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THE MACMILLAN DICTIONARY OF ARCHAEOLOGY

THE
MACMILLAN
DICTIONARY OF
ARCHAEOLOGY

Editor
RUTH D. WHITEHOUSE

Palgrave Macmillan

Macmillan Reference Books


Ruth D. Whitehouse, 1983
Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1983 978-0-333-27190-2
All rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, without permission.

First published 1983 by


THE MACMILLAN PRESS LTD
London and Basingstoke
Associated Companies throughout the world

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

The Macmillan dictionary of archaeology


1. Archaeology - Dictionaries
I. Whitehouse, Ruth
930.1'03'21 CC70

ISBN 978-1-349-04876-2 ISBN 978-1-349-04874-8 (eBook)


DOI 10.1007/978-1-349-04874-8

Typeset by Leaper & Gard Ltd, Bristol, England


TO ARCHAEOLOGY STUDENTS

AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LANCASTER


Contributors

Subject editors
Robert Bagley, Fogg Art Museum, Boston.
Peter Bellwood, Australian National University, Canberra.
John Chapman, University of Newcastle.
Valerie Chapman, Australian National University, Canberra.
Desmond Collins
Robert Hebditch, Rutgers University, New Brunswick.
Simon Hillson, University of Lancaster.
Richard Hodges, University of Sheffield.
Fumiko Ikawa-Smith, McGill University, Montreal.
Helmut Loofs-Wissowa, Australian National University, Canberra.
David Phillipson, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge.
David Whitehouse, British School at Rome.
John Wilkins, University of London.

Other contributors
Royston Clark
Malcolm Colledge, University of London.
Debbie Hodges
Anthony Miller
Graham O'Hare

Illustrations
Philip Howard, University of Lancaster.
Contents

Illustrations viii

Introduction ix

How to use this Dictionary X

Dictionary 1

Subject Index 571

Further Reading 592

Tables

1. Dynastic Egypt 153


2. Prehistoric Mesopotamia 320
3. Mesopotamia: Babylonian Chronology 321
4. Temporal and stratigraphical subdivisions of the Cenozoic era 417
5. The Quaternary stratigraphical sequence in Northwest Europe 418
6. The Quaternary stratigraphical sequence in Britain 419
7. The Quaternary stratigraphical sequence in North America 420
8. Calibration of conventional radiocarbon dates (5568 half-life) 422
9. The Americas: Chronological table 552
Illustrations

Anyang: plan of Xibeigang royal cemetery 24


Anyang: detail of part of the cemetery 24
Anyang: plan and section of tomb WK G M1 24
Design painted inside a pottery bowl from Banpo 50
Baton de commandement 55
Blade 65
Burin 77
<;atal Hiiyiik: reconstruction of a decorated shrine 91
Archaic Uruk clay tablet 114
Maya corbelled arch 122
Cores: prepared core and blade core 123
Primary flake 174
Inscribed stone seals of the Harappan civilization 207
Magdalenian biserial harpoon 208
Human evolution: skulls of Neanderthal and Cromagnon man 222
Two forms of hydria 224
Knossos: plan of Minoan palace 260
Two forms of kylix 269
Maltese temples: plan of the Ggantija temple on Gozo 303
Megalithic monuments: gallery grave and passage grave 313
Microburin 324
Microlithic triangle 324
Oracle bones: inscribed scapula from Anyang 367
Persepolis: plan 388
Retouch: backed blade and backed point 428
Bronze jue vessel from Erlitou 433
Sambaqui stone effigies 448
Scrapers: side scraper (racloir) and end scraper (grattoir) 454
Plan of the Great Mosque at Siraf 468
Solutrian pressure flaked point 474
Spout-and-bridge and stirrup-spout vessels 479
Talud-tablero construction 495
The centre of Tenochtitlan in 1520 502
Tiahuanaco: centre figure of Gateway of the Sun 511
Plan of ancient copper mine at Tongliishan 516
'Venus of Willendorf: Upper Palaeolithic stone figurine 536
Hallstatt Iron Age wagon grave at Vix 540
Introduction

Archaeology today is both a popular subject for the general public and a flourishing professional
discipline. The appeal of the past is manifested by the large numbers who visit sites and museums,
watch television programmes, read books and attend educational courses on archaeological
subjects. At the same time the professional discipline has made great strides in the last twenty
years: not only has there been a quantum leap in the rate of new discoveries, but developments in
theory and methodology have provided powerful new interpretative tools for archaeologists. I hope
that this Dictionary will be useful to all those interested in the past. Because the subject editors and
other contributors are all professional archaeologists at the front of their respective fields, the
Dictionary incorporates a body of up-to-date information which should be useful to students and
to scholars in areas outside their own particular specializations. However, because the language is
where possible non-technical, this information is accessible also to the non-specialist (necessary
technical terms are either glossed or cross-referenced to the relevant entry).
The scope of archaeology today is enormous, encompassing the whole world and a timespan
of some four million years, from the emergence of man or his immediate ancestors, to the study of
recent centuries. It includes also a wide range of relevant approaches from traditional art-history
and ancient language studies to modem techniques borrowed from the natural sciences, and the
use of statistics and computers. It also involves the practical methods and techniques developed
by workers in the field for the recovery, recording, conservation and interpretation of archaeo-
logical remains. The Dictionary covers all these aspects of archaeology. I cannot claim, however,
that coverage is even. Some areas and periods have received far more study than others and these
are inevitably covered more fully in the Dictionary. Moreover, decisions about what to include
and exclude are to some extent arbitrary and no two scholars would ever agree entirely. My own
prejudices, and to a lesser extent those of my subject editors, have necessarily prevailed.
For me, the most rewarding aspect of this task has been working with my subject editors and
other contributors: their enthusiasm and efficiency have made the collaboration a great pleasure.
In addition to the listed contributors, many other people have helped with research and advice. I
should particularly like to mention Michael Ester, Beryl Smith, Elizabeth Bordt and Dorothy
Mancilla, all of Rutgers University, Henry Hurst of Cambridge University and John Salmon of
Lancaster University. I offer special thanks to Phil Howard, also of Lancaster University, who has
produced the illustrations for publication and has put up with countless changes of content, layout
and timetable with great good humour.
Finally, I should like to thank Margot Levy for her splendid work on copy editing, indexing,
proof reading and generally making a book out of an amorphous typescript and assorted
scribbles.

Lancaster
May 1983
How to use this Dictionary

The Dictionary has been designed to be as simple and convenient to use as possible. A number of
points need some explanation.

Name forms, spelling and transliteration

Chinese names are given in the pinyin transliteration, with the form in the earlier Wade-Giles
spelling given in brackets (even when the two spellings are the same). In most cases we have not
given the Wade-Giles version a separate, cross-referenced entry. The only exceptions are where a
site name is very familiar to Western readers in its Wade-Giles form and where this form is
significantly different from the pinyin version; for example, we have given Choukoutien a
separate cross-referenced entry, since the reader might not recognize the form Zhoukoudian.
Where languages other than Chinese are concerned we have been less consistent in our trans-
literation. We have chosen the versions that will be most familiar to Western readers. This may
offend the purist but will, we believe, achieve the desired objective of getting the reader to the
information desired with the minimum of delay.
Similarly, we have not been consistent about the choice of ancient or modern site names for
headwords. Again we have chosen the forms which will be most familiar to the reader; the
alternative names appear in brackets after the headword and as separate cross-referenced entries.

Cross references

The Dictionary makes extensive use of cross references. When a word that has an entry of its own
appears in the text it is normally printed in SMALL CAPITALS the first time it occurs. This is not
done, however, in the case of very common words where the general meaning is self-evident, e.g.
pottery, bronze, Iron Age. Further cross references appear at the end of many entries.

Dating

Throughout the Dictionary we have employed the convention of using the lower case letters ad,
be and bp (before present) to indicate uncalibrated radiocarbon dates (the problem of radio-
carbon calibration is explained in the entry on radiocarbon dating, p. 421 ). The capital letters AD,
BC and BP are reserved for dates thought to represent 'real' (i.e. calendar) years: they include
corrected radiocarbon dates, dates derived from documentary sources and dates derived from
laboratory methods other than radiocarbon, which do not require calibration.
This convention is widely used by British archaeologists working in many different parts of the
world; unfortunately, however, it has not been adopted universally. Radiocarbon specialists and
the journal Radiocarbon publish all dates as 'before present' dates and they use the capitals BP.
This practice causes no problems in that context, since everyone knows that they are writing about
radiocarbon dates. However, for archaeologists working in fields that draw on a variety of dating
methods, there is an urgent need for a method of notation that distinguishes between uncorrected
radiocarbon years and dates in real years. The use of lower case letters is the simplest and least
confusing convention available and is therefore employed in this Dictionary. When dates appear
without associated letters, they refer to years AD, as in normal everyday usage.
While we have used this convention throughout, we have not been consistent in calibrating all
radiocarbon dates that can be calibrated (i.e. dates after 7240 bp, 8000 BP). Our usage varies
according to the area of the world and the range of dating methods available for the periods in
question. For instance, in African archaeology, a high proportion of all dates is derived from
radiocarbon; moreover many site sequences run from before 8000 BP to afterwards. Therefore
for most African entries we have used uncorrected radiocarbon dates and the ad/bc/bp notation.
In China, by contrast, most dates do not come from radiocarbon and it is therefore more con-
venient to calibrate those radiocarbon dates that do occur, so as to provide direct comparison with
dates derived from other sources. Therefore in Chinese entries we use corrected radiocarbon
dates and the AD/BC notation.
One other point should be made about dating. When individual radiocarbon dates are quoted,
they should strictly be quoted either with a central date and a standard deviation or as a range of
dates. For instance a hypothetical date might be expressed in one ofthree ways: 2000 100 be;
2100-1900 be ( 68% confidence) or 2200-1800 be (95% confidence). Because ofthe awkward-
ness of such forms in normal text, we have normally used instead circa (c) symbols or words such
as 'approximately' or 'about' to indicate the imprecise nature ofthe dates. We hope that our pro-
fessional colleagues will forgive us for this usage; we belive that the general reader will prefer it.
A
Aachen [Aix Ia Chapelle ]. One of the finest modern prehistorians are not satisfied with the
groups of CAROLINGIAN buildings is the evidence for such a stage either from Abbeville
palace complex at Aachen, in particular the or elsewhere.
chapel built by Odo of Metz for the Emperor
CHARLEMAGNE between 792 and 805. The abbey. A place where monks or nuns live,
chapel stood on one side of a large courtyard work and worship. The concept of monastic-
opposite the main palace buildings, and was ism originated in the Near East during the
entered through a high, double-storeyed second half of the 4th century, spread to
porch flanked by towers. The plan of the Byzantium, Greece, Italy and France, and
chapel - a tall, domed octagon with vaulted seems to have developed independently in the
aisles- was evidently influenced by San Vitale sub-Roman Celtic regions of Britain. The
in RAVENNA and HAGIA SOPHIA in Con- Middle Ages saw the growth of many different
stantinople. The sumptuous interior religious houses, each observing individual
decoration included richly decorated capitals, customs and rules; the most important of these
vault mosaics and walls veneered with was the Benedictine order, founded by St
coloured marble panels, obviously inspired by Benedict in the 6th century, which provided
the Ravenna and eastern churches, yet overall the basis for European monasticism. Excav-
the chapel has a heavier, northern appearance ations have helped to show that there was
with solid piers and barrel vaults. The wes- considerable variation between different
twork once connected the palace with the orders in the layout of abbeys, and how these
royal apartments, and the throne room was developed throughout the medieval period.
situated just inside the vestibule. Many They range from the beehive cells and
precious relics and objects were brought from oratories which typify the Early Celtic
afar to adorn the interior of the chapel, and it is monasteries to the mature 12th-century
still possible to see the exquisite bronze Cistercian plan with cloisters, domestic ranges
parapet and the gilded pulpit, among other and large abbey church. Many of the major
treasures. Unfortunately the mosaic which European monastic complexes have now been
once lined the dome was replaced by later excavated, and it is clear from sites such as
restorers. Monkwearmouth and JARROW in Co.
Durham and FARFA and SAN VINCENZO in
Aardenburg. See FLEMISH BLACKWARES. Central Italy that before the lOth century
monasteries were the principal educational,
Abbeville, Abbevillian. One of the key artistic and economic centres of the Christian
localities where it was first shown that man was world.
of great antiquity. From 1836 onwards
BOUCHER DE PERTHES found stone tools in Abejas. SeeTEHUACAN VALLEY.
the gravel pits here, and a succession of scho-
lars, especially from England, recognized the Abkan. A stone industry of southern Nubia,
significance ofthese discoveries around 1859. believed to have been the work of indigenous
Subsequently, these pits in northern France peoples who maintained trade contact with
became one of the richest sources of PALAEO- more southerly regions of the Nile Valley
LITHIC tools, especially hand axes, in Europe. during the 4th millennium be. These folk were
In 1939 Abbe BREVIL proposed the name probably ancestral to the NUBIAN A GROUP.
Abbevillian for both the type of crude hand
axe found here and a whole early phase of abri. See ROCK SHELTER.
hand-axe manufacture preceding the
ACHEULIAN in Europe. However, many Abri Pataud. A rock shelter in the village of
1
2 absolute pollen counting

LES EYZIES in southwest France, hardly very interesting developments. The plant
known until the major programme of excava- remains include large quantities of einkorn
tion from 1956-64 under Professor H.L. wheat and some grains of barley and rye; there
Movius. This revealed 14 main culture layers were also pulses such as lentils and vetches,
with radiocarbon ages from c32,500 be at the and a wide range of other edible fruits, nuts
bottom to c19,000 be at the top, which now and seeds. The plant remains were all
form the basis of the dating of the French morphologically wild, but it seems likely that
Upper PALAEOLITHIC. The earliest nine levels the einkorn at least was being deliberately
were AURIGNACIAN followed by PERIGORD- cultivated: many seeds of weed species were
IAN stages IV, V and VI. At the top were found, typical of cultivated fields in the area
Proto-MAGDALENIAN and probably Proto- today. Most of the meat food came from
SoLUTRIAN levels. Some art objects were gazelle and onager and it is suggested that
found, and a skeleton was found in the top these animals were being either selectively
levels. The different patterns of hearths and hunted or perhaps herded. It is clear that the
living areas have been used to suggest different 9th-millennium be community at Abu
social groups of smaller and larger size. Hureyra was already involved in incipient
farming activities.
absolute pollen counting. POLLEN ANALYSIS The Neolithic settlement of the 7th mil-
may be carried out by determining the number lennium be is also of great importance, in this
of grains of each pollen type per unit weight case because of its enormous size: 15 hectares,
(grains/ gm) or unit volume (grains/ cm 3) of larger than any other recorded site nof this
sample. This is called absolute pollen count- period (even (:ATAL HDYDK). Rectangular
ing, and avoids some of the problems of houses of pise were built up into a mound c5
PROPORTIONAL POLLEN COUNTING, although metres high; both floors and walls were
it is rather more time-consuming. Variation in sometimes plastered and some wall plaster
the rate of sedimentation leads to uncertainty bears traces of painting. Most of the Neolithic
about the number of years each sample levels were aceramic, but in the uppermost
represents, and absolute counts for different levels after c6000 be a dark burnished pottery
samples may therefore not be compatible. This appears.
has led to the use of pollen influx rates, where a
pollen analysis is carefully calibrated by Abu Shahraim. See ERIDU.
RADIOCARBON DATING, and the number of
grains of each pollen type accumulating on a Abu Simbel. A great temple on the west bank
unit area of lake or bog surface in one year of the Nile in northern Nubia, 230 km
(grains/cm 2/year) is calculated for each upstream of Aswan, constructed by RAMESES
sample. II in the 13th century BC as part of the cultural
Egyptianization of Nubia under the Eigh-
Abu Hureyra, Tell. A TELL site on the teenth Dynasty (see DYNASTIC EGYPT). The
Euphrates River in Syria, 120 km east of facade of the temple is dominated by four 20-
Aleppo. The site was excavated in 1972-3, as a metre-high seated figures ofRameses, and the
rescue excavation in advance of flooding by main part is cut into the solid rock of the
the Tabqua Dam. Two major phases of hillside, into which it penetrates for 55 metres.
occupation are documented: the first, labelled The walls of the great hall are decorated with
either EPI-PALAEOLITHIC or MESOLITHIC, reliefs illustrating the king's military cam-
dates to the 9th millennium be; it was later paigns in Syria and Nubia. To save it from
reoccupied after a long period of abandon- flooding on the completion of the new High
ment in the 7th millennium by a settlement of Dam at Aswan, the temple was moved under
the PRE-POTTERY NEOLITHIC B culture. It was UNESCO auspices to a higher site above the
finally abandoned c5800 be. waters of Lake Nasser in 1968.
The earlier settlement is particularly
important because of the light it sheds on the Abydos. A major town in northern Egypt,
early development offarming in the Levant. A which was a centre for the worship of Osiris
very large amount of plant material was and the chosen burial place of the pharaohs of
collected by froth flotation and preliminary the First Dynasty (see DYNASTIC EGYPT). The
results available in 1983 already indicate some royal tombs consisted of large underground
Acheulian 3
brick-built rooms lined with wood, covered by in other areas also. Outside Western Asia,
a low mound surrounded by a brick wall. Early Aceramic Neolithic groups are rarer; in
tombs comprised a single chamber; later Europe, for instance, an Aceramic Neolithic
developments included stone embellishments phase has been identified only in Greece,
to the structure, the addition of a number of where it appears to have been short-lived.
surrounding storerooms, and an access stair.
Funerary enclosures, perhaps palaces, were Achaemenid. The Persian dynasty that ruled
also erected. Nearby graves were used for the from its homeland in central and southern Iran
interment of relatives, court functionaries and from c547 BC, when Cyrus II conquered
retainers; at least some of the retainers were Lydia, to 331 BC, when the empire fell to
apparently killed to accompany the deceased ALEXANDER THE GREAT. The Achaemenid
pharaoh. From the Second Dynasty, the royal Empire reached its height under Darius, who
graves were at SAQQARA. Under the Old built a splendid new capital at PERSEPOLIS and
Kingdom, the town of Abydos expanded ruled an area extending from India to Egypt.
within its walled enclosure and retained its He was defeated by the Greeks at MARATHON
importance until the Second Intermediate in 490 sc; ten years later his son Xerxes was
Period. Thereafter it remained a religious also defeated by the Greeks at SALAMIS.
centre, and a major temple was constructed by Other surviving Achaemenid monuments
Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty. include the tomb of Cyrus the Great at PASAR
GADAE, a number of trilingual rock-cut
Acacus. A region of the central Sahara, in inscriptions of Darius's reign (see BISITUN)
what is now southwestern Libya, noted for the and the rock-cut tomb of Darius at Naqsh-i
presence of rock shelters with occupation Rustam near Persepolis.
deposits and rock paintings. Pottery was made
in this region from about 7000 be: the earliest Acheulian. The term Epoque de St Acheul
vessels include examples with the wavy-line was introduced by de MORTILLET in 1872 for a
decoration typical of the so-called 'AQUATIC span of prehistoric time, the early part of the
CIVILIZATION'. From Uan Muhuggiag comes PALAEOLITHIC period. This usage is still
one of the earliest pieces of dated evidence foroccasionally found today but after 1925 the
animal domestication in the central Sahara, in idea of epochs began to be supplanted by that
the form of the skull of a shorthorn ox of cultures and culture traditions, and it is in
recovered from a level of c4000 be which also this sense that the term Acheulian is more
yielded traces of sheep/ goat. At the same site often used today. However, prehistorians are
rock paintings of oxen may be shown to pre- far from unanimous on this question, some still
date c2700 be. not accepting the usefulness of the notion of
traditions or cultures.
Acapana. See TIAHUANACO. The Acheulian is characterized according
to most prehistorians by the HAND AXE. In the
acculturation. The adoption of traits charac- wider sense now most commonly used, the
teristic of one culture by another. Acheulian first appeared over a million years
ago in Africa, and the earliest assemblages are
Aceramic Neolithic. Term applied to groups often rather similar to the OLDOWAN at such
demonstrating evidence of a Neolithic sites as OLDUVAI GORGE. Subsequent hand-
economy - that is, an economy based on the axe assemblages are found over most of
cultivation of crops or the rearing of stock or Africa, southern Asia and western and
both - but without the use of pottery (which southern Europe. The earliest appearance of
was regarded by an earlier generation of hand axes in Europe is still referred to by some
archaeologists as a defining characteristic of workers as ABBEVILLIAN, denoting a stage
the Neolithic). Aceramic Neolithic groups when hand axes were still made with crude,
were widespread in Western Asia during the irregular edges.
early stages of the development of farming, The type locality is Saint-Acheul, near
being found in the Levant (PRE-POTTERY Amiens in the Somme valley, in northern
NEOLITHIC A and B), the Zagros area (e.g. France. In Europe, large hand-axe assemb-
KARIM SHAHIR and JARMOAN), in Anatolia lages are mostly found in northern France and
(HACILAR Aceramic Neolithic) and probably England, from around the time of the pen-
4 acoustic vessels

ultimate interglacial and the succeeding glacial while figures round them seem to be masked
period, perhaps some 200,000 to 300,000 and dancing: it may be an initiation or cir-
years ago (see Tables 4 and 5, pages 418-9). cumcision scene. The carving is attributed to
However, Acheulian hand axes are still found the ROMANELLIAN culture, some 11,000 years
around the time of the last interglacial period, ago.
and hand axes are common in one part of the
succeeding MOUSTERIAN period (the Mous- Adena. A widespread native American cul-
terian of Acheulian tradition) down to as ture of the Early WooDLAND period, centred
recently as 40,000 years ago. on Southern Ohio. It is best known for its
A number of subdivisions of the Acheulian ceremonial burial practices, particularly
have been proposed from time to time but mound building (e.g. GRAVE CREEK
none has widespread recognition; it is likely MOUND). Adena mounds date from as early as
that these subdivisions could only have local clOOO be, but do not become common until
validity. 500 be. Hunting and gathering was the main
subsistence base, but limited horticulture may
acoustic vessels. From the 9th century large have been practised. Other characteristic
pots were cemented into bell-towers to help cultural traits include small village dwelling
boost the chimes of the church bells. A fine units (possibly seasonally occupied), long-
9th-century collection of painted BADORF distance trade, and both inhumation and
wARES, for example, was found in the church cremation as means of disposal of the dead. A
of Meschede in Westphalia, and larger RELIEF- typical artefact inventory would include cord-
BAND AMPHORAE were used in 10th- and marked pottery, engraved stone tablets,
11th-century churches. The dating of many blocked-end-tube smoking pipes, birdstones,
pottery types has been helped by architectural boatstones and hammerstones.
studies of the churches into which the pots
were cemented. Adichanallur. See MEGALITHS (INDIA).

acropolis [Greek: akros (high, top), polis Adlerberg. An Early Bronze Age group in
(city)]. The higher or citadel section found in a southwest Germany, a variant of the UNETICE
number of Greek cities, notably Corinth and culture. It is known mainly from a number of
Athens. The name is often used to refer flat inhumation cemeteries such as that of
specifically to the Acropolis at Athens, Adlerberg itself. The dead were usually
surmounted by the PARTHENON, and the accompanied by fairly simple offerings such as
associated complex of monumental public copper and bronze daggers and pins, flint tools
buildings. and one-handled pottery cups. See also
STRAUBING.
acroterion. An end ornament or ornamental
adobe. An American term for sun-dried mud-
figure, mounted with plinth at any of the three
BRICK.
corners of the PEDIMENT of a classical building.
Adrar Boos. A site in the Air massif, on the
AD, ad. Years 'after the birth of Christ' (Anno edge of the Tenere Desert in Niger, where
Domini). The' lower case 'ad' represents excavations have revealed a long succession of
uncalibrated RADIOCARBON years; the prehistoric occupation. LEVALLOISO-Mous-
capitals AD denote a calibrated radiocarbon TERIAN settlement was followed by an arid
date, or a date such as an historically derived phase when the region was probably unin-
one, that does not need CALIBRATION (see habited. The succeeding ATERIAN industry
Table 8, page 422). There is no year 0: AD 1 is represents a local variant in which bifacial
the same year as 1 BC. points are a distinct feature. The prolonged
post-Aterian arid period is marked by a
Addaura. A cave in the Monte Pellegrino further hiatus in the archaeological sequence,
group near Palermo, Sicily, with engravings of but by about 10,000 be there was a rapid
the Upper PALAEOLITHIC period. The main return to wetter conditions. Human settlement
scene is dominated by human figures. Two in then resumed: it appears likely that the initial
the centre are lying and seem to be bound, re-occupation of the area was by small mobile
African food-production 5

groups, perhaps of northerly ongm. With and the ground plan of a new site can be
increasingly moist conditions, however, the plotted from the photographs. Accurate
more settled life-style of the so-called surveys can in fact be made by this method
'AQUATIC CIVILIZATION' was soon adopted. (seePHOTOGRAMMETRY). When viewed from
By early in the 4th millennium be techniques of the air, sites may be revealed as SHADOW
food-production are firmly attested. Adrar MARKS, CROP MARKS, SOIL MARKS or FROST
Bous is one of the most informative sites of the MARKS.
TENERE NEOLITHIC. The skeleton of a
domestic shorthorn ox there dates to 3700 be. Afalou. See MECHTA-AFALOU.
Small stock were also herded, while numerous
grindstones suggest that cereals, including Afanasievo. Culture of southern Siberia,
sorghum, were intensively exploited if not probably beginning in the late 3rd millennium
actually cultivated. BC. The Afanasievo people were the first food-
producers in the area, breeding cattle, sheep
Adria [Atria]. Port in northeast Italy. A prin- and horses, but also practising hunting. There
cipal 6th-5th century BC port on the Adriatic, is no direct evidence of agriculture, but it may
and important crossover point for Etruscan have been practised. Most known sites are
and Greek trade, linking the sea routes with burials under low mounds ( kurgans).
Etruria, the Po Valley and northern Europe. Artefacts include dentate stamped pottery and
Variously described as of Venetie, Greek or a few copper ornaments; tools were of stone
Etruscan foundation, the town seems to have and bone. The Afanasievo was succeeded by
had a large Greek population. The alternation the ANDRONOVO culture in the mid-2nd
commonly found between the forms Adria millennium BC.
and Atria itself suggests an Etruscan origin at
least for the name, there being no separate 'd' Afontova Gora II. See YENISEI.
in Etruscan script. Less plausible are popular
etymologies which attempt to link the name Afrasiab. See SAMARKAND.
Adria with the Adriatic, variously deriving the
one from the other. Silting-up has always African food-production. The beginnings of
caused problems in this area, and it is very food-production in Africa have only been
likely that the ancient coastline was nearer to documented with any precision in relatively
Adria. References to a canal being dug at an recent years. Formerly, it was generally
early stage (possibly 5th century sc) are also believed that techniques of food-production
credible. Today, flooding, high-water table had been introduced into Africa in a relatively
and a basic bradyseism have covered much of developed form, their initiation and formative
the Roman and pre-Roman evidence with processes having taken place elsewhere.
several metres of deposit. However, research in the Nile Valley has now
shown that the intensive use of cereals, and
Adulis. Located on the Red Sea coast of experimentation with these crops, began there
Ethiopia, southeast of the modern port of at a rather earlier date than that at which
Massawa, Adulis was the principal seaport of corresponding events are firmly attested
AxuM, to which it was linked by a well- elsewhere. At several localities in Upper
travelled trade route. There are indications Egypt and Nubia these processes are now seen
that Adulis may have been established in to extend back as far as the 16th millennium
Ptolemaic times and, indeed, it must be be. The best-documented example is at WADI
assumed that ports or other settlements KUBBANIY A. These are, if confirmed, the
existed on this coast during the PRE-AXUMITE earliest instances of incipient plant cultivation
period. However, such excavations as have yet known anywhere in the world, and there
taken place at Adulis have yielded material can thus be no reasonable doubt that they were
which belongs to the 3rd century AD or later. indigenous African achievements. They do
not seem, however, to have led to the general
aerial photography. A technique that has adoption of such practices at this early date.
proved to be one of the most successful Food-production was not generally prac-
methods of discovering archaeological sites. tised in North Africa before about the 5th
Large areas of ground can be covered quickly, millennium be, and it is as yet unclear to what
6 Afyeh

extent the relevant techniques were derived fusion reached in bones from archaeological
from a Near Eastern source. The principal sites may therefore be used as a guide to age at
crops involved - wheat and barley - are now death. Fusion of other skeletal elements may
known to have been present in parts of North be used in the same way. There is, however,
Africa before this date. Further south these considerable variation between individuals,
winter-rainfall crops will not grow satisfact- and the method has to be used with some
orily, and the cultivated crops are of species caution.
indigenous to the immediately sub-Saharan (b) Dental eruption. Teeth in most animals
latitudes, notably finger and bulrush millet, erupt in a well-established sequence. Average
sorghum, yams and African rice with, in ages for each stage ofthe sequence are known
Ethiopia, teff, enset and noog. It now seems for man and most domestic animals. The state
likely that most of these species were brought of eruption of teeth in ancient jaws may
under cultivation between the 4th and the 2nd therefore be used to estimate age at death.
millennia be. (c) Dental attrition. Given a standard diet,
Domestic animals present a somewhat teeth of different individuals should wear at
different picture. It appears that domestic roughly the same rate. Degree of wear should
sheep and goats cannot be derived from the therefore represent the age of the animals.
Barbary sheep, and must therefore be assumed Tables of rate of wear have been established
to have been introduced from outside the for man, but other animals must have this
continent. On the other hand, it is not yet clear method calibrated by dental eruption.
whether the early domestic cattle of North (d) Antlers. In the deer, the stage of develop-
Africa could be descended wholly or in part ment of antlers is roughly related to age, but
from the local wild species. But south of the this is not very reliable as an ageing method.
Sahara there are no potential wild prototypes, (e) Pubic symphysis. In man, progressive
and it is clear that domestic animals must have changes on the joint surfaces of the pubic
been introduced to these latitudes from the symphysis occur with age, and can be used
north. Domestic animals are known from the successfully to age male individuals.
Sudanese Nile Valley, as at KADERO, as early (f) Dental microstructure. Counting of incre-
as the second half of the 4th millennium be, mental structures in teeth may allow estima-
and from West Africa by the mid-2nd millen- tion of age at death.
nium. A gradual introduction of domestic Bone microstructure may also prove useful
animals into East Africa is now attested from for ageing.
the 3rd millennium onwards, earlier indica-
tions being inconclusive. South of the Equator agger. A Latin military term meaning a ram-
the advent offood-production did not precede part, earthwork or embankment. The term is
the beginnings of the Iron Age. applied in a broad way and is used, for
instance, for the artificial earthworks erected
Afyeh. See NUBIAN A GROUP. to support battering engines and for the
slightly raised causeway that formed the basis
Agade. See AKKAD. of most Roman roads.

