience, and compassion for these
bland, healthy diet before you lose this people. What may come easy for you may
taste for junk food? The answer is be next to impossible for someone else.
simple...as long as it takes. As is true with These people need to know youre on
any worthwhile pursuit, if it means their side. No matter how frustrated you
enough to you, youll do whatever it feel about a clients failure to adhere to
takes to get the job done. We all have our your dietary recommendations, you
breaking point when it comes to healthy should always be supportive, compas-
eating too. Many people would prefer to sionate, and most importantly, a friend!

Meal Timing
34
the reasons shouldnt matter? This way
Post Workout of thinking, has in the past, slowed the
advancement of athletic performance in
Force Feeding all sports. The truth of the matter is, that
Much attention has been given to the the more timely research into the exact
topic of carbohydrate replacement fol- reasons why this carbohydrate ingestion
lowing exhaustive resistance exercise. during activity worked for the endur-
Rest assured there is no controversy here- ance athlete, could have led to the earlier
or at least not anymore. Back then, on discovery of its positive effect on ALL
the surface, the need for immediate pro- athletes and resistance trainees. The prac-
tein ingestion after a heavy training bout tice of simple carbohydrate ingestion
probably seemed to make a lot of sense. during post-resistance workout activity
In Arnolds defense, bodybuilding was offers an extremely functional method of
then in its infancy, and because of the minimizing the duration of catabolism by
economic principle of supply and demand, forcing post-workout carbohydrate
there was no real money invested in the replacement on the muscles!
performance of research in the area of The primary reason why the ingestion
bodybuilding nutrition. This has since of carbohydrates during activity by
changed. Due to the steadily increased endurance athletes can productively be
popularity of the iron game, there are applied to those performing resistance
now millions of dollars being spent in exercises is because all athletes share a
researching bodybuilding nutrition & common denominator...the basic human
supplements. anatomy. While various forms of exercise
In these earlier days, however, before have distinct differences in the demands
nutritional research was in full swing, the they impose upon the body, the energy
iron game was, for the most part, a guess- pathways during recovery from exercise
ing game. Do you believe that some of remain the same.
the worlds greatest discoveries were Lets get back to the resistance trainee.
stumbled upon completely by accident? It was Mike Mentzer who first ushered in
Back then, whatever the winner did must the practice of eating post-workout car-
have been right, and what the loser did bohydrates. ICE CREAM contained the
must have been wrong. carbohydrates of his choice. In discussing
For a time, this hit-or-miss principle the use of objectivity in the area of body-
applied to other areas of athletics as well. building nutrition, Mike Mentzer comes
For example, cyclists and other endur- to mind as one of the first to take a more
ance athletes have been ingesting carbo- learned approach. Mentzers post-work-
hydrate- based drinks during the perfor- out carbohydrate loading sermons
mance of their respective events for years were at first met with indifference in the
successfully, probably because someone bodybuilding community. It wasnt long,
in the past accidentally did it, and it however, before this methodology was
worked. Ask one of these cyclists exactly upheld time and time again through vari-
why the timely intake of these carbohy- ous studies. Mentzers once controversial
drates is beneficial, and of the many quite carbohydrate replacement theory has
logical responses you will get, the true today evolved into a cornerstone of the
answer will escape them every time. The very foundation of productive resistance
very answer that escapes them is the topic training & nutrition.
of this chapter! You may be asking your- The NFPT has researched and now
self, So what? What if they dont know successfully applied a force-feeding
exactly how it works? As long as it works, principle that effectively enhances the

Meal Timing
35
value of post-workout carbohydrate and consequent muscle cramping.
loading by including the performance of Use this Force-Feeding concept to
activity simultaneous to simple carbo- accelerate carbohydrate replacement and
hydrate ingestion. The performance of anabolism before you even leave the
this activity discourages Insulin from gym.
taking glucose to fat cells. Since we know
Note - If the client is a diabetic, make
fat cells generally mobilize fat during
the appropriate considerations.
activity, and they cannot store Insulin-
carried glucose & release fat at the same After your clients intense and exhaus-
time, the Insulin has nowhere else to take tive resistance- training workout, have
the majority of this new glucose during him/her hop on a stair-master, exercise
the performance of this exercise but to bike, or choose any one of a hundred
the energy depleted muscle tissues. Hence, other aerobic activities. Break out some
force-feeding. The application of nutritious form of Simple Sugar (fruit
force-feeding has appeared quite suc- juices, honey, etc.). Immediately ingest
cessful among resistance athletes in every anywhere from 100 to 500 calories of
instance to the best of our knowledge and this simple sugar. The actual number of
research. The following is a brief sum- these calories should be determined based
mary of the concept of force-feeding. on two variables. #1- How energy
exhaustive their training session was, and
An abundant amount of Insulin releas- #2- the length of time they plan on per-
ing simple sugar should be ingested forming the low to moderate intensity
immediately following a muscle glycogen post-workout aerobic activity. Keep in
depleting resistance- training session. mind that the circulatory system has an
Simultaneously perform post-workout average capacity to maintain 80 calories
low intensity aerobic activity. This will of glucose before spilling over, and
accelerate the insulin-carried glucose that it will take at least 5 to 7 minutes
uptake in the badly depleted muscles before the ingested simple sugar even
(recovery), with minimal insulin-carried reaches the bloodstream. Take these fac-
glucose being deposited in adipose tissues tors into consideration when applying
(fat cells) since these fat cells are forced the Force-Feeding concept.
to release energy during activity and As with the cyclist, as long as they are
cannot store energy at the same time. performing activity, the bulk of ingested
This leaves Insulin only one place to take sugar will be driven into recovering and
its glucose... directly to glycogen depleted working muscle tissues. It is suggested
muscle tissues. This carbohydrate-load- that you experiment somewhat in deter-
ing will even be more rapid than normal mining the right exercise duration and
since Insulin must remove overabundant number of calories ingested. When prop-
blood glucose quickly. erly applied, they should experience a
With this understanding, it is no more full feeling upon completion of
wonder why endurance athletes experi- this post-workout activity. The reason
ence increased energy levels by ingesting for this sensation, as you are probably
carbohydrates during activity. These aware, is due to the enormous amount of
newly ingested carbohydrates are being water that accompanies Insulin-carried
driven directly into the muscle because blood glucose into recovering muscles.
fat cells are working hard to release With this said, have the client drink
needed energy and cannot store and plenty of water during this activity.
release energy at the same time. Along It is a fact that catabolism (break
with this newly delivered insulin-carried down of muscle tissue), initiated during
glucose comes considerable fluids as well the workout, typically continues for some
preventing heat injuries, dehydration, time after training until sufficient recov-

Meal Timing
36
ery energy (blood glucose) is provided
from outside the muscles. Once this out- The questionable
side help is provided, damaged muscles
will stop eating away at themselves for role of Insulin in
energy. The Force-Feeding concept
directly addresses this issue, thus acceler- Force-Feeding
ating recovery from training and shorten- Insulin cannot intelligently decide the
ing the catabolic period. destination of the glucose it carries. Its
Used properly, this Force-Feeding function is simply to remove overabun-
concept will dramatically minimize the dant glucose from the blood. For our
duration of post-workout catabolism purposes, there are two storage locations
naturally, and more rapidly initiate where Insulin can deposit its glucose: the
anabolism. These principles have been muscle cells and the fat cells. The argu-
theorized and researched independently ment has arisen that since the presence of
by the National Federation of Professional Insulin inhibits lypolisis (mobilization of
Trainers and found sufficiently effective fatty acids & glycerol from adipose tis-
to warrant publication. While this prac- sues), that the exercise performed in
tice is proven quite safe and free from force-feeding may not totally prevent the
health risk only apparently healthy indi- abundance of Insulin from depositing at
viduals should practice force-feeding. least some glucose in these fat cells since
As mentioned earlier, those diabetics, the post-workout aerobic activity is not
insulin dependent or otherwise, are long in its duration and steady state. Even
advised to take appropriate measures in if this argument is valid (while not
this concepts application, given their researched to NFPTs satisfaction), the
own familiarity with their specific health bottom line is this. The purpose of force-
concerns. As stated earlier, since the ini- feeding is to shorten the duration of
tial publication of this Force-Feeding catabolic metabolism, and to more
concept, there have been reports of its quickly initiate the anabolic (recovery &
effectiveness in practical application growth) process. Even if this incredible
without a single trainer complaint or achievement can only be accomplished at
report of ineffective implementation. the cost of some insignificant amount of
temporary fat calorie storage, it will cer-
tainly be worthwhile in accelerating the
recovery process between resistance train-
ing workouts.

Meal Timing
37
SECTION IV

Weight Training
and Nutrition

Nutrition & Resistance Athletes


In the case of the resistance athlete, unlike the aerobic athlete, muscle
glycogen stores and blood sugar levels should be at their optimum at the
onset of exercise. The majority of energy used during resistance exercise
comes from stores already compiled inside the muscle. Optimizing blood
glucose levels is a precautionary measure in case of prolonged energy
needs in the gym (high volume training). Eating properly during the
entire recovery period between workouts is the key to optimizing the
replenishment of muscle glycogen stores. From this standpoint, pre-
resistance workout meals should be planned 3-4 hours in advance of
performance, and at a minimum of 2-3 hours before. This time period
is solely for the purpose of completing digestion and optimizing blood
flow to working muscles.

Weight Training and Nutrition


38
The resistance athletes desired protein this to the amount of nitrogen excreted in
intake is discussed in depth in the protein the urine (UUN test). The following are
metabolism and protein requirements conclusions that can then be objectively
section of this manual. To summarize, drawn from this comparison.
the greater the resistance and the inten- Lean tissue loss - If you are excreting
sity of effort, the greater the protein more nitrogen than you are ingesting,
needs. It is suggested you refer to these you are losing lean weight and other body
sections for more complete information proteins (negative nitrogen balance).
on this topic.
Lean tissue maintenance - If you are
The most important meal of the day, excreting an amount of nitrogen compa-
contrary to popular belief, is the post- rable to the amount ingested, you are
workout meal. Also, regardless of the allowing for tissue maintenance but not
intensity of effort and consequent muscle growth (nitrogen balance or equilib-
building needs, carbohydrates should rium).
still comprise the majority of your calo-
Lean tissue increase - If you are
ries in this post-workout meal. The
excreting less nitrogen than you are
reason for this is simple. When you have
ingesting, you are providing the materials
finished a workout, there is an energy
with which to build lean tissue (positive
depletion, and waste product build-up,
nitrogen balance).
mostly in the muscles. Energy is needed
by the muscles to remove wastes and to Scientists contend that protein intake
begin repairs. While there is a need for need not exceed 10-15% of total ingested
building blocks (amino acids) for tissue calories even in the case of size and
repair, there is an even greater need for strength training. In contrast, strength
carbohydrate energy in the form of sugar athletes are generally in favor of consid-
to perform these repairs, to remove erably higher protein intake. Before con-
wastes, and to replete glycogen stores. tinuing, it is worth mentioning on behalf
For these reasons, post-workout meals of the athlete, that protein needs does
should be high in carbohydrates and increase with increased training intensity.
moderate in proteins. The greater the body tissue breakdown
the greater the protein requirement. On
behalf of the scientist, too much protein
Body Tissue may cause liver and kidney damage
(mostly to those genetically pre-disposed),
Protein as will be discussed later.
A note to scientists - Too little protein
Requirements intake in conjunction with proper
There is a method of exacting the strength training will result in a detect-
amount of protein required by the indi- able negative nitrogen balance as earlier
vidual through testing. UUN - Urinary explained. To slightly increase dietary
Urea Nitrogen - nitrogen can be mea- protein, while monitoring nitrogen bal-
sured in the urine. Of consequent impor- ance, will allow one to arrive at his/her
tance, the majority of commonly ingested specific, genetically based protein needs.
proteins are 16% nitrogen. Therefore, Keep in mind these needs vary based on
for every 100 grams of ingested dietary changes in training intensity and resis-
protein, about 16 grams are nitrogen. tance used as mentioned earlier.
Explaining the significance of this A note to athletes - Too much protein
realization is to determine the amount of intake may cause you problems should
your ingested nitrogen and then compare you have an existing liver or kidney dis-

Weight Training and Nutrition


39
order. The liver must break down the about another 25-30 seconds. The cell
excess ingested protein over and above has a total combined storage of energy
the bodys needs. Deamination is dis- available to last up to about 30-35 sec-
cussed in more detail elsewhere in this onds during sustained muscle contraction
text. When deamination occurs, toxins before the cell must resort to the conver-
derived from this excess ingested protein sion and use of stored muscle glycogen.
may cause further liver and kidney When energy is needed for longer than
damage. On a high protein diet, excessive 30-35 seconds, stored muscle glycogen is
urea can be found in the urine. This indi- broken down into the form Pyruvate to
cates that protein ingestion is far too produce ATP. During slightly longer peri-
high. However, moderate to high protein ods, oxygen acquired from the blood
diets for strength-trained individuals assists Pyruvate creating ATP (sometimes
appears to be relatively safe but also referred to as metabolic oxidation.) These
requires the increased ingestion of water. energy pathways are common in continu-
ous tension resistance exercise and during
In summary, everyone has differing the performance of strenuous work.
genetic protein needs, and different types
of training have differing protein Also, in resistance exercise, oxygen
demands. Any mention of protein require- transport into the working muscles
ments in this manual is strictly for the during a set (continuous tension) is lim-
ited based on the amount of time the
purpose of establishing a reference point
muscle is contracted compared to the
from which to make changes. The only
amount of time the muscle is in a relaxed
way to get around the protein require-
state. When the muscle is in a contracted
ment controversy is through nitrogen state, nothing can get in or out of the
detection (UUN) which is admittedly an cells, including oxygen. During these con-
expensive and quite clinical approach. tractions, the muscle cell membrane is
said to be impermeable.
Body Tissue Therefore, the amount of work that
can be performed during prolonged sus-
Energy Production tained contraction will be limited in part
by the amount of intracellular energy
Now that we have discussed body stored in the muscle at the onset of con-
tissue protein requirements, lets discuss traction. This production of ATP in the
how these same tissues convert nutrients absence of oxygen is known as Anaerobic
into energy. Glycolysis.
ATP is the only form of energy mus- When a contraction includes brief
cles can use. Knowing this, ATP is already periods of relaxation, oxygen can be
synthesized and stored in the tissue cells, taken up from outside the cell assisting
so you can perform immediate strenuous pyruvate in producing more ATP energy.
work, such as picking up a heavy object, This relaxation period will slightly
or walking up a flight of stairs. The fol- increase the duration of the contractions.
lowing events occur in the cell to produce Also, oxygen uptake and waste removal
ATP energy: during relaxation, both act to offset the
First, there are about 4 seconds worth accumulation of the end product of
of ATP already stored in the cells. After anaerobic glycolysis, Lactic Acid. And
this period of sustained muscle contrac- since lactic acid accumulation inhibits the
tions ATP in the working muscle is contraction of a muscle fiber, the contrac-
exhausted and the cells resort to the use tions would be prolonged. With relax-
of Creatine Phosphate and ADP to create ation pauses, ATP is produced from pyru-
more ATP that can provide energy for vate, the end product of glycolysis in the

Weight Training and Nutrition


40
presence of oxygen, in a process called of insulin secretion a matter of great
oxidative phosphorylation, also known interest to bodybuilders who train drug-
as metabolic oxidation. free. But before we discuss this hormones
Since the heart and lungs are some- anabolic properties, it must be said here
what slow in delivering oxygen during and now that if you are not an insulin-
the onset of aerobic activity, the pyruvate dependent diabetic, insulin injections can
is used for energy until the heart and kill you. Some athletes have tried injec-
lungs catch up and can keep up with the tions and almost died. Insulin can make
oxygen and aerobic energy demand. The you weak, or it can make you strong. It
rate of breathing is extremely labored at can make you fat, or it can make you
the onset of aerobic exercise because the lean. The key to making it work for you
heart is not yet beating fast enough nor is to learn to control your bodys secre-
are the blood vessels dilated sufficiently tion of it.
to provide an adequate volume of oxy- Form & Function
genated blood to the working muscles, This vital and powerful hormones
and the lungs are trying to compensate role is to make nutrients in the blood-
until the heart and blood vessels do catch stream available to body tissues. Even in
up. healthy individuals, abnormality in insu-
Once the heart and cardiovascular lin secretions brought on by poor eating
system catches up and can provide suffi- habits and lack of exercise may cause
cient oxygenated blood, the respiration serious metabolic disorders. For example,
decreases, and the needed oxygen and prolonged poor eating habits can result
fatty acids are being provided. This in type II diabetes accompanied by obe-
occurrence is commonly referred to as sity or, on the other end of the contin-
catching your second wind. This occur- uum, hypoglycemia. In understanding
rence indicates that the majority of energy the roll insulin plays in health & weight
provided to produce ATP is coming from management, it would be a good idea to
an aerobic mix of oxygen, glucose, AND have a six-hour-fasted blood sugar test
Fatty Acids. The simple logic is that fatty performed to ensure that your insulin
acids require large amounts of oxygen secretions are healthy (The normal range
before they can be efficiently used for for fasted blood sugar is between 70 and
ATP energy production, and these large 110 mg/dc.).
volumes of oxygen can only be provided Here is an explanation of the insulin
through the increased cardiorespiratory process. Your body breaks down all
activity accompanying aerobics. Simply ingested carbohydrates into simple sugars
put, during the performance of aerobic in your small intestine. These simple
activity, increasing amounts of fatty acids sugars are absorbed into the bloodstream
and oxygen are used for ATP production. and enter the liver. The liver converts
This form of ATP production is called them all into glucose, the bodys only
Aerobic Metabolism, and will rarely; if usable form of simple sugar. This glucose
ever occur during the proper performance is then introduced back into the blood-
of weight resistance exercise. stream.
The bloodstreams capacity for glu-
We are ALL cose is about 80 calories. When the newly
ingested glucose raises the blood sugar
Insulin Dependant level in excess of this capacity, the pan-
creas releases insulin into the bloodstream
A number of researchers recently to transport the excess glucose to body
declared insulin to be the greatest ana- tissues. This excess glucose is said to be
bolic hormone, which makes the control insulin-carried. Insulin must be present

Weight Training and Nutrition


41
for the uptake of glucose in all body tis- reaching the muscles faster), can and
sues except the brain. should be practiced all around the intense
The first stop for this insulin-carried resistance exercise session while the
glucose is the liver, where it is stored as muscle receptor sites are still open even
glycogen. As an interesting note, after in the absence of Insulin. Serious strength
significant aerobic exercise performance trainees need to take advantage of this
is when liver glycogen stores are most exercise induced Insulin-like reaction.
depleted (more on this issue elsewhere in The greater the intensity, the greater the
this manual). The liver has the potential value of this amino acid introduction if
to store about 300 to 400 calories of gly- the transition from the metabolic stage of
cogen. Generally speaking, when the liver catabolism (breaking down tissue) to
stores are filled and there is still excess anabolism (recovery/building tissue), and
insulin-carried glucose present in the optimum muscle growth is desirable.
blood, the next stop, if there is recovery- If you do not eat often enough - that
taking place due to resistance exercise, is is, if your meals are more than about four
the muscle tissue. This Insulin-carried hours apart, your insulin, amino acid,
blood glucose enters through receptor and blood sugar levels will gradually
sites located all along the muscles which drop off. There is not sufficient Insulin
open only in the presence of Insulin or present during long periods between
during intense exercise. infrequent meals. Without Insulin anabo-
If there is still more insulin-carried lism, or recovery/growth, will cease until
blood glucose after the liver and muscle such time as you take in an adequate
tissue have taken in all they can handle, amount of complex carbohydrates and
the excess will be rapidly stored in extra- complete proteins to once again cause an
muscular fat cells. Moreover, the liver appropriate amount of insulin release to
and muscle tissues take up insulin-carried carry glucose & amino acids to the recov-
glucose quite gradually as opposed to the ering muscles.
way it is rapidly taken up into fat cells. Anabolism is most effective when
Insulin & Amino Acids insulin is continually present, which
allows for the continual uptake of glu-
As touched on earlier, another of insu-
cose and amino acids by the recovering
lins interesting functions is that it must
muscle tissue. The most effective way to
be present to open insulin receptor sites
make this happen is by ingesting com-
in muscle. This allows amino acids to
plete proteins and sufficient amounts of
move into the tissue fibers and serve as
complex carbohydrates frequently
catalysts, and more importantly, building
throughout the day. This will provide the
blocks for repair and growth. Eating pro-
body with steady and moderate amounts
teins, however, does not stimulate insulin
of insulin. Moreover, since amino acids
release into the blood. You can ONLY
remain present for protein synthesis for
ensure that insulin will be present for
only three to four hours, you should take
amino acid uptake into muscles, which is
in complete proteins and complex carbo-
essential for protein synthesis, by taking
hydrates every three to four hours. Thus,
in sufficient amounts of carbohydrates
when youre working to build muscle, it
along with complete proteins in order to
is essential to time your meals in order
stimulate the pancreas to make Insulin
for insulin to be present and anabolism
available. Moreover, exercise has an
to more efficiently take place.
Insulin-like affect on the muscles which
cause receptor sites to open, therefore the Too Few Carbohydrates?
ingestion of amino acid supplements If you do not eat enough complex car-
(more quickly assimilated and therefore bohydrates in each meal, your blood

Weight Training and Nutrition


42
sugar levels may not be high enough to sugar carbohydrates rate of absorp-
stimulate insulin release, and anabolism tion.
cannot occur even in the presence of As referred to elsewhere in this
abundant amounts of complete proteins. manual, the index rates foods on a scale
Too Many Carbohydrates? of 0 to 100 - the higher the number, the
On the other hand, if you take in too faster the absorption rate. Ingesting solu-
many carbohydrates in your meals, youll ble fiber will also act to slow absorption.
release too much insulin, and the muscles Soluble fiber is present in almost all natu-
will be provided with more insulin-car- ral complex carbohydrates. It is also
ried glucose than they can handle. This important to note that intense training
surplus of over-ingested glucose will trig- opens muscle tissue insulin receptor sites,
which makes it unnecessary to ingest
ger too much Insulin release resulting in
large amounts of carbohydrates for insu-
the rapid storage of this blood glucose in
lin presence prior to and during resistance
fat cells leaving nothing left over for
training. This is NOT meant to suggest
muscle recovery. This also leaves even the that the participant should not eat a mod-
most abundant amount of amino acids erate size pre-workout meal and a rea-
useless for building tissue since Insulin is sonable size post-workout meal both
lost in its provision of the surplus carbo- consisting of quality complex carbohy-
hydrates to fat cells. drates as well as a quality source of easily
If you take in simple sugars, your digestible complete proteins in accor-
blood sugar will rise too fast, causing an dance with recommendations outlined
over-release of insulin. This overabun- elsewhere in this manual.
dance of insulin will quickly remove Energy Crash Course
almost all glucose from the blood stream.
The absence of resistance exercise
Since liver and muscle tissue takes up glu-
causes muscle tissue to become relatively
cose gradually, and fat deposits are stored
inactive, especially the mitochondrial ele-
more rapidly, most of this insulin-carried ments leading to muscle atrophy. This
simple sugar will end up in fat cells. simply means that the mitochondria no
Your blood sugar level and subsequently, longer know how to efficiently use glu-
your insulin level will drop, and anabo- cose energy both during and after a work-
lism will stop until you once again ingest out. Even in the presence of Insulin,
adequate complex carbohydrates and untrained muscle receptor sites fail to
complete proteins. take up glucose efficiently. This is gener-
Optimal Insulin Secretions ally the case in the beginning weight
Consulting a glycemic index chart trainer.
may help you achieve optimal insulin During the first weeks of training you
secretions. The index classifies carbohy- must immediately provide these mito-
drates based on their absorption rate into chondria with what they need the most
the bloodstream. You need to keep this for energy replenishment after an exer-
absorption rate as low as possible to cise session-glucose. We will discuss a
avoid the aforementioned over-release of form of force-feeding for beginners. After
insulin. Even though certain natural the workout, perform some sort of activ-
healthy food such as potatoes and carrots ity at about 50 percent of maximum heart
are simple sugars and rate somewhat high rate for 10 to 15 minutes while ingesting
on this index, you can still eat them as 100 to 200 calories of simple sugar. This
long as you combine them with other may seem a little unorthodox, but it is
low-glycemic-index carbohydrates. This physiologically sound. The blood glucose
will act to compromise these simple levels will dramatically increase within

Weight Training and Nutrition


43
five to seven minutes, stimulating the ing difference in the principles between
release of insulin and keeping open (post- mitochondrial re-education and
workout), the muscle tissue receptor sites. force-feeding. In the case of force-
As stated earlier, since it is a physiologi- feeding you are immediately performing
cal fact that 1) fat from adipose tissue some limited intensity aerobic exercise
(extramuscular fat) cannot be stored and along with the carbohydrate (all simple
released at the same time, and 2) fatty sugar; 100-200 calories) ingestion. On
acids and glycerol from adipose tissue the other hand, mitochondrial re-educa-
must be released from fat cells during the tion speaks only to the ingestion of a car-
performance of moderate intensity exer- bohydrate rich meal right after the resis-
cise, the simple sugars youre taking in tance workout. By providing glucose
cannot be taken up in fat cells for as long immediately after the workout you are
as you continue to perform the activity. supplying the mitochondria with exactly
In light of these facts, and since what it needs most at exactly the time it
needs it the most. This will more quickly
Insulins function is to remove glucose
teach the beginners sedentary muscles
from the blood, this new Insulin-carried
how to perform work and recover from
glucose has no other choice but to be
work. The high carbohydrate post-work-
driven directly into the post-workout
out meal will provide the sedentary mito-
depleted muscle tissues, where it is forced- chondria with a crash course in energy
fed to the mitochondria. This is a part of uptake.
the force-feeding concept previously
covered in this manual. Due to the lack of efficiency in the
un-educated mitochondria, the begin-
ners post-workout carbohydrate intake,
Mitochondrial as well as the total post-workout calories,
should be relatively low. Otherwise, the
Re-Education depleted muscle will be bombarded with
more blood glucose than its sedentary
When you screen a new client and find mitochondria are capable of using. This
that they have not been performing resis- excess insulin-carried blood glucose will
tance exercise, and their desired goal is to then bypass the muscle, and be eventu-
lose fat, you can effectively use mito- ally stored as fat.
chondrial re-education. Muscle tissue After about 2 weeks of consistent fat
which has been relatively sedentary from conversion training (discussed in detail
the absence of resistance exercise, will later), gradually increase the carbohy-
become inactive, especially the mitochon- drates and total calories in the newly
drial elements inside the muscles whose educated clients post-workout meal.
function is to create energy inside the This meal should, in the future, always
muscle. The process of ingesting carbo- contain plenty of complex carbohydrates.
hydrates immediately after a workout is Since fat is used for recovery energy to
considered mitochondrial re-education convert blood glucose into stored muscle
and will have the same positive effect on glycogen between workouts, the more
the veteran trainee as the beginner but is carbohydrates the muscle is able to take
most effective in beginning stages of up, the greater the fat utilization and re-
weight training. There is but one discern- hydration during recovery.

Weight Training and Nutrition


44
muscle which is common with resistance
Fat Conversion exercise.
Resistance exercise obviously has In any case, the average computer
more to offer than just size and strength sorted results upon completion of the 30
increase. The National Federation of day monitored period, based on body
Professional Trainers in cooperation with composition testing, are provided here.
the Fitness Clinic, a subsidiary research Aerobic Group #1:
facility conducted a (2) year, limited inde-
pendent research study. The study a. total weight change...
involved 40 subjects between the ages of 6.43 lb. loss
18 and 35. Among these subjects were b. lean weight change...
resistance and aerobic athletes, general 2.94 lb. loss
fitness enthusiasts, and overweight house- c. fat weight change...
wives and businessmen. Each subject par- 3.49 lb. loss
ticipated for a period of 30 days. The Resistance group #2:
subjects were randomly placed into two a. total weight change...
groups. Group #1 performed aerobic 1.23 lb. loss
activity exclusively, every other day for b. lean weight change...
30 minutes, at a target heart rate of 70% 10.72 lb. gain
of maximum. Group #2 performed resis-
c. fat weight change...
tance exercise exclusively, every other
11.95 lb. Loss
day, also for about 30 minutes at 70%
average intensity, using a pulling, a push- NOTE - It is important to point out
ing, and a leg pressing movement. The that those in group #1 not having prior
sets were of 20-25 reps to unassisted pos- involvement in aerobic activity experi-
itive failure, performed in a circuit rou- enced faster results than those who had.
tine. This (3 station) circuit routine was Likewise, those in group #2 with more
completed 3 times per session. conditioned muscle experienced a more
Both groups were placed on a total conservative and gradual conversion
caloric intake based on their individual rate.
resting metabolic rates (RMR). Each In laymens terms, when the muscle
participants diet consisted of the same tissues energy stores have depleted, the
percentages of proteins, carbohydrates, replacement of these stores becomes a
and fats. priority to the body. During recovery,
Through body composition testing, it while on a regular and frequent high
was determined at the end of this 30 day complex carbohydrate diet, extra muscu-
period individuals on the exclusive resis- lar fat must be released and used by the
tance exercise program lost up to 4.5 muscle tissue for the necessary ATP pro-
times as much fat as individuals on the duction required to fill muscle energy
exclusive aerobic exercise program. In stores back up using the ingested, Insulin-
addition, some of the individuals on the carried complex carbohydrates (glucose).
resistance exercise routine also experi- The key to resistance exercise and this
enced an increase in total lean weight. In fat conversion is to perform high rep
fact, one individual gained 15 lbs of lean sets at low intensity, over longer periods,
weight in this period. This occurred even with greater frequency. Use basic com-
while on the above restricted caloric pound movements because they involve
intake. Later it was deduced that this more muscle tissue. This will maximize
increase in lean weight was most likely the depletion of energy, forcing a greater
due to the movement of fluid into the recovery fat release.

Weight Training and Nutrition


45
The fact also remains, there is a degree
of cardiorespiratory enhancement experi-
enced when performing this resistance
activity through shortened recovery peri-
ods between sets, and by gradually adding
to the training volume (adding more cir-
cuits.) Incorporating this resistance
activity into your total fat loss program,
will prevent significant lean muscle tissue
loss.
As a reminder, it is always best to
approach your fat loss program with the
intention of maintaining or even increas-
ing your lean muscle weight. And for this
to happen, as this study shows, resistance
exercise is absolutely required.

Weight Training and Nutrition


46
SECTION V

Unique Dietary
Considerations

Different Energy Pathways


As a fitness professional, you need to completely understand the basic
principles and definitive applications of the three major classifications
of activity and their relative energy pathways. The three classifications
of activity are low level activity, aerobic activity, and anaerobic activity.
In this chapter we will briefly define the above classifications of
activity and explain the method of energy provision unique to each.

Unique Dietary Considerations


47
Low Level Activity Using low level activity to initiate the
Activity that does not significantly tax aerobic phase of the fitness prescription
the cardiorespiratory system, while rais- is a judgment call that will minimize the
ing the exercise heart rate to no more risk of complication and/or injury to a
than 50% of maximum (220 - age = client you feel to be predisposed. When
MaxHR)x 0.5. in doubt, minimize intensity. As a
Low level activity energy comes almost reminder, it is an absolute must for you
exclusively from fat, but requires longer to encourage and/or require a potential
exercise duration to equal the caloric client to undergo medical screening in
expenditures of aerobic exercise. For advance of acting upon any recommen-
example, walking a mile takes longer dations you provide.
than running a mile, but the caloric Aerobic Activity
expenditure upon completion will be
equal. Low level activity should be pas- Aerobic activity is defined by two
sive to perform, require little blood-sugar, ways. First, any activity that raises the
be non-taxing to body systems, and fre- resting heart rate to 70% of maximum
quently done for long periods with mini- (220 - age = MHR). Secondly, any activ-
mal risk of overtraining and/or injury. ity performed at this heart rate for a min-
imum of 20-30 minutes per session,
Where fat loss is the overweight cli- thereby achieving what is commonly
ents goal and available time to exercise is known as a steady state of accelerated
not a limitation, low level activity is the metabolic function.
safer method of choice over aerobic activ-
ity. While aerobic activity does burn fat Activity must satisfy the two above
calories and burns calories at a more effi- requirements in order to technically be
cient rate than low level activity, there is considered aerobic. It is under these con-
still a significant amount of glucose used ditions that aerobic energy pathways
and cardiorespiratory conditioning may (fatty acids & oxygen) are functioning
be something that your overweight client optimally. It is suggested the above aero-
may not yet be ready for. By comparison, bic activity be performed 3-4 times per
there is a lesser amount of total fat used week in order to maintain cardiorespira-
per unit of energy expended during aero- tory health and efficiency.
bic activity than during low level activity. Unlike during low level activity, which
Low level activity is a complement to any requires fatty acids and very little in the
overall fitness program, and is generally way of oxygen, it takes time for aerobic
healthy and safe for everyone. metabolism (oxygen and fatty acid use for
Furthermore, the performance of low energy provision), to kick in. Initially then,
level activity can and should be prescribed the aerobic activity participant is calling
exclusively, in place of aerobics, to a upon liver glycogen, muscle glycogen,
beginning client who has been sedentary fatty acids, and blood sugar, with the
and practicing poor eating habits for pro- gradually increasing assistance of oxygen,
longed periods. Then, gradually increase for energy.
the intensity (pace) while decreasing the The commonly experienced second
frequency. wind occurs when the energy pathway
The above approach constitutes a cau- has in effect, progressed through the first
tious method of initiating the aerobic and second stages of energy provision,
phase of a total fitness prescription for anaerobic glycolysis (the use of sugar in
the general fitness client. Progression the absence of oxygen), and then meta-
should continue while ultimately striving bolic oxidation (the use of sugar in the
towards the recommended aerobic activ- presence of oxygen), and then finally on
ity parameters discussed in the following to aerobic metabolism (the use of oxygen
section. and fatty acids).

Unique Dietary Considerations


48
Anaerobic Activity Glucose is the brains only source of
The energy pathway for resistance energy. During periods of reduced carbo-
exercise is clear. Muscle energy stores. In hydrate intake, the liver is stimulated by
its purest form, anaerobic activity involves the hormone glucagon from the pancreas
0 oxygen and pure ATP. However, there to release stored glycogen in the form of
exists 3 steps that take place based upon glucose at a rate of about 26 calories per
the duration of a muscle contraction as it hour. This process is known as glycoge-
relates to energy production and use. nolysis. With this in mind, at rest, the
When a muscle contracts it has an imme- minimum daily carbohydrate intake
diate supply of ATP to last it for 3-5 sec- should be no less than 156 grams if amino
onds. Without the immediate availability acids, blood proteins, and energy reserves
of ATP, which is the only form of energy are to be spared from being converted
produced in the body, our muscles would and used for brain function. Whenever
not be able to initiate any movement too few carbohydrates are ingested, the
whatsoever. When this ATP begins to liver must in turn convert amino acids
exhaust Creatine Phosphate takes over and other proteins into glucose to pro-
for the next 20-25 seconds. When the vide for energy demands. This process is
muscles supply of Creatine Phosphate called gluconeogenesis. There is a result-
begins to exhaust, muscle glycogen is con- ing toxin, ammonia that results when
verted into Pyruvate (muscle glucose). It amino acids are used for energy. This
is at this stage when the muscles are using ammonia must be further broken down
anaerobic glycolysis (pyruvate without into urea for excretion which is stressful
oxygen), for energy production. As relax- for the kidneys. Either reducing the dura-
ations occur, oxygen and blood sugar can tion and/or intensity of exercise, or
enter the muscle and assist in energy pro- increasing the protein sparing carbohy-
duction. In the presence of oxygen, with drate intake will easily keep the liver from
glucose still the energy substrate being deaminating amino acids and cannibaliz-
used, the energy for longer intermittent ing body tissue.
contractions are provided through meta- Aging Considerations
bolic oxidation (glucose and oxygen). As was touched on in the introduction
Seldom will resistance exercises involve a of this text, with the aging process, our
substantial supply of fatty acids as there is muscles slowly forget how to take up
not enough oxygen being provided to sugar, while our fat cells become more
ignite the fatty acids. While it seems and more proficient. Along the entire
like a simple process as described, it is length of muscle tissue fibers, there exists
not. As resistance is applied to muscle Insulin Receptor Sites (touched upon ear-
there is a constant mixture of these sub- lier). These receptor sites are similar to
strates working from the initial ATP, then doors that must be opened to allow
blended with Creatine Phosphate, then the passage of blood glucose and amino
blended with Pyruvate, and then on to acids into the cells. While muscles are
blood glucose and oxygen. sedentary they require very little blood
glucose, and after prolonged sedentary
Carbohydrates periods, these doors are not actively func-
tioning, as they should be. This sedentary
and Aging state results in muscle loss (atrophy)
which is common with aging.
The liver, among its approximate 64 Too many carbohydrates in the diet of
other functions, must insure the provi- an aging sedentary individual whose
sion of glucose for brain function. receptor sites are not functioning will

Unique Dietary Considerations


49
result in increased fat stores. This is hydrates however should always remain
because the insulin carried glucose (car- in the diet (624 calories daily) for brain
bohydrates) is bypassing the non-func- function.
tioning receptor sites and move directly
on to storage in fat cells. Exercise depletes
muscle energy (glycogen) requiring these Nutrition &
receptor sites to open during recovery
allowing for glucose uptake. This keeps Aerobic Athletes
the muscle fibers and these receptor sites Nutritional needs of an aerobic athlete
active and functional even in the elderly. are demanding indeed. It is important
Replacing some dietary carbohydrates that you understand how food is used for
with proteins in these instances is benefi- aerobic energy, and the bodily processes
cial because the aging bodys conversion occurring during the breakdown and use
of ingested protein to glucose is so slow of these foods. It is your comprehension
the resulting sugar is not as readily depos- and application of simple nutritional
ited in fat cells. As earlier mentioned, principles that will greatly improve aero-
some carbohydrates should always bic performance.
remain in the diet for brain function (26 It has been typical for nutritionists
calories/hr). and other fitness experts to recommend
Senility complex carbohydrates almost exclu-
In addition, the by-product of wasting sively for aerobic energy. They assume
muscle tissue, a build up of ketone bodies, that since aerobic energy is best provided
is toxic to brain function and possibly for through the consumption of slowly
contributes to senility. All of this is released sugars (complex carbohydrates),
common in the elderly, and, in theory, that they should be the mainstay of the
can be best delayed through the perfor- aerobic athletes diet. Also, these same
mance of various forms of safe and effec- experts say that since there is limited
tive RESISTANCE exercises. This will tissue breakdown during aerobic activity,
result in the muscles continued ability to there is no need for a significant intake of
maintain functional receptor sites, and protein. These are both false assumptions.
prevent the wasting of tissue. For the sed- First of all, since aerobic athletes are
entary elderly to take on a low to moder- notorious for overtraining, protein intake
ate amount of resistance exercise may be becomes essential. The over-trained aero-
productive in re-educating receptor bic athlete may typically be diagnosed as
sites resulting in the more efficient uptake suffering from anemia (reduction in the
of blood glucose by the muscles. concentration of red blood cells). This
occurs for two basic reasons. When over-
Proteins & Aging training is due to insufficient total calo-
ries & too much aerobic activity, blood
As we age, our muscles slowly forget proteins (red blood cells) are cannibal-
how to take up sugar while our fat cells ized and used for the balance of energy
become more and more proficient. Too not provided in the diet. Since the red
many carbohydrates in the diet result in blood cells are responsible for transport-
increased fat stores. Replacing some car- ing oxygen to the working muscles, your
bohydrates with proteins is beneficial aerobic performance will suffer. In some
because the aging bodys conversion of cases your client may even notice extreme
proteins into sugar is so slow it is not tiredness, fatigue, and unusually long
readily deposited in fat cells. Some carbo- recovery from illness.