Agate Basin. See PLANO. Aghia Triadha. See A YIA TRIADHA.

ageing of skeletal material. Age at death may Agop Atas. See MAD AI CAVES.
be estimated from ancient SKELETONS in a
number of ways: agora. An open space in a Greek town, serving
(a) Epiphyseal fusion. Long bones grow in as commercial, political and social centre, like
zones just behind their joint surfaces. Thus a the Roman FORUM. The area is often charac-
growing bone consists of three elements: the terized by elaborate architecture, as at classical
central part, or diaphysis, and the ends, the EPHESUS and at ATHENS, where the agora has
ephiyses. When the bone reaches adult size, been studied in recent excavations.
the epiphyses fuse onto the diaphysis. The
average age at which this occurs is known for Agordat. A town in western Eritrea, Ethiopia,
many bones in the skeletons of man and most best-known archaeologically for the presence
domestic animals. The stage of epiphyseal of four village sites, never excavated but
Aguada 7
attributed on the basis of surface collections to original dedication is lost) and the Temple of
about the 3rd millennium be. The artefacts, Olympian Zeus. The Temple of Concord is
notably the stone mace-heads and ground normally seen as an advanced example of the
stone axes, show affinities to those ofthe NuB- DORIC order, incorporating mainland
IAN C GROUP ofthe Nile Valley. Grindstones sophistications such as 'double contraction',
and a clay figurine akin to 'C Group' repre- the subtle adjustment of the distances between
sentations of domestic cattle suggest the columns and between the corresponding
practice of food-production. The Agordat decoration above, to avoid what were other-
sites have been proposed as marking an early wise felt to be infelicitous asymmetries. The
passage of food-production techniques and Temple of Zeus; unfortunately now ruined,
associated material culture from the Nile must have been a bizarre and unique structure.
Valley to the Ethiopian highlands (see Basically a development of the Doric style
AFRICAN FOOD-PRODUCTION). again, this temple incorporated strange and
adventurous modifications. Built on a gigantic
Agrelo. Located in an area 20 km south of the ground-plan, it may perhaps have caused
city of Mendoza, Argentina, Agrelo and some disquiet to its architects and builders
several related sites are thought to represent even before construction. The usual arrange-
the agriculture-pottery threshold in this ment of alternating columns and spaces was
marginal semi-arid area. No evidence of replaced by a continuous wall, with half-
irrigation is discernible, even though it would columns of round section at the usual intervals
have been necessary to any cultivation on the outside and of square section on the
strategy. Simple pottery, generally in the form reverse, thus giving the appearance of the
of deep, wide-mouthed pots, has been found; usual Greek peristyle but with walling between
it has a rough grey-black body and is usually the pillars. It is possible that this walling
decorated by incision, punctuation or small between pillars extended only part way
applique nodes (sometimes in the shape of a towards the frieze, and that it was in the
human face). Pottery spindle whorls and crude resulting apertures that 25 gigantic figures
figurines also occur, as do LABRETS, club- were placed to help support, quite literally, the
heads, triangular projectile points and beads in massive entablature. This temple was still
stone. Pit inhumations were marked by a circle incomplete when Akragas was sacked by the
of stones. Nearby coastal pottery styles (e.g. Carthaginians in 406 BC.
CiENEGA and EL MOLLE) may be precursors Resettled later in the 4th century BC
to Agrelo and are major factors in dating it to ( c338), Akragas managed to be on the losing
the early centuries of the Christian era. side for most of the Punic Wars. There was
some return to commercial prosperity later
Agrigento (Greek Akragas]. Modern under Roman administration, when trade
Agrigento, on the coast of southern Sicily, seems to have expanded to include textiles and
partially overlies the Greek colony of sulphur. The Christian era saw the city
Akragas, an aggressively expansive and abandoned once again, and some church use
prosperous trading centre during the 6th and made of the classical temples, while large areas
5th centuries BC. There is some evidence for were utilized as Roman and Christian ceme-
earlier settlement, possibly Neolithic. The teries and catacombs. Recent excavations
classical settlers further strengthened the have been quite extensive and have revealed,
defences ofthe site, which is a natural fortress in the vicinity of the new Museo Nazionale, a
on three sides, by the construction of extensive network of streets and housing laid out on a
walls, original sections of which can still be grid basis that possibly goes back to the 5th
found. Famous as the home ofthe pre-Socratic century BC.
poet and philsopher Empedocles (who,
however, was subsequently exiled) Akragas Aguada. A culture dominant in the Valliser-
also advertised its prosperity and patronage of rana region of northwest Argentina in the
the arts by the erection of a whole series of period AD 700-1000, and notable for the fine
public buildings of an especially magnificent quality of its arts. Incised and polychrome
nature. Among the remains of classical decorated ceramics and ceremonial artefacts
temples still to be seen, most remarkable are of bronze and copper are characteristic and
the Temple of Concord (wrongly so called, the reflect a probable influence from TIAHUAN-
8 Ahar

ACO. Feline and dragon motifs are also The earliest exploitation of the malachite ore
common, as are depictions of warriors, beds, by open-cast mining, is dated to the 4th
weaponry and trophy heads. Decapitated millennium be KARANOVO VI period, with
burials are a further indication that warfare later utilization in the Late Bronze Age.
was a dominant preoccupation of Aguada. Although the mines lie close to a row of
Indeed, its sudden disappearance from the CHALCOLITHIC tells in the Azmak valley, the
archaeological record in clOOO was probably copper artefacts from those tells are not made
the result of invasion from the east. of Ai Bunar copper; however, substantial
quantities of this ore have been discovered in
Ahar. A site in Rajasthan, western India. settlements in Moldavia and the Ukraine
Period I is dated c2500-1500 BC and belongs (CUCUTENI-TRIPOLYE culture).
to the Chalcolithic BANAS culture. The
population lived by cultivating a cereal crop Aichbiihl. A Neolithic settlement on the
and hunting deer; there is little evidence of shores of the Federsee in southern Germany,
domesticated animals. They used copper and a consisting of about 25 houses along the edge of
variety of different types of pottery, including the lake. The houses were built of timber and
BLACK AND RED WARE. Period II has were rectangular in shape, usually divided into
NORTHERN BLACK POLISHED WARE of the two rooms; the average size was c5 by 8
later 1st millennium BC. metres. Most houses contained an oven. The
site is not easily assigned to any well-known
Ahichchatra. A large city in northern India, cultural group, though it shows some features
which was occupied from the mid-1st millen- of the MICHELS BERG culture. The commonest
nium BC to cllOO AD. The city, which artefacts found were SHOE-LAST ADZES and
occupied several hundred hectares, was the axes of stone and pedestalled pottery bowls.
site where PAINTED GREY WARE was first
found. Aija. SeeRECUAY.

Ahrensburg [Ahrensburgian]. A village close Ai Khanum. A Hellenistic city (possibly


to Hamburg in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany; Alexandria Oxiana) occupied between the 4th
beside the village are two important late century and clOO BC, Ai Khanum stands on a
PALAEOLITHIC sites, MEIENDORF and STELL- naturally defensible site at the confluence of
MOOR, less than a kilometre apart. The main the Oxus and the Koktcha in Afghanistan. The
layer at Stellmoor is dated to c8500 be, and city comprises a citadel, acropolis and lower
some workers have attributed this to a distinct town, protected by mud-brick walls and ditch.
Ahrensburgian culture; it has tanged points The lower town has an administrative centre, a
which were possibly arrowheads, for this site residential quarter and an open area with few,
has produced the earliest conclusive evidence if any, buildings. In the administrative centre,
for the use of the bow and arrow, in the form of excavations have revealed an imposing com-
a hoard of 50 pine arrow-shafts with bowstring plex containing a courtyard with a peristyle
notches ('nocks'). The Ahrensburgians built of columns with pseudo-Corinthian
hunted mainly the reindeer. capitals. On one side of the courtyard is a
vestibule with Corinthian columns and beyond
ahu. A rectangular stone platform, with it is a large rectangular room, perhaps the
stepped sides in larger examples, which served bouleuterion (meeting-place of the city
as a focus for rituals in the courts of prehistoric council). Nearby is a 4th-century funerary
Eastern PoLYNESIAN temples ( marae). chapel known (according to an inscription) as
Construction of such platforms was most the Temenos of Kineas. Kineas, it is suggested,
developed in the SOCIETY ISLANDS, and in may have been the founder of the city, shortly
EASTER ISLAND, where ahu served as statue after ALEXANDER THE GREAT conquered the
foundations. See also MARAE, MAEV A, region in 329 BC. In the same general area, the
MAHAIATEA, TAPUTAPUATEA, VINAPU. excavators discovered the so-called temple ii
redans, a building of Mesopotamian type. At
Ai Bonar. The largest and most completely the foot of the acropolis is a cemetery. The
explored of a group of three copper mines, finds from Ai Khanum, which include an
located near Stara Zagora, central Bulgaria. inscription stating that one Clearchus erected
Ajdabiyah 9

a transcript of the precepts at Delphi in the single ethnic group, and the Yayoi develop-
Temenos of Kineas, indicate the persistence of ment is not the result of mass migration around
a strong Hellenistic element. 300 BC.
The most widely accepted interpretation
Ain Hanech. A locality in Algeria which has now is that the Ainu are the descendants of the
produced some of the earliest evidence of people who left the Jomon remains in
human occupation in north Africa. There is a Hokkaido and northern Honshu. Unlike their
mammal fauna of Villafranchian type southern counterparts, they did not go
associated with the stone tools, indicating that through the socio-cultural changes of the
they were made some 1-1.5 million years ago. Yayoi and KOFUN periods, but remained what
The artefacts include choppers and multi- is called the 'Epi-Jomon' until about the end of
faceted spheroids, which seem to be distinctive the 8th century. With the encroachment of the
of a later OLDOW AN stage, but whose function culture based in central Honshu, the Epi-
is not reliably known. Jomon was transformed into the SATSUMON
culture, about the same time as the OKHOTSK
Ain Mallaha [Eynan]. A large village of the culture appeared on the northern and eastern
early NATUFIAN period by Lake Huleh in coast of Hokkaido. Some elements of the
Upper Jordan. Each of the three phases 19th-century Ainu culture, such as the Bear
contained about 50 substantial circular houses Ceremonial, find parallels in Okhotsk
and open areas with storage pits. The size of ceremonialism, while much of the material
the settlement ( c2000 square metres) and the culture has its origin in the Satsumon culture.
well-built houses suggest that this settlement Recent work in Hokkaido is filling the gap in
was permanently occupied. The economy was our knowledge between the dissolution of the
based on the hunting or herding of gazelle, as Satsumon culture in the 14th century and the
well as hunting other large animals, fishing and ethnographic descriptions of the Ainu several
harvesting wild cereals. The houses in the centuries later.
lowest level were between 7 and 9 metres in
diameter, those from the upper two levels c3-4 Aitutaki. See CooK ISLANDS.
metres. They are built in hollows; many had
paved stone floors with centrally placed stone- Ajanta. A Buddhist shrine in central India. A
lined hearths, and the superstructures were number of cave temples were constructed here
probably of reeds and branches. One early from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD
house, with a paved stone floor and red wall- and are famous for their wall paintings, which
plaster, was later re-used as a tomb of a man show scenes from the Jatakas (stories about
and a woman of some importance, the woman the lives ofthe Buddha in earlier incarnations).
adorned with a shell head-dress. Other graves
have also been found, containing single or Ajdabiyah. An important Islamic town in
collective inhumations. northern Libya which, in a region of semi-
desert, has one invaluable asset: water. Ajda-
Ainu. The native people of Hokkaido, biyah therefore became an important cara-
southern Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands, van town at the junction of the main route from
Japan, who numbered about 17,000 in the Egypt to the Maghreb and a trans-Saharan
1940s. Before their way of life changed route from the Sudan. The town was taken by
radically in the 19th century, they lived mostly the FATIM IDS in their advance towards Egypt
by hunting, fishing and collecting, but they also in 912, and flourished until it was destroyed by
grew some plants, such as buckwheat. the Banu Hilal in 1051. Two monuments
It was once held that the Ainu were the belonging to the period 912-1051 are im-
remnants of the JOMON population, pushed portant despite their poor state of preserva-
northwards by the YAYOI farmers and their tion: an early congregational mosque and a
descendants, the Japanese. That the Ainu qasr or fort. The mosque is roughly rect-
were pushed and exploited by the Japanese angular, with maximum dimensions of 4 7 by
from the early historic period in the 8th 31 metres. The courtyard has a single arcade
century is evident from written records. The on all four sides. The plan of the sanctuary is a
Jomon Period, however, is much too long and simple T-shape, with a broad 'nave' and
culturally too diverse to be attributed to a 'transepts' in front of the qiblawall. Stray finds
10 Ajjul, Tell el-

include an inscription of 310 or 320 [AH J (922 AzELIK) remain to be demonstrated. Arrow-
or 932 AD). The qasr is a rectangular building, heads are the product most frequently
33 metres long and 25 metres wide, with represented, but spearheads, axes, pins and
circular towers at the angles and a rectangular occasional decorative items may also tenta-
salient, including a monumental porch, at each tively be attributed to this period.
side. The towers and salients appear to be for
display rather than effective defence, and since Akkad [Agade). Archaeologically unlocated
the interior contains little more than reception site, near BABYLON (or, possibly, Babylon
rooms and magazines, the building has been itself), capital city of the AKKADIAN empire
identified as a rest-house for important founded by Sargon either in 2370 BC (on the
travellers between Egypt and the Maghreb middle chronology, see MESOPOTAMIA, Table
rather than a castle or palace. 3, page 321) or a century earlier (on the high
chronology).
Ajjul, Tell el-. See GAZA.
Akkadian. ( 1) Narne derived from the city of
Ajuerado. SeeTEHUACAN VALLEY. AKKAD, applied to the northern part of
SOMER and to the dynasty that was established
A-kalam-dug. The name of a king inscribed by Sargon in the mid-3rd millennium BC.
on a seal in one of the graves (Grave 1050) of Under Sargon and his grandson Naram-Sin
the Royal Cemetery at UR, thought to repre- this dynasty established an empire that
sent a local ruler in a period preceding the First included northern as well as southern Meso-
Dynasty of Ur. potamia and neighbouring ELAM to the east.
(2) The Semitic language which was
Akhenaten. An Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th associated with the Akkadian dynasty. Under
Dynasty, who reigned from c1379 to 1362 BC Sargon and his successors the Akkadian
and is remembered principally for his pro- language, written in the CUNEIFORM script
scription of the priesthood of AMUN and the which had been devised originally for writing
adoption of the worship of the sun-disc A ten the unrelated and quite different SUMERIAN
as the state religion. To facilitate the change, language, replaced Sumerian as the official
Aten-worship having apparently become of language (though Sumerian continued in use
major importance only during the preceding for religious purposes) and became the
two reigns, the capital was moved from medium for business and international
THEBES to a new site at the modern EL- communications throughout the Near and
AMARNA in Middle Egypt. Here, at the city of Middle East, from Anatolia to Egypt, as well
Akhetaten, the new religion was promoted to as in Mesopotamia and ELAM.
the neglect of foreign affairs. The art of this
period shows a vivid naturalism which con- Akrotiri. See THERA.
trasts strangely with the stereotyped formality
of earlier and later times. On Akhenaten's Aksum. See AxvM.
death a return to the Thebes-based worship of
Amun was rapidly accomplished. alabaster. See GYPSUM.

Akira. See PASTORAL NEOLITHIC OF EAST alabastron. Greek name for a small jar for
AFRICA. perfume or oil, originally of alabaster. The
shape is often globular, sometimes tall and
Akjoujt. Situated in southern Mauritania, narrowing, with narrow mouth, and often
Akjoujt appears to have been an early centre without handles. See also ARYBALLOS.
of African copper-working. It is, indeed, one
of the few Saharan or sub-Saharan areas where Alaca Hiiyiik. A TELL site in northern Turkey,
there may have been a distinct 'Copper Age' c150 km east of Ankara, occupied in the 4th,
preceding the local exploitation of iron. 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. A group of 13
Mining of copper ore is indicated from at least extremely rich tombs from the Early Bronze
the 5th century be and possibly earlier. Links Age II (early 3rd millennium BC) was found
with other areas of early copper working to the outside the town and is thought to represent a
north in Morocco and to the east in Niger (see royal cemetery. The burials were single and
Alchi 11

double inhumations in rectangular pits, called 'pine-cones' (named from their shape;
accompanied by a wealth of fine metalwork. their function is unknown). BEAKER pottery
This included two very early iron daggers also occurred.
(made of terrestrial iron) with gold-plated
handles; swords, daggers, maceheads, spears
and battle-axes of copper and bronze; jugs and Albany industry. A stone industry of south-
goblets of gold, silver, electrum, copper and ernmost South Africa, dated between the 11th
bronze; diadems, brooches, bracelets, pins and 6th millennia be, best known from strati-
and beads in gold; and figurines of bulls and fied assemblages at BOOMPLAAS and
stags in copper, inlaid with electrum, thought RosBERG. It directly precedes the appearance
to be mounts from funeral standards. The of the local backed-microlith WILTON indus-
tombs were lined with rough stone walling and try. Albany assemblages contain few formal
roofed with a ceiling of wooden beams, over tools other than unstandardized flake
which skulls and hooves of animals were scrapers. Possibly related and broadly con-
placed as part of the funeral rite. temporary industries are known from as far
The city was reoccupied in the HITIITE afield as southern Namibia and Zimbabwe:
period and it has been tentatively identified as some archaeologists have proposed grouping
the Hittite holy city of Arinna. The best- this material together under the name OAK-
known monument of this period is a monu- HURST Complex. In the South African coastal
mental gateway guarded by two great carved region it is perhaps significant that the appear-
sphinxes. ance of the Albany industry broadly coincides
with the post-Pleistocene rise in sea-level;
Alacaluf. See FuEGIAN TRADITION. marine food-resources were exploited on a
larger scale than previously.
Alaka. A number of shell middens located in
the mangrove swamps of the northwest coast albarello. A late medieval Spanish drug-jar
of Guyana have been grouped together into with particularly fine TIN GLAZE over typically
the Alaka Phase. An ARCHAIC lifestyle based blue designs that imitate the forms of Arabic
heavily on shellfish-gathering is indicated script. Early albarelli were made in several
throughout. Some crude percussion-made parts of Spain and have occasionally been
stone tools, MANOS and METATES are present, found in Britain and the Netherlands.
with crude ceramics appearing in the later
stages. These ceramics represent the appear-
ance of intrusive groups and are assumed to Alcala. A cemetery of the early metal ages in
mark the passing of Alaka. Dates are hypo- southern Portugal containing CORBEL-vaulted
thetical but range over the period c2000 BC to tombs of the MEGALITHIC tradition. This site,
the early Christian era. like Los MILLARES, was formerly thought to
be a colony of Aegean settlers; few now accept
Alalakh. Ancient name of the north Syrian this view.
city located at TELL ATCHANA.
Alchi. A town in Ladakh, Tibet, where A.H.
Alamgirpur. Situated northeast of Delhi in the Francke discovered and excavated a number
Ganges Valley, Alamgirpur is the easternmost of 'nomads' tombs' between 1900 and 1910.
known site of the HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION. The tombs measured approximately 1.8 by 1.4
The small late Harappan settlement was metres and were cl.8 metres deep; they were
succeeded after a gap of unknown duration by lined and covered with undressed stone slabs.
an occupation with PAINTED GREY WARE, Each contained from 3 to 20 long-headed
when iron was in use, and by later phases of skulls, many small hand-made pottery vessels
occupation. filled with bones, and grave goods. Some ofthe
pottery was decorated with patterns in dark
Alapraia. Site of a group of rock-cut tombs of red, or incised, zig-zagged 'ladders' and
the Copper Age near Lisbon in Portugal. possibly stylized leaves or grass. The grave
Simple chambers were entered through goods included bronze beads, dril-bu tri-
smaller vestibules. Finds include ritual objects angular pendants with triangular apertures
such as clay sandals, clay LUNULAE and so- and a suspension ring, bracelets, a bronze
12 Aleppo

vessel and glass paste beads. Francke thought 14th century. During the imperial period
that the pottery had originally stood on Alexandria was notorious for its race and
wooden shelves fixed to the walls of the graves. religious riots, notably between the large local
Other examples were found at Teu-gser-po Jewish community and the new adherents of
(near sLeh) and at Ba-lu-mk'ar. Christianity.

Aleppo. A city in north Syria, covering an Alfred Jewel. An outstanding example of 9th-
ancient city which remains unexcavated. century Anglo-Saxon craftsmanship found at
Aleppo is located on the route between the Newton Park, Somerset, in 1893 and now in
Orontes and the Euphrates Valley, and was the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. The jewel is
important for trade from at least the 2nd a unique piece, about 8 em long, consisting of
millennium BC. Because of its importance it an oval portrait (believed to be a personifica-
was fought over by Hittites, Egyptians and tion of sight) executed in different coloured
Assyrians. Subsequently, as texts from CLOISONNE, enhanced with filigree wire and
UGARIT, ALALAKH and MARl show, it became backed by a flat piece of gold engraved with
part of the Persian trading empire, which foliate decoration. Engraved around the frame
stretched from DILMUN via tne Persian Gulf are the words which in translation read 'Alfred
and the Euphrates to the Mediterranean. had me made', assumed to be King Alfred.
The meaning and function of the piece are
Alexander the Great. Born in 356 BC, uncertain; one widely held opinion is that it is
Alexander was tutored for six years by the the top of an aestal or reading pointer.
philosopher Aristotle before he succeeded his
father Philip as king of Macedonia and the Alfred the Great. Our impression of King
mainland of Greece. He realized the Greeks' Alfred is largely gained from two sources: the
long-felt ambition to be free from Persian ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, and the bio-
domination by crushing Darius, but extended graphy written by his friend and teacher Asser.
the defeat of Persia into a programme of Born in Wantage in 849, Alfred succeeded to
imperial aggrandizement, emerging as an the throne of Wessex in 871 and had several
oriental despot with an empire stretching from encounters with invading Danish forces before
India to Egypt. After his death from fever in whom he was forced to flee to Athelney in the
323 BC this hastily assembled dominion remote western part of Wessex in 877. He
showed immediate signs of dissolution, but a returned to drive the invaders from his king-
lasting achievement was the founding of the dom and force the DANELA w division upon
city of ALEXANDRIA on the Nile Delta. them. Alfred consolidated his victory by
establishing the first English fleet and organ-
Alexandria. Founded by ALEXANDER THE izing the chain of fortified BURH towns around
GREAT in 331 BC on a narrow strip of land in the southern coast to protect the civilian
the northwestern area of the Nile Delta, population. The king was a considerable
Alexandria soon replaced MEMPHIS as capital scholar and translated works such as the Curia
of Egypt. With its double harbour favourably Pastoralis from Latin into the vernacular
situated at a natural intersection of the language. He died in 899. The connections
shipping lanes of the classical world, the new between Wessex and Carolingia, together with
city rapidly achieved a remarkable prosperity the demise of the Danish threat in Alfred's
and, subsequently, a reputation for the time, helped to initiate the artistic renaissance
cosmopolitan life-style of its inhabitants. Its centred on WINCHESTER that flourished for
celebrated university and library were of focal two centuries.
importance in the manuscript transmission of
earlier classical literature, and Alexandrian AI Hiba. See LA GASH.
editing is inevitably reflected in modern
editions. The harbour was well-known in alignment. A term referring to single or
antiquity for its gigantic lighthouse, the multiple rows of standing stones {MENHIRS).
Pharos, one of the Seven Wonders of the They occur most frequently in Brittany (see
World. A three-tier structure in glistening CARNAC) and in the British Isles, where they
white limestone, some 110 metres high, the are often found in association with STONE
Pharos was destroyed by an earthquake in the CIRCLES or HENGE monuments. Other exam-
Almerian 13

pies occur in Corsica. Very little dating evid- KULTEPE) was built. A small number of
ence has been recovered, but it is thought that Cappadocian tablets were recovered; these are
many belong to the 3rd millennium BC. a little later in date than the famous tablets
from Kultepe, but their contents are similar.
Ali Kosh. A TELL in the Deh Luran plain of
Khuzistan, southwest Iran, occupied c7500- All Cannings Cross. An important site of the
5600 be. This site, excavated in the 1960s by a Early Iron Age in Wiltshire, southern Eng-
team led by Frank Hole and Kent Flannery, land. Within this open settlement were
was the first early farming site where signifi- rectangular-built houses and evidence of iron
cant quantities of plant remains were collected smelting. It is noted especially for its fine
by the FLOTATION technique, representing a haematite-coated bowls with horizontal
landmark in the study of the origins of farming. furrows above the carinations. In the earlier,
The earliest phase at Ali Kosh, named Bus DIFFUSIONIST, view of British prehistory this
Mordeh and dated c7500-6750 be, is char- site was thought to represent a settlement of
acterized by simple rectilinear mud-brick HALLST ATT intruders.
buildings and an economy combining wild and
domesticated foods. The population herded allee couverte (Fr.). GALLERY GRAVE.
goat and a few sheep, hunted a variety of wild
animals and caught fish. The plant side of the Allen, Major G. (d. 1940). One of the
diet was provided by an enormous variety of pioneers of AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY between
grasses and legumes; most of these were wild the twci World Wars. Piloting his own aircraft
species, but cultivated two-rowed hulled and operating a hand-made camera, he took
barley and emmer and einkorn wheats many thousands of aerial photographs, mostly
occurred in small quantities. in southern England. He emphasized the value
In the succeeding Ali Kosh phase ( c6760- of oblique aerial photographs, as opposed to
6000 be) the same domesticated plants and the vertical views normally taken at that time.
animals occurred; hunting and fishing were
still of great importance, but there was a Allerod interstadial. An INTERSTADIAL of the
decline in the collection of wild plant foods, WEICHSELIAN cold stage. It is dated to
suggesting that cereal cultivation was proving between 11,800 and 11,000 bp.
a more successful way of obtaining plant food.
The site of this period was larger than the alloy. A mixture of metals. Alloys containing
earlier one and had more substantial buildings. only two major metals are known as binary
The final phasee of occupation, named alloys, those with three major constituents as
Muhammad Jaffar ( c6000-5600 be) saw many ternary alloys. BRONZE is a binary alloy of
innovations, including the introduction of copper and tin; brass a binary alloy of copper
pottery. Farming was firmly established by this and zinc. Alloys are not simple mixtures but
phase, but the economic evidence shows signs complex crystalline structures which may
of strain, perhaps as a result of over-exploita- differ considerably from any of their constit-
tion of an area which was always marginal for uents; moreover, slight alterations of the
agriculture, and in the mid-6th millennium be proportions of the constituents can bring
the site was abandoned. See MESOPOTAMIA, about significant changes in the properties of
Table 2, page 320. the material. Both bronze and brass are
considerably harder than copper.
Aliar. A mount southeast of BOGHAZK6Y in
northern Anatolia. The lowest stratum com- Almerian. A Neolithic culture of southeast
prises eight CHALCOLITHIC levels, beginning Spain of the 5th and 4th millennia BC. A
late in the 4th millennium BC. The Early number of open settlements are known (see EL
Bronze Age levels are characterized by Aliar G ARCEL), usually on hilltops. The houses were
painted pottery, which was hand-made with a constructed of wattle and daub, and were
buff or light red burnish, sometimes with circular in plan, with hearths and storage pits.
geometric patterns in dark brown or buff. This culture is known particularly for its
Trading contacts with Assyria were estab- tombs, which were round and built of dry-
lished in the third phase of occupation, early in stone, and were used for single or multiple
the 3rd millennium BC, and later a karum (see inhumations; some authorities believe that
14 AI Mina

they were ancestral to the CORBEL-vaulted BADEN culture. The Baden graves yielded cart
tombs of the Copper Age (see Los MILLARES). burials and paired oxen burials, indicating the
Almerian pottery was plain, with round or importance of animal traction in the local
pointed bases. During the later stages of the economy.
culture copper came into use.
Altai. Mountainous region of southern Siberia
AI Mina. A site on the coast of Syria near the which has yielded important prehistoric
mouth of the Orontes River. It was at least in remains. As well as some possible PALAEO-
part a Greek settlement established from LITHIC deposits at Ulalinka Creek, a late
Euboea before the end of the 9th century BC glacial occupation is documented on a number
and probably called Posideion. It was an of sites including the Ust'Kanskaia Cave.
entrepot site, and excavated buildings were all Food-producing cultures appeared probably
probably warehouses, built to a standard plan. in the 3rd millennium BC (see AFANASIEVO)
Material of the 8th to 4th centuries BC has been and the following millennium saw the
found, indicating strong trading links between development of metallurgy, exploiting the
Greece and the Near East. In 413 BC Ptolemy important copper ore sources of the Altai itself
of Egypt sacked and destroyed AI Min a and in (see ANDRONOVO, KARASUK). In the 1st
the 4th century Seleucus, a few kilometres millennium BC pastoral nomadism, accom-
north, became the new trade centre. panied by the development of horseback
The site of Sabouni nearby has yielded riding, was introduced, and the period from
large quantities of imported MYCENEAN the 7th century BC to the 1st century AD is
pottery of the 14th and 13th centuries BC, known as the Early Nomad Period. It is known
showing that the site had a long antiquity as a archaeologically from rich burial remains (see
centre for trade with the Aegean world. PAZYRYK), which document a society char-
acterized by marked social differentiation and
Almizaraque. A settlement site in Almeria, dominated by a warrior elite, who enjoyed
southeast Spain, belonging to the Copper Age considerable wealth and acquired prestigious
Los MILLARES culture. Houses, oval in plan goods from far-flung regions. These com-
and with traces of plaster, were surrounded by munities were initially bronze-using, but in the
a ditch. Nearby was a MEGALITHIC tomb, 4th-2nd centuries BC iron gradually replaced
similar to those of Los Millares. The site, which bronze for most purposes. A rich animal art
was formerly thought to represent one of a style is characteristic of these groups, as of the
group of colonies from the east Mediter- culturally very similar SCYTHIANS who
ranean, is now recognized as a native settle- occupied the steppes of southern Russia to the
ment. In later phases of the settlement west (see ANIMAL STYLE).
BEAKER pottery appears.
Altamira. One of the two most famous
Alpera. The Cueva Vieja at Alpera, southeast painted PALAEOLITHIC caves (the other being
Spain, has a fine panel of paintings over the LASCAUX). Altamira is situated in the
back wall of its shallow rock shelter. They Cantabrian Mountains in Santander province,
belong to the SPANISH LEVANT cycle, prob- northern Spain. The 280-metre-long cave was
ably of the Mesolithic period between about investigated by' Don Marcelino de Sautola in
8000 be and 5000 be. The humans include a 1875, but the paintings were only noticed
group of women and some hunters or warriors several years later and their authenticity was
with bows and arrows as well as head-dresses challenged right up to 1902 when Emile
probably of feathers. The animals include CART AILHAC finally accepted that they were
deer, ox and possibly dog. genuine.
Archaeological deposits of the SOLUTRIAN
alphabet. See WRITING. and MAGDALENIAN periods were found in the
entrance of the cave. These included artists'
Alsonemedi. A large cremation cemetery of materials from a layer dated by radiocarbon to
the Hungarian earlier Bronze Age NAGREV about 13,000 be, and it seems likely that most
group, located 30 km south of Budapest, is of the art dates from this time or a few
found near the same village as a large in- thousand years later.
humation cemetery of the Late Copper Age The most famous panel is the ceiling of the
amber 15

low hall near the entrance. It has some 15 bison some similarities with the ZIGGURATS of
as well as deer and horses. The style is referred Mesopotamia and interpreted as a religious
to as polychrome, for several shades are building, with three main periods of construc-
present, but only two basic pigments are used, tion. Altin-depe declined in the earlier 2nd
namely red iron oxide and manganese. Else- millennium BC and was abandoned by about
where there is a hall with black paintings, and the middle of the millennium.
symbols are found in several parts of the cave.
Some are simple meanders, others are Alton Ha. A moderately sized CLASSIC MAY A
complex box-shapes. site, located 10 km inland on the coast of
Belize [formerly British Honduras]. It is best
Altar de Sacrificios. A lowland MAY A site known for its numerous caches of OBSIDIAN
located at the junction of the Pasion and and JADE and other rich exotic material
Chixoy Rivers in the southwest Peten province including the largest piece of worked jade in
of Guatemala. Its earliest remains (Xe pottery) Mesoamerica- a 4.5 kg head of the Maya sun
date to 1000 be, the Middle PRE-CLASSIC. The god.
beginnings of formal architecture (a cere- Surrounding agricultural land is of very
monial precinct of three thatch-and-pole poor quality, and excavations by David
buildings on packed lime-and-ash floors on Prendergast have revealed an extensive
raised platforms) date to c500 be. Due to its exploitation of marine resources. It is thought
prime commercial position on major water that control of these resources, which include
routes joining the interior to the coast, the site salt, shells and stingray spines (see PERFORA-
flourished in the CLASSIC period as a trade TION) accounts for the extraordinary wealth of
station. Major architecture includes plazas, a such a small centre.
BALL COURT and a temple-PYRAMID with STE-
LAE and altars located on its steep stairway. AI 'Ubaid. See UBAID.
The intrusion of a Mexican-influenced
group (probably the PuruN) becomes evident Amaravati. ( 1) An area of southern India with
in the period AD 800-850. A second invasion a Buddhist STUPA dating from the period c200
of more clearly Mexican-associated groups BC to 200 AD. It is built of limestone and finely
occurs at the very end of the Classic period in decorated with scenes from the life of the
1910 (a LONG COUNT date of 889 is the most Buddha.
recent on the site). 'After this time power (2) An archaeologically significant ter-
shifted up river to the more defensively ritory of CHAMP A, corresponding roughly to
positioned site at SEIBAL. Both sites were the present central Vietnamese province of
abandoned by 950. Quang-nam, also called the Holy Land of
Champa. The name undoubtedly derives from
Altin-depe. A large CHALCOLITHIC and the Amaravati region in southern India,
Bronze Age settlement in southern Turk- famous for its Buddhist art school (2nd-4th
menia, Soviet Central Asia, similar in nature century AD) and denotes the antiquity as well
and history to NAMAZGA-DEPE. In its urban as the origin oflndian influence on the eastern
(Namazga V) phase of the early 2nd millen- coast of the Indochinese Peninsula. See also
nium be (later 3rd millennium BC), it was DONG-DUONG, MI-SON and TRA-KIEU, the
smaller in size than Namazga-depe itself, three most important sites in the territory.
covering c45 hectares, but it has been studied
more fully than the larger town. A large amber. Fossilized resin. It is soft and easily
artisans' quarter, known as the 'Craftsmen's carved into jewellery and other artefacts;-
mound', has been discovered, covering c2.5 Amber is normally yellow or orange and
hectares, where there is evidence for special- transparent, but may be clouded due to the
ized pottery production. Another area seems presence of many tiny air bubbles. The main
to have been the residential quarter of the well- source of European amber is as modular
to-do, yielding graves with rich goods, includ- fragments in the Tertiary sand deposits of
ing jewellery of precious metals and semi- Prussia. These deposits are eroded by the sea,
precious stones, mostly imported materials. and the amber washes up on the shores of the
One of the most important discoveries was a Baltic and the coasts of eastern England and
complex of monumental structures, showing the Netherlands. There are other sources in the
16 Ambrona

Mediterranean, but Baltic and Mediterranean broken down (this decomposition of collagen
sources may be distinguished by infra-red gives rise to a dating method, NITROGEN
absorption spectrometry (see CHEMICAL DATING). But besides actual breakdown, the
ANALYSIS). Amber was utilized in Europe amino acids that remain intact are subject to
from the MESOLITHIC period onwards, and another change. In life, all amino acids have a
was widely traded during the Bronze Age. particular orientation to their molecular
structure (this version is called the L-isomer).
Ambrona. One of a pair of Lower PALAEO- After death the amino acids re-align to a
LITHIC sites ( seeTORRALBA) in the province of mirror-image of this molecular structure (the
Soria, central Spain. First discovered by the D-isomer). This reaction is called racemiza-
Marques de Cerralbo before World War I, tion (or epimerization) and it occurs at a slow,
Ambrona was extensively excavated in the relatively uniform rate. Measurement of the
early 1960s. The occupants hunted mainly proportion of the D-isomer to L-isomer
elephants of the species Elephas antiquus and should therefore provide a dating method.
also deer and bovines, but at a higher level the Unfortunately, racemization is also dependent
horse was by far the most common animal. The on temperature, groundwater and the degree
hunters made stone hand axes and cleavers of of breakdown of the collagen molecules. This
ACHEULIAN type reminiscent of some African makes reliable dates difficult to obtain.
sites. The occupation probably dates from the
end of the MINDEL or ELSTER glacial period, Amlash. A site in northwest Iran, southwest of
possibly some 300,000-400,000 years ago. the Caspian Sea, dating to the late 2nd mil-
lennium BC. It has not been excavated
Amekni. A site in the Hoggar highlands of scientifically, but systematic looting of rich
southern Algeria, dated to about the 7th burials has brought onto the market gold and
millennium be. Pottery was in use even at this silver vessels and pottery figurines and animal-
early date, and it shows strong similarities with shaped RHYTONS, similar to material from
the 'wavy-line' ware of the' AQUATIC CIVILIZA- MARLIK TEPE. Many forged 'Amlash' goods
TION' as known from EARLY KHARTOUM. are also in circulation.
Barbed bone harpoon heads, however, were
not represented at Amekni: fishing does not Amorgos. An island in the eastern Cyclades,
appear to have been an important activity, nor Greece, known especially for its Early Bronze
was there any convincing evidence for the Age cemetery. Single burials in cist graves
practice of food-production. were accompanied by pottery, copper
weapons and often by fine carved stone
Amersfoot interstadial. An interstadial of the figurines of characteristic Early CYCLADIC
WEICHSELIAN cold stage. It has been dated by type. These were usually made of marble and
radiocarbon to between 68,000 and 65,000 some were almost life-size, although most
bp, but this is at the extreme range of the were about one third this size.
technique (see RADIOCARBON DATING) and it
may be earlier. Amorites. An AKKADIAN word meaning 'the
west', referring to a group of nomadic tribes in
Amfreville. The find spot in Normandy, the area west of Mesopotamia. Inscriptions
northern France, of a helmet of the Early LA attribute to them the downfall of the Ur III
TENE Iron Age. The helmet is made of bronze Dynasty in the late 3rd millennium BC, but
sheathed in iron and is richly decorated with other texts maintain that they lived peacefully
scroll patterns on encircling gold-band and among Babylonians. Economics might origin-
enamel ornamentation. ally have forced them to raid settlements or
become mercenaries to the Babylonians,
amino acid racemization. After death bones, receiving payments of land. Eventually they
along with the rest of the body, start to de- became integrated into the population, as
compose. In bone this involves breakdown many Amorite names in texts suggest. The first
and change of the protein component - eminent Amorite king, Gungunum, of the late
principally the COLLAGEN. Like other 3rd or early 2nd millennium BC, belonged to
proteins, collagen is built up from amino acid the Dynasty of Larsa, and shortly afterwards
units, and it is these that are separated and an Amorite Dynasty emerged at Babylon
Ampurias 17

under Sumuabum, initiating what is known as made of plain pottery, with a rather plump
the Old Babylonian period. See Table 3, page cross-section. The neck and mouth of the pot
321. are narrow, while at the base there is either a
conventional platform, fairly broad and thick
amphitheatre. A characteristically Roman for stability, or, perhaps more frequently, a
development of ideas derived from the classic blunt-pointed taper, to facilitate setting the
Greek THEATRE and STADIUM, the amphi- vesseel into the ground or for ease of tipping
theatre is a large-scale construct with tiers ofwhen used on a flat surface. Plain examples
seats rising from a central space, usually an were mass-produced in the Greek and Roman
oval. Designed for events of spectacular world, and universally used for the bulk
complexity, the amphitheatre reveals two transport and storage of liquids, notably wine
typically Roman emphases: the great number and olive oil. The container would be sealed
of spectators accommodated (possibly more when full, and the handle usually carried an
than 50,000 at the Colosseum) and the fact amphora stamp, impressed before firing,
that it was widely copied throughout the giving details such as the source, the potter's
Roman empire, since the structure was not name, the date and the capacity. Amphorae
dependent on the availability of suitably cannot have been of much commercial value
shaped hills as a backdrop. The new model and were probably not normally re-used, as
could thus be erected on any terrain and sited witness for instance the so-called Monte
inside an urban centre where required. Testaccio (Pot Mountain), the great mound of
An early example from the Republican shattered pottery behind the warehouses that
period is to be found at POMPEII. This repre- lined the River Tiber in classical times, near
sents a transitional stage: the seats are sup- the present-day Porta San Paolo.
ported by soil, as in the Greek theatre, but the
soil itself is kept in place by retaining walls. Ampurias [Roman Emporiae, from the
Presumably to avoid problems with the height Greek emporion: 'market']. A trading and
and weight of the masonry, the central floor of staging post some 40 km northeast of present-
the arena was excavated below the original day Gerona, in the Gulf of Rosas, Costa
ground level. Brava, Spain, founded by Greeks from
Typical ofthe Imperial model is the Colos- Massalia [now MARSEILLES) in the early 6th
seum in Rome, the amphitheatrum Flavium, century BC. Ampurias was probably at its most
where tiers of seating are supported on an prosperous in the 5th to 3rd centuries BC,
intersecting network of vaulted corridors and when it established extensive trading links
arches. Roofing so wide an expanse was across the Mediterranean, especially with the
beyond Roman technology, but here and towns of Magna Graecia, and marked its
elsewhere in the Empire a system of ropes, commercial achievements by minting its own
poles and anchorages was apparently devised coinage. The town became an ally of Rome in
so that a canvas could be drawn across at least the 3rd century and was used by Scipio to land
part of the auditorium. The arena of the his army in 218 BC when he carried his
Colosseum had a false timber floor, below offensive against the Carthaginians into Spain.
which there wound a labyrinth of service Here as elsewhere, Greek settlement had from
corridors, probably lit only by crude naked the beginning encountered considerable
torches. The animal cages were situated here, opposition from an indigenous community,
linked with pre-tensioned lifts and automatic and the new Roman presence seems to have
trapdoors with the aim of shooting particip- brought some alleviation to the uneasy fric-
ants and animals up on to the floor of the arena tion. But Roman reorganization was also
with unexpected speed and precision. There is instrumental in the town's decline, by shifting
evidence that such advanced technical the centre of administration to Tarraco. The
features caused continuous trouble, and many original harbour had also begun to silt up, and
modifications were needed. It is interesting to was no doubt inadequate for the increased
speculate how the Roman engineers solved the draught of Roman troops and merchant
staging of the grand opening, when the arena shipping. The end seems to have come with
was flooded for a full-scale sea battle. destruction by the Franks in 265 AD, after
which no substantial rebuilding was
amphora. A large two-handled storage jar, attempted. Minor Christian communities used
18 Amratian

the area for burials and possibly settlement, Amon. The supreme state god of Ancient
and the deserted site suffered the usual fate of Egypt during the New Empire (see DYNASTIC
becoming a convenient quarry, in this case EGYPT), the centre of whose worship was at
eventually for the village of L'Escala and the THEBES, the capital. Depicted in male human
fortifications of Rosas and Perpignan. The last form, Amun was frequently identified with
inhabitants seem to have been the monks of a RE, the sun-god of Heliopolis, as Amun-Re.
small monastery, who continued the destruc- The priesthood of Amun achieved very great
tion by attempting to return the site to wealth and influence, especially between the
cultivation. The remains of the church and 18th and 21st Dynasties.
monastery underlie the present site museum.
Three sites should be distinguished. (a) The Amuq. A plain in northern Syria near the
original Greek settlement on what was an Turkish border east of Antioch. The plain is
offshore island which, due to geological shift rich in TELL settlements of the prehistoric and
and alluvial silting, is now part of the mainland. later periods. Excavations at Tell JUDEIDAH
It is believed to underlie the present village of and other sites by the Oriental Institute of
Sant Marti d'Empuries. (b) The slightly later Chicago University in the 1930s established
mainland Greek settlement, overlaid by the basic prehistoric sequence for the area
subsequent Roman development. This site has (with phases designated by letters: for
been extensively excavated, and is now open instance, Amuq A represents the Early
to the public. (c) The indigenous settlement Neolithic). Other important sites on the Amuq
just inland, which was to become the basis for a plain include Tell ATCHANA and ANTIOCH
later colony of Roman veterans. This site has itself.
only been partially excavated.
Amur Neolithic. The Amur River flows into
Amratian. See PREDYNASTIC EGYPT. the Pacific Ocean in eastern Siberia. A number
of 'Neolithic' cultures (defined by the presence
Amri. A site in the Indus Valley in Pakistan, of pottery, but not necessarily by the practice
which has given its name to one of a group of of farming) have been recognized in the
pre-HARAPPAN cultures in this area. Periods I Middle and Lower Amur regions. In the
and II represent the pre-Harappan settlement Middle Amur the earliest phase is known as
of agricultural farmers, who kept cattle, sheep, the Novopetrovka blade culture. Rather later
goat and donkey, but also hunted (or herded) is the Gromatukha culture, with heavy
gazelle. The Amri culture is characterized by unifacially flaked adzes and bifacially flakeu
both hand- and wheel-made pottery, some of arrowheads and laurel-leaf knives or spear-
it painted in black and red geometric designs. heads. Both these early cultures are undated.
Copper was in use, although stone tools also Probably dating to the 3rd millennium BC are
occur. In the later part of Period II Harappan the settlements on Osinovoe Lake, which are
ceramics appear alongside Amri wares; Period characterized by large pit houses. The popula-
III represents a full mature Harappan occupa- tion lived by cultivating millet, representing
tion. This progressed through three sub- the first definite food-production in the area,
phases and was finally succeeded by a level and by fishing. The fourth Neolithic culture in
(IIID) of the post-Harappan JHUKAR culture. the area, dating to the mid-2nd millennium BC
and also characterized by the combination of
Amud [Amudian ]. A valley close to the Sea of farming and fishing, is thought to represent a
Galilee which contains several important movement of people from the Lower Amur
caves. Emireh Cave is the type site of the area.
EMIRAN. Zuttiyeh Cave is the type site of the The Neolithic ofthe Lower Amur is known
Amudian, supposed to be an early occurrence from sites such as Kondon, Suchu Island and
of Upper Palaeolithic blade tools earlier than Voznesenovka. Unfortunately no bone
the MOUSTERIAN and its flake tools. The survives on the Amur sites, so precise inform-
Amud cave is Mousterian or Emiran, and has ation on the economy is difficult to obtain.
produced a NEANDERTHAL skeleton with However, the economic basis was certainly
exceptionally large brain (1800 cc). Neither provided by the great annual fish runs, leading
the age of this skeleton nor that of the part skull to the establishment of unusually large
from Zuttiyeh Cave are well established. sedentary settlements of pit houses; this
Andenne ware 19

situation parallels the more famous examples in the Southwest. Both the Hohokam and
from the Northwest coast of North America Mogollon cultures show an increased adop-
(see KWAKUITL). Kondon has a single radio- tion of Anasazi traits, leading to the suggestion
carbon date of c2570 be ( c3300 BC). that the Anasazi actually migrated into these
There was considerable continuity from the areas. The virtual abandonment of the plateau
Neolithic to historic times in the Amur Valley. heartland by 1300 lends credence to this
The 1st millennium BC saw the introduction of proposition.
iron and the construction of some fortified
villages. On the Middle Amur millet farming Anatolia. A mountainous region of northwest
became the basis of life. Otherwise there was Asia, part of present-dayTurkey, it is bounded
little change. by the Pontine mountains in the north and the
Zagros mountains in the south. Rich alluvial
Ananatuba. See MARAJO ISLAND SITES. deposits in Pleistocene lakes left much fertile
land when the water receded. This fact,
Ananda-Temple [from Pali A nantapafifiii: combined with the rainfall which was adequate
'infinite wisdom']. The most famous Buddhist for dry farming, made this a suitable area for
brick monument of PAGAN, northern Burma, the early development of farming and a
built under king Kyanzittha and consecrated in number of early sites are known with dates
1090. According to legend, it was modelled from c7000 be. The area was also important
after the grotto of Nandamiila on Mount for its two main sources of OBSIDIAN, in the
Gandamadana, identified with the Ananta <;iftlik area and near Lake Van. This material
cave-temple of the Udayagiri hills of Orissa, or was exploited from the Upper Palaeolithic
possibly the temple of Paharpur in northern onwards and was extensively traded in the
Bengal. Its plan is cruciform, with the central Neolithic. The area was an important centre in
pillar supporting a STUPA. On the outside of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic, with sites like
the stucco-decorated monument 1500 glazed <;ATAL HOYOK and CAN HASAN, but in the
terracotta plaques illustrate the Jataka stories succeeding Bronze Age it was less important,
(lives of the Buddha). with sites mostly known in the south. It later
became the homeland of the HITTITE empire
Anasazi. One of three major cultural tradi- in the 2nd millennium BC.
tions in the American Southwest which
engaged in sedentary agriculture (see also Anau. A site consisting of two separate tells in
HOHOKAM and MOGOLLON). The core area is the Kara Kum desert of southern Turkmenia,
on the plateau where the borders of New Soviet Central Asia, first excavated in the
Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Colorado meet 1880s and again in 1904. It has given its name
(also known as Four Corners). The generally to a CHALCOLITHIC culture of the 5th mil-
accepted chronological framework of three lennium be, which has been recognized on a
BASKETMAKER and five PUEBLO stages was number of tell sites. Characteristic material
first proposed at the 1927 Pecos Conference. includes fine pottery with geometric painted
Anasazi emerged from local ARCHAIC decoration and simple copper tools. The
adaptations (e.g. Oshara). Although the mixed farming subsistence economy and the
practice of agriculture characterizes the building traditions indicate continuity from
tradition, the gathering of wild food-plants the preceding DJEITUN culture, but the metal
and hunting continued to play some part in ores were probably imported from the south,
subsistence activities throughout their history. where both the SIALK culture of Iran (an early
The traditional starting date for the culture is 1 metal-working centre) and the HASSUNA
AD, though this now appears somewhat culture of Mesopotamia show connections in
arbitrary. Distinctive cultural traits, however, pottery styles with the Anau culture.
occur mostly in the period cS00-1300.
Increasing reliance on cultigens, the replace- Ancon Yacht Club. See ENCANTO.
ment of basketry with increasingly complex
ceramic technology, and the movement from Andenne ware. An important medieval
scattered village life to concentrated Pueblo glazed ware made at and near Andenne on the
dwellings are all major trends in this period. River Meuse. The potters at Andenne pro-
By 1200 Anasazi influence was widespread duced ordinary unglazed wares as well as finer
20 Andersson, J.G.

pitchers and bowls, but it is the latter which multiple burials and yielded copper and silver
were widely traded around Western Europe objects as well as OZIER! and BEAKER pottery.
from the late 11th century to the 14th century.
Angkor (from Sanskrit nagara: 'royal city, the
Andersson, J.G. (1874-1960). Swedish capital']. A complex of more than 250 monu-
geologist who worked in China in the second ments, dating from the 9th to the 13th century
and third decades of this century. His most and built almost exclusively in sandstone, on a
important excavations were on sites of the plain just north of the present town of Siem
YANGSHAO Neolithic culture, including the Reap in northwestern CAMBODIA. Here were
type site and other sites of the same culture the capitals of the KHMER empire from its
further west in Kansu. He was also the first foundation in 802 to the conquest of Angkor
excavatorin 1921-6 ofthe famous Palaeolithic by the Thais (Siamese) in 1431.
cave site of ZHOUKOUDIAN (Choukoutien).
Angkor Borei [from Sanskrit puri: 'sacred
Andrai, Walter (1875-1956). A German city']. The capital ofthe kingdom of FuN AN, in
scholar who excavated the major Mesopot- the southern part of the Indochinese Penin-
amian city of AssuR between 1903 and 1914. sula, for some time towards the end of this
These excavations were of very high quality for kingdom in the 6th century. It appears as Na-
that period. As well as exposing the major fu-na in Chinese chronicles, which can be
buildings of the AsSYRIAN city, they excavated identified with Naravaranagara, and is now a
a sounding beneath the great Temple of Ishtar rich archaeological site in Cambodia, south of
to expose a series of earlier temples, the first of Phnom Penh near the border with Vietnam.
which belonged to the EARLY DYNASTIC These is much famous statuary in stone,
PERIOD. attributable mainly to king Rudravarman; no
building of this site and period has as yet been
Andronovo. Culture of southern Siberia of the studied.
2nd millennium BC, which succeeded the
AFANASIEVO culture in the same area. The Angkor Thorn (Khmer: 'the big capital']. City
population practised farming - cultivating situated in the northwestern part of the plain of
wheat and millet and breeding cattle, sheep A.NGKOR. It was the capital of the KHMER
and horses - and lived in settlements of up to empire intermittently from the 11th century
ten large semi-subterranean houses of log- onward, notably during the reign of king
cabin construction. The burials, which are the Jayavarman VII (1181-cl218) who
best-known monuments of the culture, were surrounded it with walls and moats of 4 by 4
either stone cists or stone enclosures with km and built its own TEMPLE-MOUNTAIN, the
underground timber chambers. Artefacts BAYON, in its very centre.
include pottery and metal tools, which were
derived from the ore sources of the ALTAl. TheAngkor Wat (Khmer: 'the capital (which has
Andronovo was succeeded by the KARASUK become a Buddhist) monastery']. The best-
culture. known monument of ANGKOR, supposed to
be the largest religious structure in the world.
Ang-ang-hsi. A group of Neolithic sites in Built under king Suryavarman II (1113-1150)
Manchuria, showing strong connections with as his TEMPLE-MOUNTAIN, it was completed in
the Novopetrovka and Gromatukha cultures about 25 years. Situated in an enclosure of 1.5
of the Middle AMuR in eastern Siberia, by 1.3 km, it consists of a three-storeyed
especially in lithic technology. Abundant pyramid, topped by five towers (symbolizing
animal, fish and mollusc remains occur on the five peaks of Mount Meru, the abode of the
these sites. gods in Hindu cosmology), the central one
being 65 metres high. The first storey is
Anghelu Ruju. A cemetery site in northwest devoted to reliefs, of which there are two
Sardinia of the OZIER! Copper Age culture. It square kilometres. Angkor Wat is considered
contained 36 rock-cut tombs, some very to be the highest expression of Khmer classic-
elaborate in plan; some were decorated with . ism, both in architecture and in sculpture-
carved bulls' heads. They were used for relief.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 21