Unique Dietary Considerations


50
Secondly, even if you are not over- Taking into account the above consid-
training, protein ingestion still provides erations, this means that in a fully recov-
the aerobic athlete with several benefits. ered state, as many as 480 calories of
The liver has the ability to change ingested complex (some simple sugars), carbohy-
protein into sugar for energy. This pro- drates should be ingested about 2-3 hours
cess takes even longer than the absorp- prior to an aerobic activity while remain-
tion of complex carbohydrates. And, the ing totally inactive. Not only will diges-
longer and slower sugar is released into tion have been completed in this time,
the blood, the more prolonged and effi- liver glycogen and blood glucose will be
cient the aerobic use of these nutrients at optimum levels offsetting the exhaus-
most importantly during long-term sus- tion of aerobic energy. It is not the
tained aerobic events. exhaustion of fatty acids that ultimately
It is most crucial to ingest an appro- terminates aerobic activity, it is the
priate amount of carbohydrates within exhaustion of glucose.
30-60 minutes after completion of all
forms of aerobic activity. The more pro-
longed and/or intense, the more carbohy- What High
drates you should ingest. You need to
provide the body with what it needs when Protein Diet is
it needs it the most, or it will eat away at
itself for the recovery calories needed. Safe?
The more intense the aerobic event, the Over the years there has been huge
more complete proteins one should ingest controversy over the safety of high pro-
(replace blood proteins discussed above). tein diets for weight loss and for muscle
How do you know how many calories building. Although high protein diets
you can ingest prior to and after aerobic have been around for a very long time,
exercise? It is a simple matter to find the Atkins Diet has seemed to attract
tables that indicate the rate of calorie more attention than most and has re-
expenditure related to wide varieties of invigorated the debate over how much
activities to include aerobic events. Use protein and what source of protein is
these commonly found tables to estimate healthiest.
calorie expenditure prior to performing a The American Heart Association
chosen exercise. Ideally, this should be (AHA) jumped into the fray advising
planned before each aerobic session. against diets that call for a large percent-
Once you have calculated the number of age of calories consumed as dairy and
calories, ingest approximately of these meat products, stating that these eating
calories 2-3 hours prior to exercise. Eat habits would lead to serious illnesses such
the remaining of these calculated calo- as heart disease, diabetes, and kidney
ries within 30-60 minutes after you com- damage. This AHA position, while
plete the aerobic exercise. founded in fact and research, does not
Furthermore, in the case of the aero- address the issue of protein intake, only
bic athlete, it is of the utmost importance advising against particular sources. Pose
that liver glycogen stores are full, and the following question to the AHA. How
blood sugar is at its peak at the onset of does it feel about large percentages of
the chosen event. As stated elsewhere in calories consumed from healthy protein
this manual, the liver can store between sources?
300-400 calories of glycogen and the Two studies were published in the
blood has the capacity to carry about 80 New England Journal of Medicine in
calories of glucose at any given time. May of 2003, adding more fuel to the fire

Unique Dietary Considerations


51
of controversy. In one of the studies, 132 among dieters that when they go off their
patients were divided into two groups diets they regain the weight? Therefore,
and were followed as they ate a low car- this is not a valid argument to use by crit-
bohydrate diet and a low fat diet respec- ics against Atkins and his high protein/fat
tively. After six months, the results were approach to dieting.
assessed and the findings concluded that Before seemingly defending Atkins,
when the subjects followed the plan suc- lets be clear on a few things. Keep in
cessfully, the low carbohydrate dieters mind that the Atkins Diet is controversial
lost more weight. To researchers this more so because of its high fat allowances
should not be news and has nothing to than its high protein recommendation.
do with protein intake. To our knowl- His recommendations in the fat depart-
edge, this research did not even include a ment are outrageous and indefensible by
protein consumption requirement, only a any stretch of a health professionals
low carbohydrate requirement and/or a imagination. However, as you have read
low fat requirement. The low carbohy- above, when put to the test, it seems to
drate dieters could have been consuming work. In most of the high protein diets
large quantities of fat: while the low fat marketed for weight loss, protein makes
dieters could have been consuming large up 25 to 30 percent of the days meals.
quantities of carbohydrates. This does Statistics show this to be about two times
not address the protein controversy. the protein that a typical non-dieter might
Further, in this first study, to our knowl- consume.
edge, participants were hospital patients.
Here comes some very important biol-
Where they apparently healthy individ-
ogy that provides an explanation. The fat
uals? Probably not, or they would not
burning is jump-started by eliminating
have been patients. Judge for yourself the
almost all carbohydrates and replacing
value of this first study in regard to
them with proteins. The body works
whether or not high protein intake is safe.
overtime to metabolize and convert
In the second study, the Atkins Diet ingested as well as body proteins for
was used and the participants not only energy in the absence of sufficient carbo-
lost weight, but they also raised their hydrates (glucose). This process is known
levels of the good, HDL cholesterol that as gluconeogenysis on a small scale, but
prevents atherosclerosis. Like it or not, is more commonly referred to as canni-
professional or layperson, these reports balism when on a larger scale. During
warrant more research, not just blanket cannibalism, large quantities of ingested
warnings against high protein diets (AHA protein and body tissue (all existing as
& American Kidney Fund approach, later amino acids once in the blood) are
stated). Furthermore, the research study deaminated and changed into needed
states that unfortunately of the 63 people glucose with toxic consequences. So
in this studys inception, only half stayed much so that the bi-products (Ketone
with the program for the full six months. bodies) can kill if total calories dip too
How valid can a research study be when, low. In addition, realize as well that
as a part of its own findings, admits fail- ingested fats and body fat are preferred
ure of participant compliance? and easier for the body to convert to
Furthermore, after one year some of the energy than ingested protein and body
Atkins dieters had regained about a third protein.
of the lost weight, offering critics the
The bodys preference for fat burning
argument that short-term weight loss is
over protein in the absence of carbohy-
not worth the risk of heart disease. Should
drates is the key to success with high pro-
we pick on Atkins though? Isnt it typical
tein diets. This may have a direct link to

Unique Dietary Considerations


52
the research that favors the Atkins diet The American Heart Association has
because given the option; the body will outlined specific guidelines for consum-
opt to use ingested fats and body fat even ers regarding healthy protein intake.
more than ingested protein with one, not According to the AHA, the diet should be
too alarming, exception. With a pro- 15 to 20 percent protein and only 10 per-
longed negative energy balance common cent of all fats from saturated sources.
to ALL low calorie diets, there eventually All of the popular high protein diets
comes a slowed metabolism and the body Atkins, The Zone, Sugar Busters, and
reacts by protecting its fat stores for per- Stillman exceed these protein recommen-
ceived starvation energy storage and will dations. In the fat department, Atkins
opt to cannibalize body tissue muscles. allows up to 26 percent saturated fat and
It is at this time that serious regular resis- up to 68 percent total fat. These figures
tance exercise needs to come into play, if make the Atkins Diet unacceptable
it is not being practiced already. according to AHA publications. Has the
Moreover, if we combine what Atkins AHA researched high protein diets or just
has taught us with a lower fat intake, published a guideline for healthy protein
then the body will opt to use even more consumption across the board? The
body fat in the absence of significant safety and effectiveness of high protein
dietary fat. The real issue here is the diets is the issue, not which proteins are
toxins (ketone bodies). These substances safe. Once again, the AHA has not
must remain at low levels if organ and addressed the issue.
tissue damage is to be avoided. No high It would be advisable to investigate
protein diet should be coupled with low ways to keep protein levels relatively
calorie practices. Metabolic Acidosis will higher with an element of safety by main-
result and if symptoms are left unchecked, taining a reasonable total caloric intake
can kill! along with moderate portions of fruits
While on high protein diets large and vegetables which are low in carbohy-
quantities of water must be consumed in drate calories, while focusing on utilizing
order to eliminate ammonia and urea alternative protein sources that are low
toxins before the body resorts to the pro- in saturated fat. Why not use an Atkins-
duction of ketone bodies. Dieters are like model, but consume soy protein, fish,
urged to drink a gallon of water or more whey protein supplements, nuts, and
per day to pass urea and in order to avoid healthy fats like olive and flax oil? Then
dehydration, constipation, and abnormal add a few pieces of low carbohydrate
heart rhythms. fruit daily along with plenty of low car-
bohydrate vegetables. Plenty of water, a
High protein diets can cause kidney-
high quality vitamin and mineral supple-
scarring, cautions the American Kidney
ment, and regular exercise round out the
Foundation, as a result of the extra waste
program and lean, good health is a cer-
that has to be processed. Blood levels of
tainty. The key is to eat in moderation to
uric acid are elevated due to extremely
satisfy physical needs and working out
high protein consumption, and this can
the stresses of life at the gym.
lead to the development of a painful form
of arthritis known as gout. Uric acid crys- Conclusion: Protein from a variety of
tals actually deposit in the joints as a low fat sources is good. Low carbohy-
result of eating meats, poultry, eggs, shell- drates, around 100 grams per day, from
fish, seeds, and nuts in abundance. At vegetable, fruit, and whole grain sources
one time in history gout was known as a is good. A moderate fat intake of good
disease of the rich because only they quality fats (avoid all trans fats), is good.
could afford to eat the foods that would Drink plenty of fluids and perform a regu-
promote uric acid deposits. lar total-body resistance exercise routine.

Unique Dietary Considerations


53
Realize that at any given time, energy is
The Metabolic being provided from both primary energy
sources (carbohydrates and fats) and
Continuum some proteins, but for the sake of argu-
Just as it is for resistance exercise, gly- ment, just concern yourself with carbo-
cogen is converted to glucose and used hydrates and fats.
for energy during average to high inten- When you begin any activity of sig-
sity aerobic exercise. Regardless of con- nificant effort involving a reasonable
ditioning level or the duration, intensity, amount of participating musculature over
etc., a small portion of energy used during and above resting metabolism, the energy
aerobic exercise, will always come from required to perform that activity will first
glucose. The bulk of this glucose is be supplied by anaerobic (carbohydrate)
coming from a different place during aer- metabolism, as it takes several minutes to
obic activity than during resistance activ- mobilize fat in sufficient quantities to
ity. During aerobic-based exercise glucose sustain an activity. As less than intense
is taken directly from the Liver and blood activity involving large volumes of mus-
(of course a small degree of glucose will culature is continued for a sufficient
always be used from intercellular glyco- amount of time, the body catches up
gen stores in the working muscles). The as oxygen uptake slowly increases to
liver stores, with the right pre-workout allow greater utilization of oxidized car-
meal, can provide anywhere from about bohydrates and fats for energy.
300 to 400 calories of glycogen for con-
version to glucose and gradual release This transition from an anaerobic
into the bloodstream during aerobic metabolism to an aerobically dominated
activity. Be aware that muscles generally metabolism is dependent on two major
reserve their internal stores of glycogen factors, intensity and duration of the
for heavy intense muscular work not activity. Obviously, if an exercise requires
common to most aerobic activity. near maximal effort, such as weight train-
Through the bodys use of oxygen, ing, which cannot be sustained for long
liver glycogen (muscle glycogen during periods of time, your exercise metabolism
intense segments), along with fatty acids will remain primarily dependent on car-
in circulating blood, and adipose tissue, bohydrate sources without a need for a
the muscle energy needs are met during significantly increased oxygen uptake to
aerobic activity. perform the activity (anaerobic).
Performing an activity which is of low
The contribution of the primary sub-
strates (sources) of that energy may differ intensity, such as a fast walk or a slow
significantly depending on the effort nec- jog maintained for long periods of time,
essary to meet the imposed demands of allows for the increase in oxygen uptake
that activity. The higher the intensity and the more efficient utilization fat
(greater effort) of an activity, the more stores as the primary energy sources (aer-
the body will depend on stored carbohy- obic). As aerobic intensity is increased, a
drate sources for energy. The lower the growing percentage of energy comes from
intensity (lesser effort) of an activity, the carbohydrate sources. As the aerobic
more the body depends on greater per- intensity decreases, a growing percentage
centages of stored fat sources for energy. of energy comes from fat sources.

Unique Dietary Considerations


54
SECTION VI

Dieting and Fat Loss

Nutritional Priorities & Fat Begets Fat


For years there has been an unfounded and inconclusive assumption
among several health and medical professionals that the over-ingestion
of fats is solely responsible for overweight conditions among otherwise
apparently healthy individuals (not diseased). Moreover, some contend
that body fat increases linearly to fat ingestion. These may very well be
incorrect and unsubstantiated claims. Some of these sources even go so
far as to say that large quantities of protein and carbohydrates can be
ingested without contributing to fat deposit at all. To respond a calorie
is a calorie, is a calorie.

Dieting and Fat Loss


55
The belief that fat begets fat is long- form than proteins and carbohydrates.
standing, but not conclusively researched However, consider that fat cells are
by leading scientific and medical organi- extremely active metabolically. This
zations. Due to the widespread accep- simply means that fat cells are constantly
tance of health related publications, and storing and releasing fatty acids & glyc-
broadcasts re-enforcing the previously erol all day long. Therefore, fat stored at
unquestioned fat begets fat nutritional one point in time will be released for
assumption, the collective attitude of the energy needs at another point in time
American people now mirrors this nutri- they will be stored for future energy
tional falsehood. needs. A diet, even if consisting entirely
of fat, still satisfies step (1) of the nutri-
Although fat is not a preferred source
ent priority system which effects total
of calories, it is just that - a source of cal-
body weight as outlined in the above
ories - just as carbohydrates and proteins priority contention. It is true this type
are sources of calories. The body has a of diet is viewed as being extremely
(3) step priority sequence concerning its unhealthy as it does not satisfy steps (2) &
nutritional needs. (3) of the bodys nutrient priority system.
1st Nutritional Priority What this all boils down to, is that the
Its first priority is to be provided with human body, undesirably, can actually
enough total calories (regardless of survive on a maintenance caloric intake
source) for conversion and use in meeting consisting almost exclusively of fat calo-
energy demands (to be discussed below). ries so long as these calories provide the
body with its energy needs. Cases in
2nd Nutritional Priority point-Eskimos have been considered
Secondly, after this first priority is some of the healthiest people on the face
addressed, the body then sorts through of the earth, practically absent of disease
these calories looking to apply different and/or obesity. To many of the above
macro-nutrient calorie sources to its learned health professionals this repre-
needs. example - using carbohydrates for sents a scientific phenomenon, since the
brain function, blood sugar maintenance, mainstay of the Eskimos diet has always
and liver & muscle glycogen replenish- been whale blubber (fat). For the sake of
ment; using proteins for tissue repair, argument, lets consider fat begets fat a
blood protein synthesis, and catalyst for- given, and assume also that the Eskimo
mation; using fats for membrane forma- shares the same internal body functions
tion, hormone production, synovial fluid, as the rest of us. By ingesting all this
arterial insulation, and energy storage. whale blubber, the Eskimos should take
3rd Nutritional Priority on an overweight, unhealthy appearance
similar to that of the very beasts they tra-
Third and lastly, the body will seek ditionally feed upon. However, as dis-
out and extract valuable micro-nutrients cussed earlier, this is not the case at all.
from the ingested calorie sources. The On the contrary, they are quite healthy
more natural the calorie source, the more and strong. This means that eating fat
rich the nutrient content and the less need not always makes us fat.
the body will have to draw from its own
It is the comparison of the number of
enzymatic resources (common with
total calories ingested to the number of
empty calorie ingestion).
total calories expended that reflects a true
The above has been a brief and simpli- measure of weight gain or loss. This phi-
fied description of the bodys nutrient losophy holds the answers to the dilemma
priority system. of the Eskimo, and since we are all cre-
It is certainly true that ingested fats ated equal, our own personal weight
are more easily converted to their storage maintenance dilemmas as well.

Dieting and Fat Loss


56
The Eskimos, not unlike us, expend is deprived of its needed total calories in
calories throughout the course of a day the first place, and it becomes desperate
that need to be replaced through the for ingested calories it can use for energy...
ingestion of food stuffs. If the calories even if they are fat calories. This was
expended equal the calories ingested, touched upon in the previous chapter.
there will be no long-term accumulation When the bodys demand for total calo-
of fat storage. If the calories expended ries is once again met, it then becomes
are less than the calories ingested, fat will important to restrict the now overabun-
be deposited. And lastly, if the calories dant fat calorie consumption, because
expended are greater than the calories now these fat calories are surplus, and
ingested, fat loss will occur. National will be readily stored in fat cells. Simply
Federation of Professional Trainers in no put, in relation to low calorie diets, the
way advocates or condones high fat bodys nutrition priority system places
intake, as it has been clearly linked with quantity first and then quality. If your
cardiovascular diseases. In closing a metabolism is slow however, the quality
calorie, is a calorie, is a calorie. of the low calorie diet becomes more
important as it sooner reaches the endo-
morphs lower maintenance calorie
Is Fat Friend levels.

or Foe? Even with this understanding, it is still


obvious that avoiding excess fat intake is
There are several misconceptions con- the healthy thing to do. There is no excuse
cerning fat and the role it plays in main- for a healthy diet to consist of more than
taining the adaptability of the human 20-25% fat with an acceptable macro-
body. For instance, if it were not for fat nutrient breakdown reflected in the
reserves the body would surely die. As a Nutrition Tables section later in this
reminder, the body is an adaptive mecha- manual.
nism. Fat is actually transported and
stored in different locations based on the
exercise and activity needs imposed on Invisible
the body.
Ingested fat is of 2 types, saturated Overweight
which raises cholesterol; and unsaturated
which lowers cholesterol in the blood. Condition
Both contribute equally to fat accumula- *Not yet scientifically proven
tion. It is also interesting to note that in As personal fitness trainers you are
the absence of dietary fat, excess carbo- professionals expected to know more
hydrates and proteins are converted and than just what to do. Anyone can pick up
stored as fat. The end result being the a scientific journal and be informed as to
same, only the process is slower. For this what to do. Realize you are to your client
reason, a calorie, is a calorie, is a calorie. a teacher. You are an educator. You need
A high total caloric intake, even low in to know why it happens. You need to
fat, is more likely to contribute to fat explain why it happens. Many little
accumulation than a low total caloric known facts will be presented in this
intake consisting of moderate to high chapter for your consideration that may
levels of ingested fat. significantly impact your future approach
Under temporary restrictive dietary to designing fitness programs for your-
conditions (pertaining to those individu- self, and as fitness administrators, for
als with average metabolisms), the body your clients.