Angles-sur-1' Anglin. The Roc aux Sourciers During the Early or Pagan Saxon period
at Angles, in the Vienne department, west (up to the mid-7th century) before Christian-
central France, is a rock shelter with Upper ity was widely adopted, rich grave goods were
Palaeolithic art. The back wall has fine bas- placed with the dead and most archaeological
relief carvings: an outstanding frieze of three evidence comes from the cemeteries, includ-
female figures in frontal view dominates the ing the exceptional ship burial at SUTTON
shelter, and there are several animal carvings, Hoo. Settlements of this period are also
The occupation deposits are middle and late known, including WEST STOW and MUCK-
MAGDALENIAN; the art is dated to cll,OOO be. ING, where both a settlement and a cemetery
have been excavated.
Anglian. A group of British QuATERNARY After the adoption of Christianity, follow-
glacial deposits, mainly found in East Anglia; ing St Augustine's mission in 597 (see CAN-
isolated patches of glacial deposits exist else- TERBURY), churches were built and in the
where in Britain which may possibly be cor- Middle and especially the Late Saxon periods
related with the Anglian. The exact age of the form a major focus of Anglo-Saxon studies.
Anglian sediment is unknown, but they are Early examples include BRADFORD-UPON-
older than the extreme range of RADIO- AVON and Deerhurst. Very important
CARBON DATING (70,000 bp) and can be monuments of the Middle and Late Saxon
shown by PALAEOMAGNETISM to be younger periods are the royal palaces at YEAVERING
than 700,000 BP. Some authorities equate the and Cheddar (see CHEDDAR, sense 2).
Anglian with the Elster glacial maximum on After the VIKING invasions of the 9th
the continent and date it to c300,000 to century AD the Late Saxon period saw the
400,000 years ago. In East Anglia, Anglian growth of the first towns in Britain since the
deposits are stratified below HOXNIAN and Roman period, following the establishment of
above CROMERIAN interglacial deposits. BURHS in response to the Scandinavian threat.
ACHEULIAN and CLACTONIAN artefacts are Large-scale excavations have taken place in
found in Anglian sediments, but most the Saxon towns of THETFORD, WINCHESTER
evidence of human activity in Britain and in and SOUTHAMPTON (Saxon Hamwih). This
the rest of Europe is later than this time (see period is also characterized by wide-ranging
Table 6, page 419). It used to be thought that trade, a developed coinage and improved
the Anglian represented one glaciation (the levels of craft skills in pottery manufacture and
antepenultimate) and the term is still metal-working.
frequently used with this meaning. The The Anglo-Saxon period saw the emerg-
Quaternary in Britain is now known to be ence of separate British kingdoms, tradition-
much more complex and such a usage is not ally seven in number, of which the most
advisable; the term Anglian is better confined important were MERCIA, NORTHUMBRIA and
to the description of a group of deposits. WESSEX. These ultimately coalesced in a
unified England, with its capital at WIN-
Anglo-Saxon. A broad term used to describe CHESTER in Wessex. The Anglo-Saxons were
the majority of the Germanic peoples who responsible for the introduction of the English
settled in England during the 5th and 6th language and for the establishment of the set-
centuries. The name derives from two specific tlement pattern which became characteristic
groups- the Angles ofJutland and the Saxons of medieval England.
from northern Germany- who were probably
among the migrants. Earlier archaeological
work concentrated on attempts to recognize Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. A compilation of
separate groups (especially the Angles, annals, believed to have been initiated around
Saxons and Jutes mentioned by BEDE) in the 870, during the reign of ALFRED. The major
archaeological record, but this has now been part was completed by 891, but further
abandoned as an unprofitable exercise. The accounts were added up until the 12th century.
term Anglo-Saxon, or simply Saxon, is now The annals were probably composed in
generally used as a chronological term, English in the monasteries of Abingdon,
covering the period from the first Germanic Canterbury, Peterborough, Winchester and
invasions of the 5th century up till the Norman Worcester. They include particularly vivid
invasion of 1066. accounts of the Viking raids, Alfred's reign
22 Animal Style

and, in the later additions, of the period of steppes often does not permit the assignment
anarchy under Stephen. of particular objects to specific tribes or
regions, a broadly inclusive term is useful and
Animal Style. A term coined by Rostovzteff to convenient. If the designation' Animal Style' is
describe the horse-trappings and personal to be at all meaningful, some limits to its scope
regalia of the nomads who inhabited the should be recognized. In particular, it should
Eurasian steppes in the 1st millennium BC. The not be extended to include all art dependent on
animal themes that dominate this art are animal motifs, since this would deprive it of
treated with widely varying degrees of any historical significance ('Animal Style art'
conventionalization, stylization or abstrac- would then be found in cultures indebted
tion. With a few notable exceptions (e.g. the neither to the steppe nomads nor to the ancient
animal enrou/e, probably from China), the Near East). The bronze decoration of SHANG
motifs seem to have originated in the Near China is dominated by real and imaginary
East, but the transformations they underwent animals, but Shang decoration originated
in the course of their long history on the independently of the Eurasian Animal Style
steppes often leave the sources and affiliations and shares with it neither specific motifs nor
of particular versions obscure. The most treatments of motifs; to call it 'Animal Style
popular themes are antlered stags, ibexes, art', as some authors have done, is misleading
felines, birds of prey and, above all, the at best.
animal-combat motif, which shows a predator,
usually bird or feline, attacking a herbivore. annealing. See COLD WORKING.
The joining of different animals and the use of
tiny animal figures to decorate the body of an antefix. A vertical ornament fixed to the edge
animal are characteristic treatments, both ofthe roof-line of Greek and Roman buildings
sometimes referred to as 'zoomorphic junc- to provide a decorative cover to the ends of the
ture'. Animal bodies subjected to stylized rain tiles.
contortions such as the animal enrou/e (an
animal curved into a circle) and quadrupeds Antequera. A town in Malaga, southern
with hindquarters inverted are also typical. Spain, renowned for its three MEGALITHIC
The term 'Animal Style' is a convenient tombs, Cueva de Menga, Cueva de Viera and
shorthand for this complex of motifs and Cueva de Romeral. They are partly cut into
treatments, which for long periods provided the hillside and are constructed in various
the raw materials of art throughout the vast different ways. The Cueva de Menga has
steppe zone of Europe and Asia. an enormous chamber c5 metres wide andc15
Within the fairly well-defined repertoire of metres long, roofed by five large CAPSTONES
favourite themes, however, Animal Style supported by three central pillars and drystone
objects from different regions and periods walls. The Cueva de Romeral has a splendid
show an immense diversity of style: a plaque CORBEL vault.
from Scythia and another from the 0RDOS
may share the animal-combat motif and yet Antioch. An ancient city near the River
have no other stylistic feature in common. Orontes in Syria. The plain of Antioch was
Thus to assume that nomadic cultures are occupied from the Neolithic onwards (see
mysteriously linked by the possession of a AMUQ ), but the city itself was founded in 300
uniform artistic style, as the name 'Animal BC by Seleucus I after the death of ALEX-
Style' unfortunately suggests, raises artificial ANDER THE GREAT. Antioch was one of the
problems. If the artificiality of the term is kept two capitals of the PARTHIAN Empire and was
in mind there will be little occasion to explain populated by indigenous groups and Greek
the Animal Style as the inevitable artistic colonists. It became a Roman city in 64 BC and
expression of shamanistic religion or of the was made capital of the province of Syria.
nomadic way of life - interpretations not
easily reconciled with the occurrence of the antlers. Structures of bone-like material on
animal-combat motif at PERSEPOLIS or on a the heads of deer, grown and shed annually.
Protoliterate vase from URUK or in the DIAN Providing a large enough fragment remains,
culture of southwest China. Since the present antlers can frequently be identified to species.
state of archaeological knowledge of the The number of points or tines on a pair of
Anyang 23

antlers generally increases with age, but as it is He was particularly associated with the city of
also dependent on diet and other factors, URUK, where a series of seven superimposed
antlers are not reliable as a method of ageing. temples were found in a sanctuary dedicated to
They may, however, be used as an indicator of Anu, but he was eventually overshadowed
sex: only the male red deer, fallow deer, roe there by the city's rival deity Inanna, goddess
deer or elk (moose) has antlers. Both male and oflove, whose Semitic name was Ishtar. Anu's
female reindeer (caribou) have antlers, but main attribute was royalty, and from him the
there is enough difference between them to institution of kingship descended to man.
make identification possible in many cases.
Antlers may also be used as an indicator of the Anuradhapura. Capital of Sri Lanka from the
seasonal occupation of a site. Most deer shed time of the introduction of Buddhism in the
their antlers naturally in winter, the exception 3rd century BC until it was abandoned in the
being female reindeer, which shed their antlers 8th century AD, as a result of incursions of
in the spring. The quantity of shed as opposed Tamils from South India. Important Buddhist
to deliberately severed antler, and of male as monuments here include palaces, monasteries
opposed to female reindeer, allows the season and STUPAS, many of which have been
of occupation to be estimated. Antler has conserved and restored. Among the most
provided a valuable working material for famous are the Thuparama stupa, originally of
many tools, and roughly trimmed antler picks the 3rd century BC, the Ruvanveli dagaba
have been used in construction and FLINT (another enormous stupa) and the Loha-
MINING. pasada monastery, both of which were origin-
ally built in the 1st century BC.
Antonine Wall. A short-lived frontier of the
Roman Empire in Scotland, spanning the Anyang [An-yang]. A city in Henan province
distance between the Firth of Forth and the in North China, near the site of the last capital
Firth of Clyde. The wall was probably com- of the SHANG or Yin dynasty. The site is
pleted by 143 and abandoned before the end sometimes referred to as Yinxu, the Waste of
of the century. Erected by the governor Lolli us Yin, an ancient name for the abandoned
Urbicus for the Emperor Antonius Pius, it was capital. At least as early as the SoNG dynasty
probably a last attempt to secure the Scottish (960-1279) Anyang was known as a source of
Lowlands. Consisting mainly of turf piled bronze RITUAL VESSELS prized by anti-
upon a stone foundation, the wall had a quarians. At the beginning of the 20th century
defensive ditch to the north (some 12 metres archaeologists were led there by the discovery
wide and 4 metres deep), a service road to the that ORACLE BONES found by local farmers
south, and some 19 forts stationed at regular carried inscriptions in an archaic form of
intervals. The main rampart (val/urn) was Chinese. The inscriptions secured the ident-
perhaps originally some 4.6 metres high and ification of the site as the last Shang capital;
some 4.3 metres deep. The wall was associated according to later texts this capital was the seat
with other forts, notably to the north and along of 12 kings who ruled for 273 years, a time
the southern edges of the Forth and the Clyde. referred to as the historical Anyang period
The work was executed by men from the ( c1300-1030 BC on the short chronology; see
legions currently stationed in Britain, and was SHANG).
evidently completed section by section, by Excavations at Anyang begun in 1928 have
different work gangs who left behind a record continued under the direction of the
of their exertions in the form of decorative Academia Sinica to the present day. The
plaques, a number of which survive. Such a Anyang remains are distributed over a large
far-flung contract would have required area divided by the Huan River, which has
temporary camps for the constructors, and eroded parts of the site. No city wall has been
there is perhaps evidence of these in crop found (see ZHENGZHOU). South of the river
markings revealed in aerial photographs. A at Xiaotun were excavated the HANGTU
well-preserved fort site is Rough Castle. foundations of large buildings and a few
associated sacrificial burials, including
Anu. The SUMERIAN sky god, originally CHARIOT BURIALS. Very large cruciform
standing at the head of the pantheon, although SHAFT TOMBS were found north of the river at
he was later overtaken by Enlil and Marduk. Xibeigang near the village of Houjiazhuang.
24 Anyang

t
..
~
.
\... '

.
\~ :..

A
- ~
\
~ ........... .
........... ~

--- .,,.
M1

,,,
-- ------
,,, .... ,,,
......
1 ......

II II
o u,.,
0111111111 ,,,,

.....
0111111111 ...
II g
,,
I
= ,,,,
~ ,,,,,
II I II

-- a,,..,,,,
I!,
-
........
II I 1111111

.,.,
...
I 0
':.
ooaaoo=~ ,,,,,.,,,
o,, ooooooooo ,,, .,., ,,
ooo
Oooaooaooo
a
,,.,,, ...
Oooo oaoooooo
I
I 0

8
A) Anyang: plan of Xibeigang royal cemetery
B) An yang: detail of part of the cemetery
Apennine Bronze Age 25

n
II I

u
G l
'I
[]J I I

An yang: plan and section of tomb WK G Ml

Because of their size these are assumed to be and fossil wood, found in terrace deposits of
royal tombs, but all had been stripped by the upper Irrawaddy River in Burma. The
robbers before excavation. There were eight earliest assemblages may be of Middle Pleisto-
large tombs in the western part of the cene date, and the industry may continue into
Xibeigang cemetery and five more in the east the early HOLOCENE. See a/so CHOPPER/
(north of the village of Wuguancun ). Careful CHOPPING TOOL.
excavation has shown that rows of satellite
burials in the eastern section were not laid Anza [Anzabegovo ). A large open settlement
down at the time of the royal entombments but of the Macedonian First Neolithic and Early
instead represent later sacrifices offered VINCA periods situated on the first terrace of
periodically to the tombs' occupants; these the Bregalnica River in the Ovce Polje basin of
burials correspond precisely with mentions in eastern Yugoslav Macedonia. Intensive
the oracle texts of victims sacrificed, some- excavations by Korosec, Garasanin and
times by the hundred, to the reigning king's Gimbutas have revealed a four-phase occupa-
ancestors. The only intact royal tomb yet tion dated c5300-4200 be. Each successive
discovered is that of Fu HAO, which is not in village cultivated emmer and bread wheat and
the Xibeigang cemetery but across the river at relied upon caprine herding. Architectural
Xiaotun. styles were modified from initial use of mud-
The first excavations at Anyang were an brick walls to wattle-and-daub timber-framed
unexpected revelation of the antiquity of houses, presumably an adaptation to the
Chinese civilization. For some years, while temperate climate. Artefactual similarities are
Anyang was the only Shang site known, found in northern Greece (NEA NIKO
scholars were puzzled by the unheralded MEDEIA ), as well as the Anatolian Late
appearance of this literate and sophisticated Neolithic (HACILAR VI); a life-size fired clay
Bronze Age culture, already at a pinnacle of pig was found in the early Neolithic levels.
wealth and achievement. Excavations since
1950, however, have established that Anyang Apennine Bronze Age. The main Bronze Age
was heir to the flourishing civilization of the culture of the Italian peninsula, lasting from
ERLIGANG PHASE, and the study of Chinese c2000 to c800 BC. It is marked by its distinctive
Bronze Age origins now centres on earlier pottery, dark and highly burnished, and
periods and other sites. decorated with incised and punctuated bands.
The handles are elaborate and include tongue,
Anyathian. A PLEISTOCENE industry of horned and crested types. It is often claimed
pebble tools and flakes made of silicified tuff that the economy was mainly pastoral and
26 Apollo 11 Cave

certainly many sites, especially those in the ning the EARLY DYNASTIC period. The temple
Apennine mountains themselves, yield many of ED II was large and included the main
sheep and goat bones. Other sites, for sanctuary, two subsidiary shrine chambers and
example, LUNI and NARCE, show evidence of living quarters for priests. It was apparently
a more mixed economy. Burials are rare, dedicated to Shara, patron god of the city of
except in the southeast. Bronze tools, though Umma.
in use, are rarely found.
Aquae Solis. See BATH.
Apollo 11 Cave. A cave in the Huns Moun-
tains of the extreme south of Namibia, not far Aquatic Civilization. This somewhat mis-
from the confluence of the Orange and Great leading name - more fully and correctly 'the
Fish Rivers, which has yielded a long dated aquatic civilization of middle Africa' - has
sequence of industries extending from 'Middle been proposed to designate a widespread
Stone Age' to recent times. Of particular series of cultural adaptations to the high lake
importance is the series of detached rock slabs and river levels which prevailed over a wide
bearing rock-paintings, the earliest of which area of what is now the southern Sahara and
comes from a stratified late 'Middle Stone Sahel between the 8th and the 3rd millennia
Age' context dating to about the 25th mil- be. Certain features of the relevant assemb-
lennium be. This is by far the oldest dated lages do show strong inter-regional similari-
attestation of the ROCK ART of southern ties, notably the barbed bone harpoon-heads
Africa, and shows for the first time that the and the pottery, which is characteristically
duration of this art tradition is of the same decorated with parallel wavy lines. It is likely
order of magnitude as that of European that pottery was an independent invention in
Palaeolithic art. Later horizons at the Apollo the southern Sahara in about the 7th mil-
11 Cave yielded a scraper-based industry of lennium, and the harpoons clearly represent a
the 13th-8th millennia be akin to the con- common response to the rich supplies of fish
temporary ALBANY INDUSTRY ofthe southern which formed the most readily available
Cape Province. True backed microlithic source offood. However, other aspects of the
occurrences began in the 8th millennium. assemblages, notably the chipped stone
industries, are clearly rooted in local
Aq Kupruk. A rock shelter (Aq Kupruk II) traditions, and the homogeneity of these
and an open site (Aq Kupruk III) on a terrace widespread sites should not be exaggerated.
of the Balkh River. This is one of the richest First investigated at EARLY KHARTOUM, sites
PALAEOLITHIC sites in Afghanistan, but not of this type are now known as far to the south-
the earliest; Lower Palaeolithic material is east as the Lake Turkana basin in Kenya, as at
reported from Dasht-i Nawar and possible LowASERA. To the west, related material is
Middle Palaeolithic deposits occur at Dara-i found as far distant as KOUROUNKOROKALE in
Kur, Ghar-i Mordeh Gusfand, Kara Kamar, Mali. The greatest significance of the 'aquatic
and other sites. Aq Kupruk II contained a civilization' lies in the settled life-style of its
single late Palaeolithic deposit with a blade people, for this provided the background for
industry, including microliths, associated with the subsequent adoption of food-production
a radiocarbon date of c14,600 be. Aq Kupruk (see AFRICAN FOOD-PRODUCTION).
III yielded two deposits: the upper unit (AK
III-A) has the same artefacts as Aq Kupruk II, aqueduct. Any channel constructed for the
but the lower unit (AK III-B) lacks the supply of water, but most commonly applied
microlithic element. Neither deposit has been to the massively engineered arched bridges
dated. built by the Romans both to carry water
supplies over valleys and ravines, and also to
'Aqrab, Tell. A TELL site in the area of the maintain correct height and fall across open
Diyala River in Iraq east of Baghdad, excav- spaces. The most famous examples are the
ated by the Oriental Institute of Chicago PONT DU GARD outside Nimes (Roman
University in the 1930s. The mound is now in Nemausus) in southern France, and the
empty desert, but it was clearly a flourishing colossal double-tiered example at SEGOVIA in
city in the 3rd millennium BC. Excavations Spain. Building costs were high (Aqua Marcia
revealed a temple with building phases span- cost 180,000,000 sesterces) and maintenance
archaic maiolica 27

was also expensive and demanding. Leakage America and much of the Caribbean. A
was a dominant problem, and it is likely that a southern origin is probable for this skilled
typical installation operated with high water pottery-making agricultural group, but a late
losses. An aqueduct would usually terminate MESOAMERICAN influence may be inferred
at a distribution junction ( castellum) whence from the presence of BALL COURTS and ZEMI
public and private supplies would be drawn, worship. Although they were displaced in
with non-essential consumers taking the many areas (especially in the Lesser Antilles)
overflow water, and time limits being generally by aggressive CARIB migrants, the Arawak still
applied. numbered millions at the time of the arrival of
Colombus.
Arab'ilu. See ERBIL.
arboreal. To do with trees. In POLLEN ANAL-
Arad. Located in the Negev desert of southern YSIS, arboreal pollen types may be dis-
Israel, Arad has revealed evidence of three tinguished from shrub pollen and herbaceous
separate phases of occupation. The first settle- pollen. Hazel is usually separated from other
ment was in the CHALCO LITHIC period and the trees in calculating PROPORTIONAL POLLEN
second in the Early Bronze I and II phases. At COUNTS.
this stage, in the later 4th millennium BC, it was
a town of c nine hectares, initially unwalled, archaeomagnetism. See PALAEOMAGNETISM.
later surrounded by a wall with semicircular
bastions. Houses and twin temples of this Archaic. In general usage, 'archaic' means
phase have been excavated. Trading con- primitive or antiquated, but in archaeology the
nections with First Dynasty Egypt were term is used in a number of specific ways.
apparent from the finds. In American archaeology, the term
The later period of occupation was repre- Archaic has two different usages:
sented over a smaller area, confined to a (1) A broad-based way oflife with small bands
citadel on the highest part of the earlier town. exploiting their environment by means of
It was occupied from the 12th-11th centuries hunting and gathering in a pattern of seasonal
BC and became a southern frontier post of the movement linked to the availability of sub-
kingdom of Judah. The most important find of sistence foods.
this period is a sanctuary associated with (2) A long chronological period, the beginning
worship of Yahweh. There were citadels on of which is marked by post-glacial climatic
this site also in the Hellenistic and Roman change in association with the disappearance
periods and subsequently an Arab khan. of Late PLEISTOCENE big game animals. It is
considered to have ended when sedentary
Aramagosa. See VENT ANA CAVE. agriculture becomes the favoured means of
subsistence. There is considerable local
Arauquinoid, Arauquin. One of the ceramic variation in the occurrence of these events,
series developed by Irving Rouse and Jose which makes dating difficult. In North
Cruxent to facilitate cultural comparison in the American archaeology dates usually fall
Venezuela/ Antilles area. Characterized by between c8000 and clOOO BC. See Table 9,
soft-textured, grey-coloured vessels tempered page 552.
with spicules of freshwater sponge, the series In Classical archaeology, the term is used to
flourished in the Orinoco basin from c500 to refer to the period of the 8th-6th centuries BC,
c1500 AD. The collared jar with appliqued preceding the CLASSICAL period proper.
human faces with coffee-bean eyes is a
common form; fragments of GRIDDLES are archaic maiolica. A great range of jugs and
also found at most sites. The series replaces bowls carefully decorated with geometric
SALADOID and BARRANCOID in some places. motifs, leaves and other forms outlined in
brown and set in green or brown backgrounds.
Arausio. See ORANGE. These wares were made from the early 13th
century until the 16th century in many Tuscan
Arawak. A number oflinguistically associated and north Italian towns, with certain special-
native groups (e.g. T AINO) which occupied a ized pots, such as the wares of Montelupo,
broad area covering northeastern South being sold far afield in Spain, North Africa and
28 Arctic Small Tool Tradition

even northern Europe. The precise origin of The form is simple: a round silver bowl with
these wares, like the PROTO-MAJOLICAS, is a two handles standing on a splayed foot, to
matter of controversy but it doubtless owes which it is linked by a band decorated in gilded
much to the Byzantine and early Persian FILIGREE. The decoration is sumptuous, and
products of a similar kind although the decora- strongly resembles Irish ILLUMINATED MANU-
tions were clearly designed in Italy. SCRIPTS of the period as well as ANGLO-SAX-
ON metalwork. On the bowl are bands of gold
Arctic Small Tool Tradition. A generalized filigree, and roundels built up of plaques con-
hunting tradition, evidence of which has been taining enamelling and CLOISONNE work, gold
found within a wide geographical band wire in the form of Celtic scrolls, and animal
stretching from the Bering Sea across the north interlace. The names of the apostles stand out
Canadian coast as far east as Greenland. The in embossed silver below the plaques. The
DENBIGH FLINT COMPLEX, named from the flange surrounding the foot of the chalice is
type site at Cape Denbigh, Alaska, is the heavily ornamented with square blue glass
characteristic tool assemblage; tool types blocks, interspersed with filigree work and
include delicately made blades, microblades, geometric interlace ornament.
BURINS and scrapers, as well as some large
bifacial projectile points. Approximate dates areca nut. See BETEL NUT.
are 4000-1000 be. See Table 9, page 552.
arena (Latin: 'sand'). The central area in
Arcy sur Cure. A group of caves some 160 km particular of an amphitheatre, which was
southeast of Paris with good examples of originally surfaced with a simple sandy floor.
Upper Palaeolithic art. The Grotte du Cheval When more sophisticated technology was
has a series of engravings including a fine developed 'understage', the surface was often
mammoth. Archaeologically the most im- still coated with sand to give an overall
portant are the Grotte de l'Hyene and the uniformity and to conceal trapdoors and other
Grotte du Renne. 'Hyena cave' has early devices; see AMPHITHEATRE.
occupation levels of the Riss period, and
several MOUSTERIAN levels with NEANDER- Arene Candide. A cave site at Finale Ligure
THAL remains. The 'reindeer cave' has a long on the Italian Riviera, with a stratigraphy
sequence from Mousterian and CHATEL- extending from the Upper PALAEOLITHIC to
PERRON IAN through AURIGNACIAN to later the Late Neolithic and, at a poorer level,
PERIGORDIAN along with radiocarbon dates through to the Roman period. The site was
and pollen evidence. Teeth from the Chatel- excavated in the 1940s by Bemabo Brea and
perronian levels retain archaic features like played an important role in his interpretation
taurodontism. of the Neolithic period in the Mediterranean.

ard. A primitive. form of plough, pulled by Arezzo. See ARRETIUM.


man or beast. It has a simple blade with a share
which simply scratches the ground and does argali. See SHEEP.
not turn a furrow. With this type of plough
cross-ploughing is normally necessary, Argissa. An important Neolithic settlement
involving two ploughings, the second at right site in Thessaly, Northern Greece, which has
angles to the first. yielded much evidence of the ACERAMIC
NEOLITHIC period. Wheat, barley, lentils and
Ardagh Chalice. One of finest examples of millet were cultivated and sheep, goats, pigs
early Christian art known from the British and cattle kept. Houses with timber frames
Isles. Found in the last century, its association supporting mud walls have been.dated before
with another chalice and four brooches 6000 be. Tools of flint and obsidian were used.
suggests that it could be part of the buried loot
from a monastery following an Irish or Viking Argos. City in the northeast Pelopponese,
raid. The chalice is an 8th-century piece, in Greece. Ancient Argos, which is mostly
which exceptional artistic and technical skills covered by the modern city, lay a few miles
have been applied to a variety of precious inland on the Argive plain, overlooked by two
materials to produce an object of rare beauty. hills, the Larissa and the Aspis, both of which
Aries 29

show early traces of use as a fortified centre or Arimaddanapura. Original name of the city of
ACROPOLIS. The city is clearly of central PAGAN in northern Burma, founded in 849.
importance in the prehistory of the area, with
some evidence of settlement going back to the Arinna. See ALACA HOYDK.
Neolithic period. Tradition and myth have
Argos as a very early Pelasgian foundation, Ariu~d [Erosd]. The eponymous site of a small
and Homer's Iliad describes it as the kingdom regional painted ware variant of the Cucu-
of Diomedes, who was second only to Achilles TENI-TRIPOLYE culture. The site, one of the
in bravery, and gave his allegiance to few TELLS found in southeast Transylvania, is
Agamemnon (whose capital was at nearby in the catchment of the Upper Olt Valley,
MYCENAE). Dorian association appears to Rumania. Excavated by F. Laszlo, the site has
have brought continued ascendancy, and by seven occupation horizons. Levels I-VI
the 8th-7th centuries BC Argos is credited with contain Ariud painted ware, with interesting
the control of the entire eastern Pelopponese. examples of gold jewellery and copper arte-
One tyrant, Pheidon, is mentioned by some facts (pins, daggers, beads and bracelets); level
sources as introducing a primitive form of VII represented a late Copper Age assemblage
coinage and a system of weights and measures. of Schneckenberg type.
The subsequent classical history of Argos is
dominated by a power struggle with Sparta, Arkin. A location near Wadi Haifa in the
and Argos hastened to join every kind of anti- Nubian Nile Valley, where a number of Stone
Spartan conspiracy and alliance. Age sites have been investigated. Of particular
Material evidence gives Neolithic, Early interest are factory sites for the preparation of
and Middle Bronze Age remains, a MYCEN- rough-outs for foliate points of the local Later
AEAN cemetery with chamber tombs, GEOME- MouSTERIAN tradition, These factories, the
TRIC and ARCHAIC features, and plentiful products of which also show affinities to
traces of the classical and Roman city. Saharan ATERIAN artefacts, are probably
Archaic and classical Argos was famed for contemporary with the nearby settlements at
its connection with the goddess Hera, and for KHOR MusA.
its schools of sculpture. Hera's shrine
(Heraeum) lay some 10 km to the north and Aries [Roman Arelate]. City in southern
some 5 km from Mycenae and, for a time, France. A Celto-Greco-Roman town of
seems to have been jointly maintained by both. Gallia Narbonensis (see GAUL) was situated
The shrine was reputed to be of extreme on the left bank of the Rhone, close to the head
antiquity, and this is not improbable. A of the delta. Very little is known of the Celto-
chryselephantine statue of Hera was con- Greek settlement, traditionally colonized by
tributed to a new 5th-century temple by the Phocaeans. Significant history probably
Argos's most celebrated sculptor, Polycleitus, commences with the construction by Marius in
the legendary quality of whose work has 104 BC of the fossae Marianae, a naval canal
reckoned to rival that of Pheidias, the sculptor linking Aries directly with the sea at the Golfe
ofthe PARTHENON. de Fos. Aries soon began to develop what was
to be its characteristic role and the basis of its
Arikamedu. A site on the Madras coast of commercial success throughout the Imperial
southern India, excavated by Mortimer period- the function of service port and naval
WHEELER. A native Iron Age settlement with shipyard. The port was used as naval base by
BLACK AND RED WARES, it yielded evidence Caesar in 49 BC in his sack of Massilia [MAR-
of abundant trading contact with the Romans SEILLES j, and in 46 BC a colony (see COLONIA)
from the mid-1st century BC onwards, attested was founded for veterans of the 6th legion
by finds of ARRETINE WARE, Mediterranean (Colonia lulia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum).
amphorae and Roman coins. During this Romanization in due course provided two
period it grew into a sizeable town with ware- aqueducts which brought water from the
houses and an industrial quarter, and it was Alpilles.Christianization saw Aries as the
clearly an important trading outpost for the residence of Constantine for a time, and the
Romans. town became an influential centre for
ecclesiastical councils of the 4th and 5th
Arikara. See MIDDLE MISSOURI TRADITION. centuries AD.
30 Arlit
Remains from the Roman period notably with chariots. The group is regarded as
include an imperial Roman theatre, and the intrusive and has been associated with the
largest AMPHITHEATRE north of the Alps (Les migrations of the Parisii from eastern France.
Arenes ), with seating originally perhaps for
more than 20,000 spectators. Both of these Arretine ware. See ARRETIUM; TERRA
buildings have suffered badly as a result of SIGILLATA.
being used as forts during the medieval period
- the amphitheatre being converted into a Arretium [modern Arezzo ]. An Etruscan and
fortified town with watch-towers, three of Roman city some 80 km southeast of Florence
which survive. on the Via Cassia, celebrated in antiquity for
the fine workmanship of its city walls and its
Arlit. See TENERE NEOLITHIC. pottery. Remains of the city walls, closely
constructed and variously of stone and lightly
aroids. Theedibletubersofthefamily Araceae fired brick, have been discovered; it is likely
were of major importance in prehistoric that these fortifications were destroyed as one
Oceanic subsistence, and of sporadic import- of the punishments visited on the town for
ance through South and Southeast Asia. The supporting Marius against Sulla. A consider-
major species, grown from India to Oceania, is able degree of industrialization is indicated by
Colocasia esculenta (taro), which is irrigated the quantity of bronze produced, including the
in terraced or bunded fields in many Oceanic famous chimaera now in Florence and the
regions, especially NEW CALEDONIA, extensive bronze armaments supplied for
VANATU, HAWAIIAN and COOK ISLANDS). Scipio's African expedition, as well as the mass
Also important are Alocasia macrorrhiza, production of pottery. Arretine ware, a glossy
(India to Oceania) and Cyrtosperma red tableware, both plain and relief-
chamissonis (grown in INDONESIA and decorated, was produced at Arretium from
Oceania, and widely cultivated in pits cut to around 30 BC, and came to dominate imperial
ground water on MICRONESIAN atolls). These markets for a century. The designs were
Indo-Oceanic species were cultivated by at imitative of metal vessels and had Hellenistic
least 3000 BC according to linguistic evidence, models: there is evidence that both the
and Colocasia had spread from India to Egypt technology and the potters were imported
and Africa by the late 1st millennium BC. The from the Hellenistic East. Several factories,
aroids are of declining importance today. See notably that of M. Perennius and his school,
a/so HALA WA, KUK, MAKAHA. have been identified within Arretium and
outside the city walls. As Arretine output
Arpachiyah, Tell. A small TELL ofthe HALAF- declined, other centres developed to supply
IAN period near Mosul in Iraq excavated by the continuing demand for this type of ware,
Mallowan in the 1930s. The site appears and Arretine became the first example of the
to have been a specialized artisan village whole class of TERRA SIGILLATA pottery.
producing exceptionally fine polychrome
pottery. The settlement had cobbled streets, arrow straightener. A stone with a regular
rectangular buildings and other circular groove on one face, thought to have been used
buildings with domed vaults, inappropriately to smooth the wooden shafts of arrows.
compared to Mycenaean THOLOI. Later
examples had rectangular anterooms. The arsenic. A metal, found as an impurity or
function of these buildings is unknown: both major constituent in COPPER ores. Some Early
religious and secular usages have been Bronze Age copper contains more than 1 per
suggested. In addition to the painted poly- cent and up to 7 per cent of arsenic, and should
chrome wares, other finds include steatite be classed as arsenical copper ALLOYS.
pendants and small stone discs with incised
designs, interpreted as early stamp seals. Arthur. There is little resemblance between
the legendary chivalric hero of medieval
Arras. A site in Yorkshire, northern England, romance and the 5th-century British leader
which has given its name to a local group of the Ambrosius Aurelianus or Arthur. The
LA TENE Iron Age. This site is one of several problem for historians and archaeologists is
cemeteries of barrows covering burials, some that there are no contemporary accounts of
Asiab, Tepe 31

King Arthur and his battles, and all the aryballos [Greek: 'bag, purse']. A small
historical references to him in the chronicles of pottery jar used for oil or perfume. The form is
BEDE, Gildas, Nenius, Geoffrey of normally globular, quasi-spherical or pear-
Monmouth and others were written between shaped, with narrowing neck and single
100 and 600 years after the event. By the late handle. As with ASKOS, the term perhaps
15th century, when Malory's chivalric stories transfers from earlier leather artefacts. The
about the Knights of the Round Table and the term is also applied to certain INCA pottery
search for the Holy Grail were written, legend forms because of similarity of shape. See also
and history had become inseparable. ALABASTRON.
However, the obsessive search for proof of
Arthur's existence and places connected with Arzawa. See BEYCESULTAN.
his name continued. The search probably
started with the monks of Glastonbury, who in Ascalon [Askalon, Askelon ]. One of the five
1191 claimed to have found the burial of King Philistine cities on the south coast of Palestine,
Arthur and Queen Guinevere inscribed with 50 km southwest of Jerusalem. Excavations by
the words 'Here lies Arthur in the Isle of Garstang in the early 1920s found mainly
Avalon buried'. Various locations as far apart remains of the Roman period, though
as Cornwall and Scotland are claimed as the Philistine levels were reached in small
site of Mount Badon; the refortified Iron Age soundings. Egyptian texts indicate that
hillfort of Badbury Rings in Dorset seems the Ascalon was one of the cities that revolted
most credible possibility. Serious considera- against RAMESES II and Merneptah and that it
tion has als_o been given to the site of Arthur's was the centre of worship of the fish god
court at Camelot, even though the name is Derhets. In the Roman period, Ascalon was
undoubtedly an invention of French medieval the birthplace of Herod the Great and the city
poets. 'Camelots' exist from Arthur's Seat in flourished at that time. The city continued to
Edinburgh to Tintagel in Cornwall. Excava- be occupied in the Byzantine and Arab periods
tions carried out at SouTH CADBURY in and it was famous for the Mosque of Omar.
Somerset in the 1960s revealed an important
fortified settlement of the 5th and 6th Ashir. The city of Ashir, 75 km south of
centuries which could have been the centre Algiers, was founded in 935-6 by Ziri, the
from which British resistance to the Saxons ruler of the Sanhaja berbers. Like the
was organized. FATIMIDS of MAHDIYA, the Sanhaja were
Shi'ites and when the Fatimid caliph al-Mu'izz
conquered Egypt and established a new
Aruans. See MARAJO ISLAND SITES. capital, CAIRO, in 970, he made the Zirid ruler
his governor in the Maghreb. The principal
Aryans. A people who called themselves Arya buildings at Ashir were the palace and the
and spoke an Indo-European language, congregational mosque. The palace was a
SANSKRIT, known from the RIGVEDA and rectangular enclosure, 72 metres long and 42
other early Indian sources. They are thought to metres wide, with square towers and a
have invaded India from the northwest during monumental entrance. The interior consisted
the 2nd millennium BC and to have spread east of a central courtyard with four identical
and south in the succeeding centuries. By c500 apartments at the angles and a throne room
BC Aryan speech was probably established preceded by a vestibule opposite the entrance.
over much of the area in which Indo-Aryan The plan has much in common with the smaller
languages are now spoken, that is, most of the Fatimid 'palace' at AlDABIY AH. The mosque
Indian subcontinent. Archaeologists have had a sanctuary seven bays wide, with five
devoted much time to the search for archaeo- transverse aisles.
logical traces of the Aryans, with no very
marked degree of success, though many Ashur. See AssuR.
authorities believe that PAINTED GREY WARE
marks their presence. The invasion of the Asiab, Tepe. A semi-permanent settlement in
Aryans may have been responsible for, or the Kermanshah valley in the Zagros region of
contributed to, the downfall of the HARAPP AN western Iran. Dated between 7100 and 6750
CIVILIZATION. be, it belongs to the KARIM SHAHIR culture.
32 Asikli Hiiyiik

Semi-subterranean features may have been survives on rock faces and stone pillars from
the bases oftent-like structures, which animal widely separated parts of the empire.
bone evidence suggests would have been
occupied during the spring and summer. Asprochalico. A large rock shelter in Epirus,
Domesticated goats were kept and finds of northwest Greece. There are MOUSTERIAN
many horn cores suggest that selective levels below and a series of Upper PALAEO-
slaughtering of males was practised. Mussels LITHIC levels above, one radiocarbon-dated to
were probably eaten, and the evidence of c26,000 be. Backed blades were common in
coprolites indicates that small lizards and frogs these levels.
were also consumed. As well as flint tools,
cones, balls and figurines of lightly baked clay ass. The wild ass was distributed widely in
have been found. Two burials have been North Africa and Asia. Three races of the
excavated, both covered in red ochre. African wild ass, Equus asinus, existed in
northwest Africa, the Nile basin and Ethiopia,
Asikli Hiiyiik. An ACERAMIC NEOLITHIC site and Somaliland. All but the Somali race are
in central Anatolia, located c50 km from the now more or less extinct. The Asiatic wild ass,
OBSIDIAN source at Ciftlik and probably Equus hemionus, still survives, but its range is
involved in the extraction and trade in this restricted. It used to occupy Syria, Arabia and
material. The site has not been excavated, but Mesopotamia. Remaining populations can be
surface investigation has yielded evidence of found in Iran (where it is called the ONAGER),
mud-brick walls with red lime plaster and of northwest India (where it is called the ghorkar)
burials under the floors. Finds include green- and Transcaspia and Mongolia (where it is
stone axes, obsidian tools and bone awls, and known as the kiang). Asiatic wild asses as a
belt hooks. Animal bones include sheep or group may also be called onagers (in a wider
goat, cattle, onager, red deer and hare, none sense), kemiones, or half-asses. There is very
certainly domestic. Radiocarbon dates of little osteological evidence for domesticated
c7000 and c6660 be come from unstratified asses on archaeological sites, but a number of
contexts, but suggest that the site is approx- artistic representations have been found. The
imately contemporary with aceramic HACI- earliest (securely dated) of these for the
LAR, and earlier than <;ATAL HOYUK. African ass is an Egyptian tomb relief of 1650
BC. After this date, domestic asses gradually
askos [Greek: 'bag']. An oil-jug. Normally appear in the Levant, Mesopotamia and finally
squat in shape, with convex top and arching arrive in Europe during medieval times. The
handle. Examples are sometimes rather domestic ass, or DONKEY, may be hybridized
unbalanced with eccentric mouth. As with with the HORSE: a male ass crossed with a
ARYBALLOS, the term perhaps transfers from female horse produces a mule, and a female
earlier leather artefacts. ass crossed with a male horse produces a hinny
(rather rare); both hybrids are sterile.
Astian. See AUSTRO-ASIATIC.
assemblage. A group of objects found in
Asmar, Tell. Modern name of the ancient ASSOCIATION with each other and therefore
Mesopotamian city of EsHNUNNA. thought to be the products of one group of
people at one period. An assemblage may
Asoka [Asokan]. Head of the MAURYAN contain artefacts of one material only (e.g.
empire of India in the 3rd century BC. Accord- flint) or may include objects of many different
ing to Buddhist tradition he began his career as materials and types (e.g. pottery, stone and
a fierce tyrant with much bloodshed, but after metal tools, weapons and ornaments). If an
a spiritual crisis he became a Buddhist and assemblage recurs at a number of sites, it may
reformed his administration along Buddhist be regarded as characteristic of a particular
lines. His kingdom included almost all of CULTURE.
modern Pakistan and India, except the
extreme south. Many monuments survive association. The occurrence of objects
from this period: STUPAS, rock-cut temples, together in an archaeological context which
and commemorative pillars. A series of indicates that they were deposited at the same
inscriptions, enshrining Buddhist teaching, time. Good examples of associations are grave
astronomy 33

goods, foundation deposits, hoards and area to the west as far as the Mediterranean,
material in destruction levels. Elam to the east and parts of Anatolia to the
north. Assumasirpal II (883-859 BC) trans-
Assur. (1) The old capital of AssYRIA lies ferred the centre of government to Calah
naturally protected on a rock promontory on (NIMRUD ), where he rebuilt the city to his own
the bank of the River Tigris in northern plan; he was also the first Assyrian king to
Mesopotamia. The earliest levels excavated leave pictorial reliefs to supplement CUNEI-
belong to the first half of the 3rd millennium FORM inscriptions. The fortunes of the empire
BC. The remains of a pre-Sargonid temple waxed and waned under the kings of the 9th-
dedicated to the goddess Ishtar were 7th centuries: Assurbanipal (668-627 BC)
excavated and SUMERIAN statues were found reconquered Egypt, but in 614 the empire fell
- among the earliest evidence of Sumerian when the Medes invaded Assyria, captured
contact outside the southern plain. It is Calah and destroyed Assur.
thought that Assur might originally have been
a trading post. astronomy. Most ofthe ancient civilizations of
For over 2000 years successive kings built the world studied the skies and some achieved
and rebuilt the fortifications, temple and considerable astronomical knowledge. In the
palace complexes: inscriptions associated with main, ancient astronomy is known from
these monuments have helped in the con- documentary sources rather than material
struction of the chronology of the site. The evidence and so falls within the realm of
fortifications were rebuilt on many occasions, history rather than archaeology. In two cases,
the latest under Shalmaneser III (859-824 BC) however, ancient astronomy has been studied
who added a new outer wall. Very little is by archaeologists: in prehistoric Europe,
known about the secular buildings at Assur, as where the evidence comes entirely from the
most work has been done in the temple and monuments themselves, and in central
palace complex, with the three large ZIG- America, where the evidence comes largely
GURATS dominating the city. The largest was from inscriptions and documents, but where
60 metres square and was completed by there is no separate discipline concerned with
Shamsi Adad I ( c1800 BC). It was originally the literature (in contrast to Egypt or Meso-
dedicated to Enlil, but later to Assur; the potamia, for example).
dedication of the other temples also changed Prehistoric Europe. Studies of prehistoric
through time. Next to the ziggurats, the 'Old astronomy have concentrated on the MEGA-
Palace' featured a labyrinth of rectangular LITHIC MONUMENTS of northwest Europe and
chambers and storerooms, with private shrines especially the STONE CIRCLES of the British
and courtyards. A later 'New Palace' of which Isles and the ALIGNMENTS of Brittany, dating
only the foundations remain was built by to the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age.
Tukulti-Ninurta I (1244-1208 BC), who also Research by Alexander Thorn and others has
built a residential suburb outside the city. shown that many of these monuments
Representations on cylinder seals suggest that incorporate alignments on the rising and
many buildings might have had parapets and setting of the sun, the moon and some of the
towers. Assurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) moved brighter stars, at various significant points in
the capital to Calah and by 614 BC the city of their respective cycles. Solar alignments are
Assur had fallen to the Median army. present at the famous sites of NEW GRANGE
(2) The national god of Assyria, leader of and STONEHENGE, as well as many others,
the Assyrian pantheon. The god Assur is while a lunar orientation characterizes the
represented as a winged sun-disc and was the RECUMBENT STONE CIRCLES of Aberdeenshire
god most commonly represented on Assyrian as well as the CARNAC alignments in Brittany.
reliefs. The emblem suggests that his original Although most scholars now accept that many
nature was a fertility god, rather than the war monuments reflect a concern with celestial
god he became in the Assyrian state. events on the part of the societies that built
them, there is considerable disagreement
Assyria. The northern part of Mesopotamia, about the accuracy of measurement and the
with its capital at AssuR. From c1300 BC the degree of astronomical understanding
Assyrian kings created an empire which at its achieved. Whereas modem astronomers and
maximum extent included Egypt, much of the other scientists have tended to emphasize the
34 Asuka

accuracy of the prehistoric alignments and to events as an instrument of political control.


regard the monuments as true observatories, Concentrated in the hands of the governing
prehistorians have been more sceptical. It may elite class, the apparent ability to predict
well be that the monuments were temples events in the heavens would certainly have
where astronomical knowledge was exploited increased the credibility of the elite as able
by an elite priesthood to produce spectacular rulers.
theatrical effects such as the lighting-up ofthe
chamber at New Grange at midwinter sunrise, Asuka. The centre of cultural and political
the rising of the midsummer sun behind the development in the southwestern part of the
Heel Stone at Stonehenge, or the floating of Nara Basin (also known as the Yamato Plain),
the moon along the top of the recumbent stone Japan, during the 7th century. The Asuka
in the Scottish recumbent stone circles. The culture and Asuka period are variously
ability to predict astronomical events and defined, emphasizing different aspects of the
produce spectacular effects would certainly development. In art history, the Asuka culture
enhance political power - a function which is refers to early Buddhist art and architecture in
also suggested for the astronomical achieve- the Northern Wei style. The Asuka period
ments of Mesoamerica. refers more specifically to the reign of the
Empress Suiko (592-628) when her nephew,
Americas. It has long been known that the as Regent, promoted Buddhism, introduced a
CALENDAR system of MESOAMERICAN groups formal administrative structure, sought
(notably the MAY A and the AZTEC) was based diplomatic relations with the SUI, and began
on the cyclical nature of the movement of compiling the national history (see NIH ON
heavenly bodies. Buildings seen as observa- SHOKI).
tories occur at CHICHEN ITZA and at PAL- In recent years many sites of old temples
ENQUE, and the Dresden CODEX is a detailed and palaces have been added to the surviving
collection of calculations tracing the eclipses examples of Asuka architecture, sculpture and
of the moon and the sun and the cycles of paintings. The original layout of Asukadera,
Venus and possibly Mars and Jupiter. the first formal temple built in Japan, was
Although the solar year incorporated in the clarified by excavations in 1956-7. Continuing
Calendar Round was an imprecise 365 days work at several sites of royal palaces shows a
long, the Maya were aware of the error and trend towards larger administrative quarters in
ultimately initiated a correction factor to relation to the private residential areas of the
account for the quarter day per year discrep- royal family.
ancy (see SECONDARY SERIES). The cycle of
the moon, in comparison, was calculated with Asukadera. See AsvKA.
astonishing accuracy (29 .5302 days compared
to the actual figure of 29.5306). Beyond this, Aswad, Tell. An ACERAMIC NEOLITHIC site
the cycle of Venus (calculated at 583.92) was in the Damascus basin of Syria, occupied
also pinpointed to a degree of accuracy com- c7800-6600 be, which has produced import-
parable to measurements taken by modern ant evidence on early farming. From the
astronomical methods. beginning peas, lentils, emmer wheat and
Perhaps most spectacular of all is the probably barley were all cultivated. The
awareness of long-term astronomical presence of both cereals and pulses showing
phenomena. Both the central Mexicans and morphological characteristics of domestica-
the Maya knew that five Venus cycles were tion suggests that these early farmers might
equal to eight earth cycles, but most remark- already have discovered that if these two types
able was the combination of the periods of of crops are grown in rotation soil fertility is
Venus, the earth and the Calendar Round into renewed.
a cycle 104 years long.
Astronomical calculations were long Aszod. An important early LENGYEL site on a
regarded as a curious (although probably plateau overlooking the Zagyva Valley, 30 km
religious) obsession with the passage of time; east of Budapest in Hungary, of the Late
they are now believed to have had a notably Neolithic (4th millennium be). Asz6d
secular and practical element to them, namely comprises both settlement and cemetery.
the use of the ability to predict astronomical Excavated by N. Kalicz, the settlement has
Athens 35

over 40 rectangular houses, with rich domestic varied flake tools, many of which possess a
assemblages including a large collection of marked tang. It is generally assumed, but
bone and antler tools. The medium-sized cannot yet be proven, that such artefacts were
cemetery is at least partly organized in rows of hafted. They include not only projectile points
graves, interpreted as family groupings, with but also scrapers and pieces with little retouch
varying degrees of wealth in grave goods. In other than that forming the tang. In the
most periods of Hungarian prehistory, western southern Sahara, as at ADRAR Bous, as well as
and eastern Hungary were separated cultur- in the areas bordering on the Nile Valley, as at
ally, as physically, by the infertile Danube- BIR TERFA WI, the Aterian industries include
Tisza Interfluve. Asz6d is one of the rare fully bifacial points. Later occurrences
examples of a site east of the Danube with west emphasize parallel-sided blades. The Aterian
Hungarian material culture. occupation came to an end c35,000 be, as
increasing aridity resulted in most of the
Atchana, Tell. A mound on the AMUQ plain Sahara becoming unsuitable for human settle-
of northern Syria, identified as the ancient city ment.
of Alalakh. Excavations by WooLLEY in the
early part of the century revealed occupation A teste. See ESTE.
levels running from the 4th to the late 2nd
millennium BC. In level VII, dated to the 18th Athens. Major classical Greek city-state in
and 17th centuries BC, the palace of Yaram- Attica with evidence for continous occupation
Lim II demonstrates an early form of archi- since the MYCENAEAN period. Most literary
tecture which was characteristic of Syria, in sources are decisively pro-Athenian, and
which stone, timber and mud-brick were all Athenian cultural dominance has been such
used, as well as basalt for orthostats. Another that this bias often still persists in contempor-
palace was excavated in level IV, of the late ary scholarship. The geographical position in
15th and early 14th centuries, belonging to the middle of a seaboard plain some seven km
Niqmepa; this consisted of a number of rooms from the sea is no more advantageous than
around a central court. In the official quarters many of the city's ancient rivals, and the
a large quantity of tablets were found. These immediate neighbourhood was not especially
were written in AKKADIAN CUNEIFORM and fertile. Marble was available from nearby
demonstrate intense trading with other cities, Mount Pentelikon, silver from the mines of
including UGARIT and the Hittite capital Laurium near Cape Sunium, and there were
Hattusas, involving food products such as plentiful local sources for potters' clay.
wheat, wine and olive oil. Later in the 14th Some occupation of the ACROPOLIS and the
century the city fell to the HITTITES and neighbouring area seems likely in the late
became a provincial capital of the Hittite Neolithic. In the Mycenaean period, legend
empire. It was eventually abandoned after (and some more recent authorities) would
destruction c1200 BC, perhaps at the hands of have perhaps a dozen towns or kingdoms in
the PEOPLES OF THE SEA. Attica by the time of mythical Cecrops,
administered from an Athenian citadel that
Aterian. A widely distributed Upper PLEISTO- was strong enough in due course to rival
CENE stone industry of northern Africa. It KNossos and, later, to resist successive waves
appears to have developed, perhaps initially in of Dorian invaders. A more sober case,
the Maghreb of Algeria and Morocco, from however, might be argued for a modest forti-
the local MousTERIAN tradition. The date at fied settlement. Valuable Iron Age material
which the Aterian first appeared is not well comes from the Kerameikos (Potters'
attested, but may have been c80,000 BC. The Quarter) cemetery. But it is still not clear how
Aterian occurs throughout the Sahara, from far Athens, with its achievements in GEO-
near the Atlantic seaboard almost as far east as METRIC pottery, and acting perhaps as base for
the Nile. The Sahara at this time was relatively the very early Ionian colonies, managed to ride
well watered, with Mediterranean evergreen out the 'Dark Age' that seems to have followed
vegetation in many highland areas, whence the collapse of Mycenaean civilization else-
rivers flowed to the more arid plains. where (see MYCENAE).
Aterian assemblages, named after Bir el The tradition of the Attic synoecism, in
Ater in Tunisia, are marked by the presence of which the small kingdoms supposedly came
36 Athens

together to found the city-state of Athens - Spartan embassy to Athens simply said:
celebrated in the special festival of the Synoi- 'Sparta wants peace. Peace is still possible if
keia - is another which is difficult to convert you will give the Hellenes back their freedom.'
into a dateable process and awkward to accept Pericles advised no concession, and Athens
without qualification. Athena, the patron began the long catalogue of misdirected
goddess of Athens, striking in her fully armed strategy and disaster that was to be the
yet female representation, may well be Peloponnesian War ( 431-404 BC). The end of
equated with a Mycenaean maiden-protect- the war brought Athens the ignominy of
ress of princes and citadels, but such dependency under Sparta.
synoecism as there may have been seems too The 4th century BC saw Athens returning to
early to have been associated with the legend- commercial success but pursuing an uncertain
ary Theseus. If the tradition does conceal a foreign policy. Escape from Spartan imperial-
reality, perhaps the process should be placed ism brought an uneasy autonomy, to be
much later, and relate rather to the expan- followed by the successive threats of Philip of
sionism that begins to appear from the 7th Macedon and Alexander the Great. By the
century onward. end of the century, Macedonian domination
With the 7th and 6th centuries BC we have had arrived, and with it the final end to any
evidence for a cultural and commercial Athenian claim to the status of a leading
renaissance, partly home-grown and partly power.
recrossing the Aegean sea from the Ionian Athens made determined efforts to shake
settlements. A major component in this socio- off Macedon during the 3rd century BC and
economic revolution was undoubtedly the was rewarded with the achievement of
borrowing of the PHOENICIAN alphabet for the independence once again by 228 BC. The 2nd
writing of Greek. Athens entered directly and 1st centuries, however, saw Athens facing
upon a process of alternating success and yet another intruder, Rome, and having to
failure that was to last right up to the Roman endure siege and plunder at the hands of the
Imperial period. Commerical success against arch-philistine Roman, Sulla. During the
rival CORINTH and further afield brought rapid Imperial period, Athens was confined quietly
economic growth and a population explosion. to her remaining role of cultural centre and
New ideas were imported, and political fashionable seat of learning for the sons of the
upheaval led to experiments in government rich (though even in this there was now
which slowly democratized an entrenched competition from cultural rivals, such as
aristocracy. Alexandria). The cultural function lasted into
In 490 at MARATHON and again in 480 at the 6th century AD, until the edict of Justinian
SALAMIS, Athens was able to act as focus for in 529 closed down the schools of philosophy.
Greek national resistance to the Persian By the Byzantine period Athens had become a
invaders, and the prestige derived from these modest provincial town.
victories led directly to the Delian League and What remains today of the monuments of
the greatest ever extension of her political classical Athens was, until very recently, more
power - the Athenian empire. The new the outcome of chance than conscious
imperial status gave a boost to conservative management. In the case of the Temple of
idealism in the city (as may be seen very Hephaestus and Athena (so-called Theseion),
clearly, for example, in Pericles' Funeral use as a church up to 1834 contributed to its
Speech in Thucydides II), and ushered in what preservation. The major buildings on the
later writers such as Plato, and antiquity and Acropolis, however, all suffered variously
the western world in general, always were to from the vicissitudes of Christian re-use and
look back to as the Golden Age of Greek Turkish occupation. The ERECHTHEUM, for
civilization. In the years 44 7-431 BC, under the instance, was converted into an harem for a
unwavering leadership of Pericles, vast sums time, while the Turks' use of the Propylaea and
were spent on grandiose schemes of public the Parthenon as powder magazines led to
works, such as the new group of buildings on massive damage to both. The colossal explo-
the Acropolis including the PARTHENON. sion after the magazine in the Parthenon was
Athenian pretensions, however, were widely hit by mortar fire from Mouseion Hill in 1687
resented, and it fell to SPARTA and Boeotia to left the temple a smouldering ruin, torn into
make sure that they were short-lived. The final two gutted halves. To this sorry history have
atrium 37

now been added two modern evils - the Atlitian. An Upper PALAEOLITHIC assemb-
corrosive present-day atmosphere of Athens lage named after the site of Atlit in the MOUNT
and Attica, and the unending attrition of CARMEL area of Israel. The sequence of
visiting tourists. Removal of the surviving Upper Palaeolithic deposits in the east
sculptures from the buildings before they Mediterranean includes several layers with
deteriorate further is a sensible act of manage- AURIGNACIAN-like assemblages. The level
ment, but unfortunately longer-term solutions which followed these in the Mount Carmel
will be complex and costly. sequence was termed Atlitian by Garrod; the
name is little used today.
Atlantic. A climatic division of the FLAND-
RIAN period. Godwin's POLLEN ZONE VIla atomic absorption spectrometry. A tech-
corresponds to the Atlantic period in Britain. nique of CHEMICAL ANALYSIS.
On botanical grounds, the Atlantic period is Principles. A sample is dissolved and then
supposed to have represented a maximum of atomized in a flame. A beam of light, of
temperature, the 'climatic optimum' of the carefully controlled wavelength, is shone
Flandrian. Evidence from beetles, however, through the flame to a detector on the other
suggests that it may have been little warmer side. The wavelength is selected so that atoms
than average for the interglacial. Zone VIla is of the element under study will absorb some of
dominated by trees of the Mixed Oak Forest: the light. Concentrations of this element in the
oak, elm, alder and lime. It is initiated by the sample can then be calculated from the degree
rise of alder pollen, supposed to take place at of absorption.
about 7000 bp, but with radiocarbon dates
varying over a range of some 2000 years. Zone Materials. A powdered sample of between 10
VIla ends with the ELM DECLINE, radiocarbon and lOOmg is required. The technique has so
dates for which vary between 5300 and 6200 far been used to analyse FLINT and BRONZE.
bp. Throughout the zone there is evidence, Applications. Atomic absorption spectro-
particularly in today's moorland and heath- metry has been used to investigate TRACE
land areas, that transient woodland clearance ELEMENTS in flint. It is possible to trace the
by MESOLITHIC man continued (see BOREAL). origin of some flint artefacts by matching their
trace element concentrations with those of
Atlantic Bronze Age. A late Bronze Age various sources of the material.
metal-working tradition found on the west
coast of France, spreading to southern Atranjikhera. A settlement site in Uttar
England and Iberia; alternatively known as the Pradesh in northern India with a series of
CARP'S TONGUE SWORD complex. It is known occupation levels. The earliest level had
mainly from a large number of hoards, which OCHRE-COLOURED POTTERY; this was
include not only the characteristic swords, but succeeded by a level with BLACK AND RED
also end-winged axes, hog-backed razors and wARE, which was itself followed by a series of
bugle-shaped objects of uncertain function. layers with PAINTED GREY WARE, which also
The widespread distribution of these metal produced iron tools and weapons and an
types indicates extensive trade along the associated radiocarbon date of c1025 be
Atlantic coasts of Europe; the tradition ( c1280 BC) which, however, is thought by
flourished west of the area dominated by the many authorities to be too early.
central European URNFIELD cultures.
Atria. See ADRIA.
atlatl. An American term for a spear-thrower,
or device for increasing thrust when throwing a atrium. Latin term for the entrance-hall of a
spear or similar projectile, by extending the Roman house, as seen, for instance, in the
length of the thrower's arm. Usually it consists many examples at POMPEII. Early versions
of a flat board or rod with a means of gripping may have been roofed over, but the pattern
at one end and a notch or hook to retain the soon established was of compluvium (a
projectile at the other. It was often used in rectangular opening in the roof) over a central
conjunction with weights such as banner- impluvium (shallow pool in the floor, drained
stones, the precise purpose of which is to a cistern). Vitruvius draws a parallel with
uncertain. Etruscan house layout (atrium tuscanicum),
38 Attic