Dieting and Fat Loss


57
Aerobics & Cardiorespiratory the host. Always be reminded that all
Conditioning cells of the body need the same basic
The performance of aerobics can be components of nourishment in order to
counter-productive to lean weight gain. sustain the body systems that give life to
However, the most important and under- the human organism.
rated role aerobic activity plays even in The Endomysium
the gym is not fat loss at all, but cardiore- Now that we have identified the cells
spiratory conditioning. By making more as being the primary benefactors of aero-
efficient the movement of oxygen and bic conditioning, lets explore the aerobic
nutrients to body tissues, more fat and benefits experienced on a cellular level,
less sugar during daily activities is used concentrating of course, on the muscle
by these aerobically conditioned tis-
cell fibers. To do this requires somewhat
sues. After all, caloric expenditures
of an explanation of relative intramuscu-
during aerobic activity dull by compari-
lar components. There is considerable
son to those calories expended 24 hours
doubt that you have heard much about
per day between effective resistance exer-
the one most significant component in
cise sessions restoring energy and build-
ing new tissue. the intramuscular region relative to the
efficiency of oxygen, nutrient & waste
Every breath we take and every calo- movement across muscle fiber mem-
rie we ingest are ultimately provided to branes. This intramuscular component is
the millions and millions of tiny cells that Endomysial Fat. More commonly known
make up what we collectively refer to as as the Endomysium, this fatty layer of
our bodies. In the healthy body, cells are tissue surrounds the Sarcolemma (muscle
constantly dying and regenerating with cell membrane). The thickness of this
all having their own selfish and individ- fatty layer varies from individual to indi-
ual needs for oxygen, nutrients, exercise,
vidual dictated by several factors, most
and recovery. Life sustaining regenera-
importantly diet and exercise habits.
tion (cell division) depends upon the
timely provision of oxygen, nutrients, The presence of significant intramus-
exercise, and recovery. These cells all cular fat deposits surrounding all of the
exist as separate singular living organ- muscle cell fibers inhibits the movement
isms feeding off of the support systems of oxygen, nutrients, wastes and toxins
(cardiorespiratory systems). On this cel- through this thick fatty tissue, constitut-
lular level is where oxygen and carbon- ing what could be referred to as an invis-
dioxide are actually exchanged. The final ible overweight condition.
destination of all nutrients derived from Imagine for a moment the significance
both endogenous and exogenous sources of this realization. Any relative physiol-
are ultimately these millions of tiny cells ogy textbook will identify and define the
where they are finally broken down and composition of the endomysium as being
used for cellular survival needs and regen- the fatty tissue surrounding the individ-
eration. ual muscle tissue fiber. Furthermore, in
Without the cardiovascular and respi- conveying the significance of this myste-
ratory systems provision and transport rious fatty muscle fiber component, have
of vital nutrients & oxygen, not to men- you ever wondered why electrical imped-
tion their function in the removal of cel- ance body fat testing devices sometimes
lular metabolic wastes and toxins, our reveal a drastically greater amount of
cells would literally stop regenerating and measurable body fat than caliper testing?
eventually die. If the cell death involves This is likely due to the fact that bio-
vital organ tissues, death may come to impedance measures fat inside the facia

Dieting and Fat Loss


58
(sheath that surrounds the intramuscular the fat directly surrounding the muscles.
areas), as well as the subcutaneous fat Keep eating, just train harder and longer
that is visible to the eye. Many a proud for more definition.
lean athlete, visibly cut to ribbons, have Interestingly, it is not uncommon for
suffered body fat measurement embar- some visibly overweight (subcutaneously
rassment and have adamantly proclaim fat), individuals to run circles around
the impedance method to bare falsely suspected healthier and leaner individu-
high readings and provided with nothing als who are invisibly fat. This is simply
in the way of a physiological explana- because there is less restriction of nutri-
tion. Generally, if those elite athletes just ent movement into the muscles in the case
referred to were surveyed you would of visibly heavy individual who is not
likely find their regimens at the time of invisibly overweight. The visibly
impedance testing to have consisted of a overweight person simply is charged with
high volume and frequency of low inten- the less demanding task of carrying
sity, high rep resistance training along around more extra pounds.
with an extremely high caloric intake
while performing little in the way of How To Tell If Your Client Is
moderate to intense aerobic condition- Invisibly Overweight?
ing. Any one or any combination of these Possible indicators of undue intramus-
factors practiced for extended periods cular (Endomysial) fat accumulation are
will cause the advanced, heavily and lean- #1 Unexpectedly high exercise heart rate
muscled, extremely well-fed, hard work- #2 Unexpectedly slow recovery from
ing athlete to have increased endomysial exercise heart rate back to resting
fat stores. We will refer to this condi- heart rate
tioned athlete as being invisibly over- #3 Unexpectedly high rate of respiration
weight. Have you ever personally known (fast breathing) during exercise
or heard about huge impressive looking #4 Unexpectedly slow recovery of post
bodybuilders who couldnt run around exercise respiration back to normal
the block? Is it possible there is too much resting respiration.
endomysial fat separating the oxygen and
#5 Visibly lean, heavily-muscled athletes
nutrient rich blood and the working
consuming 1,000+ calories over their
muscle. Also, coupled with the under-
measured maintenance intake
standing that fat weighs considerably less
requirement.
by volume than lean tissues (that includes
intercellular water), the presence of a #6 The diminished ability of a weight
substantial amount of intramuscular fat training athlete to perform aerobic
in a pre-contest conditioned bodybuilder activity at 70% of maximum heart
of the same apparent size as one with rate.
little or no intramuscular fat will weigh Apparently healthy individuals absent
considerably less. This generally results of a visible overweight condition with no
in a visibly larger bodybuilder falling into risk factors present and no relative family
the weight class of a visibly smaller body- history, may still indeed display the above
builder. You can see how a possible com- odd symptoms for otherwise unexplain-
petitive advantage could be gained by the able reasons. The true culprit may be
bodybuilder with the larger appearance. endomysial fat accumulation. This con-
As a note to the invisibly fat body- dition does not simply apply to the resis-
builder, a starvation diet close to contest tance training athlete consuming too
could prove disastrous as you will imme- many calories. In most cases, look to the
diately shrink the muscle size by loosing prolonged over ingestion of total calories,

Dieting and Fat Loss


59
usually consisting of a high fat content, during the performance of moderate to
as an indicator of the overabundant pres- intense aerobic activity by the aerobically
ence of intramuscular fat in the non-ath- unconditioned individual since the endo-
lete. If poor dietary habits explained mysial fat is abundant and immediately
above are not being practiced, and this available. Therefore intense aerobic activ-
client continues to display these symp- ity will call upon a larger amount of
toms with no improvement while on a endomysial fat due to its conveniently
strict diet and performing regular aerobic close storage location.
exercise, a trip to the clients general It can be stated that during low level
practitioner may be in order. activity the rate of release and provision
The most common dietary practice of fat energy from adipose tissue (extra-
that is conducive to excessive endomysial muscular fat) is sufficient to meet the
fat deposits is clearly overeating. Fat stor- muscles needs for energy. During the
age locations are often times genetic with performance of aerobic activity, espe-
some people storing more fat inside the cially in the initial stages of an aerobic
facia. The most common physical activ- exercise prescription, the immediately
ity that predisposes one to excessive available endomysial (intramuscular) fat
intramuscular fat deposits (generally will serve as the primary source of energy.
accompanies prolonged overeating), is Since overeating and lack of aerobic
the absence of exercise altogether, and activity are the cause of intramuscular fat
most significantly the failure to regularly accumulation, cutting back on calories
perform steady state aerobic activity (20+ and performing aerobic activity are the
minutes 3-4 times per week.) keys to minimizing these stores. This
should occur quite rapidly in the other-
Minimizing Endomysial Fat wise apparently healthy individual once
The value of reducing intramuscular implementing these measures. Endomysial
fat and endomysial thickness is clear. The fat is generally easier to lose than extra-
thinner the fatty tissue layer (endomysial muscular fat mostly in part due to its
fat) the better the movement of oxygen, close proximity.
nutrients, and wastes across the muscle It would be wise in cases where a client
fiber membrane. Its just that simple. who admittedly over-eats, is visibly over-
Moreover, the cardiorespiratory systems weight, has no recent exercise history,
will improve dramatically when thinning and who is obviously at risk, to imple-
the endomysial fatty layer. ment dietary control alone prior to initi-
How do you intelligently reduce this ating the performance of aerobic activity.
fatty tissue? Generally speaking, adipose By significantly restricting total calories
(extramuscular fat) tissue cannot release alone, this endomysial fat will diminish
and provide fat energy (fatty acids & rapidly, and offer a greater degree of
glycerol), as rapidly to the working mus- client safety. Never suggest a diet under
cles as endomysial fat (intramuscular fat) the clients basal metabolic rate (BMR).

Dieting and Fat Loss


60
SECTION VII

Nutrition Charts

The NFPT Dietary Advice Chart


Selecting exact foods, combinations of foods, and portion sizes of
specific foods as they relate to medical conditions is not within your
scope of practice. In any of these cases, the involvement of a registered
dietician is suggested.
The objective of this section of the manual is to provide a quality
fitness administrator with an appropriate and standardized method of
prescribing effective nutrition programs that complement the exercise
prescription, are goal oriented, and within ethical parameters. This
objective is most effectively accomplished through the application of the
new Food Pyramid (in the rear of this manual), and two simple charts
provided by the National Federation of Professional Trainers. Study
and provide a copy of the Food Pyramid to your clients. This new
graphic illustration of food group values and their recommended
portions will be a great tool to help your clients make healthier food
choices. Also, in the rear of this manual, there is a master food list for
client menu ideas applying the macro-nutrient and dietary
recommendations you make using the NFPT chart provided.

Nutrition Charts
61
GENERAL DIETARY ADVICE CHART
Goal = Weight Loss Weight Maintenance Weight Gain
Total BMR + Total (LBW X 11)=bmr BMR + Total
Calories = Expenditure + Total Expenditure Expenditure
- 500 Ca + 500 Ca
% Protein = 30% 25% 20%
% Carbohydrate = 45% 50% 55%
% Fats = 25% 25% 25%
# Meals / Day 4-5 Meals 4-5 Meals 5-6 Meals

NFPT Charts & Tables are all goal It is suggested, therefore, that you pur-
oriented. Such is the case with the General chase Skin Fold Calipers for this purpose.
Dietary Advice Chart. Lets explore the Skin fold calipers come complete with the
application of the chart prior to expound- necessary user charts and instructions.
ing on its principles. The first column is Once you have estimated the clients lean
simply a title column defining the entries body weight (LBW) through body com-
in the columns to the right. The first entry position testing, use the product of
in the second column is Weight Loss. To LBW x 11 as shown on the general dietary
achieve this goal, the average client advice chart as one of the many accept-
should adhere to the dietary breakdown able alternative calculations in estimating
in this weight loss column. Likewise, if your clients caloric needs at rest. There is
the clients goal is either Weight no more fundamental calculation than
Maintenance, or Weight Gain, each goal the one provided above. It is appropriate
has its own dietary breakdown column for calories to be calculated based on lean
to be adhered to. Note also that the rec- body weight as it is not desirable to pro-
ommended protein, carbohydrate, and vide calories to support fat weight.
fat percentages refer to calories not These calories expended at rest are
grams. It is important to know that there often referred to as BMR (basal meta-
are 4 calories in 1 gram of carbohydrates; bolic rate) needs. BMR calories are the
4 calories in 1 gram of protein; and 9 cal- number of calories expended by the par-
ories in 1 gram of fat. ticipant when lying flat on his/her back
Lets move on to the basic principles all day long while remaining awake. Use
represented by the General Dietary resources at your disposal to estimate
Advice Chart. Since you are not qualified calories expended in the performance of
to set up a clients diet in its entirety, this various types of prescribed exercise and
chart will assist you in outlining dietary call these calories Activity Expenditures.
recommendations. This NFPT General Then estimate the total number of calo-
Dietary Advice Chart will provide dietary ries expended in the participants daily
parameters that are simple to understand activities (discussed below). Call these
and easily applied. Prior to making any Daily Expenditures. When you add
type of dietary recommendations, beyond Activity Expenditures to Daily
these parameters, a registered dietician Expenditures you arrive at Total
should be consulted. Expenditures. When you then add
One of the most important factors in Total Expenditures to the BMR
structuring a clients diet is to have the needs you arrive at the clients Weight
capacity to determine lean body weight. Maintenance calorie needs. This is indi-

Nutrition Charts
62
cated in the middle column on the above calories one will expend during the exer-
provided chart. As you can see, it is sug- cise prescription you recommend. While
gested by this chart that a 500 calorie\day it will be useful to apply metabolic calcu-
increase from this Weight Maintenance lations to the aerobic phase of your cli-
intake constitutes a recommended Weight ents exercise prescription, simple charts
Gain diet. In contrast, a 500 calorie\day on various aerobic activities listing calo-
decrease from the Weight Maintenance rie expenditures are readily available. On
intake constitutes a recommended Weight the contrary, resistance exercise energy
Loss diet. expenditures are another story. In deter-
Consistent and proper use of skin-fold mining resistance exercise expenditures,
calipers will allow you to make appropri- the NFPT has compiled an Activity
ate adjustments from the recommended Expenditure Chart for your use. As a
caloric intake to assure that weight gain personal trainer working in a typical
consists primarily of lean muscle mass health club setting equipped with both
and not fat accumulation, and weight machine and free weights, you can use
loss consists primarily of fat weight and this chart to estimate your clients resis-
not lean muscle mass. tance exercise expenditures based on a
controlled recovery heart rate between
For client safety and liability purposes, sets, and resistance exercise phase dura-
you should never, under any circum- tion. A brief introduction to this simple
stances, recommend a diet below Basal process and direct application of this
Metabolic Rate. In the event a prolonged chart located in the rear of this manual is
period of BMR calorie dieting and exer- in order.
cise does not foster the desired effect,
rather than dangerously dropping an Prior to administering the goal ori-
additional 500 calories from the clients ented resistance exercise phase of your
weight loss diet, you should opt to clients total exercise prescription, pre-
increase activity expenditures in the establish movement selection and order
of resistance exercise performance
amount of 500 calories over and above
accordingly once again using the charts
the current exercise prescription.
& tables provided in the rear of this
Generally, it is healthier for your client to
manual. Next, determine the clients
perform more activity (preferably low
desired between-set recovery heart rate
level activity) than to diet to extreme.
based on both client goals, and the initial
It is important to note that the calcu- assessment of your new clients level of
lations in this NFPT Chart represent the conditioning using the Activity
norm, and that many metabolic factors Expenditure Chart. As the chart reflects,
come into play that are not all addressed select between 100 BPM; 115 BPM; 125
here. BPM recovery heart rates, each present-
Proper diet is of tremendous impor- ing a different caloric expenditure rate.
tance to the effectiveness of an overall fit- Upon completing a set of a particular
ness prescription. As a fitness administra- machine or free weight exercise, seat the
tor, you need to have some control over client and monitor their heart rate. When
how your client is eating. You can pre- this heart rate has lowered to the targeted
scribe the perfect exercise program for a recovery heart rate you have pre-
client, and if he/she is not following fun- selected (115 BPM for example), it is time
for the client to continue by performing
damental diet principles, the program the next prescribed resistance exercise.
will not be effective. Repeat this process until the resistance
In order to determine dietary needs, it phase of your clients exercise prescrip-
is essential to first estimate the number of tion is complete. Match the prescribed

Nutrition Charts
63
Recovery Heart Rate with the dura- goals, it should be noted that the abso-
tion of the workout to arrive at the caloric lute amount of protein intake (in grams)
Activity Expenditure. remains exactly the same. Additions and/
As a suggestion, develop both the aer- or reductions in total calories come
obic and resistance exercise prescriptions almost exclusively from changes in car-
first, calculating your clients proposed bohydrate intake.
activity caloric needs. Determining this Number of Meals Per Day
information first is extremely important,
since activity calorie expenditure must be The value of eating more small meals
taken into consideration in order to throughout the day, as indicated in the
establish total caloric needs. General Dietary Advice Chart, instead of
fewer large meals, cannot be overstated.
Daily Expenditures? To the body, digestion is considered work,
Once you have determined the exer- and the more work you make the body
cise expenditure above, add about 500 do the greater the bodys metabolic rate
calories reflecting the average persons
even during weight loss dieting. Equally
daily expenditures also referred to else-
where. Daily expenditures are calories break down the total calories into the
your client will typically expend during suggested number of meals, and attempt
his/her everyday functions to include to maintain the same nutrient percent-
employment & leisure activities. The ages in all meals. If fine tuning a serious
average individual who is reasonably athletes diet, it is generally accepted that
active expends approximately 500 calo- meals can be planned throughout the day
ries per day. The least number of daily that consist of more carbohydrates in the
activity calories you should provide are morning and more protein later in the
200 Ca/day. In the case of the extremely day. However, at the end of the day, the
active client, you may wish to provide as overall percentages prescribed should
many as 1,000 Ca/day. Also use profes- have been complied with.
sional judgment when making adjust- Your use of the new Food Pyramid,
ments to caloric intake depending upon
body-type as discussed earlier in this combined with the provided NFPT
manual. Endomorphs need fewer calories Charts and Master Food List in the
than a mesomorph and the mesomorph rear of this manual, should allow you to
needs fewer calories than the ectomorph. effectively teach your apparently healthy
These body types were discussed earlier. clients to develop their own goal oriented
diet, while still not overstepping profes-
sional boundaries. Whenever faced with
Percentages of Nutrients a new client whose ongoing results seem
In looking closely at the chart, specifi- to defy the fundamental principles repre-
cally at the suggested percentages of total sented by the Food Pyramid and\or the
calories to come from protein, carbohy- NFPT Charts, consider the assistance of
drates, and fats relative to the desired a registered dietician.

Nutrition Charts
64
SECTION VIII

Fitness Training and


Trouble-Shooting
Problem: How do you handle the weight loss client
who isnt losing weight?
Answer: Tell him or her, that when using resistance exercise for fat loss, you are not
trying to lose weight you are trying to lose fat. For re-enforcement purposes, perform
a body composition test. Through your computation, they will see that their lean body
weight has increased. They will also see that there has been a dramatic decrease in total
fat. Happiness and motivation will help them to continue with their regular exercise
program. Decrease in total fat simply occurs because fat is released into the blood-
stream during recovery between workouts. Fat is then taken up into the muscles and
used for energy for recovery activities. The result of this fat conversion is a much
heavier (energy replenished & hydrated) muscle fiber, and less stored fat. Hence, a
total weight increase occurs. What used to be excess baggage is now increase muscular
energy having the responsibility of carrying around less baggage. This is one of the
many reasons why the NFPT feels resistance exercise is better for health and weight
management than exclusive aerobic exercise. In aerobic exercise, nothing useful is
being done with this fat loss. It is simply being lost through activity, doing nothing but
leaving the muscle tissue exhausted and your energy stores depleted.

Nutrition Charts
65
Problem: What if the cles for energy and eventually slow down
its metabolism. Fat, the most efficient
weight gain client stops source of survival energy, will continue to
be stored. By eating more food, the starv-
or isnt gaining weight? ing clients body begins to spare muscles
Answer: The obvious answer to this is from being eaten away and will in time
that they are simply not eating enough. no longer perceive starvation resulting in
Complaints may include that they feel its use of surplus fat stores. Performing
bloated and that eating as often as you regular resistance exercise will convince
have told them to just isnt practical. All the body to keep its muscles too. Also,
you can do is recommend the further use when ingesting a few more calories and
of high calorie protein drinks and carbo- the perception of starvation is gone, the
hydrate loading drinks in addition to once horded fat reserves will be utilized
their current nutrition program. The rest as energy which is the bodys desired
is up to them. The other concern is if they function to begin with. The body will use
are not gaining weight following your fat reserves and keep its muscle tissue
recommendations. Explain that a slow especially with a regular full-body resis-
weight gain of about one pound per week tance routine in place. Therefore, once
is normal. Weight gain at a faster rate again, resistance training and a proper
equals too much fat accumulation. You diet are the keys to solving yet another
would also be correct in recommending fat loss dilemma.
against the performance of aerobic exer-
cise, until the amount of weight gained is
satisfactory to the client. Even then you Problem: What can I do
should opt to recommend resistance exer-
cise with aerobic effects over conven- to convert a starvation
tional aerobic exercises unless the client dieter?
has a true need or desire for cardiorespi- Answer: A client may insist on losing
ratory conditioning. weight at a rate faster than one pound
per week, which is not recommended. If
Problem: How do you the client decides to go on a below BMR,
starvation diet, there are several things
answer a question like you should discuss with that client. First
of all, the lower the clients total caloric
this? I run all the time, intake below BMR, the less activity that
and Im already on a client can safely perform. There is a seri-
ous danger related to using muscle tissue
1200 calorie diet, why for energy while on a starvation diet.
cant I lose this spare Prolonged starvation diets lead to Keto
Acidosis. This disorder can result in coma
tire? and death. The first signs of this problem
Answer: Lack of calorie consumption may go unnoticed for several days. Some
is the source of their problem. You need past and present conventional bodybuild-
to be able to explain this to them in terms ing pre-contest preparation diets take the
that they will understand. The body views bodybuilder well into, and sometimes
fat as the most efficient source of survival past the first stage of metabolic acidosis.
energy, and will store it more readily Inform the starvation dieting client of the
when it perceives a starvation situation. following early signs and symptoms:
So, if the client is too active and not extreme dizziness, lightheadedness, faint-
eating enough food, the body is actually ness, loss of balance, confusion, restless-
starving. The bodys reaction to this per- ness, etc. If the client experiences these
ceived starvation is to break down mus- symptoms, he or she should ingest more

Fitness Training and Trouble-Shooting


66
total calories, especially carbohydrates. Answer: Well, generally speaking, the
There are two very objective approaches performance of all types of resistance
you can take in safeguarding the health exercise results in either a long-term or
of the starvation dieter. To start with, do short-term increase in BMR, while aero-
strength tests on a frequent basis. If the bic activity raises metabolism only during
dieting clients strength is falling off, too the performance of the chosen activity,
much muscle tissue is being used for and for a few minutes afterward.
energy, and the client must at least slightly Increases in BMR that are long-term,
increase his of her total calories. Secondly, result from those types of resistance exer-
and only as a last resort, teach the client cises that cause the greatest increase in
the proper use of Keto Stix. This is a lean tissue size. The greater the muscle
last resort because a clients use could weight, the more energy the body expends
further encourage the clients starvation
throughout the day. This reflects a long-
dieting, thinking that monitoring makes
term increase in metabolism.
starvation acceptable. When an extremely
high amount of body tissue is used for Since digestion raises the metabolism
energy there is a toxin that accumulates it is important to eat many small meals
in the blood that spills over into the urine. throughout the day as apposed to eating
This acetate can be detected using Keto- infrequent large meals.
Stix. This is considered a self-test, and Increases in metabolism that are short-
the proper application of the Stix is term, result from high rep, light weight,
shown on the container. There is a color and frequent resistance exercises. Between
code, the darker the shade, the greater resistance workouts, muscle energy is
the use of body tissue. being replaced, and during this process
Have your stubborn client use the the body functions faster. This reflects a
Keto-Stix at a regular time of day. If there short-term increase in metabolism.
is the slightest color shade, it is a sign
that there is too much body tissue being
used for energy, and the client should
Problem: What kind of
slightly increase his or her carbohydrate food should I eat to keep
intake until strip has no shade. This
should keep him or her at a marginally
from getting fat?
Answer: First of all, no more than 20-
safe intake. It is also important to note,
25% of your total caloric intake should
for example, if a client has a high acetate
come from fat. Eating more protein will
reading while consuming 1,000 calories force the body to convert amino acids
and performing no activity, that if the into energy which results in a more grad-
same client were eating 1,500 calories ual increase in blood sugar, which is ben-
and performing a 500 calorie expenditure eficial to fat loss. Increasing protein
activity, he or she will still show the same slightly while somewhat reducing carbo-
reading. As a reminder, the lower the hydrates will minimize the availability of
starvation dieters calories the riskier sugar since its not as easy for the body to
their activity becomes. use protein for energy (extreme
approaches to carbohydrate limiting and
Problem: Is there any protein increase should be avoided).
Consuming carbohydrates that are
way I can speed up my absorbed into the blood stream slower
will minimize fat accumulation that
metabolism? results when too much sugar is rapidly

Fitness Training and Trouble-Shooting


67
introduced into the blood. Tell the client
to consult a Glycemic Index and learn
more about the Glycemic Load of
foods mentioned elsewhere in this
manual. This Index-Load reflects the
rate that sugars from carbohydrates, are
absorbed into the blood on a scale of 0 to
100, the higher the number, the more
rapid the absorption. Instruct the client
to choose foods that are low on the
Glycemic Index.
Be reminded that although some very
healthy foods rate somewhat high on this
index, they can still be ingested, but
inform the client to eat these high glyce-
mic index carbohydrates in small quanti-
ties and in combination with low glyce-
mic index carbohydrates. This will act to
compromise the high GI foods rate of
absorption.

Fitness Training and Trouble-Shooting


68
SECTION IX

Supplements

The Need for Supplements


It is the position of the National Federation of Professional Trainers
that widespread use of individual mega-dose sports supplements among
average apparently healthy individuals, and noncompetitive athletes is
not encouraged. Furthermore, it is NFPTs contention that the use of
many individual sports supplements as part of a properly prescribed,
goal oriented diet and training regimen will represent a marginal
contribution to overall progress. While the NFPTs education division
includes information on various useful sports supplements concerning
their proper application, it does so in the best interest of your clients
who will wish to use these supplements regardless of the NFPT position
on the issue of supplementation.

Supplements
69
Supplement Table
Goals Weight General Weight Size & Inter- Endur-
Gain Fitness Loss Strength mediate ance
BCCAs * * * *
Free Form Aminos * * * *
Protein Drink * * * *
B-complex * * * * * *
Multi-vitamin * * * * * *
Carbohydrate Load Drink * * * *
HCL (Pepsin) * *

While the NFPT does not recommend tively assimilate that particular foods
the use of concentrated, individual nutri- nutrients. Sadly, not only is the average
ent supplementation for the typical per- persons diet rarely all natural, there are
sonal training client, we realize that there pesticides and preservatives used that
will be those clients who use these sup- destroy some of these natural bio-chemi-
plements regardless of your recommen- cals. To make things even worse, the
dations to the contrary. With this in mind, average person does not participate in
the following information has been regular strenuous activities. Regular
included to provide basic knowledge of strenuous activities call for a greater
those supplements, which have been caloric intake and greater nutritional
determined to be of some value depen- needs as well.
dent upon the clients goals. As you can
see, the table provides goal-oriented col-
BCAAs
umns for Weight Gain, General Fitness, Branch Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)
Weight Loss, Size & Strength, are the individual amino acids Leucine,
Intermediate Athletics, and Endurance. Isoleucine, and Valine. These three amino
In these goal-oriented columns, the acids are found to comprise about 50 to
appropriate supplements to be recom- 60% of all muscle tissue. It is believed
mended are indicated. The application of that these three amino acids are taken up
each NFPT recommended supplement into the tissue and used in the creation of
would be discussed later in this chapter. cellular enzymes (catalysts) for energy
It is by no means suggested that you production and to promote the sparing
should administer supplementation to of nitrogen in muscle cells.
every one of your clients. Simply make Cellular catalysts are depleted during
the client aware of the beneficial effects physical exertion and therefore require
of different supplements and their costs, replenishment. BCAAs should be supple-
and let the client decide whether or not mented within one hour prior to, and
he/she wishes to use them. Before con- during prolonged, intense exercise, to
tinuing, the argument for and against replenish depleted catalysts. When suffi-
supplement use needs to be addressed. cient BCAAs are present in the cell fiber
It is thought in some circles that natu- for catalyst formation, other amino acids
ral healthy foods contain bio-chemical in the cell can be used for the more desir-
substances (vitamins) in just the right able purpose of protein synthesis (build-
quantities to provide the average persons ing and repairing muscle) and energy
body with the enzymes needed to effec- production.

Supplements
70
Free Form Amino Acids This is ridiculous due to the availability
Taking Free Form Amino Acids with of extremely high calorie foods (refer to
meals that are 3 to 4 hours apart and your Master Food List), but nonetheless,
include incomplete protein food sources a high calorie Protein Drink is more
will assure that all the required essential easily digested and should be added to
amino acids are present at once (often a the weight gain clients existing high cal-
requirement for cellular uptake). In orie diet. It is important to note that the
theory, this will assure continued uptake, amino acid breakdown and the calorie
tissue repair, and anabolism. Diets, defi- comparison between expensive weight
cient in protein, high or low in total calo- gain supplements (protein drinks) and
ries can be complemented by the supple- regular Nonfat Powdered Milk are very
mentation of these Free Form Amino similar. The serving sizes of course differ,
Acids. This situation should be avoided but using powdered milk offers a more
through the proper use of the General affordable means by which to supple-
Dietary Advice Chart, as a substantial ment your clients needed calories and
portion of each meal is comprised of pro- amino acids.
tein. It is also important to note that the Look close at that protein
heavier the training, the greater the tissue supplement...
damage, and the greater the damage, the Predigested protein supplements
greater the need for protein. The subject derived through a process known as
of protein requirement is discussed in hydrolysis renders some amino acids
greater detail elsewhere in this text. unusable, and may contain toxins.
Protein Drink B-Complex
A quality weight gain protein drink These vitamins are co-enzymes that
consists of an acceptable balance of car- are used in proportion to energy expendi-
bohydrates, proteins, and fats. When and ture. Everyone who is relatively active
if your client is ever faced with missing a should consider his or her replacement.
meal, this type of protein drink can be
used as a replacement. Do not make a Multi-Vitamin
habit of it for there isnt enough fiber in The next supplement is the ever pres-
most of these drinks. There is no substi- ent under-rated Multi-Vitamin. This sup-
tution for sound nutritional eating plements value is by far greater than
habits. most, if not all other supplements. It is
This infrequent meal replacement commonly overlooked because the money
application will obviously be of value to spent on Multi-Vitamins would take
all of your clients regardless of goals. The away from the amount of money that
need for client discipline in the areas of could have gone to buying a mega-dose
meal timing, total caloric intake, and supplement. The Multi-Vitamin is simply
nutrient composition, is satisfied through a form of insurance because it provides
the replacement use of a quality high cal- the body with at least some of everything
orie protein drink. it needs.
On the other hand, another effective Carbohydrate Loading Drinks
application of the high calorie Protein Last are the Carbohydrate Load
Drink is relevant to those weight gain cli- Drinks. Most of the glucose used in
ents who have an incredibly high metab- weight training comes from sources
olism from inherited hormonal reasons. already inside the muscle cell fibers. The
These clients will claim that they abso- source of glucose for aerobic activity
lutely cannot eat enough to gain weight. comes mainly from the liver. This under-

Supplements
71
standing should shed a whole new light Deficiencies - General - loss of appetite,
on the use of carbohydrate load drinks. inhibited growth, increased susceptibility
For the aerobic athlete, maintaining to infections, diarrhea, impaired growth.
blood sugar levels during aerobic activity Skin - dry and scaly, poor hair reproduc-
is of the utmost importance, so these tion, karatomalacia. Metaplasia - change
slowly absorbed carbohydrates which act of cell shape. Eyes - night blindness,
to maintain blood sugar levels, comes in xeropthalmia, karatomalacia.
very handy just prior to an event in load- Respiratory Tract - extensive karatiniza-
ing the Liver stores. tion of lining cells, loss of ciliary epithe-
lium, multiple infections. Digestive Tract
For the resistance athlete, taking a
- karatinization of mucus membranes,
carbohydrate load drink just prior to a loss of gland activity, poor absorption,
workout would be unnecessary from the infections. Urinary Tract - metaplasia of
standpoint of supplying energy to fuel epithelium and increased tend. to stone
the workout, since energy comes primar- formation. Bones - some overgrowth w/
ily from inside the cells in resistance exer- resulting severe damage. Reproductive
cise. System - degeneration of germinal epi-
However, there is a very useful pur- thelium, degeneration of ovary, decline
pose for carbohydrate load drinks in all in egg production and female fert. Fetal -
types of activity; energy replacement. multiple abnormalities.
Simply put, regardless of the type of exer- Overconsumption - growth retardation,
cise, post workout carbohydrate intake is enlarged liver and spleen, hair loss, rheu-
necessary to initiate replenishment of all matic pain, increase skull pressure
glycogen stores and to prevent muscles
from feeding on themselves for immedi-
ate post-workout recovery energy (catab- Vitamin C - RDA 60mg
olism). The immediate uptake of blood Functions - Help iron absorption; pro-
glucose after an energy depleting resis- mote tissue repair and growth; healing
tance exercise session will mean the dif- wounds; prevents fats from going rancid;
ference between continued catabolism natural antibiotic; maintain strength of
(break down) and the initiation of anab- blood vessel walls; essen. to formation,
olism (rebuilding). strength, and health of collagen; preser-
vative in food; bone and tooth forma-
tion; burn healing; disease and infection
Vitamins resistance
Sources - citrus fruit, acerda cherries,
Vitamin A - RDA 4000-5000 IU rose hips, turnip greens, strawberries,
Functions - Maintain epithelium; chem. cantaloupe, brussel sprouts
of eye, essential for good vision, specific
function in rod vision (rhodopsin); bone Deficiencies - bruise easily, bleeding
growth in kids, bone replacement in gums, scurvy
adults; increase permeability of blood Overconsumption - nontoxic under
capillaries; better tissue oxygenation; normal conditions
health of skin and protective activities of
mucus membranes Vitamin D - RDA 400 IU
Sources - Mammals and saltwater fish; Functions - necessary for Ca and P utili-
supplement. w/encapsulated fish liver oil; zation and absorption - promotes ossifi-
carotenes in leafy green and yellow veg- cation of bones and teeth and intestinal
etables. (converted by body to vitamin. A, absorp. of Ca to form strong bones;
stored indefinitely in fatty tissues) activity of Vitamin A

Supplements
72
Sources - synthesized by body (skin) ash (mineral part)
through sunlight; cod liver oil, halibut 99% of Ca in skeleton and teeth, 1%
liver oil, egg yolks, fortified milk and plasma content
margarine
Ca:P - in bone 2:1, in body 1.7:1
Deficiencies - rickets in children; osteo-
malacia in adults (rare) Parathyroid gland - monitors Ca level in
blood; secretes parathyroid hormone to
Overconsumption - Toxic - causes exces-
sive bone reabsorption; mental and gut to increase Ca absorption, if slow
physical growth retardation, kidney bone resorption increases Ca
damage, Ca mobilization from bony
tissue and soft tissue deposits Iron - RDA - men 10mg, women
18mg
Vitamin E - Not Stable Functions - transports O2 from lungs to
Functions - antioxidant protecting A working muscles; component of enzymes
and C and fatty acids from destruction - cytochromes and catalase; production
and free radical scavenger; interacts with of red blood corpuscles (hemoglobin);
selenium; prevents cell membrane red pigment in blood (myoglobin); pro-
damage; healthy heart and skeletal mus- motes disease resistance; prevents
cles; oxygen conserver in athletes; health fatigue; aids growth; helps in protein
metabolism; prevents anemia
of veins in legs; prevents formation of
internal blood clots Sources - heart and liver, raw clams, red
meat, peaches, oysters, egg yolks, nuts
Source - whole wheat, grain oils,
almonds, wheat germ, filberts, peanuts Deficiencies - anemia - insufficient iron
needed to form healthy RBCs causes
Deficiencies - almost impossible without lack of hemoglobin; weakness, alenessof
starvation; Muscular Dystrophy, liver skin, constipation
degeneration, reprod. failure, exudative
Overconsumption - excessive intake may
diathesis, encephalomalacia (degen.
be toxic!
membranes)

Calcium - RDA 800mg Magnesium - RDA - men 350mg,


women 300mg
Functions - Normal action of skeletal
Functions - activator of enzymes (ATP
and heart muscle (w/Mg regulates heart
triggered, muscle contraction, refractory
beat); blood clotting; strong bones and making proteins); essential to Ca and
teeth (90% Calcium); metabolize bodys Vit. C metabolism; metabolism of K; Na
iron; alleviates insomnia; aids nervous and P; convert blood sugar to energy;
sys. (trans. of nerve impulses) effective nerve and muscle function;
Sources - milk and milk products, salmon, fights depression; keeps teeth healthy;
peanuts, dried peanuts, green veg. promotes healthy cardiovascular sys.;
Requirements - Ca:P desirable 1:1 to prevents Ca deposits; kidney stones and
2:1; vit. D necessary for proper absorp- gall stones; catalyst in the utilization in
tion carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
Deficiencies - Children - rickets, Adults - Sources - liver, yeast, nuts, dark green
osteomalacia, peridontal disease, milk veg., apples, grapefruit, lemons, seeds,
figs
fever, eventual death; osteoporosis -
bone thinning; 100mg/day - 8 wks of Deficiencies - hypomag. - poor growth
exercise increases bone deposition on (NH4 level may affect the cause), ner-
victims vousness, muscular excitability, tremors,
depression
Overconsumption - possible side effects
Overconsumption - may be toxic in indi-
Additional Facts - Ca+P - 70% of body viduals with kidney malfunctions

Supplements
73
Potassium - RDA 1875-5625mg
Functions - role in osmotic regulation in 40 Fundamental
cells; principle cation in cells; works to
control activity in the heart, muscle, ner- Nutrients
vous sys., and kidneys; assists conver. of The nutrients below are listed in order
glucose to glycogen of importance to the body. It will be inter-
Sources - all veg. (esp. green leafy), esting for you to see just where these
oranges, whole grains, sunflower seeds, nutrients fall relative to the bodys priori-
potatoes (esp. skin), bananas ties...
Deficiencies - muscle paralization 1) Water
(impairs glucose metabolism), water pills 2) Carbohydrates
or hormone products (cortisone and
aldosterone) cause P loss and Na reten- 3) Amino acids (10)
tion, poor reflexes, respiratory failure, 4) Fats
cardiac arrest, nervous disorders, consti- 5) Vitamins (13)
pation, irregular pulse, insomnia 6) Electrolytes (3)
7) Minerals (12)
Sodium - RDA 1100-3300mg Why are vitamins so low on the list?
Functions - with potassium - equalize Well, it probably has something to do
acid -alkali factor in blood, regulate with what our interpretation of a vitamin
water balance, muscle contraction and really is...
expansion, nerve stimulation, with chlo- Vitamins are biochemicals found in
rine - improve blood and lymph health, healthy foods. They are used by the body
purge carbohydrateon dioxide from
to produce enzymes sufficient to aid in
body, aids digest., nec. for HCI produc-
tion in stomach; keeps minerals soluble the digestion of host calories. In other
(avoid deposits in blood stream) words, healthy natural foods ideally con-
tain sufficient vitamins to help the body
Sources - virtually all foods, esp. sea- assimilate that particular foods nutrients.
foods, poultry, meat, kelp The ingestion of nutritionally deficient
Deficiencies - very rare; intestinal gas, calories call on the body to produce the
weight loss, vomiting, muscle shrinkage, enzymes needed for proper assimilation.
poor carbohydrate. conversion The use of multi-vitamins are therefore
Overconsumption - potassium lost in recommended in all cases as a form of
urine, fluid retention, dizziness, swelling, insurance in case foods are deficient in
increased chances of high blood pressure nutrients.
Vitamins + Minerals + the Athlete Individual supplements are not gener-
Vitamins lost during exercise: ally recommended with the exception of
1) thiamin diagnosed deficiencies. Generally speak-
ing, individual supplements in mega-
2) niacin doses may cause a nutritional imbalance.
3) riboflavin The NFPT Supplementation chart does
4) pantothenic acid not include supplements that will cause
imbalances. Because these supplements
Minerals lost during exercise are listed does not necessarily mean they
1) calcium should be recommended in every case.
2) iron Supplementation is dictated by client
needs, and/or desired goals.