and an Etruscan indebtedness is not implaus- settlement appears to have been disturbed and
ible. The inward-sloping roof arrangement sporadic, and it appears that the population
around the compluvium is echoed in some eventually moved to the vincinity of the new
Etruscan house-shaped urns, and Varro fort of Castrum Rauracense, also on the
derives the word atrium from Etruscan Atria Rhine. Early structures were in the familiar
(see ADRIA) on the grounds of architectural Roman military style, constructed of earth and
parallels. Greek influence is also visible in the timber. Evidence of stone structures survives
use of tetrastyle (four columns to support the for many features of the town, including the
roof), and peristyle in some examples. The CURIA, BASILICA, and a THEATRE complex
walls of the atrium would be decorated, which may have included a phase of combined
sometimes with painted panels or family theatre/ amphitheatre use.
portraits, and a shrine to the Lares and Penates
(household gods, also probably of Etruscan Au-lac. A kingdom in northern Vietnam,
derivation) is sometimes found in the general founded by the king of Thuc (an unidentified
area. Above the atrium were typically grouped country to the north) in 258 BC on the ruins of
the cubicula (bedrooms) and beyond lay the the kingdom of Van-lang. Its capital was at
tab/inurn (family room and study), triclinium 0:>-LoA, near present-day Hanoi. It was
(dining room) and hortus (garden). incorporated in 207 BC into the kingdom of
NAM-VI!!.T.
Attic. ( 1) Relating to ATHENS, or the sur-
rounding area of Attica. Aunjetitz. Earlier name for the Czechoslo-
(2) The particular dialect of Greek spoken vakian site and Early Bronze Age culture of
and written in classical ATHENS, especially in UNETICE.
the 5th century BC. This dialect was originally
only one of a number of differing regional Aurignacian. In the classic French Upper
forms, but, by the accident of Athenian PALAEOLITHIC sequence, the Aurignacian
cultural history, has come to be regarded in falls before the SOLUTRIAN and the MAGDA-
time as standard classical Greek. LENIAN. In modern usage only the old 'middle
Aurignacian' is still called Aurignacian. In
Aubrey, John (1626-97). British antiquary France, radiocarbon dates place it mainly
who worked mainly in southern England and between about 35,000 and 25,000 years ago.
produced detailed accounts of the monuments However, there are a number of different types
of A VEBURY and STONEHENGE. The 56 pits of Aurignacian, and in central Europe a
inside the bank of the first phase of Stonehenge related form may be considerably older. There
are known as the Aubrey holes, after their is still considerable dispute about the extent to
discoverer. which the Aurignacian is contemporary with
the cultures of the PERIGORDIAN group in
auger. An implement for obtaining samples of southwest France. The first representational
buried SOIL HORIZONS and deposits. Augers art and the earliest bone flutes appear in the
are widely used in soil science, but less so on Aurignacian, and it is also important as the
archaeological sites, due to the disturbance of most distinctive and abundantly represented
features, layers and artefacts that may be of the early Upper Palaeolithic groups. The
caused. most characteristic artefacts are carinates
(steep end scrapers), Aurignac blades (with
Angst [Roman Augusta Rauricorum ]. A heavy marginal retouch) and split-based bone
Roman COLONIA and frontier post of the points.
Upper Rhine valley near Basel, Switzerland.
Although founded in 44 BC by Caesar and L. aurochs. Also known as urus, or wild cattle;
Munatius Plancus in the territory of the tribe of classified as Bos primigenius. See CATTLE.
the Raurici, there seems to be no evidence for
occupation before 15 BC. In this year, Tiberius Australian Core Tool and Scraper Tradition.
and Drusus completed their campaign in the A late PLEISTOCENE and HOLOCENE stone
Central Alps, and a military post was estab- industry characterized by high-domed chunky
lished at Augst. The town flourished until an cores (sometimes termed 'HORSEHOOF
attack by the Alamanni in 260 AD. After this, CORES') and steep-edge flake scrapers. Arte-
Austro-Thai 39

facts have been found in all areas of the main- ancestor. Fossils from HADAR and LAETOLI
land and Tasmania, dating from 30,000 be at have been placed in a new species, A.
LAKE MUNGO until the recent past. This afarensis, but may nevertheless be A. afri-
industry has close parallels in industries of canus. At c3. 75 million years, the Laetoli find
similar date in Island Southeast Asia. See also is the earliest good sample of the genus, but
CAGAYAN, KAFIAVANA, LEANG BURUNG, some fragments from LOTHAGAM at c5.5
MADAI, NEW GUINEA, TABON. million years may also be Australopithecus.
See also HUMAN EVOLUTION.
Australian Small Tool Tradition. A Mid-
HOLOCENE suite of stone tool types com- Austro-Asiatic. A linguistic family which
prising backed blades and flakes, unifacial and includes Munda (eastern India), Mon (south-
bifacial points and small adze flakes. Tools west Burma), Khmer (Kampuchea), Viet-
with regional distributions include BONDI namese and several minor language groups
POINTS, geometric microliths, PIRRI POINTS including Nicobarese, and Aslian of peninsu-
and TULA ADZES. All except the Bondi points lar Malaysia. Once the major linguistic family
and geometric microliths were still in use as of mainland Southeast Asia, its speakers have
stone components of wooden weapons and become geographically fragmented owing to
tools at the time of European contact, and the the expansion, mainly during the past two
exceptions were not recognized as artefacts by millennia, of the Tibeto-Burman, Thai and
Aborigines. Earliest dates for most ofthe small AUSTRONESIAN (Cham and Malay)
tools are around 3000 be, although adze flakes languages.
first appeared possibly 2000 years earlier.
Debate centres on the question of whether the
tradition developed locally or was introduced Austronesian. The major language family of
from Indonesia, where there are technological Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific: TAI-
parallels in the microliths of southwestern WAN, PHILIPPINES, MALAYSIA, INDONESIA,
Sulawesi from 4000 be (see TO ALlAN). parts of southern VIETNAM, MADAGASCAR,
MELANESIA (excluding most of NEW
Australopithecus. The baby skull found at GUINEA), MICRONESIA and POLYNESIA.
TAUNG in 1924 was named Australopithecus Proto-Austronesian was probably located in
africanus (southern ape of Africa) by Dart in southern China or Taiwan before 3000 BC and
1925. A number of African fossil hominids geographical expansion of the family has been
have subsequently been included in this genus, by horticultural, canoe-using peoples with
and since 1962 many authorities have recog- pottery, perhaps commencing with rice
nized two species: A. africanus, a gracile form cultivation in southern China and Taiwan, but
best-known from STERKFONTEIN and turning to fruits and tubers in eastern
MAKAP AN in South Africa, and a larger Indonesia and Oceania. Austronesian
species, A. robustus, represented by fossils speakers were the first humans to settle the
from Sw ARTKRANS and KROMDRAAI. All Pacific islands beyond western Melanesia.
these fossils have a small brain ( 400-600 cc) Expansion reached its limits in Madagascar
and large molar teeth; beyond this their (early centuries AD) and New Zealand (cAD
differences tend to be more important than 900); prior to European expansion,
their similarities. Austronesians were the most widely spread
East African finds since 1959 are often ethno-linguistic group on earth, the distance
compared with the two South African species, from Madagascar to Easter Island being 210
and representatives of both species seem to be degrees of longitude.
present in Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia. The
robust type, often called A. boisei in East Austro-Thai. A hypothetical linguistic family
Africa, seems to date from c2.1 to 1.1 million proposed by linguist Paul Benedict to include
years ago, and is thus contemporary with the present (and now geographically
HOMO ERECfUS and HOMO HABILIS. This separated) Thai-Kadai and AUSTRONESIAN
form can probably be excluded from direct families. It is possible that these two major
human ancestry and placed in a cousin lineage. linguistic groups could have shared a common
A. africanusseems to date mainly to before 2.5 origin area in southern China, probably in
million years ago, and may be a direct human excess of 5000 years ago.
40 Autun

Autun [Roman Augustodunum]. City in as subdivisions of the Stone Age (see THREE
Saone-et-Loire, Central France. It was a AGE SYSTEM).
fortified town of Gallia Belgica (see GAUL)
built for Augustus sometime in the last decade Awdaghast. The site of a major trading centre
BC as a replacement capital for the Celtic tribe in southern Mauritania, at the southern end of
of the Aedui. (The site of their previous capital the main caravan route leading across the
is known at nearby Mont Beuvray; see Sahara to the ancient Kingdom of GHANA. It
BIBRACfE). An expansive concept (some 200 was probably through this route that much of
hectares), it was clearly designed to give strong the gold of BAMBUK was exported northwards
representation to Rome's interests in the area. from at least the closing centuries of the 1st
The importance of Romanization and favour- millennium AD.
able propaganda is also seen in the investment
made in local education. Tacitus notes the Axayacatl. See CALENDAR STONE.
town as a centre of learning only a few decades
after its foundation, and from the end of the axe factory. During the Neolithic period in
3rd century AD we have the eloquent witness Europe certain outcrops of fine-grained rock
of Eumenius, schools principal. The city's were exploited for the production of polished
prosperity was finally ruined by supporting the axes. Microscopic analysis of the rock allows
wrong side (Claudius II) in 269 AD and it never the sources to be identified, as each type of
recovered its size or wealth. Two of the city's rock has its own distinctive crystalline
original gateways (Porte d' Arroux and Porte structure; this enables the trading networks to
St Andre) are well preserved and probably be reconstructed. In the British Isles important
date in their original construction from early factories have been identified at GREAT
imperial times. Also interesting are the LANGDALE, GRAIG LLWYD, PENWITH and
remains of the THEATRE, one of the largest in TIEVEBULLIAGH.
Gaul and probably begun in the 1st century
AD. Axum [Aksum). From at least the 3rd century
AD, this city in the highlands of northern
Avebury. A HENGE in Wiltshire, one of the Ethiopia, rose to be the centre of an important
most impressive British Neolithic monuments. kingdom. Its antecedents are clearly rooted in
It consists of a large bank with internal ditch the PRE-AxuMITE culture of the area, but the
(1.2 km long) with four entrances. Inside the origins of the city itself remain uncertain. The
ditch was set a circle of 98 SARSEN stones, political history of Axum is best known from
weighing as much as 40 tonnes each. In the its coins: the series runs from approximately
central area were two smaller stone circles, the 3rd century until the 7th century. Inscrip-
each clOO metres in diameter. From the south tions were first in Greek, latterly in Ethiopic.
entrance the Kennet A venue leads to another Religious symbols on the coins reflect the early
stone circle site on Overton Hill. Traces of a 4th-century adoption of Christianity in place
second avenue remain on the opposite, of the worship of the South Arabian moon
Beckhampton, side of the monument. In god. Archaeologically, Axum has yielded
recent years, much work has been devoted to evidence for large multi-storey stone buildings
studying the complex geometry of this site, and for an impressive series of monolithic
possible astronomical alignments built into it, funerary stelae up to 33 metres in height, some
and the number of man-hours required for its of which were carved into schematized repre-
construction. sentations of multi-storey buildings. The local
economic base of the kingdom is poorly
Avebury, Lord [Sir John Lubbock] (1834- known, but on a wider front its prosperity was
1913). Distinguished British archaeologist, clearly based upon control of trade between an
whose book Prehistoric Times, first published extensive interior area including the Butana
in 1865, went into seven editions, the last in plain to the west and the outside, principally
1913, and achieved wide popularity. He was Mediterranean, world via the Red Sea port of
an early convert to DARWIN's theory of ADULIS. Ivory was probably the export on
evolution and the acceptance of the antiquity which this trade depended. Through the
of man. One of his innovations was the intro- development of this trade Axum's rise to
duction of the terms Palaeolithic and Neolithic prosperity was at the expense of MEROE,
Azcapotzalco 41

believed to have been finally conquered by the period of occupation in the early 6th mii-
Axumites in the 4th century. For brief periods Ienium be.
in the 3rd and 6th centuries Axum achieved
political control over parts of southern Arabia. Ayia Triada. A MINOAN villa in southern
Thereafter it declined, and was sacked in the Crete, built around 2200 BC and inhabited
1Oth century; it remains an important centre of until its destruction c1450 BC. It was con-
the Ethiopian church. nected by a road to the palace at PHAESTOS.
One room contained many clay tablets with
Ayacucho. A valley in southern Peru at which LINEAR A inscriptions. Subsequently a
a number of caves (notably Pikimachay or Flea MEGARON was built on the site.
Cave and Jayamachay or Pepper Cave) have
evidence of a long sequence of human Aylesford. A cremation cemetery of the 1st
occupation. Excavated by Richard McNeish, century BC in Kent, this site has given its name
the remains at these caves have produced a to the Aylesford-Swarling culture. It is often
series of radiocarbon dates which push the thought to represent the arrival in Britain of
presence of man in South America back to Belgic peoples fleeing from Gaul in advance of
c20,000 years ago. The earliest level, PACCAI- Caesar's army (see BELGAE).
CASA, is dated 18,000-14,000 be and is
followed by the Ayacucho complex (14,000- Aymara. The Aymara language, still spoken
11,000 be) which contains basalt and chert and once widespread in southern Peru and the
core tools, choppers and unifacial projectile Bolivian Highlands, is one of the defining
points. Succeeding levels contain burins, characteristics of numerous polities in and
blades, fishtail points and MANOS and MET- around the Lake Titicaca basin in the Late
ATES, and thus conform to the generally held INTERMEDIATE PERIOD. These 'Aymara
succession of BIG GAME HUNTING followed by Kingdoms' (the largest being Colla and
hunting and gathering. It should be noted that Lupaqa) were frequently involved in inter-
in spite of the radiocarbon dates McNeish's necine hostilities, but shared a number of
arguments for man's presence at such early cultural characteristics which indicate political
times present many problems. Chief among units of some sophistication. Some of these
these are: (1) the possibility that many of the appear to have been incorporated into the
early 'tools' are not actually man-made; (2) INCA political system, such as class stratifica-
the possibility that the sloth bones (from which tion, a powerful ruling class and CHULLP A
the earlier dates derive) are natural occur- burials. The common subsistence base appears
rences and not the remnants of man's hunting to have been cultivation of tubers and the
activities; (3) the fact that McNeish's herding of alpaca and LLAMA, but it appears
construction hinges on the unlikely proposi- that MAIZE (which could not be grown in the
tion that South American glacial periods highland climate) was imported, possibly from
alternate rather than coincide with those in the lowland colonies some distance from the
Northern Hemisphere. major centres.

Ayampitin. An open camp-site in the Ayutthaya [Ayut'ia, Ayuthya, Ayudha]. A


province of Cordoba in northwest Argentina city in southern central Thailand, about 75 km
containing evidence which implies a transition north of Bangkok, founded in 1350 by king
from generalized BIG GAME HUNTING to a Ramadhipati to unify the countries of Syam
more specialized, regionally oriented hunting (Sukhothai) and Lavo (Lopburi). It became
and gathering economy. The assemblage the capital of the powerful Thai kingdom of
contains lithic hunting tools and tool- the same name for more than four centuries
manufacturing debris in association with until its destruction by the Burmese in 1767.
MANOS and milling stones, and is noticeably Having recently been greatly restored,
similar to Level IV at INTIHUASI CAVE. The Ayutthaya, with its hundreds of brick
willow-leaf projectile point is particularly monuments, is now a major tourist attraction
characteristic, and has cognates over a wide of Thailand. See a/so LA VO, SUKHOTHAI and
area of the region. There are no radiocarbon SYAM.
dates, but comparison with Intihuasi, LAURI-
COCHA CAVES and elsewhere suggests a Azcapotzalco. SeeAZTEC, TRIPLE ALLIANCE.
42 Azelik

Azelik. A number of sites around Azelik in filtered south. They founded their capital,
Niger have yielded evidence for metal working TENOCHTITLAN, on an island on Lake
at a very early date, with copper smelting Texcoco c1345, having subsisted in the area
firmly attested by the 5th century be and for most of the intervening years.
possibly extending back to the late 2nd mil- The rise of Aztec power is marked by the
lennium. It appears that iron was not worked victory at Azcapotzalco and the formation and
until somewhat later, although its presence in ultimate domination of the TRIPLE ALLIANCE.
southern Air, also in Niger, is dated to the last By the early 16th century the Aztec had
three centuries be. Here, as at AKJOUJT, there established hegemony over most of present-
may be evidence, rare in sub-Saharan Africa, day Mexico. The empire was maintained
for a brief 'Copper Age' preceding the through a system of tribute rather than direct
adoption of iron. administrative control, and some city-states,
such as the T ARASCANS and Tlaxcalans,
Azilian. The culture or stage which follows the managed to maintain their independence
MAGDALEN IAN in France. It is now known to despite persistent pressure.
date from <9000 to 8000 be, the closing Aztec society was characterized by a clearly
millennia of the last ice age. According to defined hierarchical class system. At the top
some definitions this would make it late was the ruling class (Pipil) from whom and by
Palaeolithic, but traditionally it has often been whom the emperors were chosen. The mass of
regarded as Mesolithic. Red deer has replaced the population were freeman (machuale);
reindeer as the principal quarry; indeed, the under them were the serfs (mayeques) and at
reindeer had probably already become extinct the bottom the slaves. Most members of
in southern France by this time. The type site society also belonged to a kin-based land-
of the Azilian is Mas d' Azil in the Pyrenees. holding group called the Calpulli, which itself
The distinctive tool types are the Azilian point had an internal hierarchy. Social mobility
(a double-pointed backed blade) and a flat red seems to have been possible through state
deer antler harpoon. service in either military or mercantile activity.
Most prestige was gained through military
service, possibly because blood and SACRIFICE
Azmak, Tell [Asmaska Moghila]. A TELL site had great religious significance. However, the
of the Bulgarian Neolithic and Copper Age, merchants (pochteca) also served as early-
located near Stara Zagora in south Bulgaria. In reconnaisance and espionage groups, whose
the 7.5-metre stratigraphy, five settlement members were both plebeian and aristocratic.
horizons were distinguished by the excavator, Religious activities were to a great degree
G. Georgiev: five building levels of the early regulated by the CALENDAR. Ritual human
Neolithic KARANOVO I culture, one building sacrifice was a common event, necessary in
level of the VESELINOVO culture; after a ensuring the daily rising of the sun. The Aztec
stratigraphic break four building levels of both pantheon is dominated by gods of multiple
Karanovo V and VI cultures and, after another aspects, usually of a stern or warlike attitude.
break, building phases of the Early Bronze Of the major deities Huitzilpotchtli (the
Age Karanovo VII culture. Complete village warrior god and chief deity of Tenochtitlan),
plans for these layers can yield fascinating Texcatlipoca (god of night, death and des-
architectural detail for the whole sequence. truction), Xipe Totec (god of spring and
renewal) and QuETZACOATL, the plumed
Aztec. Centred on the Basin of Mexico, the serpent (god of self-sacrifice and inventor of
NAHUATL-speaking Aztec, also known as the agriculture and the calendar) only the last-
Mexica, were the dominant polity of the Late named seems not to have been involved in
PosT-CLASSIC PERIOD. Their origin is rituals of blood sacrifice.
obscure, partly because of the deliberate The arrival of the Spaniards in 1519 and the
destruction of their own records, but tradition fall of Tenochtitlan in 1520 after a 90-day
holds that in 1193 AD the last of seven CHICHI- siege marks the end of Aztec dominance.
MEC tribes left Aztlan, a mythical birthplace
somewhere north or west of Mexico, and Aztlan. See AZTEC.
B
Baal. An ancient CANAANITE god, first cereals, iron and bronze tools. The site gives its
appearing in inscriptions of the early Middle name to the local Late Bronze Age group.
Bronze Age ( c2000 BC). An important temple
dedicated to Baal has been excavated at Babylon. The capital of BABYLONIA, situated
UGARIT. One of his main roles was as a god of on the Euphrates River south of Baghdad in
fertility. The worship of Baal continued into modem Iraq. The city was occupied from the
PHOENICIAN times and also appears in the 3rd millennium BC but became important early
Punic west, especially at CARTHAGE. in the 2nd millennium under the kings of
Babylon's First Dynasty (see Table 3, page
Baalbek. A settlement in the Lebanon, which 321 ). The sixth king of this dynasty was
achieved importance in late Hellenistic and Hammurabi ( c1792-1750 Be) who made
Roman times, especially as holy city for the Babylon the capital of a vast empire, and is best
predatory lturaean tetrarchs, and as religious remembered for his code of laws (see SusA).
centre of the Beqa'a region. Often known by This period was brought to an end by an attack
its Greek name of Heliopolis (City of the Sun), by HITIITES, and the city had a mixed history
it shows magnificent ruins of the Roman until the Nco-Babylonian period of 7th-6th
imperial period, particularly the Temples of centuries BC - it once again achieved pre-
Jupiter and Bacchus. eminence when Nebuchadnezzar extended
the Babylonian Empire over most of Western
Asia. Babylon fell to Cyrus in 539 Be; occupa-
Ba and Shu [Pa-Shu]. Ba and Shu, names tion continued in the AcHAEMENID period.
often coupled in Chinese texts, were kingdoms The city was taken by ALEXANDER in 331
BC;
ruling the area of modem Sichuan during the indeed, Alexander died in Babylon in 323.
Eastern ZHOU period, Ba dominating the Babylon subsequently declined and was
eastern half of the province and Shu the plain eventually abandoned
after the Muslim
of CHENGDU (the word Shu survives today as conquest of AD 641.
the literary name for Sichuan). Under pressure Because of the high water table, which has
from the CHu state, Ba conquered Shu in the risen in the last few millennia, only buildings
of
5th century BC but was itself overrun by Chu the Nco-Babylonian period were accessible
to
and finally by QIN in the 4th century. Ba and the German excavators of Babylon in the first
Shu cultural remains are similar; especially decades of this century. The city of this
period
characteristic are boat-coffin burials set on covered c200 hectares, divided into two by the
river terraces, and tanged willow-leaf-shaped River Euphrates. Most work was conducted
in
bronze swords. The swords, which perpetuate the part of the Inner City on the east bank,
an archaic (Western Zhou) form long since which housed the palace and several import-
superseded elsewhere in China (see sWORDS), ant temples. The fortifications consisted of a
often bear a sort of pictogram that combines a double line of walls and
a moat connected to
hand, the head of a snake, and sometimes a the Euphrates, allowing boats to enter
under
tiger. See a/so BELLS (CHINA). the gatehouse bridges. The most impressive
surviving monument is the Ishtar Gate on the
Babadag. A TELL settlement site of the Late north side of the city, approached by a pro-
Bronze Age, located on a fortified promont- cessional way, and decorated with glazed
ory in the middle of Lake Babadag, in the bricks bearing relief figures of lions, bulls and
Rumanian Dobrogea. Six levels of occupation dragons. Important buildings excavated
have been identified in a two-metre strati- include Nebuchadnezzar's palace, close to the
graphy, all of which are associated with rich Ishtar Gate, a colossal building with many
assemblages of pottery, bones, carbonized rooms arranged around five different court-
43
44 Babylonia

yards; the vaulted store rooms of this palace Bacsonian. An early HoLOCENE ( c8000-
were formerly interpreted as the base of the 4000 be) stone tool industry of northern
'Hanging Gardens' of ancient repute. Another Vietnam, normally regarded as a late variant
huge palace of Nebuchadnezzar's reign (605- of the more widespread Southeast Asian
562 BC) - the so-called 'Summer Palace' - HOABINHIAN industry. The Bacsonian
was constructed to the northwest of the Inner industry is characterized by a high proportion
City and was enclosed by a triangular outer of edge-ground pebble tools, and some sites
wall. A number of temples were excavated, have produced cord- or basket-marked
including the temple and ZIGGURAT of the pottery. The industry could have incipient
city's patron deity, Marduk, which was the horticultural associations, but this is the
original 'Tower of Babel'; little of the structure subject of an unresolved current debate. See
survives today after centuries of brick-robbing a/soDA BUT.
by later Mesopotamians.
Bactria. The fertile region of Afghan
Turkestan, south of the River Oxus. Its earliest
Babylonia. Geographically, Babylonia refers
to southern Mesopotamia, the southern part of significance was as one of the 20 satrapies of
the ACHAEMENID empire. Bactria remained
modem Iraq, lying between Baghdad and the
important after its conquest by ALEXANDER in
Gulf. Babylonia is a flat alluvial plain formed
329 BC and subsequently as part of the
by the two great rivers, the Tigris and the
Euphrates, which made this arid region one of PARTHIAN empire. Its wealth and importance
depended on the east-west trade routes that
the richest agricultural areas of the ancient
passed through it, linking China in the east
world. The world's earliest civilization -that
with the Mediterranean world in the west.
of SUMER - arose in this area in the late 4th
Many Greeks settled in Bactria in the Seleucid
millennium BC, but historians usually restrict
period and through this province and its
the use of the term Babylonia to a later period,
neighbour to the south, GANDHARA, Greek
following the unification of the country under
ideas reached the civilizations of India.
Babylon's First Dynasty in the 2nd millennium
BC (see Table 3, page 321). Badarian. An early predynastic industry of
Upper Egypt, dating from the early 4th
Bacho Kiro. A cave in central Bulgaria with a millennium BC. Settlement sites have proved
series of MousTERIAN levels (14 to 12) and elusive, and much of the available information
then Upper PALAEOLITHIC levels (11 to 3). comes from graves. Badarian material culture
The earliest Upper Palaeolithic levels have was essentially Neolithic, the only metal
AURIGNACIAN features. Backed blades objects being beads made of native, that is not
appear towards the top. On the basis of smelted, copper. The characteristic pottery is
radiocarbon and other indications, the earliest red with black tops to the vessel walls; a range
Upper Palaeolithic levels seem to be c43,000 of vessels was also hollowed from basalt and
be, earlier than any known elsewhere. alabaster. Barley and emmer wheat were
cultivated, while cattle and sheep or goats were
bacini. Pottery vessels that were placed for herded. Flax was grown and woven into linen
decorative purposes high in the walls of cloth. Recent research tends to emphasize the
churches, over church doorways or in church continuity of cultural development in PRE-
towers. The best-known group occurs in DYNASTIC EGYPT, and the Badarian is no
northern Italy, where several hundred later longer regarded as the distinctive entity it once
medieval churches have such vessels, ranging appeared to be.
in date from the 11th century to the 15th
century. The Italian examples were imported Badbury Rings. See ARTHUR.
from the Byzantine and Arabic world to begin
with, but in the later medieval period north Baden culture. A 3rd millennium be Copper
Italian MAJOLICAS were regularly used as well. Age culture group of vast extent, covering
Bacini were probably also employed in northern Yugoslavia, all of Hungary, most of
southern Italian, Greek and western Czechoslovakia, southern Poland and part of
European churches, but little is known about the east Alpine zone. On the basis of E.
these. Neustupny's radiocarbon chronology, the
Bahrain 45

Baden culture is divided into three phases : and barracks, surrounded by walls and a moat.
Early (2750-2450 be), Classic (2600-2250 According to al-Khatib, the architect Rabah
be) and Late (2400-2200 be). The most recorded the diameter of the city as 2640
complete sequences are represented in metres. To the south lay al-Karkh, a township
Hungary and Czechoslovakia. Baden marks a which already existed in 762, while to the
strong contrast with the rich TELL settlements north was al-Harbiyah, a quarter dominated
of the preceding Chalcolithic, embodying a by army officers. Across the Tigris lay the
highly dispersed settlement pattern, a quarters of Rasafah (begun in 769), ash-
nucleated cemetery pattern (e.g. ALSONE- Shammasyah and al-Mukharrim. In the late
MEDI) and absence of highly decorated 8th and early 9th centuries Baghdad was large
pottery. The paucity of Baden metalwork and wealthy, and under rulers such as Harun
reflects the period between the decline of al-Rashid ( d 809) the court had a reputation
Carpathian surface ores and the onset of the for gross extravagance. The caliph abandoned
Alpine 'Fahlerz' boom. Baghdad in favour of SAMARRA in 836, but
returned in 882. The city was burnt by the
Badorf ware. A distinctive type of pottery Mongols in 125 8, rebuilt and sacked by TIMUR
dating to the later 8th century and the 9th in 1400.
century, made in the Vorgebirge hills west of
Cologne. The pottery was probably produced Bahia. A regional development on the central
in the typical cream fabric as early as the 7th coast of Ecuador which flourished from c500
century, but the globular pitchers and bowls of BC to AD500.Characterized by large stone-
the Carolingian period are the best known. lined platform mounds and unique pottery
Badorf-ware kilns have been excavated at forms, Bahia represents a well developed
Bruhl-Eckdorf and Walberberg in recent socio-political and religious unit. Some con-
years; the products of these workshops have tinuities with earlier FORMATIVE PERIOD
been found in the Netherlands, eastern ceramics are evident (e.g. MACHALILLA) but
England, and as far north as Denmark. At new elements such as the everted, perforated
some time in the 9th century the pots were first rim and polypod legs are introduced. Particu-
decorated with red paint, and gradually the larly elaborate anthropomorphic vessels give
new forms and styles known as PINGSDORF information on dress and ornamentation (nose
wARES evolved. discs and tusk-like pendants). A possible
MESOAMERICAN influence can be discerned in
Baghdad. The present-day capital of Iraq and these motifs.
the Islamic capital from the 8th century to the The La Plata Island site is almost certainly a
13th century. When the Abbasids overthrew CEREMONIAL CENTRE, with huge Volumes of
the last Umayyad caliph in 750, they decided figurines, geometrically incised blocks of
to move the Islamic capital from DAMAscus, volcanic material and hardly any evidence of
which was full of Umayyad sympathizers and day-to-day living. Ceramic models of houses
too close to the Byzantine frontier. Two with high gables and low down-curving roof
replacements were chosen and rejected before ridges together with elaborately carved head
al-Mansur selected Baghdad in 762. The site is or neck rests have a notably exotic flavour and
on the River Tigris, at a point scarcely 40 km indicate possible contact with Asia.
from the Euphrates, and where the two rivers Unfortunately, Bahia centres are located
were connected by canals. Moreover, close to present-day centres of population and
Baghdad lay on the 'Khorasan road', part of many sites have already been lost to modem
the SILK ROUTE leading eastwards to BUK- development.
HARA, SAMARKAND and China. The site was
therefore well-watered, defensible and well- Bahrain. The island of Bahrain in the Arabian
placed for communications by road and river. Gulf has been identified plausibly with the
Abbassid Baghdad is buried beneath the land of DILMUN, mentioned in Mesopotamian
modem city, and almost all we know of it documents of the second half of the 3rd
comes from contemporary writers, such as millennium BC. A Danish expedition has
Ya' qubi and al-Khatib. The focal point was the investigated sites ranging in date from pre-
'round city', a royal precinct containing the historic to the 16th century AD. Two important
palace, a congregational mosque, ministries sites in the north of the island belong to the
46 Baikal Neolithic

'Dilmun period', when the island was acting as 'coombe rock' deposits are geologically a little
an entrepot in trade between Mesopotamia later than the Swanscombe high terrace
and the HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION of the Indus deposits, and contain a large series of LEV AL-
Valley. One site is a walled town covering c17 LOIS flakes and cores.
hectares at Qala'at al-Bahrain; the other a
complex temple building a few kilometres Bakong. A monument in the southeastern part
away at Barbar. Among the finds of this period of ANGKOR, in Roluos, just east of present
are circular steatite stamp seals of the type Siem Reap, Cambodia. Founded by king
labelled 'Persian Gulf seals', related to Indus Indravarman in 881, it is the first KHMER
Valley seals, but probably made locally in the monument to represent a TEMPLE-MOUNTAIN
Gulf area. and the first to be built in sandstone (earlier
ones having been built of brick). The central
Baikal Neolithic. The Neolithic of the Lake tower is 34 metres high.
Baikal region in eastern Siberia is relatively
well known (the term Neolithic being used Baktun. See CALENDAR (AMERICAS).
here to refer to communities that used pottery,
rather than those that practised farming). The Bakun, Tall i. A TELL site near PERSEPOLIS in
first stage is called after the site of Isakovo and southern Iran, occupied in the CHALCO LITHIC
is known only from a small number of burials period, probably from the early 5th millen-
in cemeteries mostly of later date. There is no nium be. The site consisted of 12 mud-brick
dating evidence, but guess dates put this stage buildings with from one to seven rooms each;
in the 4th millennium BC. The succeeding it was occupied by a simple agricultural
Serovo stage, guess-dated to the following community, that excelled in the production of
millennium, is also known mainly from fine painted pottery, related to SusA A wares.
burials; the most important new artefact of this Vessels included conical bowls and goblets
period is the compound bow, backed with with stylized designs including mouflon horns,
bone plates. The third phase, named Kitoi, has birds, demons and plants. Other finds include
burials with red ochre; composite fish hooks vessels of calcite and alabaster and figurines of
appear, which may indicate greater emphasis women and of oxen.
on fishing. All three stages seems to have been
based on hunting and fishing. The succeeding Bala Hisar. See CHARSADA.
Glazkovo phase of the 2nd millennium BC saw
the beginnings of metal-using, but generally
Bala Kot. A site of the HARAPPAN CIVILIZA-
showed continuity in artefact and burial types.
TION on the Makran coast of Baluchistan,
Baile Herculane. A large cave site with an Pakistan.
important Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic
and Copper Age stratigraphy, located in a side Balanovo. The eponymous cemetery of a
valley 10 km north of the Iron Gates gorge of regional group of the CORDED wARE culture
the river Danube in the Rumanian Banat. The group, distributed in the Volga-Oka area of
long stratigraphy comprises three main south central Russia in the early 2nd millen-
occupation horizons: I, Upper Palaeolithic nium be. Most sites are cemeteries, the
levels corresponding to the WDRM II phase majority using flat inhumation rites as at the
and defined by a quartzite industry with a lot of type site. At Balanovo some 120 graves are
end scrapers; II, a thin late Mesolithic level known, including double burials and some rich
with micro lithic flints and crude quartzite tools graves with copper battle-axes. A broad-
and Danube fish bones. This is separated by a spectrum economy is attested at the short-
60-cm deposit containing Neolithic stray finds lived settlement sites, confined largely to the
(VINCA and TISZA pottery) from III, at least six main river valleys. Corded beakers, stone
levels of Late Copper Age occupation, with battle-axes and fired clay model wheels are
SALClJfA IV levels stratified below a long characteristic finds.
COTOFENI sequence.
Bali. Archaeologically, the island of Bali has
Bakers Hole. A chalk pit at Northfleet close to always lived in the shadow of its bigger neigh-
the SwANSCOMBE sites of northwest Kent. Its bour JAvA. The earliest inscriptions, dating
Bambandyanalo 47
from the end of the 9th and the lOth century, ball court. See BALL GAME.
reveal an independent INDIANIZED Balinese
society practising Buddhism and Sivaism at ball game. A game both recreational and of
the same time. The marriage of the king of ritual significance, originating in MEso-
Bali to a Javanese princess in the late lOth AMERICA and ultimately spreading over wide
century resulted in the introduction of areas of the Americas; it is also known by the
Javanese culture into the island. Javanese NAHUATL word tlatchli. Stone reliefs at
political control was established by the Dainzu and the possible remains of a ball court
conquest of the island in 1284 and again in at SAN LORENZO TENOCHTITLAN indicate that
1343; mass immigration of Javanese intensi- the game existed as early as PRE-CLASSIC
fied the Javanization of Bali. From the middle times. There is considerable diversity in the
of the 15th century on, when the Indian rules both over time and across cultures, but
cults in their old form (Sivaism, Vishnuism, typically, opposing teams or individuals
Theravada Buddhism using Sanskrit, and played on a court, classically (but not neces-
Mahayana Buddhism) retreated before the sarily) in the shape of an elongated H. Players
advance of Islam in Java, Bali became the wearing special equipment (see YOKE) would
intellectual centre preserving the essentials of attempt to keep a solid rubber ball (sometimes
Indo-Javanese culture. However, the fact that 30 em in diameter and more than 2 kilos in
at present only seven per cent of the popula- weight) in motion without the use of hands or
tion belong to the tri vamsa (castes) shows that feet. Some courts, especially in the PosT-
lndianization did not percolate to the masses. CLASSIC, had a series of stone rings set high in
the court wall; if a team managed to pass the
Balkh. Known to its Arab conquerors as the ball through one of these (a rare event indeed)
'Mother of Cities', the city of Balkh in the game was immediately won. Death
Afghanistan was occupied long before the through injury was not unusual and the loss of
arrival of Islam. In the 1st millennium BC it was a game could sometimes result in the SACRI-
associated with Zoroaster, and ALEXANDER FICE of the losing team. There is a considerable
THE GREAT made it his base for operations in inventory of artefacts associated with the ball
329-327 BC. Balkh was a caravan city on the game, including hachas, palmas, court mark-
SILK ROUTE from the east and a major outpost ers, elbow stones and yokes.
of Buddhism. Islamic Balkh flourished under
the Samanids of BUKHARA (873-999) and ballista. Of the numerous pieces of artillery
contemporary visitors mention two congrega- (possibly about 55) available to the Roman
tional mosques. The city was devastated by the legionary, remarkable were two large torsion
Mongols in 1220 and Ibn Battuta reported that engines, the ballista for projecting large
it was still in ruins a hundred years later. Balkh boulders, and the catapulta for firing bolts and
revived in the 15th century under the Timurid other arrow-like missiles. A ballista survives at
rulers of HERAT. Although a section through HATRA. The two terms arc often used inter-
the massive mud-brick defences revealed a changeably.
long history of construction, we know very
little about the pre-Islamic city. Two Islamic Balof Cave. A coral rock shelter on New
monuments survive: the Masjid-i No Gunbad Ireland, Oceania, with a preceramic industry
and the shrine of Khwaja Abu Masar Parsa. ofT ALASEA (New Britain) obsidian and bone
The mosque is a mud-brick building, now points in its lower levels, dating from c5000 be.
roofless, with a square plan, 20 metres across, This site has one of the earliest dates for human
divided by piers into nine square compart- settlement (presumably by PAPUAN-language
ments, each originally with a dome (hence the speakers) in Oceania east of New Guinea, at a
name 'Mosque of the Nine Domes'). The date long prior to that normally accepted for
interior contains exquisitely carved stucco AUSTRONESIAN expansion in this area. See
decorated with vine scrolls, palmettes etc, also MISISIL CAVE.
reminiscent of 9th and 1Oth century stucco at
SAMARRA, SIRAF, and elsewhere in Iran and Bambandyanalo. A site in the Limpopo
Iraq. The shrine, which commemorates a local Valley, northern Transvaal, South Africa,
theologian who died in 1460, has typical where Iron Age occupation is dated to the 11th
Timurid tilework. and 12th centuries ad. A large mound
48 Bambata

represents the debris of successive substantial described the numerous rock-cut monasteries,
settlements, the economy of which was which extend for several kilometres along the
evidently based upon the herding of cattle. cliffs on the north side ofthe valley. Dominat-
The pottery and other artefacts show strong ing the scene are two standing Buddhas,
affinities with those from contemporary sites carved in the face of the cliff. The smaller (35
in the Bulawayo area of Zimbabwe. metre) Buddha may date from the 3rd century,
Controversy has surrounded the significance while the larger (53 metre) statue belongs to
of some 70 human skeletons interred at the 5th or 6th century. Details of drapery etc
Bambandyanalo: it was formerly believed that were added in plaster, and both the statues and
these indicated a non-negroid population, but the niches in which they stand were painted.
the supposition is no longer maintained. The paintings are in a hybrid style, containing
SASSANIAN, GANDHARAN and Indian ele-
Bambata. A cave in the Matopo Hills of south- ments.
western Zimbabwe, where excavations have Bamiyan remained a Buddhist enclave
revealed a long sequence of occupations until its conquest by the Muslim ruler of Sistan,
probably covering most of the past 50,000 Yaqub b. Layth Saffari, in 870. The citadel of
years. The cave walls also bear an interesting the Islamic town, known today as Shahr-i
series of rock paintings. The site has given its Gholghola, overlooks the valley from the
name to a stone industry and a pottery type south. The town and the fortress guarding the
which should not be confused as they belong to eastern approaches to the valley, Shahr-i
widely separated periods. The Bambata Zohak, were destroyed by Genghiz Khan in
industry, also referred to in some older works 1221.
as 'Stillbay' is based upon the use of prepared
cores to produce flakes that were retouched banana. The edible fruit-bearing bananas
into a veriety of scrapers and unifacial or belong to the genus Musa, and have been
bifacial points. Dated between the 50th and classified into two sections, termed Australi-
20th millennia be, its distribution extends musa and Eumusa. The major cultivar in the
northwards into Zambia and southwards to Australimusa section (the Fei'i banana, Musa
the Orange Free State and perhaps the Cape. troglodytarum) probably originated in the
Bambata ware is known only from contexts of New Guinea-Solomons area, and was spread
the 1st millennium ad in Zimbabwe. It is into tropical Polynesia by AUSTRONESIAN
elaborately decorated with overall stamped colonists. The Eumusa section contains the
designs, and opinion is divided as to whether it bananas of economic importance today, and
should be attributed to the Early Iron Age the major cultivars evolved in the region of
complex or to a late hunter-gatherer popula- Malaysia and Indonesia, to be carried by
tion. Austronesian settlers into Oceania, and west-
wards to Madagascar and Africa. On linguistic
Bambuk. The gold-yielding area of Guinea, grounds it seems probable that bananas were
near the headwaters of the Niger and Senegal being cultivated by Austronesians in Island
Rivers. Through long-distance trade, the Southeast Asia by 3000 BC. Claims for a
metal obtained here provided much of the prehistoric introduction into South America
wealth of the empires of GHANA and MALI. across the Pacific are still under debate.
Significantly, neither of these empires appears Banas. A CHALCOLITHIC culture of
to have incorporated the Bambuk area; Rajasthan, western India, of the 3rd and 2nd
instead they exploited their intermediate millennia BC. The most important sites are
position between Bambuk and the trans- AHAR and GILUND.
Saharan gold markets. The Bambuk area
awaits full archaeological investigation. Banaue. A region of spectacular rice-
terracing, belonging to the Ifugao people of
Bamiyan. A high valley (2500 metres) in the the Mountain Province of northern Luzon,
Hindu Kush, which formed a corridor for the Philippines. The terraces extend like giant
caravan route from BEGRAM and the east to steps up mountain sides and are of unknown
BALKH and the west. In the early centuries AD antiquity, although they were considered by
it was an important Buddist centre, and anthropologist Felix Keesing to have been
pilgrims such as Hiuen-Tsang (7th century) constructed after Spanish penetration of the
Banpo 49

Philippines (commencing 1571 ). However, in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. The third of five


more recent excavations suggest that some occupation horizons has been dated to c3760
house terraces in the region could date back to be. During excavations by Todorovic and
1000 BC. Cermanovic, complete late Vinca house plans
were recovered, which yielded detailed
Banbhore. Standing among desolate salt flats information on domestic activities. Food-
on a former mouth of the Indus and the only preparation and cooking, flint-knapping,
major site in a sparsely populated region, weaving and storage are all attested inside the
Banbhore is plausibly identified as Daibal, the houses, while other industrial tasks are
first town in Sind to fall to the Moslems, in 712. documented in working pits in yards. A large
Excavations revealed that occupation began in collection of signs incised on pottery indicates
the Scytho-Parthian period (1st century BC to ritual activity in the village community, which
2nd century AD) and ended in the 13th reflects domestic rather than public religious
century. Like SIRAF, the city was located on a activity.
barren coast, which could not have supported
a town without the wealth generated by trade. Ban Kao. A burial site in Kanchanaburi
It was a port of call for ships voyaging between Province, western Thailand, Ban Kao spans
India and the Persian Gulf and an outlet for mainly the period 2500-1600 be, and the
commodities from the interior; in the 2nd burials have produced elaborately shaped
century, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea unpainted pottery with a range of bone, stone
mentions an entrepot in the Indus delta which and shell artefacts. The site has produced no
exported lapis lazuli from the Hindu Kush, bronze, despite claims for use of this metal in
musk from the Himalayas etc. In the Islamic northeastern Thailand before 3000 BC. See
period, Banbhore was a walled town, just over also BAN CHIANG, GuA CHA, KoK
500 metres across. Within the walls, the most CHAROEN, NON NOK THA.
imposing building was the congregational
mosque. Outside the walls, the excavators Bann point. See LARNIAN.
found an industrial quarter and a reservoir or
enclosed harbour. Banpo [Pan-p'o]. Site of an early YANGSHAO
Neolithic village, now preserved as a museum,
Ban Chiang. A site of major importance in at Xi'an in Shaanxi province, China. Four
northeast THAILAND, containing 4.5 metres of radiocarbon dates from Banpo range from
burial deposits spanning the period 3600 BC to c4800 to c4300 BC. The settlement occupied
AD 1800. The basal burials are associated with about 50,000 square metres and included a
incised and cord-marked pottery, copper and cemetery and pottery kilns outside a ditch that
bronze artefacts, and evidence for rice cultiva- surrounded the residential area. Dogs and pigs
tion and domesticated cattle, probably in a were domesticated, and millet was the staple
regime of shifting agriculture. From levels crop. Unpainted pottery was cord-marked or
dated to the late 2nd and 1st millennia BC, the stamped, while the finest pottery was painted
site has produced a famous variety of curvi- in black or red with a limited range of simple
linear painted red-on-buff pottery, together geometric patterns and drawings of fish,
with iron, bones of water buffalo, and palaeo- turtles, deer and masked or stylized faces,
ecological evidence suggesting the practice of pictorial motifs rarely encountered elsewhere
wet-rice agriculture. However, there is now in Chinese Neolithic pottery.
disagreement over the dating of Ban Chiang, Remains comparable to those from Banpo
and from recent excavations at the nearby site have been unearthed nearby at Jiangzhai in
of Ban Nadi it is apparent that the dates Lintong Xian and at Baoji Beishouling and
claimed for the appearances of iron and the Hua Xian Yuanjunmiao, all in Shaanxi. At
painted pottery may be too old by a millen- Beishouling and Yuanjunmiao, Banpo-type
nium or more, and the true antiquity of bronze remains overlie older Neolithic levels in which
prior to 1500 be is still unclear. See also BAN all the pottery is unpainted; a radiocarbon date
KAo, KOK CHAROEN, NON NOK THA. late in the 6th millennium BC has been
obtained for an equivalent stratum at Hua
Banjica. An early and late VINtA open settle- Xian Laoguantai. Dates in the same range
ment on the northern slopes of the A vala Hills have come from Neolithic sites at Wuan
50 Banshan

Design painted inside a pottery bowl from Banpo

Cishan in southern Hebei and Xinzheng two need not be so direct. A late stage of
Peiligang in Henan, both with evidence of Banshan is named after the site of MACHAN G.
millet cultivation and domesticated pigs and
dogs. Banteay Ch'mar [Khmer: 'the narrow
citadel']. A huge stone monument near the
Banshan [Pan-shan]. Site of a Neolithic Dangrek mountains in northwestern Cam-
cemetery in the Tao River valley south of bodia, erected by king Jayavarman VII
Lanzhou in Gansu province, China. It is the towards the end of the 12th century to the
type site of the Banshan culture, which belongs memory of one of his sons killed in action. It
to the western or Gansu branch of the YANG- has historically important reliefs.
SHAO Neolithic. Banshan is best known for its
pottery urns with painted designs in black and Banteay Srei. [Khmer: 'the citadel of the
brown, which are well represented in Western ladies']. A comparatively small, but very
museums. Banshan and MAJIAYAO pottery beautiful monument in pink sandstone to the
designs have a common starting point in sim- east of the main group of ANGKOR in
ple running spirals, but in Majiayao these are Cambodia, built in 967 by the Brahman
elaborated to a degree of complexity never Yajfiavaraha, preceptor of the king, in honour
seen in Banshan wares. Banshan designs have of Siva. Famous in particular for its elaborate
loose parallels in spiral designs from other relief decoration, the monument forms an
parts of the world (most of them well beyond architectural and art style in its own right.
the reach of DIFFUSIONIST explanations) while
Majiayao is isolated and highly distinctive. A Bantu. A linguistic term, applied to a widely
few radiocarbon dates for Banshan in the 3rd distributed group of closely interrelated
millennium BC have been taken as evidence languages in sub-Saharan Africa. It has long
that it derives from the earlier Majiayao been believed that the distribution of these
culture, though the relationship between the languages, which form part of the Niger-
Barche di Solferino 51

Congo linguistic family, indicates a relatively Baoji Rujiazhuang in 1975 contained bronze
recent expansion of population from a single RITUAL VESSELS, some with stylistic eccen-
source area, which linguistic evidence locates tricities that point to contacts with non-
in the modern eastern Nigeria/Cameroon Chinese (or at any rate less Chinese)
area, at the extreme northwestern limit of the populations farther west in Gansu. The
Bantu-speaking zone. Beyond this area Bantu Rujiazhuang tombs also yielded the earliest
languages are today spoken over the whole of known evidence of SILK embroidery.
the continent south of a line which closely
follows the northern margin of the equatorial Baphuon. An enormous sandstone monu-
forest, with the exception of the San people ment in the northwestern part of ANGKOR,
now concentrated in Botswana and Namibia. Cambodia, built by king Udayadityavarman II
Despite the manifest dangers in assuming a (1050-66) as his TEMPLE-MOUNTAIN and the
correlation between archaeological and centre of his capital. With its dimensions of
linguistic reconstructions of the past, several 120 by 100 metres at the base and a height of
prehistorians have attempted to trace parallels 24 metres, this five-storeyed pyramid (topped
between the linguistically indicated Bantu originally by a tower of about the same height
language dispersal and the archaeological again) is the most massive artificial mountain
evidence for the rapid appearance of metal- of classical CAMBODIA and its second largest
working mixed-farming peoples over the monument, after ANGKOR WAT. There are
greater part of sub-Saharan Africa during the vigorous reliefs on the walls of the first and
first few centuries of the Christian era. second storeys.
Whatever the linguistic attributions of the
people concerned, it is clear that this period Baradostian. The name given to the earlier
saw a pronounced change in the life-style Upper PALAEOLITHIC levels of the cave of
prevailing over the eastern and southern parts SHANIDAR in northern Iraq, also applied to
of the subcontinent. Villages of mixed-farmers other assemblages in Iraq and Iran. It has
who made pottery and worked metals were radiocarbon dates centring on about 30,000
established in areas which appear previously be.
to have been occupied solely by hunter-
gatherers using stone tools. It seems probable Baray [Khmer: 'artificial lake']. Large rect-
that this change was due to the physical arrival angular water reservoirs in Cambodia; notable
of a new population element, particularly since examples at ANGKOR are the Eastern
both life-styles seem to have flourished side by (Oriental) Baray, originally called Yasodh-
side in many areas throughout and beyond the aratataka, 7 by 1.8 km, built by king
1st millennium ad. Throughout the region Yasovarman (889-900), and the Western
these first farming settlements are marked by a (Occidental) Baray, 8 by 2.2 km, built by king
common pottery tradition, seen as the hall- Udayadityavarman II ( 1050-66).
mark of a single 'Early Iron Age' complex.
This complex is represented first during the Barbar. See BAHRAIN.
last few centuries be in the Lake Victoria basin,
where its characteristic pottery is known as barbotine. A method of decorating pottery,
UREWE WARE. Related wares are attested near particularly popular in Roman Gaul and
the Kenya and Tanzania coasts by the 2nd Britain, in which very soft clay was piped on to
century ad, and as far south as the Transvaal the surface of coloured wares before firing,
and Natal by the 4th century. giving an effect rather like that of icing upon a
cake.
Baoji [Pao-chi]. A district on the Wei River in
western Shaanxi province, China. Neolithic Barche di Solferino. A settlement at the
remains at Baoji Beishouling may represent southern end of Lake Garda in northern Italy
antecedents of the BANPO culture. Western belonging to the Bronze Age PO LAD A culture
ZHOU bronzes have been unearthed of the 2nd millennium BC. The houses were
repeatedly in the Baoji area, including notably raised off the ground on a framework of
an altar set found in 1901 and now in the timbers covered by brushwood. Finds,
Metropolitan Museum in New York. Two including those made of organic materials such
tombs of the 19th century BC excavated at as wood, were well preserved by the mud and
52 Barclodiad Y Gawres

include wooden vessels, wheels and a dugout suggest that the site was used in the 5th
canoe. millennium BC, making it one of the earliest
megalithic tombs in Europe. See also CORBEL,
Barclodiad Y Gawres. A PASSAGE GRAVE on MEGALITHIC MONUMENTS.
the island of Anglesey in Wales related to
those of the BOYNE CULTURE and the nearby Barrancoid [Barrancas]. One of the major
tomb of BRYN CELLI Dou. It consists of a ceramic series developed by Irving Rouse and
chamber and passage, surrounded by a ring of Jose Cruxent to facilitate cultural comparison
stones, many decorated in a style similar to in the northeast South America I Antilles area.
that of the Boyne tombs, all under a round Possibly originating on the Caribbean coast of
barrow, c30 metres in diameter. Colombia, the series was established on the
Orinoco Delta by clOOO BC and continued in
Barkaer. A site of the later Early Neolithic some areas as late as AD 1000. (This period is
(TRB CULTURE) in east Jutland. Two large also known as the Neo-Indian epoch.) Its best-
rectangular structures of timber were known features are skilfully modelled, bio-
excavated, each divided up into smaller units. morphic ornamentation and broad-lined
These were originally interpreted as houses, incised patterns. Although roughly con-
but recently it has been suggested that they temporary with the SALADOID series in other
were in fact burial structures. Apparent areas, Barrancoid replaced Saladoid in the
offerings of amber beads and pottery were delta area. The type site is Barrancas.
found in pits below floor level.
barrow. A mound, usually of earth and rubble,
barley. A group of cereals, members of the and occurring in a variety of shapes and sizes,
genus Hordeum. Wild two-row barley (H. which was raised to cover either single or
spontaneum) occurs today in a similar area of multiple burials. The term 'tumulus' is used
the Near East to the WHEATS. This species synonymously with barrow, while the related
seems to be the ancestor of all domestic forms term 'cairn' is used to describe a mound
of barley. H. spontaneum appears in the early constructed exclusively of stone. The term
Neolithic of the Near East by 7000 be, as early 'barrow' is used widely in European prehistory
as the wheats, but domesticated two-row but most commonly in Britain, where it origin-
barley does not appear until slightly later in the ated. In Britain most barrows of the Neolithic
Neolithic. Six-row barleys, with six vertical period were long, either oval or trapezoidal in
rows of grains up the ear, appeared as a result shape, and usually covered either mortuary
of domestication at about the same time. houses or other timber structures, or MEGA-
Barley spread into Asia and Europe mainly in LITHIC chambers (see also PASSAGE GRAVE,
the six-row form. All the domestic barleys are GALLERY GRAVE). In the BEAKER period and
closely related and their nomenclature is in subsequent Bronze Age, round barrows
some disarray. Some authors include them all became the dominant form and generally
in one species, under the heading H. vulgare covered single burials, rather than the collec-
sensu lato, or another name, H. sativum. Two- tive inhumations of the Neolithic. Bowl
row barleys are sometimes distinguished as H. barrows - simple round mounds, often
distichum or distichon. Six-row barleys are surrounded by a ditch - were the most
variously called H. polystichum, H. hexa- common form, used throughout the Bronze
stichum or, confusingly, H. vulgare sensu Age and sporadically also in the Iron Age. The
strictu. Both two-row and six-row forms have WESSEX CULTURE of the southern English
varieties that thresh free from the chaff (naked Early Bronze Age was characterized by special
barleys) and that do not (hulled barleys). types of barrows: bell, disc, saucer and pond
barrows. Bell barrows have relatively small
Barnenez. A Neolithic site in Brittany, mounds and a berm or gap between the mound
consisting of two long CAIRNS, one of which and the ditch; disc barrows are very small
contained 11 PASSAGEGRAVES,placedsideby mounds in the centre of a circular open space,
side. They display a range of architectural surrounded by a ditch; saucer barrows are low
techniques, using both large megalithic slabs disc-like mounds occupying the entire space
and drystone walling; some chambers had up to the ditch; while the misleadingly named
corbelled vaults. Corrected radiocarbon dates pond barrows are not mounds at all, but
Basketmaker 53

circular dish-shaped enclosures surrounded rose the roof, sometimes vaulted but more
by an external bank. commonly of timber. The building was usually
On the continent of Europe both long and entered through a covered entrance porch
round barrows are found in association with (narthex). One such building is the Basilica of
megalithic tombs during the Neolithic and Maxentius, which has survived in the ruins of
Copper Age, while round barrows covering the Forum in Rome. However, in ancient
single inhumations or cremations occur in a Rome the term 'basilica' applies to the
number of different areas in the Bronze Age function rather than the form of the building:
and Iron Age. Indeed, barrow burials occur the Roman buildings normally adjoined the
also in Roman and post-Roman times: one of FORUM and functioned as public meeting halls,
the most famous of all barrows in Britain is that courts and even markets.
covering the Anglo-Saxon boat burial at In the early medieval period, the basilican
SUTToN Hoo. form was adapted for Christian use. In several
instances, Roman basilicas were refashioned
Barton Ramie. A site located on the Belize for Christian worship, and the form of
River in eastern Belize [formerly British construction remained popular for a variety of
Honduras] and notable for its sudden influx of religious purposes in ROME, RAVENNA and
foreign materials shortly before the opening of the Latin West as well as in BYZANTIUM and
the CLASSIC PERIOD. This new ceramic North Africa from the 4th century to the 12th
complex, called Floral Park, while not century. Constantine, the first Christian
completely eclipsing earlier local material, is emperor, constructed several basilican
virtually indistinguishable from ceramics churches in the 4th century, including the first
found at CHALCHUAPA in El Salvador. Some St Peters and the Lateran. The finest early
archaeologists have proposed that this Christian basilicas- S. Apollinare Nuovo and
intrusive complex represents the immigration S. Apollinare in Classe - are to be seen in
of groups fleeing the disastrous effects of the Ravenna, with their marble columns and
Mount ILOPANGO eruptions in c260. marvellous Byzantine mosaics intact. The true
basilican church belongs to the Mediter-
Barumini. Site of a NURAGHE, named Su ranean, North Africa and Byzantium in the
Nuraxi, in southern Sardinia. It began with a early Christian era between the demise of the
single tower c17 metres high, with two upper Roman empire and the emergence of the
storeys containing niches, apparently for Romanesque style. The longitudinal aisled
sleeping. It was later surrounded by a wall with hall remained in the minds of the architects of
smaller towers in it and an outer circle of free- the great Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals
standing towers; these too were soon linked to of Western Europe, but by the later medieval
provide a double wall for the original tower, period the essential simplicity of the basilican
and the whole complex was associated with a design had been submerged in elaborate bayed
village of stone huts. There is a radiocarbon and vaulted schemes with transepts, towers
date for an early stage of c1450 be ( c1800 8c) and elaborate facades.
and the site remained in occupation until the
Roman period, although it was temporarily Basketmaker. The earliest of two major
deserted after an attack by CARTHAGINIANS in chronological periods of the ANASAZI
the 6th century BC. tradition, the more recent being PUEBLO. The
whole period is characterized by transition
Basatanya. See TISZAPOLGAR. from Late ARCHAIC life-styles to sedentary
agriculture with characteristics such as
basilica [Greek: 'royal building']. The pottery, pit houses, cist storage and grinding
Romans applied this name to a range of tools becoming increasingly apparent as time
rectangular roofed buildings, with or without progresses. Three Basketmaker stages were
apse, subdivided internally by single or double recognized at the 1927 Pecos Conference of
rows of columns, roughly in the manner of the Southwesternists (see KIDDER). Basketmaker
nave and aisles now familiar from church I is purely hypothetical and was based on the
architecture. There was usually a clerestorey supposition that evidence of an early Anasazi
(a series of windows piercing the upper part of stage would eventually come to light; so far it
the nave wall to give extra light) above which has not. The typical settlement pattern for
54 Basra