Supplements
74
The remainder of this manual provides charts, tables, and consultation guidelines
for your use conpliments of the National Federation of Professional Trainers.
You will not be assessed on this information.

NFPT Charts and Tables


The charts and tables are to be used as a primary guide. The charts are tables are
arranged into sections that should help you take a given client, assess them, and then
develop a program for them. Please see the website for preformatted workout accord-
ing to the principles we have emphasized in the manual.

Section A: Tables For Exercise Recommendations


Table A1: General Exercise Recommendations Chart Starter through
Advanced- Three Types of Goals
Goal Rep Range Routine Set Intensity Duration Recovery HR
Size 4-6 3 day 90-100 30-60 100
Stamina 12-15 2 day 85-95 45-70 115
Endurance 20-25 Circuit 75-90 45-90 125

Table A2: Suggested Movements and Total Sets Table


Muscle Group Total Sets-low Total Sets- Circuit Suggested Movements
Intensity High Routine
Chest 8-10 6-8 4-5 Flat/ Incline Bench Press
Back- upper 10-12 8-10 4-5 Wide/ Close Grip Pulls
Back-lower 6-8 4-6 4-5 Hyperextensions
Shoulders 6-8 4-6 Upright Right Rows
Triceps 6-8 4-6 Tricep Ext/ Bench Dips
Biceps 5-7 3-5 Straight bar curl, preacher
Traps 3 3 Shrugs- Bar/Dumb-bell
Gluts 10-12 8-10 4-5 Squats, leg press-deep
Quads 10-12 8-10 4-5 Leg press/ leg extensions
Hamstrings 3-4 3-4 4-5 Leg curls/ straight leg dead lifts
Ad/Ab-ductors 3-4 3-4 Side lunges, cable pull In/Out
Calves 3-4 3-4 4-5 Standing Calf Raises
Abdominals 1-2 1-2 4-5 Crunches, reverse crunch
Forearms 2-4 2-4 wrist/ reverse curl, hammer curl

Table A3: Range Chart- Set Intensity effect on Performance/Tissue


Repetition Range 4-6 12-15 20-25
Set Intensity- 70% Maintain Strength Maintain Stamina Some fat conversion
Set Intensity- 80% Increase Strength Increase Stamina Moderate fat conversion
Set Intensity- 90% Maximize Strength Maximize Stamina Maximum fat conversion
Set Intensity- 100% Build White Tissue Build Red, Fast Build Red Slow tissue
Set Intensity- 110% Tissue Damage Tissue Damage Tissue Damage

NFPT Charts and Tables


75
Table A4 : Repetition ranges relative to percent intensity and point of con-
traction failure Relative RPE (set intensity)
Fitness 70% 80% 90% 100% 110%
Goal intensity intensity intensity intensity intensity*
Subjective Somewhat Hard- Very hard- Very, very hard-
feeling strong- Borg 4 Borg 6 Borg 7-8 Borg 9-10
Strength 3 reps short 2 reps short 1 rep short Failure Forced rep
of failure of failure of failure
Stamina 6 reps short 4 reps short 2 reps short Failure Forced rep
of failure of failure of failure
Endurance 9 reps short 6 reps short 3 reps short Failure Forced rep
of failure of failure of failure

Section B: Tables for Body Weight, Energy


Balance and Body Composition
Table B1: Activity Expenditure Chart
Recovery Heart Rate (between Sets) Calories per hour- Expenditure
100 500
115 750
125 1000
Add- BMR + Daily Expend + Activity Total caloric expenditure (sum of 3)

Total Daily Caloric Expenditure and Activity Expenditure


Total Caloric Expenditure= BMR + Activity Expenditure + Thermic Effect of Food
Table B2: Basal Metabolic Rate Equation

Men=Body Wt (Kg) * 1.0 kcal/kg/hr * 24 hr Men=Body Weight (BWt- lbs) * 11 = kcal/d


OR
Women=Body Wt (Kg) * 0.9 kcal/kg/hr * 24 hr Women=BWt- lbs * 10.5 = kcal/ d

Table B3: General Activity Equations- 3 Different Methods related to Activity


Activity BMR Factor Activity Energy Example of Activity
Level BMR + factor (x Expend
factor* BMR BMR) (Kcal/kg/day)
Sedentary .25- .40 1.3-M 31 Seated and standing
1.3-W 30 activities driving, lab work,
cooking, easy household
Light .50 - .70 1.6-M 38 Walking 2.5-3 mph, garage
Activity 1.5-W 35 work, electrical, carpentry,
restaurant, housecleaning,
child care, golf, bowl

Continued on next page

NFPT Charts and Tables


76
Table B3: General Activity Equations (Continued)
Activity BMR Factor Activity Energy Example of Activity
Level BMR + factor (x Expend
factor* BMR BMR) (Kcal/kg/day)
Moderate .65 - .80 1.7-M 41 Walking 3.5- 4mph
activity 1.6-W 37 vigorous garden work,
cycling, skiing, tennis
Heavy .90 1.20 2.1-M 50 Walking with a load
Activity 1.9-W 44 uphill, tree service, heavy
manual digging, basket-
ball, football, soccer, rock
climbing
Exceptional 1.30 1.45 2.4-M 58 Training in professional
Activity 2.2-W 51 events or ultra-distance
races, running, jumping

Use 2.2 lbs/kg for all conversions (160 lbs/2.2 = 72.7 kg)
Body Mass Index (BMI) = Wt (lbs)/ Ht (in) 2 * 705

Table B4: General Dietary Advice Chart


Goal Weight Loss Weight Maintain Weight Gain
Total Daily Cal. intake Total expend- 500 kcal Total expend. Total expend + 500
% Carbohydrate 50-60% 50% 50-60%
% Protein 20-25% 25% 20-25%
% Fat 25-30% 25% 20-25%
# meals/ day 4-5 4-5 5-6

NFPT Charts and Tables


77
GLOSSARY
AHA- American Heart Association Amylase- carbohydrate digestive enzymes.
Abduction- movement of an extremity Arteriole- a very small artery
away from the midline of the body. Artery- a vessel through which the blood
Acetate- an organic substance produced passes away from the heart to the various
by the liver to be used for energy using parts of the body
cannibalized fat and muscle tissue; occurs ADP- adenosine diphosphate; resultant
during both starvation and over-exertion; molecule of splitting ATP for energy also
extreme levels are toxic to the brain used to regenerate ATP
Actin- the smaller of the two contractile ATP- adenosine triphosphate; chemical
elements which sustain damage through source of energy for all nucleated cells
applied resistance and are once again
repaired through anabolism resulting in Atrophy- a wasting away or diminution
hypertrophy of the myofibril in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part
Acute- rapid onset and severe symptoms Ballistic- jerky or projectile movement
of occurrence; usually referring to injury Beta Oxidation- energy producing pro-
Adipose- of a fatty nature; fat cess involving the breakdown of long
chains of fatty acids into two carbon
Aldosterone- hormone regulating salt molecules which enter metabolic path-
and water balance ways to produce ATP
Androgenic- contributing to the forma- Bile- emulsifier of fat; breaks fat down
tion of male and/or female characteristics into easily metabolized droplets
Anemia- condition in which oxygen Biomechanics- mechanical movement of
transport by the red blood cells is defi- human anatomy
cient
Bloodsugar- circulating glucose within
Anabolism- the stage of metabolism when the cardiovascular system
damaged tissue is being repaired
Cannibalism- the breakdown and use of
Angina Pectoris- periodic severe pain in body tissue for energy in the absence of
the chest radiating to the left shoulder nutrients
and down the inner side of the left arm,
usually precipitated by physical exertion Cartilage- hard tissue located chiefly in
or emotional stress the joints of major bones
Anorexia- lack or loss of appetite for Catabolism- the stage of metabolism
food when activity is being performed causing
damage to cells later needing repair
Antagonistic Multi-set- a slow super
set involving the performance of two Catalyst- a substance which changes the
movements, back to back, targeting velocity of a reaction but does not form
antagonistic muscle groups part of the final product
Antagonistic Muscle- a muscle whose Cerebrospinal Fluid- fluid which sur-
action opposes that of another muscle rounds and circulates throughout the
central nervous system

Glossary
78
Collateral- referring to fluid (blood) Endomorphic- having a relative tendency
movement outside the main cardiovascu- to remain heavy or obese
lar tree Endomysium- a fine connective tissue
Compensatory Acceleration- the increase sheath surrounding the individual muscle
in speed of a repetition as the leverage cell fiber
improves Enzyme- proteins in small amounts that
Compound- the unity of two or more speed up chemical reactions
parts in the accomplishment of a task Epimysium- a fine connective tissue
Concentric Contraction- the occurrence sheath that surrounds the entire muscle
of a contractile shortening of a muscle group, also known as deep fascia
fiber or a group of fibers; the positive Equilibrium- the stage in metabolism
rep when neither damage or repair is occur-
Contraindication- outward signal of ring; the cell is at rest
internal dysfunction, or adverse bodily Ergometer- device normally used for sub-
activity maximal aerobic evaluation (exercise bike)
Cortisol- principle stress hormone Exogenous- imposing an affect on the
released by the adrenal gland during body from the outside environment
times of physical and physiological stress,
mobilizes fat and stimulates the liver to Extension- when a joint functions result-
release tissue cannibalizing enzymes into ing in an increase in the angle of the levers
the bloodstream involved
Chronic- gradual in onset and very slow Extracellular- all areas outside the tissue
in recovery, usually refers to injury which cell wall; usually referring to intramuscu-
is long in duration lar areas
Chylomicrons- packaged form of fatty Fatty acids- the bodys desired source of
substances entering into the blood from energy during steady state aerobic activ-
digestion via the lymphatic system ity, and low level activity; used for ATP
production in muscle tissue during recov-
Creatine Phosphate- acts as store of high ery glycogen replenishment
energy phosphate in muscle tissue
Fixators- any muscle or group of muscles
Deamination- the undesirable breakdown that stabilize the body and/or its parts
and use of amino acids for energy, per- during the functioning of the prime
formed by the liver, results in the toxic movers
ammonia; later broken down into urea
for excretion Flexion- when a joint functions resulting
in a decrease in the angle formed by the
Dilation- the peripheral expansion of levers involved
tissue; usually blood vessels
Forced Rep- performing repetitions of an
Eccentric Contraction- a controlled con- exercise beyond concentric failure with
traction of a muscle fiber of group of the assistance of spotter
fibers from the fully contracted state to
the starting position; the negative rep Glucagon- hormone released in response
to low bloodsugar level; stimulates the
Ectomorphic- having a relative tendency liver to release stored glycogen in the
to remain very thin form of glucose into the bloodstream,
Edema- the presence of an abnormally returning bloodsugar levels to normal
large volume of fluid in the interstitial Glucometer- self-testing device used to
spaces of the body measure blood glucose

Glossary
79
Gluconeogenesis- the formation of glu- Impermeable- not permitting for passage;
cose from noncarbohydrate sources such usually fluid
as protein or fatty acids Innervation- a nerve supply that stimu-
Glucose- the principle bloodsugar lates a motor unit to contract regardless
of the angle of resistance, so long as the
Glucose polymers- chain of glucose mol- action potential exceeds the motor units
ecules linked together contractile threshold
Gluco-Stix- blood blotting stick used in Insertion- place of attachment of a muscle
conjunction with glucometer testing to the bone which it moves; occurs at the
Glycemic Index- a functional list of foods end of the muscle furthest from the body
rated according to their specific absorp- Insulin- hormone released during high
tion rate into the bloodstream bloodsugar levels, or at the onset of exer-
Glycerol- component of triglycerides cise, responsible for reducing bloodsugar
capable of conversion to glucose to its normal level through its mediating
affect on the uptake of sugar into various
Glycogen- the chief carbohydrate storage body tissues to include muscle and fat
form of glucose
Insulin Receptor Sites- pathways located
Glycolysis- energy production using glu- on various body tissues, which in the
cose presence of insulin, allow for the trans-
Holistic training- training in various rep port of nutrients into the cell
ranges in a single session to stimulate Intracellular- situated inside the cell
adaptation of all three motor units of the
target muscle group Intramuscular- areas which are situated
anywhere inside a muscle group
Hydrolysis- decomposition with the addi-
Intercostal- situated between the ribs
tion of water
Interstitial- pertaining to, or situated in
Hyperplasia- an increase in the size of a the gaps between tissues
muscle or organ owing to an increase in
the number of cells Isometric Contraction- static contraction;
contraction of a muscle resulting in nei-
Hypertension- abnormally high tension; ther a shortening or lengthening of the
usually high blood pressure tissues
Hypertonic- having an osmotic pressure Isolation- to single out and develop a part
greater than that of another solution with separately
which it is compared
Keto-Stix- self-test sticks used to examine
Hypertrophy- the enlargement or over- urine levels of acetate, ketones
growth of a part due to an increase in the
Ketones- bi-product of tissue use for
size of its cells energy; large amounts are toxic to brain
Hypoglycemia- concentration of glucose function
in the blood below the normal limit Lactic Acid- accumulates in muscle fibers
Hypotonic- having an osmotic pressure during strenuous exercise causing cramps
lower than that of a solution with which and inhibiting contraction; Liver converts
it is compared to energy
Internal rotation- movement in which the Leverage- an angle from which resistance
anterior surface of the humerus (upper is applied against a muscular contraction
arm) turns inward toward the midline of Ligament- any tough, fibrous tissue con-
the body. necting bone to bone

Glossary
80
Lipolytic enzymes- fat digestive enzymes Perfusion- passage of blood through the
Lymphatic Vessels- network of vessels vascular tissue into the interstitial space
that transport fluids from the interstitial Perimysium- connective tissue sheath sur-
areas back into the bloodstream rounding each motor unit
Lypase- one of the two principle fat burn- Plateau- period of training in which no
ing enzymes progress is identified
Mesomorphic- a relative tendency to Prime Mover- A muscle group that is
remain muscular in appearance directly responsible for the movement of
Metabolism- the sum of all the chemical resistance in a given exercise.
and physical changes that can take place Proteases- protein digesting enzymes
in the body and enable continued growth Pyruvate- converted form of intracellular
and functioning glucose used for producing ATP energy
Mitochondria- cell organelles that most with oxygen.
of the cells ATP; known as the power- Ribosomes- elements located along myo-
house of the cell fibrils which act to manufacture and
Motor Unit- a group of fibers stimulated repair actin and myosin
to contract simultaneously in response to Rough Sacroplasmic Reticulum- houses
an action potential of sufficient intensity ribosomes and are located around myofi-
to surpass its threshold of sensitivity brils
Multi-Set- a slow super-set involving Subcutaneous- beneath the skin
the performance of two movements, back
to back, targeting different prime movers Symmetrical- opposite sides of the body
corresponding with each other; usually
Myofibril- contractile proteins inside the refers to muscular development
cell comprised of actin and myosin
Synergists- any muscle or group of mus-
Myosin- the larger of the two contractile cles allowing balance during the contrac-
elements making up the myofibrils tion of prime movers
Neuron- a nerve cell transmitting an Synthesis- putting together parts to form
impulse allowing for the contraction of a a more complete whole
motor unit
Tendon- fibrous cord of connective tissue
Nucleolus- surrounds nucleus and houses in which the muscles end, and are where
RNA muscles attach to bone or other struc-
Nucleus- the controlling organelle embed- tures
ded in cell membrane and houses DNA Tropic- triggering or influencing an
Oblique Muscles- located on either side action
of the lower abdomen Valsalvas Maneuver- increasing of intra-
Origin- the attachment of a muscle at the thoracic pressure by holding the breath
end closest to the center of the body and straining against a closed glottis; typ-
Oxidative Phosphorylation- system of ically associated with coughing, defeca-
energy production involving the utiliza- tion, and weight lifting
tion of glucose or fat in the presence of Vein- vessel which moves blood to or
oxygen toward the heart
Peptides- short chains of amino acid mol- Ventricle (left)- the chamber of the heart
ecules linked together pumping blood to the aorta

Glossary
81
NFPT Consultation
Guidelines
The most valuable client service you provide is risk factor identifi-
cation. Always recommend, verbally and in writing, clients consult
their physicians prior to starting an exercise program or increasing
the intensity of an existing program (included in optional Informed
Consent Waiver provided). Always maintain CPR Certification

Questionnaire Procedure
1st Appointment drug allergies
orthopedic problems, or arthritis
Inform Client of Professional Confiden- smoker over 35
tiality (a sample Disclosure Agreement
Form is included in these Guidelines) Family history of Illness or Disease
Premature death of immediate family
Major Health Risk Factor Identification member under age 50
Diabetes
Clinical Obesity Acquire Cardiovascular Risk Profile
A Total Cholesterol to HDL Choles- Information
terol ratio > 5:1 A score of 32 or higher constitutes a
Abnormal resting ECG risk factor (a sample form is located
elsewhere in these Guidelines)
Client Personal Medical History
heart attack Current Client Medication
bypass surgery Chronic illness, Injury or Range-of-
cardiac surgery Motion Limitation
extreme chest discomfort
irregular heart beat Complete Par-Q & You form (a sample
high blood pressure greater than 140/ 90 form is included in these guidelines)
heart murmurs Any concerns not listed that may affect
rheumatic fever your ability to start a fitness program
ankle swelling
any vascular diseases A response of yes to any of the above
phlebitis questions and a client must be required
unusual shortness of breath to get a complete physical and/or a
abnormal blood fats Physicians Release prior to exercise.
asthma, emphysema, bronchitis Following the instructions on the Par-Q
stroke Form may require Physicians involve-
past history of diabetes ment as well. (sample Physicians
emotional disorders Release & Par-Q forms are included
recent hospitalization and cause in these Guidelines)

NFPT Consultation Guidelines


82
Prior to conducting client pre-exercise Controllable Dietary Health Risk Habits
screenings where activity is required and/ Lifestyle/dietary change if client has the
or before implementing any of your fitness below habits on a daily basis
prescriptions, even with a signed Physi- coffee chocolate
cians Release, and completed Par-Q soda salt
form, discuss and complete your sugar alcohol
Informed Consent Waiver (sample drugs tobacco
Informed Consent Waiver included) red meats fried foods
Describe contraindication to exer- dairy products
cise both prior to and during exercise Health Risk Habits &
performance. These include: Joint Pain, Dietary Lifestyle Changes
Dizziness, Nausea, Rapid Pulse, Excessive
Coffee: Contains caffeine which has
Sweating, Extreme Muscle Soreness,
negative effects on fluid balance, and
Cramping, Chest Pain. Upon occurrence
stimulates nervous activity; caffeine
of one or more of the above, the client
having a diuretic effect
should be instructed to stop exercising
and consult with their personal physician. Soda: Too much sugar causing blood
If in the personal trainers professional glucose problems; also caffeine in
judgment, a potential or actual client is at some drinks has same effects as cof-
too high a medical risk for fitness pre- fee; caffeine having a diuretic effect
scriptions, or the trainer does not feel Chocolate: Same as soda and coffee
qualified, the personal trainer should above concerning caffeine and its
refuse the client even if the client has diuretic effect, and too much sugar
obtained a medical release, completed a Salt: Contains sodium causing fluid
par-q and/or executed all waivers. retention, potassium loss, and con-
General Client Information tributes to high blood pressure
age Sugar: Too quickly absorbed causing
daily activities (occupation) rapid rise and fall of blood sugar; in
sleeping habits frequent and or large quantities con-
most recent exercise program tributes to fat deposits
water intake Alcohol: Suppresses nervous function,
has client been advised against exercise overworks the liver, and acts as a
sex (M/F)
diuretic same as caffeine
stress
weight Drugs: All drugs have their effects on
long & short-term goals the nervous, and endocrine systems
height which are very delicate and be seri-
ously impaired
Client Eating Habits Tobacco: Nicotine constricts vessels
Typical daily menu to include: contributing to high blood pressure,
food selection contains carcinogens that destroy
number of meals respiratory tissues
meal timing
Red Meat; Fried Foods; Milk & Dairy
size of meals
hunger between meals Products: All are foods of animal ori-
current supplements gin and contain saturated fat contrib-
uting to Cardiovascular Disease
Low Fiber Intake: Poor digestion, poor
assimilation of foods

NFPT Consultation Guidelines


83
Determine Client Goals Dietary Recommendations
Fat loss (through diet & activity) NFPT General Dietarty Advice Chart
General fitness NFPT Activity Expenditure Chart
(dietary, aerobics, muscle strength/ NFPT Master Food Lost
endurance, flexibility) (provide a client copy)
Improved flexibility
Supplement Recommendations
(client age is a factor)
NFPT Supplement Table
Aerobic conditioning
NFPT does not advocate the use of
(beginner, intermediate, advanced)
mega-dose individual supplements of
Muscle endurance
any kind not recommended by the
(beginner; intermediate; advanced)
appropriate health professional; Be
Muscle stamina
aware that ingredients found in some
(beginner, intermediate, advanced)
supplements could aggrevate an exist-
Muscle strength
ing hidden or unhidden risk factor.
(beginner; intermediate; advanced)
Movements & Number of Sets
Optional Diagnostic Tests to Perform
to be Performed
Depending on Experience and Acquired
NFPT Suggested Movements &
Trainer Skills
Total Sets Table
Accurate measurement of client weight
Circumference measurements Exercise Routine & Degree of Recovery
Body composition measurement NFPT General Exercise
Blood sugar analysis (12hr fasted) Recomendations Chart
(normal range = 70 to 110)
Goal Oriented Repetition Ranges
Ketone testing (keto-stix)
and Intensity
Blood pressure testing
NFPT Range Chart
(below 140/90 OK)
Blood Lipid Profile
Muscle Strength (heavy weight)
Muscle Endurance (light weight)
Schedule Periodic
Step Test Aerobic Capacity
Sit-and-Reach Flexibility Test
Re-Evaluations
Perform appropriate optional
diagnostic tests above
How to Compile Re-Examine Client Goals
Recommendations Make adjustments once again using
NFPT Charts, Tables & Website
as an NFPT Affiliate Software
(All necessary forms are provided
in these guidelines)
NFPT Affiliates are encouraged to use
organizational website software when
making recommendations. The calcual-
tions and software functions are designed
around the NFPT Charts & Tables. Go
to: www.nfpt.com/Software/

NFPT Consultation Guidelines


84
Master Food List for Diet Preparation
*Proteins, Carbs, and Fats are in Grams. *F=Fiber *Na=Sodium *K=Potassium
Sugars
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
105 MALTOSE
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
100 GLUCOSE (BLOOD SUGAR)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
87 HONEY 1T 0.1 17.8 0 0 1 11 64
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
59 SUCROSE(TABLE SUGAR) 1T 0 4 0 0 0 - 16
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
20 FRUCTOSE(FRUIT SUGAR) 1t 0 4 0 0 - - 15

Beverages
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
COFFEE 6 oz - 0.54 0.01 - 2 117 3
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEA 8 oz - 0.06 - - 19 48 <1
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SODA 12 oz - 40 - 0 20 7 159
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
DIET SODA 12 oz - 0.43 - 0 76 6 <1
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FRUIT-FLAVORED DRINK 12 oz - 45.8 - 0 52 37 179
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
DIET FRUIT DRINK, KOOL-AID 8 oz 0 0 0 5 4
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
VEGETABLE JUICE 1c 2.2 4.7 0.2 0.8 484 535 41
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TOMATO JUICE 1c 1.1 10.4 0.2 0.4 486 552 46

Condiments
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BUTTER 1T 0.12 0.01 11.5 0 117 4 101
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MARGARINE, Touch of Butter 1T 0 0 6 - 110 6 50
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
VEGETABLE OIL 1T 0 0 14 0 0 - 120
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
OLIVE OIL 1T 0 0 14 0 0 - 120
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
JAM 1T 0.1 14 t 0.1 2 18 54
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
JELLY 1T 0.1 12.7 t 0 3 14 49
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MOLASSES, Black Strap 1T 0 11 - - 19 585 43
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MOLASSES, Black Strap Light 1T 0 13 - - 3 183 50
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SYRUP, Regular Maple 2T 0 25.6 0 0 6 52 100
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SYRUP, Lite Mrs Butterworth 2T 0 15 0 - 65 60
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CATSUP 1T 0.3 3.8 0.1 0.08 156 54 16
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MUSTARD 1T 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.3 195 21 15
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MAYONNAISE 1T 0.2 0.4 11 0 78.4 5 99
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CATALINA DRESSING, Low-Cal 1T 0 3 0.5 125 16
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SPAGHETTI SAUCE 1T 1 21 5 - 630 140
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BARBECUE SAUCE 4oz 4.5 32 4.5 1.5 2038 435 188
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HORSERADISH, Pure
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HORSERADISH, Prepared 1c 0.2 1.4 t 0.1 24 44 6
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TARTAR SAUCE 1T 0.1 0.09 3.1 0.04 99 11 31
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SOY SAUCE 1T 1.56 1.5 0 - 1029 64 12
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WORCHESTERSHIRE SAUCE
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
A1 STEAK SAUCE

Dairy Products
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
36 ICE CREAM 1c 4.8 31.7 14.3 0 116 257 269
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FROZEN YOGART, TCBY 7oz 7.7 57.4 3.85 161 287
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
36 YOGART, Plain 1c 7.9 10.5 7.4 0 105 351 139
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
YOGART, Lowfat Plain 1c 11.9 16 3.52 0 159 531 144
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
YOGART, Lowfat Fruit 1c 9.04 42.3 2.61 0.27 121 402 225
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Master Food List for Diet Preparation


85
34 MILK,Whole 8oz 8.03 11.37 8.15 0 120 370 150
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
32 MILK,Skim 8oz 8.35 11.8 0.44 0 126 206 86
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
EGGS, Whole 11g 6.07 0.6 5.58 0 69 65 79
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
EGGS, Yolk 11g 2.79 0.04 5.6 0 8 15 63
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
EGGS, White 11g 3.35 0.41 - 0 50 24 16
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHEESE- Lite-Line American 1sl 5.25 0.75 1.5 0 306 50
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHEDDAR CHEESE 1oz 7.06 0.36 9.4 0 239 28 114
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
COLBY CHEESE 1oz 6.74 0.73 9.1 0 171 36 112
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SWISS CHEESE 1oz 8.06 0.96 7.78 0 74 31 107
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MOZZARELLA, Whole Milk 1oz 5.5 0.63 6.12 0 106 19 80
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Part Skim 1oz 6.88 0.78 4.51 0 132 24 72
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
COTTAGE CHEESE,2% Milkfat 1 cup 31 8.2 4.36 0 450 217 152
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CREAM CHEESE 1oz 2.14 0.75 9.9 0 84 34 99
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PARMESAN CHEESE, Grated 1T 2 0.19 1.5 0 93 5 23
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SOUR CREAM 1c 7.27 9.82 48.2 0 123 331 493

Fruits
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
64 RAISENS, Packed 1/2 c 3 54.5 - 0.5 8.5 681 230
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
62 BANANAS 1 1.18 26.7 0.55 0.57 1 451 105
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
46 ORANGE JUICE 8 oz 1.74 25.8 0.5 0.25 2 496 111
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
45 GRAPES 1c 1.06 28.4 0.92 0.72 3 269 114
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
40 ORANGES 1 1.23 15.4 0.16 0.56 0 237 62
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
39 APPLES, Golden Delicious 1 0.27 21 0.49 1.06 1 159 81
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
34 PEARS 1 0.65 25 0.66 2.32 1 208 98
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
29 PEACHES 1 0.61 9.65 0.08 0.56 0 171 37
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
GRAPEFRUIT one-half 0.75 9.7 0.12 0.24 0 167 38
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PLUMS 1 0.52 8.59 0.41 0.4 0 113 36
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHERRIES 1c 1.74 24 1.39 0.58 1 325 104
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
STRAWBERRIES 1c 0.91 10.4 0.55 0.79 2 247 45
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BLUEBERRIES 1c 0.97 20.5 0.55 1.88 9 129 82
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
APRICOTS 5 1.5 26.3 - 1 3 482 105
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
DATES 10 1.63 61 0.37 1.83 2 541 228
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FIGS, Dried 10 5.7 109 2.18 8.97 20 1332 477
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PRUNES 10 2.19 52.7 0.43 1.72 3 626 201
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
AVOCADOS 1 3.99 14.8 30.8 4.24 21 1204 324
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MELON, Cantaloupe one-half 2.34 22.3 0.74 0.97 23 825 94
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Honeydew one-fifth 1.18 23.6 0.26 1.54 26 700 92
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WATERMELON 1c 0.99 11.5 0.68 0.48 3 186 50

Vegetables
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
98 POTATO, Russet Baked 11g 4 32.8 0.2 1.2 6 782 210
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
87 PARSNIPS 1c 2.3 23 0.8 3 12 587 102
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
92 CARROTS 1/2 c 0.5 5.5 0.1 0.5 19 356 24
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
80 POTATO,Instant Mashed 1/2 c 2 16 6 380 130
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
79 BROAD BEANS
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
70 POTATO; White Boiled 1c 3.2 25.7 0.2 0.66 5 611 114
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
64 BEETS 1c 2 13.6 0.2 1 98 440 60
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
59 SWEET CORN 1c 4.96 29 1.8 1 23 416 132
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
51 PEAS, Frozen 1c 7.9 21 0.59 3.2 7 357 118
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
51 YAMS 1c 4.8 48.2 0.4 1.8 17 1508 210
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SWEET POTATO 1 2 32 0.38 1 17 265 136
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TOMATO SOUP 1c 2.06 16.6 1.92 0.49 872 263 86
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Master Food List for Diet Preparation


86
GREEN BEANS 1c 2 8 0.01 1.2 6 230 34
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BROCCOLI 1c 2.6 4.6 0.3 0.9 24 286 24
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CAULIFLOWER 1c 1.98 4.9 0.18 0.82 14 356 24
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MUSHROOMS 1c 1.5 3 0.3 0.52 2 260 18
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PARSLEY 1c 2.2 5.1 0.4 0.9 27 436 26
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
LETTUCE; Iceburg 1c 0.7 2.2 0.12 0.35 7 131 10
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
LETTUCE; Romaine 1c 0.9 1.3 0.12 0.4 4 162 8
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
RADISH 10 0.27 1.6 0.24 0.24 11 104 7
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TOMATO 1 1.1 5.3 0.26 0.57 10 254 24
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SWEET PEPPER 1c 0.86 5.3 0.46 1.2 4 265 24
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SALAD(1 Tom, 2 Rad,1/2 Car,1c let) 3.1 14.1 0.55 1.2 28 584 69

Dried Legumes
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
47 MARROWFAT PEAS
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
40 BAKED BEANS, Canned 8oz 10 43 3 12 730 190
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
36 BUTTER BEAN 8oz 12 30 0 1000 200
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
36 CHICK PEAS/GARBANZOES 8oz 41 122 9.6 10 52 1594 720
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
36 LIMA BEANS 1c 11.6 40 0.54 3.5 29 969 208
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
33 BLACK-EYED PEAS 1c 13.2 29.9 1.3 - 2 625 178
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
31 HARICOT BEANS 0.25
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
29 KIDNEY BEANS 1c 14.4 39.6 0.9 2.78 6 629 218
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
29 LENTILS 1c 15.6 38.6 - 2.4 - 498 212
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
NAVY BEANS 1c 14.8 40.3 1.1 3 13 790 224
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
GREAT NORTHERN BEANS 1c 12.8 40.8 1.2 10.2 636 228
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PINTO BEANS 1c 13 40.8 1.4 9.6 636 1870 224

Breakfast Cereals
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
80 CORNFLAKES, Kellogg's 1 1.84 19.5 0.08 0.24 281 26 88
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
75 WHEATBIX
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
67 SHREDDED WHEAT, Quaker 2 5 31 1 0 0 154 160
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHEAT FLAKES, Quaker 1c 3.3 26 0.7 2.4 409 123 116
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHEAT GRANULES, Grapenuts 1/4c 3.3 23.2 0.1 1.4 197 95 101
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHEAT, Puffed 1c 1.8 9.5 0.1 0.4 0 42 44
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
66 MUESLIX; Kellog's Bran 1/2c 3 31 2 6 105 240 130
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MUESLIX; Five Grain 1/2c 4 32 1 4 55 85 140
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
51 ALL-BRAN, Kellog's 1/3c 4 22 1.1 10 260 114
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BRAN FLAKES, 40% Post 1c 5.3 37.3 0.8 6.5 431 251 152
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FRUITFUL BRAN, Kellog's 2/3c 3 29 0 5 230 110
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
49 OATMEAL, Total Unckd 1/3c 4 19 2 2.1 5 132 100
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
OATMEAL, OATS, Puffed, Cheerios 1c 3.44 15.7 1.44 0.9 246 101 89
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CORN FLAKES, Kellogg's 1c 1.8 19.5 0.08 0.2 281 26 88
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
RICE, Puffed 1c 0.9 12.6 0.1 0.1 0 16 56
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
GRANOLA, NATURE VALLEY 1c 11.5 75.5 19.6 4.2 232 389 503
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHEAT GERM, Kretschmer 3tbs 9 13 3 3 0 201 110

Grain, Ceral Products


GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
72 WHITE RICE; Enriched 1/2c 6.55 78.5 0.75 0.4 1.3 179 354
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHITE RICE; Minute 1/2c-ckd 2 20 0 0 90
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHITE RICE; Uncle Ben's instant 2/3c 3 27 <1 10 120
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
72 WHOLE WHEAT BREAD 1sl 2.4 11 0.7 0.4 121 63 56
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
STONE GROUND, Grant's Farm 1sl 3 12 1 150 60 70
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HONEY WHEAT BRAN, Grant's 1sl 3 13 1 160 60 70
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Master Food List for Diet Preparation


87
71 MILLET 1c 22.6 166 6.8 7.3 - 980 746
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
69 WHITE BREAD, Enriched 1sl 2 11.6 0.79 t 117 24 62
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
66 BROWN RICE 1/2c 7.4 76 1.8 0.8 8 420 352
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BROWN RICE, Uncle Ben's 1/2c 2.25 21.8 0.75 3.8 420 105
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
LONG GRAIN, Rice a Roni 1/2c 10 83.3 <3 2533 200 340
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
51 BUCKWHEAT FLOUR 1c 11.7 72 2.5 1.6 1 656 333
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHEAT FLOUR, Enriched 1c 11.6 83.7 1.1 0.3 2 105 400
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR 1c 16 85.2 2.4 2.8 4 444 400
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
50 WHITE SPAGHETTI, Dry 2oz 7 42 1 0.2 <5 85 210
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
42 WHOLE-GRAIN RYE BREAD 1sl 2.1 12 0.3 0.1 128 33 56
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
42 WHOLE WHEAT SPAGHETTI 4oz 20 78 1 - - - 400
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Biscuit, Muffins, Rolls


GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
69 RYVITA BISCUITS
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
63 WATER BISCUITS
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
59 DIGESTIVES BISCUITS
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
55 RICH TEA BISCUITS
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
54 OATMEAL BISCUITS
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FLOUR BISCUITS, Enriched 2" diam 2.1 12.8 4.8 0.1 175 33 103
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BAGEL, Plain 1 11 56 2.57 0.22 360 74 296
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ENGLISH MUFFIN, Enr 1 7 4 1 - 130
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ROLL;Dinner, Enr 1 3.1 20.1 2.2 0.1 192 36 113
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ROLL; Whole Wheat 1 3.5 18.3 1 0.6 197 102 90
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ROLL; Hamburger/Hot Dog, Enr 1 3.3 21.2 2.2 - 202 38 119

Nuts
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
15 SOYBEANS;ckd 1c 19.8 19.4 10.3 3 4 972 234
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
14 SOYBEANS; tinned 1c
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SOYBEAN CURD, Tofu 3.5oz 7.8 2.4 4.2 0.1 354 72
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
13 PEANUTS 1c 37.7 29.7 70.1 3.89 7 1009 838
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PEANUT BUTTER 1T 3.9 3.2 8.1 0.33 18 123 86
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SUNFLOWER SEEDS 1/2c 17.4 14.4 34.3 5.5 4 1334 406
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ALMONDS 1c 26.4 27.7 77 3.84 6 1098 849
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BRAZIL NUTS 1c 20 15.3 93.7 4.2 1 1001 916
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CASHEW NUTS 1c 24.1 41 64 1.96 21 650 785
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FILBERTS(Hazelnuts) 1c 17 22.5 84.5 1.05 3 950 856

Beef
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HAMBURGER; Regular 8oz 40.6 - 48.1 0 105 1070 608
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HAMBURGER; Lean 8oz 46.95 - 22.7 0 147 406
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
STEAK; Sirloin 7oz 31.1 - 49 0 124 569 576
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
STEAK; T-Bone 7oz 25.8 - 73.5 0 103 473 698
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
STEAK; Porterhouse 8oz 30.4 - 74 0 106 486 802
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ROAST BEEF 8oz 33.5 - 43.7 0 117 536 580

Luncheon Meats, (& Sausage)


GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HAM 4oz 19.9 3.5 12 0 1494 754 207
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BOLOGNA; Beef 1oz 3.31 0.55 8.04 0 284 44 89
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BOLOGNA; Pork 1oz 4.34 0.21 5.63 0 289 80 70
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SALAMI, Hard 1/16" sl 2.29 0.26 3.44 0 186 38 42
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PEPPERONI 1sl 1.15 0.16 2.42 0 112 19 27
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Master Food List for Diet Preparation


88
28 SAUSAGE; Italian 1 link 13.4 1 17.4 0 618 204 216
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SAUSAGE; Polish 1oz 4 0.46 8.14 0 248 67 92
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SAUSAGE; Pork 1link 3.31 0.29 11.4 0 228 58 118
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BACON 4 oz 9.75 0.11 65.3 0 777 631 631
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PORK CHOP 1 20 - 29.2 0 63 346 345
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
VEAL CUTLET 4oz 18.1 0 10.3 0 63 289 170

Poultry
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHICKEN; White 4oz 23.5 - 3.2 0 76 237 216
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHICKEN; White Skinned 4oz 20.4 - .36 0 60 210 100
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHICKEN; Dark 4oz 26.7 - 7.33 0 117 285 379
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHICKEN; Dark Skinned 4oz 21.9 - 1.18 0 93 241 136
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TURKEY; White 4oz 39.0 - 3.3 0 106 489 286
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TURKEY; Dark 4oz 28.7 - 3.33 0 108 396 243

Seafood
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SHRIMP 8oz 41 3.4 1.8 - 318 499 207
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
LOBSTER 8oz 38.35 1.15 4.3 0 678 589 207
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
COD 8oz 39.9 - 1.66 0 159 866 177
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HADOCK 8oz 41.5 - 1.5 0 139 689 179
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HALIBUT 8oz 47.4 - 2.5 0 123 1018 227
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SALMON 8oz 51 - 30.4 0 109 885 492
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SMELT 8oz 42.2 - 4.75 0 - 1064 223
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TROUT 8oz 48.75 - 25.85 0 89 1065 443
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TUNA, water packed 1/2 can 20 - 1.6 0 512 99
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
38 FISH STICKS, Mrs Pauls 4 8 23 13 0 240

Miscellaneous
GI FOOD SERVING PRO CARB FAT F Na K CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
68 MARS BAR
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SNICKERS BAR (King Size) 3.7oz 15 52 24 280 510
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SNICKERS BAR (Regular Size) 6 33 13 150 270
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
59 PASTRY, Danish 1 3.1 19.4 10 0 156 48 179
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
51 POTATO CHIPS, Ruffles 1oz 2 15 10 250 150
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PRETZELS 1oz 3 21 2 585 110
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
46 SPONGE CAKE one-tenth 3.8 27 2.85 0 84 44 149

Master Food List for Diet Preparation


89
Par - Q & You
Physical Activity Readiness
Questionnaire - PAR-Q(revised 1994)

(A Questionnaire for People Aged 15 to 69)


Regular physical activity is fun and healthy, and increasingly more people are starting to become more active every day.
Being more active is very safe for most people. However, some people should check with their doctor before they start becoming much
more physically active.
If you are planning to become much more physically active than you are now, start by answering the seven questions in the box below.
If you are between the ages of 15 and 69, the PAR-Q will tell you if you should check with your doctor before you start. If you are over 69
years of age, and you are not used to being very active, check with your doctor.
Common sense is your best guide when you answer these questions. Please read the questions carefully and answer each one
honestly: check YES or NO.

YES NO
1. Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you should only do physical activity
recommended by a doctor?
2. Do you feel pain in your chest when you do physical activity?
3. In the past month, have you had chest pain when you were not doing physical activity?
4. Do you lose your balance because of dizziness or do you ever lose consciousness?
5. Do you have a bone or joint problem that could be made worse by a change in your physical activity?
6. Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs (for example, water pills) for your blood pressure or heart condition?
condition?
7. Do you know of any other reason why you should not do physical activity?

If YES to one or more questions


you Talk with your doctor by phone or in person BEFORE you start becoming much more physically active or BEFORE you

answered have a fitness appraisal. Tell your doctor about the PAR-O and which questions you answered YES.
x You may be able to do any activity you want - as long as you start slowly and build up gradually. Or, you may need to
restrict your activities to those which are safe for you. Talk with your doctor about the kinds of activities you wish to
participate in and follow his/her advice.
x Find out which community programs are safe and helpful for you.

DELAY BECOMING MUCH MORE ACTIVE:


NO to all questions x If you are not feeling well because of temporary illness
such as a cold or a fever wait until you feel better; or
If you answered NO honestly to all PAR-Q questions, you can be
x If you are or may be pregnant talk to your doctor
reasonably sure that you can:
before you start becoming more active
x start becoming much more physically active - begin slowly and
build up gradually. This is the safest and easiest way to go.
Please note: If your health changes so that you then
x take part in a fitness appraisal - this is an excellent way to answer YES to any of the above questions, tell your fitness
or health professional.
determine your basic fitness so that you can plan the best way
Ask whether you should change your physical activity plan.
for you to live actively.

Informed Use of the PAR-Q: The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, Health Canada, and their agents assume no liability for persons who
undertake physical activity, and if in doubt after completing this questionnaire, consult your doctor prior to physical activity.

I have read, understood and completed this questionnaire. Any questions I had were answered to my full satisfaction.

NAME: _______________________________________________________

SIGNATURE: __________________________________________________ DATE: __________________________________


SIGNATURE OF PARENT: ______________________________________ WITNESS: _______________________________
or GUARDIAN (for participants under the age of majority)

Note: If the PAR-Q is being given to a person before he or she participates in a physical activity program or a fitness appraisal, this
section may be used for legal or administrative purposes.

You are encouraged to copy the PAR-Q but only if you use the entire form
Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Socit. canadienne de physiologie de lexercice

Health Sant
Canada Canada

90
Cardiovascular Risk Profile
91
Professional Documents
Applicant/Participant Disclosure Agreement

This agreement entered into between your personal training company name and the
personal training client, ___________________________________________________, of
PRINT CLIENT NAME

_____________________________________________________________________________
PRINT CLIENT ADDRESS

1. Participant requests to participate in a fitness service offered by your training com-


pany. As a condition of participation in the fitness program, Participant agrees to sup-
ply certain information concerning Participant, including Participants contact informa-
tion (address, phone numbers, emergency phone numbers) and Participants physical and
mental condition (Health Data) to your training company.

2. Participants Health Data will be supplied to your company name for the purposes
of: (i) assessing whether the Fitness Program is suitable for the Participant; (ii) outlining a
fitness program for the Participant; and (iii) assessing the Participants fitness progress.

3. Your company name agrees to hold the Participants Health Data confidential
except as your company name may be required to disclose under any law or by order
of a court and except as stated below.
a. Participant agrees that your company name may provide such Health
Data to 3rd parties in a form that does not associate the Participants name or
contact information with the Participants Health Data.
b. Participant agrees that your company name may use and publish such
Health Data in connection with an assessment of the Fitness Program in a
manner that does not associate the name or address of the Participant with the
Participants Health Data.

4. Your company name agrees that the Participants contact information will not be
used in a manner that subjects the Participant to solicitation for other products or ser-
vices except those offered by your company name.

Agreed this _______ day of ______________________, 200____.

Representative of your company

_____________________________________________________________________________
Joe Smith
Participant

Professional Documents
94
Your Fitness Program Title
Your Company Name / Fitness Program

Informed Consent Waiver, Release and Hold Harmless Agreement


for Fitness Program Participant
I, the undersigned participant, am hereby enrolling in a program of strenuous physi-
cal activity including but not limited to aerobic dance, weight lifting, stationary bicycling,
and various aerobic conditioning machinery offered by Your company name. I have
been strongly encouraged to consult with my physician prior to starting an exercise pro-
gram or increasing the intensity of an existing program both in this document and by
Your company name. I assume this responsibility as indicated by my below signature
and if I chose to, will act on this advice prior to the implementation of any recommen-
dations made by Your company name. I hereby affirm that, to the best of my knowl-
edge, I do not suffer from any condition that would prevent or limit my participation in
this Fitness Program and have not withheld any related information from Your com-
pany name.
Or, in the event that through screening, I have been determined to be other than
apparently healthy, I have been given a physicians release, as required by Your com-
pany name to exercise. I am taking no medications that may adversely affect my fitness
activities, and this release, with or without physicians restrictions, has been given to
Your company name. In addition, I acknowledge that if my health changes, it is my
responsibility to recognize the change and seek medical advice to help me decide if my
continued participation in the Fitness Program or any part of the Fitness Program is still
right for me.
I fully understand that I may injure myself as a result of my participation in Your
companys names Fitness Program and I hereby release Your companys name, its
Board, employees and agents, from any liability now or in the future for any injury,
including, but not limited to heart attacks, death, muscle strains, pulls or tears, broken
bones, shin splints, heat prostration, knee/lower back/foot injuries and any other illness,
soreness or injury however caused, occurring during, or after my participation in the
fitness program offered unless caused by the trainers recklessness or intentional miscon-
duct.
In consideration of my participation in Your company names Fitness Program, I,
for myself, my personal representatives, administrators, heirs and assigns, hereby holds
harmless Your company name, its Board, employees and agents, from any claims,
demands, and causes of action, including reasonable legal expenses and attorneys fees,
arising from my participation in the Fitness Program unless caused by the trainers reck-
lessness or intentional misconduct.
I hereby affirm that I have read, have been honest with Your company name, and
fully understand the above information. I have been given the opportunity to present
questions in all related matters.

_____________________________________________________________________________
S I G N AT U R E O F PA R T I C I PA N T

_____________________________________________________________________________
PRINTED NAME D AT E D

Professional Documents
95
Physicians Exercise Release
I have examined_______________________________________________________________

I have found the following:

The above named may participate fully in a progressive physical activity program
consisting of cardiovascular, strength and flexibility training without limitation.
or
The above named may participate in a progressive physical activity program with the
following limitations:

_____________________________________________________________________________
P H Y S I C I A N S S I G N AT U R E D AT E

Professional Documents
96
NFPT Policies & Procedures
(Affiliate Conduct)

Revised October 27, 2003


January, 2004 ESCS Standards of Conduct have been adopted
Go to www.escs.info to register for your ESCS Seal Of Excellence

All NFPT affiliates will conduct themselves professionally.

The determination for the need for board c Performance of unethical activities or
appointment is the responsibility of the any activity so viewed upon by the office
current office of the President of the of our president as to bring discredit to
National Federation of Professional Train- the National Federation of Professional
ers. Terms of suspension and requirements Trainers. To include but not limited to
for re-instatement shall be determined by complaints regarding lude and immoral
the office of the President of the National conduct, disrespectfulness, unprofessional
Federation of Professional Trainers. All behavior and conduct, inappropriate sex-
suspension cases, unless otherwise stated ual advances, excessive profane language,
below, are subject to the vote of a ran- may all be considered. If blatant, this sus-
domly appointed board of six (6) NFPT pension will be determined by the office of
Affiliates in good standing with no prior the president with NO board appointed.
knowledge of the individual in question.
d Allowing personal appearance (man-
Said board members will be provided with
ner of dress or hygiene) to deteriorate to
all pertinent information and given five (5)
such an extent that while associating with
working days to decide. The decision to
persons as an Affiliate of the National
suspend must be unanimous and final.
Federation of Professional Trainers, dis-
The following activities engaged in credits the organization. Written state-
by NFPT Affiliates may be considered ments from peers may be acquired as
grounds for suspension: documentation of these occurrences.
a Conviction of a felony offense at any e Knowingly providing services to those
time after initial relationship between who are flagrantly at risk without proper
Affiliate and National Federation of Pro- medical release and/or client not being
fessional Trainers. apparently healthy and/or without the use
of screening procedures consistent with
b An affiliate convicted of having been
NFPT Guidelines.
involved in the illegal use, sale, or dis-
tribution of anabolic substances and/or f Liable, slanderous, or damaging
any other controlled substance will be remarks or literature presented by an
suspended without the appointment of a Affiliate to any individual or group of
Board and decided upon by the office of individuals that discredits the National
the President of National Federation of Federation of Professional Trainers. If bla-
Professional Trainers. tant, this suspension will be determined by
the office of the president with NO board
appointed.

NFPT Policies & Procedures


97
NFPT Policies & Procedures
(On-Going Educational & Membership Requirements
& Legal Liability) Revised October 27th, 2003
Membership & Support Service Renewal Note: Failure to comply with the above
Fees Are Mandatory requirements will result in initiation of
An annual combined membership legal action to require removal and the
support service, renewal fee of $75.00 award of any monetary damages to
is payable upon the anniversary date of NFPT.
initial testing (certification expiration In months 6 (June) and 12 (Dec.), all
date will be reflected on NFPT Personal Affiliates receive an open-book self-test
Trainer Certificate). The Affiliate will have in Personal Trainer Today online maga-
access to Personal Trainer Today Maga- zine content over the previous 6 month
zine monthly upon the successful comple- period. The affiliate simply logs on to the
tion of certification. NFPT website, accesses back issues of the
Membership & support renewal magazine, and takes the self test online.
notice will be sent to Affiliates annu- The self test is graded online and
ally. Affiliate must remit the $75.00 fee reported to NFPT Headquarters immedi-
payable within 60 days from receipt of ately for continuing education credit. each
renewal notice. The timely payment of completed test is worth 1 credit; therefore
these fees will result in the Affiliate's 2 credits are needed per year. If unavoid-
receipt of a new, current NFPT Certificate able, this magazine & self-tests can be
with a new expiration date of one year sent to you in hard copy. The online CEU
from payment. provision is intended for your conve-
If failure to comply with renewal fee nience.
payment is unavoidable, for whatever Note: It is required to complete the
reason, a written explanation with the late self-test starting with the first test fol-
fee payment must be sent to NFPT Head- lowing your one-year certification anni-
quarters for consideration. NFPT reserves versary, and every 6 months thereafter.
the right to require re-certification testing. For example, if you are certified in March,
As an NFPT Affiliate, if you allow 60 2003 your certification will expire in
days to pass from the date of renewal fee March, 2004, at which time you will be
notice, you will forfeit your certification required to start taking the online self
status. Should you fail, or choose not to test in addition to the payment of the
pay the required renewal fee of $75.00 annual renewal fee.
within the allotted period above, you will Note: Use of documents included
be duly required by this organization to in these guidelines in no way issues or
pursue the following course of action: implies assurance against legal action.
National Federation of Professional Train-
a Refrain from associating yourself or
ers is in no way responsible for providing
your business verbally and/or in writ-
legal assistance or involvement of any
ing with the National Federation of
kind regarding legal issues resulting from
Professional Trainers.
or regarding the proper or improper use
b Discontinue and/or remove any and of these guidelines and documents. Imple-
all NFPT marketing logos, certificate, ment these materials at your own risk.
symbols, and relative displayed NFPT
literature from public view.

NFPT Policies & Procedures


98
Index
acetate, 12, 68 cerebrospinal fluid, 21
Activity Expenditure Chart, 63, 64, cholesterol, 10, 14, 15, 16, 57, 84
78, 86 chronic illness, 84
adipose tissue, 9, 10, 11,14, 24, 25, Chylomicrons, 10, 14
27, 36, 37, 44, 54, 60 complex carbohydrate, 13, 14, 24,
ADP,40 25, 26, 31, 32, 33, 42, 43, 44, 45,
aerobic, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 25, 26, 31, 32, 50, 51
33, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 47, compound movements, 45
48, 49, 50, 51, 54, 58, 59, 60, 63, 67, continuous tension, 40
68, 72, 73, 86, 95 contract, 40, 49, 74
amino acids, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, CPR Certification, 84
22, 39, 42, 43, 49, 52, 69, 71, 72, 75 Creatine Phosphate, 40, 49
ammonia, 10, 12, 49, 53 crunch, 77
amylase, 8 deamination, 10, 12, 13, 25, 40
anabolism, 15, 26, 33, 37, 42, 43, 72, 73 dehydration, 12, 18, 21, 23, 36, 53
anaerobic, 9, 26, 40, 47, 48, 49, 54 diabetes, 11, 23, 33, 41, 51, 84
ATP, 16, 40, 41, 45, 49, 74 dieting, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 34, 52, 55,
BCAA, 71 63, 65, 67, 68
B-Complex, 71, 72 duration, 13, 14, 15, 26, 32, 35, 36,
beginner, 44, 86 37, 40, 48, 49, 54, 63, 64, 77
bile, 10 ectomorph, 28, 64
blood pressure, 23, 33, 75, 84, 85, 86 endomorph, 28, 57, 64
blood sugar, 9, 11, 23, 24, 28, 29, 38, endomysium, 58
41, 42, 43, 48, 49, 51, 56, 69, 73, 74, endurance, 14, 32, 35, 36, 71, 77, 86
85, 86 ,87 endurance athlete, 14, 35, 36
BMR, 6, 60, 62, 63, 68, 69, 78, 79 energy stores, 9, 24, 26, 45, 49, 67
body composition, 18, 45, 62, 67, 78, 86 Family History, 59, 84
brain function, 9, 12, 25, 49, 50, 56 fat conversion, 44, 45, 46, 67
BRAN, 24, 89 fatty acids, 10, 14, 16, 26, 27, 32, 37,
UUN, 12, 39, 40 41, 44, 48, 49, 51, 54, 56, 60, 74
cancer, 18, 24 fiber, 9, 10, 15, 23 ,24 ,28, 31, 40 ,42,
capillaries, 73 43, 49, 50, 58, 60, 67, 71, 72
carbohydrate, 5, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, flexibility, 86, 96
16, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, Free Form Amino Acid, 72
29, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 41, 42, 43, frequency, 12, 45, 48, 59
44, 45, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, general fitness, 45, 71, 86
57, 58, 62, 65, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, General Fitness Client, 48
74, 75, 79 Glucagon, 9, 11, 49
carbohydrate metabolism, 8 gluconeogenesis, 9, 10, 15, 49
Cardiovascular Risk Profile, 84, 93 glucose, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 22, 24, 25, 26,
catabolism, 12, 13, 15, 26, 31, 35, 36, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 36, 37, 38, 41, 42,
37, 42, 73 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 72,
cellular catalyst, 15, 71 73, 75, 85, 87

Index
99
glucose polymers, 8 Pancreas, 9, 11, 24, 41, 42, 49
glycemic index, 25, 28, 43, 69 pepsin, 10, 70
glycerol, 10, 14, 27, 37, 44, 56, 60 personal medical history, 84
glycogen, 9, 10, 11, 16, 24, 25, 26, 31, phospholipids, 10, 14
32, 33, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 44, 48, 49, pre-contest training, 59, 68
50, 51, 54, 56 pre-workout meal, 26, 31, 32, 43, 54
glycogenolysis, 9, 11, 49 protein, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 21,
grip, 77 24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 32, 33, 35, 39, 40,
HDL, 14, 15, 52, 84 42, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 61, 62, 65, 67,
heart rate, 21, 43, 45, 48, 59, 63, 78 69, 72, 74
high intensity, 7, 54 protein drink, 70
high protein diet, 40, 51, 52, 53 protein synthesis, 71
hitting the wall, 26 pyruvate, 40, 41, 49
Hypoglycemia, 9, 11, 12, 23, 33, 41 receptor sites, 9, 42, 43, 44, 49, 50
impermeable, 40 recovery, 15, 16, 26, 35, 36, 37, 38, 42,
informed consent, 84, 85, 95 43, 44, 45, 50, 51, 58, 59, 63, 64, 67,
insulin, 9, 11, 13, 22, 24, 28, 31, 36, 37, 73, 77, 78, 86
41, 42, 43, 44, 49, 50 rep ranges, 77
intensity, 7, 12, 13, 14, 26, 31, 32, 33, resistance exercise, 6, 7, 12, 13, 15, 26,
36, 39, 42, 44, 45, 48, 49, 54, 59, 77, 31, 35, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 49,
78, 84, 86, 95 50, 53, 54, 59, 63, 64, 67, 68, 73
interstitial space, 10 risk factors, 59
Isoleucine, 16, 71 RPE, 78
Ketone, 11, 50, 52, 53, 86 Sarcolemma, 58
lactic acid, 40 Set Intensity, 77, 78
LDL, 10, 14, 15 simple sugar, 8, 11, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28,
Leucine, 16, 71 33, 36, 41, 43, 44
Liability Insurance, 95, 97 size and strength, 39, 45
lipolytic enzymes, 10 sodium, 21, 22, 23, 75
liver, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 24, 25, 26, stamina, 77, 86
27, 31, 32, 33, 39, 40, 41, 42, 49, 51, starvation diet, 17, 18, 53, 67, 68, 74
54, 72, 73, 74 steady state, 10, 25, 26, 32, 37, 48, 60
low level activity, 10, 14, 27, 47, 48, 60, stress, 10, 85
63 Suggested Movements & Total Sets, 77
maintenance caloric intake, 56 thirst, 21, 22
marketing ideas, 98 triglycerides, 10, 14, 27
mesomorph, 28, 64 urea, 10, 12, 39, 40, 49, 53
metabolic acidosis, 11, 53, 68 Valine, 16, 71
metabolism, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16, 18, vasoconstriction, 30
20, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 33, 37, 39, 41, veins, 74
48, 53, 54, 57, 64, 67, 68, 69, 72, 74, Vitamins, 19, 20, 71, 72, 73, 75
75 warm up, 32
mitochondria, 43, 44 water, 12, 13, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 36, 40,
Mitochondrial Failure, 43, 44 53, 59, 75, 85
neurotransmitter, 23 weight loss, 7, 18, 20, 27, 31, 51, 52,
nitrogen balance, 12, 13, 39 61, 62, 63, 65, 67, 70, 71, 75, 79
Optional Diagnostic Tests, 6, 86
overtraining, 15, 48, 50, 51
oxidative phosphorylation,41

Index
100