Basketmaker II (AD 1-450) was a large base remains were found in associatiOn with
camp and widely scattered seasonal camps, COCHISE materials of the CHIRICAHUA stage,
where the preferred container was the basket and evidence of beans (dated to 1000-400 be)
(hence the name). Limited maize and squash was found in association with SAN PEDRO
cultivation and the rare occurrence of crude materials. These plants represent the three
pottery also indicate a largely Archaic life- basic staples which underlie North American
style. Basketmaker III (450-700/750) saw a agriculture, although a cave location seems far
shift in settlement patterns. Small villages of more appropriate to the earlier ARCHAIC life-
pit houses became increasingly common and style, based on hunting and gathering.
the preferred locus was the well-watered
valley bottom. Specialized structures such as Bath [Aquae Sulis]. The emergence from the
wattle-and-daub storage bins and large rooms ground of natural hot springs at a temperature
for communal activity (possibly early KJV AS) of 120oF attracted the bath-loving Romans
also began to occur more frequently. here after their invasion of Britain. The springs
were sacred to the local goddess Sulis (equated
Basra. The city of Basra stands near the west by the Romans with Minerva), hence the
bank of the Shatt al-Arab, in modern Iraq, Roman name Aquae Sulis (Waters of Sulis].
through which the Tigris and Euphrates reach From the late 1st century AD onwards the
the Gulf. Founded in 637/8 by the caliph springs became the centre for a complex of
Omar as a military base, Basra rapidly became monumental buildings unparalleled for their
a thriving city. In due course, ships supplying lavish extent and sophistication elsewhere in
BAGHDAD with goods from Africa, India and Roman Britain. These include the Temple of
beyond used Basra as a port-of-call and its Sulis Minerva with Corinthian pilasters and a
bazaars became famous. Its was also an medusa-head relief on the pediment, and an
important centre of learning. From the late 9th extensive collection of baths, the most notable
century Basra suffered a series of disasters and being the vaulted Great Bath, originally over
gradually declined. The Zanj (negro slaves 17 metres high.
who worked in the fields and plantations of
southern Iraq) revolted in 869-73 and sacked
the city, and in 923 it was plundered by the baths, Roman. From the 1st century BC
Qarmarthians. In 1050, parts of the city were onwards the Romans turned bathing into a
in ruins, although the bazaars were still doing highly civilized and essentially communal
business. activity. Establishments called ba/neae or,
later, thermae incorporating suites of rooms at
Basse Yutz. The find-spot in Lorraine, eastern different temperatures became a feature both
France, of a pair of bronze wine flagons, of private and public building. A typical
regarded as among the finest examples of early installation would include a tepidarium (warm
CELTIC ART, dating to the early 4th century BC. room, probably without bath), a ca/darium
(hot, with plunge bath), a frigidarium (cold,
Batalimo. One of the very few later prehistoric also with bath), and an apodyterium
settlement sites so far investigated in the (changing-room). Elaborate examples might
Central African Republic, dated to early in the also include a laconicum (room with dry heat),
1st millennium ad. Artefacts of chipped and a swimming bath, an exercise area (palaestra),
ground stone were recovered, but although no gardens and a library. Such a complex
trace of metal was found, the possibility provided a central and important social
remains that Batalimo was in fact an Iron Age meeting-point, and it seems that access was
settlement. enjoyed by a wide cross-section of society.
The swift expansion of this type of building,
Bat Cave. A site in southwestern New Mexico, both in individual size and geographically
USA, notable for its evidence of prehistoric across the Roman empire, was undoubtedly
plant cultivation. Early levels indicate the use helped by the development of new technol-
of primitive pod corn (dated c3500 be), but a ogies such as the use of concrete to construct
cultivated form of MAIZE was in use by 2500 wider and higher vaults, and the installation of
be, the earliest date for cultigens in the underfloor and ducted hot-air heating systems
American Southwest. Both maize and squash (see HYPOCAUST).
Bayeux Tapestry 55

Baton de commandement

baton de commandement. A name given to baulk. A section of unexcavated material left


perforated batons made of antler of the Upper standing between different parts of an excava-
PALAEOLITHIC period in western Europe. tion. The main purpose of baulks is the
They are usually some 30 em long, but are retention of a visible record of stratification,
often broken. The perforation is smooth and but they also serve to facilitate access to
round, usually a few centimetres in diameter. different areas of the excavation.
The antler widens out at the point of branching
and this is where the hole is usually made. They Bayeux Tapestry. This famous tapestry, 70.34
are typical of the MAGDALENIAN period, but metres long and 50 em deep, is worked in
are found as early as the AURIGNACIAN, some coloured wools on a background of bleached
30,000 years ago. A number of explanations linen. The work was probably commissioned
of their function have been offered; 'staffs of by Bishop Odo of Bayeux (1036-97) a half-
office', as implied by the French name, is not a brother of William the Conquerer, and took
likely explanation. They are more likely to about two years to complete. The tapestry
have been used as straighteners of wood and depicts the events leading up to the invasion of
antler strips for use in composite spears. England by William Duke of Normandy and
the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066,
Battersea Shield. A late Iron Age parade when the English King Harold was defeated
shield found in the River Thames at Battersea. and killed. The tapestry was almost certainly
A fine example of insular CELTIC ART, the designed and embroidered in England; its
shield is elongated with rounded ends and a purpose is not certain but it may well have been
slight waisting in the middle; it is made of used to adorn the walls of a royal hall (the
bronze and decorated in relief and with red bawdy scenes often occurring along the border
glass inlay. of the tapestry would argue against it being a
hanging for the cathedral). The themes are
battle-axe. A type of shaft-hole axe designed enacted very much in the manner of a feudal
for use in warfare, made of either stone or drama or chanson de geste.
metal. Stone battle-axes were widely used in The technical detail and iconography in the
prehistoric Europe from the Late Neolithic Bayeux Tapestry is of unparalleled import-
onwards; they were so ubiquitous in the later ance to the social historian and medieval
Neolithic of northern Europe that the term archaeologist; for instance, 33 buildings
Battle-axe culture is often used as a synonym depicted in highly stylized form offer an
for CORDED WARE or SINGLE GRAVE culture. impression of contemporary churches, castles,
Copper and bronze examples are common in towers and hastily constructed MOTTE AND
the Copper and Bronze Ages of eastern BAILEY castles. The battle scenes provide a
Europe, while the VIKINGS also made use of detailed contemporary impression of infantry
battle-axes, normally made of iron. and cavalry formations, Norman armour and
weapons as well as the clothing and hairstyles
Battle-axe culture. See BATILE-AXE, of both men and women. The invasion fleet is a
CORDED WARE, SINGLE GRAVE. readily identifiable collection of 'Viking
56 Bayon

double enders' (clinker-built long boats finds has led to the frequent identification of a
probably varying in length from about 25 to 30 Beaker people and many speculations about
metres, propelled by oars and a single mast). their possible origins. The most popular view
The Norman invasion of England was by the has favoured an Iberian origin, but there have
standards of the time a gigantic military also been proponents of an east or north
operation, involving 7000 men including 2000 European origin, and David Clarke favoured a
cavalry, and the tapestry captures some of the south French origin. The most complicated
excitement and drama of the event. view, propounded by E. Sangmeister,
involved an original spread from Iberia and a
Bayou. A majestic monument in sandstone in later reflux movement of an allegedly hybrid
the northwestern part of ANGKOR, Cambodia, Beaker/CORDED-WARE group back from the
built c1200 by the last great ruler of the Low Countries, and is not much favoured
KHMER empire, the Buddhist king Jayavar- today. More recently, workers such as
man VII (1181-cl218) as his TEMPLE-MOUN- Richard Harrison and Robert Chapman have
TAIN and the centre of his restored capital suggested dual or multiple origins for the
ANGKOR THOM.It consists of a central circular Beaker culture, while Stephen Shennan has
sanctuary representing a mountain, situated suggested that Beaker finds do not represent a
within two relief-covered rectangular migrating people at all, but are a 'status kit'
galleries, the outer one measuring 160 by 140 acquired through trade or exchange by
metres. This architectural ensemble is individuals of high status in different parts of
crowned by 54 towers, the central tower Europe. The 'Beaker problem' is likely to
reaching a height of 43 metres. Each tower is remain a focus of discussion in European
decorated with four enigmatically smiling prehistory for some time to come.
faces, representing the king himself in the form
of the compassionate Bodhisattva Lokesvara. bean. The general term 'beans' includes two
Moreover, the monument is also integrated in genera of plants: Phaseo/us and Vicia. Phase-
the general architectural symbolism of Angkor olus comprises a number of species, varieties
Thorn - the Churning of the Ocean, accord- of which include the haricot bean, french bean,
ing to Hindu mythology - with the central runner bean, butter bean etc. These species all
mountain serving as the churn. originated in Mexico and South America, only
spreading to the Old World after Columbus.
BC, be. Years before Christ. The lower case The earliest finds of cultivated Phaseolus
'be' represents uncalibrated RADIOCARBON beans are from Peru and Mexico, during the
years; the capitals BC denote a calibrated 6th millenium be. Vicia, on the other hand,
radiocarbon date, or a date such as an historic- includes only one cultivated species, Vicia
ally derived one, that does not need CALIBRA- faba, the horsebean, field bean or broad bean.
TION (see Table 8, p. 422). There is no year This species originated in the Old World. The
0: 1 BC is the same year as AD 1. earliest finds are from early Neolithic sites in
the Near East. Later in the Neolithic, the spe-
Beaker. A general term to describe a simple cies appeared in Spain and Portugal, and east-
type of drinking vessel without handles. ern Europe. During the Bronze Age, the field
Specifically, the term Beaker or Bell Beaker is bean occurred in southern and central Europe,
applied to a particular type of vessel made of and by the Iron Age it appeared as far north as
fine red or brown burnished ware, decorated Britain.
with horizontal panels of comb- or cord-
impressed designs, found in the 3rd millenium bear. Today's bears can be split into three
BC in many parts of Europe, from Spain to groups: the brown bears, typified by the
Czechoslovakia and Hungary, and from Italy European brown bear ( Ursus arctos), the
to Britain. Beaker pots are commonly found in black bears and the polar bear ( Thalarctos
graves, which were often single inhumations maritimus). Occasional finds of fossil polar
under round BARROWS; commonly associated bear bones outside the Arctic Circle are
finds include copper or bronze daggers and presumably related to the presence of pack ice
ornaments, flint arrowheads and stone wrist- and ice shelves at the edges of ice sheets during
guards and stone battle-axes. glaciations. Brown bears have existed in
The widespread distribution of Beaker Europe and Asia for much of the later
Begram 57

QuATERNARY period. Today they inhabit have contained the royal stores for the collec-
woodland, eating large quantities of vegetable tion of taxes in kind (grain, wine, oil etc). The
matter as well as meat. In Europe, there town was destroyed in the mid-7th century BC.
evolved a much larger variant, the 'Cave Bear'
(often differentiated as Ursus spelaeus). beetles. More than 250,000 different species
Fossils of this giant bear are quite common in of beetle are known. A great variety of forms
Quaternary cave deposits. The animal appears exists, inhabiting a wide variety of habitats.
to have become rare by the middle of the last Many beetles are very dependent on particular
glaciation. features of their environment; some, for
example, live only in the bark of a particular
Bede. The Venerable Bede was born in 673 tree. It is this 'fastidiousness' that makes
and spent most of his life in the monastery beetles useful for reconstructing ancient
founded by Benedict Biscop at JARROW, Co. environments. Parts of the tough beetle exo-
Durham. He is known for his prolific writings skeleton may be well preserved in acid and
and his energetic promotion of Christian waterlogged conditions, not only on archaeo-
learning. The Ecclesiastical History of the logical sites, but also in peats, silts and lake
English People, written towards the end of his clays outside human habitation. Using such
life, is a monumental work in Latin describing fossils, the known temperature preferences of
the history of the nation from the time of the beetles have made it possible to reconstruct
Anglo-Saxon invasions, through the legend- climatic changes during the DEVENSIAN cold
ary period of ARTHUR and the Battle of Mons stage and the FLANDRIAN interglacial. Beetles
Badonicus, into the era of the conversion to can also be used to investigate changes in
Christianity and the foundation ofthe Roman vegetation, conditions in towns, and problems
Church. At the time of his death in 735 Bede with storage of food.
was working on a translation of the Gospels of
StJohn. Begho. Located near the northern edge of the
forest in the west ofthe modern Ghana, Begho
Bedsa. A rock-cut Buddhist temple in western was a major trading centre around the middle
Deccan, India, of the 1st century BC. The of the 2nd millennium AD, and by the 5th
interior is elaborately decorated; the pillars century a pottery style had been established
have vase-shaped bases and bell-shaped which appears to be ancestral to that practised
capitals surmounted by sculpted human and into historical times by Akan groups who
animal groups. In front of the temple is a traditionally trace their origin to this area. It
facade and a large entrance with decorated has been shown by excavation that Begho in its
pillars. heyday was an extensive town, with distinct
quarters occupied by artisans and traders. It
Beersheba. A Palestinian site in southern maintained close trade contact with JENNE
Israel, which formed one of the desert frontier near the inland Niger delta, by which route
posts. The earliest occupation belongs to the gold derived from the forest areas to the south
12th and 11th centuries BC, but the first town was exported. Begho was eclipsed around the
belonged to the period of the United start of the 18th century by the rise of the
Monarchy (lOth century). The only phase Asante kingdom in the gold-producing area
which has been excavated on any scale is itself.
Stratum II, of the 8th century BC. The town
wall of this period was a casemate wall, with a Begram. A site in Afghanistan, confidently
great gateway flanked by double guard identified as Kapisa, the capital of several
chambers and external towers. A ring road 15 Indo-Greek rulers in the 3rd - 2nd centuries
metres inside the wall divided the inner and BC, a summer residence of the Kushan Kings
outer towns. Between the wall and the road (1st century BC to 3rd century AD) and an
were radially planned buildings including, to important town on the caravan route between
the right of the gateway, structures interpreted India and the West. Excavations in the so-
as storerooms. Inside the ring road there were called 'palace' yielded an astonishing collec-
mostly domestic buildings arranged in blocks. tion of objets de luxe, which range in date from
Beersheba may have been the adminstrative the late 1st to the early 3rd century AD:
centre of the region and the storerooms may Chinese lacquer, Indian ivories and Roman
58 Behistun

bronzes, glass vessels and plaster models, have been made in the city, notably at the
presumably intended to serve as exemplars for cemetery site of Fangshan Liulihe. These are
non-Roman craftsmen. The objects were connected with the YAN fief, whose capital
found in two rooms, the doorways of which may have been at Beijing (the old literary name
had been walled-up in a (successful) attempt of the city is Yanjing, 'the Yan capital'). In
to prevent discovery by looters. Although the later times the YUAN, MING and QJNG
nature of the collection is uncertain - the dynasties had capitals at Beijing, which apart
stock of a merchant-manufacturer, perhaps- from short interruptions has been the capital of
it provides a vivid reminder of the range of China since the 13th century AD.
contacts enjoyed by the cities of the inter-
national caravan routes. Beishouling [Pei-shou-ling]. See BANPO.

Behistun. See BISITUN. Beit Mirsim, Tell. A three-hectare mound in


the low hill country southwest of Hebron, on
Beidha. A NATUFIAN and ACERAMIC NEO- the west bank of the Jordan. This fortified
LITHIC site near PETRA in southern Jordan. It settlement has been identified as the biblical
was first occupied for a short period as a semi- town ofKirjath-sepher. Successive occupation
permanent camp in the Early Natufian period. layers from the 3rd millennium BC to the
The community of this time lived off ibex and Babylonian destruction in 588 BC (with a gap
goat; 75 per cent of the goats were immature from the end of the Middle Bronze Age, in
animals, suggesting that selective hunting or the later 16th century BC until the second half
perhaps herding was practised. of the 15th century BC) have helped establish a
Beidha was reoccupied c7000 be by a PRE- chronology for the Levant, especially through
POTTERY NEOLITHIC A [PPNA] group, who the detailed analysis of pottery. The town
lived in a planned village of roughly circular seems to have been prosperous, and stone dye
semi-subterranean houses, arranged in clus- vats indicate that one industry practised here
ters. The main meat food came from domesti- was the manufacture of textiles.
cated goats, while the villagers also cultivated
emmer WHEAT and BARLEY, both still in an Beiyinyangying [Pei-yin-yang-ying]. Neo-
early stage of domestication, and collected a lithic cemetery site at Nanjing in Jiangsu
number of wild plants. In the succeeding province, China. The finds probably belong to
PPNB phase there was little change in the sub- the latter part of the 4th millennium sc; most
sistence economy, but the form of the build- notable among them are finely polished jade
ings changed: in this stage there were com- ornaments and disc-like axes. See also
plexes of large rectangular rooms, each with MAJIABANG.
small workshops attached. Floors and walls
were plastered. There is some evidence that Belbasi. A cave on the southern coast of
there may have been upper storeys. Anatolia which has given its name to a late
Burials without skulls were found in the Palaeolithic culture. The tool kit includes
settlement and there was also a separate ritual tanged arrowheads, triangular points and
area away from the village, where three obliquely truncated blades. The most interest-
apparently ritual buildings have been ing feature of this group is its rock engravings,
excavated. the only known cave art in western Asia. The
Finds from the site include materials that best-known site is BELDIBI.
had come from great distances, including
obsidian from Anatolia and cowries and Beldibi. A rock shelter which has given its
mother-of-pearl from the Red Sea. name to a Mesolithic or 'Proto-Neolithic'
culture which succeeds the BELBASI culture in
Beijing [Pei-ching, Peking]. Present-day the Antalya region of southern Anatolia. The
capital of China. The SHANG civilization lower levels belong to the Belbasi culture and
reached this area in the early part of the rock carvings of a bull and a stag are probably
dynasty; a grave of about the 14th century BC associated with this phase. Later phases
at Pinggu Liujiacun contained bronze RITUAL contained imported obsidian and, later still,
VESSELS and a bronze axe with a blade of early forms of pottery. There is no evidence in
forged meteoritic iron. Many early ZHOU finds the Beldibi culture of food production or
bells 59

herding. Bones of deer, ibex and cattle occur, seldom have clappers- they are struck on the
while coastal fishing and the gathering of wild outside with a mallet- and they are not round
grain were probably practised in suitable but have a pointed-oval cross-section. The
areas. cusped cross-section, known from the earliest
examples (a small and primitive bell from
Belgae. A basically Celtic tribal group known ERLITOU, mid-2nd millennium BC, and its
mostly from Caesar's account, found in descendants from ANY ANG ), makes it possible
northern France in the last few centuries BC. to obtain two distinct pitches from a large bell,
During the 1st century sc the Belgae depending on where the bell is struck.
expanded into southeast England in advance Whether this property was exploited in Shang
of the Roman armies (see A YLESFORD ). They times is uncertain, but the scales played by
introduced the potter's wheel and coinage to some Eastern Zhou chimes of bells incorp-
Britain, and lived in large fortified settlements orate both pitches of each bell.
known as OPPIDA. The Belgae were the only The nomenclature of Chinese bells is
prehistoric inhabitants of Britain whose life- confused, partly because the conventional
style can be regarded as urban or proto-urban. names do not reflect the actual affiliations of
the various types and partly because individual
Bel'kachi I. An important settlement site on bells are sometimes classified differently by
the Aldan River in central Siberia, occupied different scholars. The major types all descend
during the Neolithic (defined by the use of from two bells of the Shang period, the ling
pottery, rather than the practice of farming). (suspended by a loop) and the nao (supported
The lowest level has a radiocarbon date of mouth-upward on a stem or yong). In Shang
c4020 be ( c4920 sc), which is the earliest date finds ling and nao occur singly or in graduated
for pottery in Siberia, for a hand-moulded, sets of at most five bells. At metropolitan
sand-tempered ware decorated with net or Shang sites such as Erlitou and Anyang they
mat impressions. The succeeding phase, often are not very common; the ling often has a
known as the Bel'kachinsk culture after this clapper, and both ling and nao are small and
site, has another distinctive pottery style, insignificant objects, easily held in the hand.
decorated with impressions made with a cord- At Shang-period sites in the middle and lower
wrapped paddle. It is thought to date to the 3rd Yangzi region, however, bells of the same two
millennium BC. In the Late Neolithic, probably types are the defining artefact of local bronze-
belonging to the 2nd millennium BC, a new using cultures, and here they are finely
type of pottery appeared: check-stamped decorated and very large: an example from
ware, made by beating with a grooved paddle. NINGXIANG weighs 154 kg. Most of these
Changes in stone and bone tools occurred monumental provincial bells are nao. The few
during the development of the Neolithic, but provincial versions of the ling, lacking
throughout the economic basis remained clappers, are usually distinguished from their
hunting and fishing. The modern Yukagir small metropolitan prototypes by the name
population may be direct descendants of the zhong (a general term for bells).
Neolithic groups in this area. In the Western Zhou period large bells,
often made in sets, begin to appear at northern
bell barrow. See BARROW. sites. By their size alone these are related to
bells from the Yangzi region rather than to
Bell Beaker. See BEAKER. metropolitan Shang bells, a descent confirmed
by other stylistic features. The Western Zhou
Bellows Beach. A coastal occupation site on flanged bell supported vertically from a loop is
Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, which has produced particularly close to zhong from the Yangzi
some of the earliest dates (AD 600-1000) for region: this type underwent no fundamental
occupation of this island group. The change in the Western Zhou period. The large
assemblage is of Early Eastern POLYNESIAN nao, however, designed originally to stand
type: shell fishhooks, stone adzes and bones of upright on its hollow stem, was adapted by the
pig, dog and rat. See also HALA wA. Western Zhou caster for suspension mouth
downward. This was managed by adding a
bells. China. Chinese bells of the SHANG and small suspension loop at the point where the
ZHOU dynasties have two peculiarities: they stem joins the bell proper; the bell supported
60 Belt Cave

by this loop hangs obliquely and is called a objects with more emphasis on size and
yong, short for yong zhong (i.e. a bell [zhong] exterior decoration.
with a stem [yong]. Examples found at
PuDUCUN date this innovation to the lOth Belt Cave. See GHAR-I KAMARBAND.
century BC or earlier.
In the Eastern Zhou period the most belt hook [or toggle]. Names applied to
common types of bell are the yong (the various garment hooks made in China as early
inverted nao) and the bo (descended from the as the 7th or 6th century BC (a date resting
zhong and thus ultimately from the ling, but partly on finds from LUOYANG Zhongzhoulu
now usually without flanges). Both types are and the HOUMA foundry site). Belt hooks have
found increasingly often in tuned sets called been found in HAN tombs at places as widely
bianzhong, the largest and most extraordinary scattered as LELANG in Korea and the DIAN
of such sets being the 5th-century BC chime of kingdom in southwestern China, but this
64 bells from SUI XIAN (see also XINY ANG ). luxury item enjoyed its greatest vogue during
Bianzhong, frequently accompanied by other the WARRING STATES period (5th-3rd
musical instruments, occur primarily in tombs centuries BC). Most examples are bronze,
in or near the territory of the CHU state. This is . often lavishly decorated with inlays, but a few
the same area of central China where Shang- are made of jade, gold, or iron. As a rule the
period finds regularly include large nao: the belt hook consists of a bar or flattish strip
Yangzi region seems to have been the home of curving into a hook at one end and carrying at
a musical tradition, no doubt serving a ritual the other end, on the back, a button for
purpose at least at first, for which there is little securing it to the belt. The hooks vary widely in
parallel at northern sites of any stage; see also size, shape, and design, and although con-
DRUMS (CHINA). temporary sculptures sometimes show them at
One provincial Eastern Zhou bell type the waists of human figures, some examples
stands outside the main classes. The chunyu, a are far too large to have been worn and their
fairly small bell made for use in war, is a function is unclear. Textual evidence hints that
slender relative of a kind of bronze drum the belt hook was adopted by the Chinese from
characteristic of the DIAN civilization of the mounted nomads of the northern frontier,
southwest China. Early versions of the chun yu perhaps along with other articles of the
are known from the lower Yangzi region. The horseman's costume.
type seems to have spread westward along the
Yangzi valley to Sichuan, where it is associated Belverde. A site of the APENNINE BRONZE
with the BA AND SHU cultures and typically AGE near Cetona in Tuscany, central Italy. It
carries a small three-dimensional tiger on its may have been a ritual site, as it is charac-
flat upper surface. terized by rocks carved to form tiers of seats, as
well as into other shapes. Moreover, complete
Japan. Unique among bells are the dotaku of pottery vessels filled with carbonized grain,
Japan, attributed to the latter half of the acorns and beans had been placed into fissures
YAYOJ period, in the first three centuries AD. in the rocks, perhaps as offerings to a deity.
More than 350 of these bronze bells, ranging
from 13 to 135 em in height, have been found Belzoni, Giovanni Battista (1778-1823). An
in western and central Honshu, with the centre Italian by birth, Belzoni made a reputation as
of distribution in the Osaka-Kyoto area. an unscrupulous robber of Egyptian tombs for
Several stone moulds for casting them have their antiquities, both on his own account and
been found at Yayoi settlement sites, but the for the British Consul-General, who collected
bells themselves come from isolated places on on behalf of the British Museum. An account
hills, singly or in groups and often in a of his colourful and bizarre adventures was
damaged state. The unusual manner of published in the year of his death under the
disposal, as well as the elaborate decoration, title Narrative of the Operations and Recent
suggests ritual significance. Later dotaku tend Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples,
to be larger and often lack the inside clapper Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia.
necessary to make sound. It is believed that the
dotaku developed out of the smaller bronze Benfica. A location near Luanda on the coast
bells found in Korean graves into ceremonial of Angola where chipped stone artefacts are
Bergen 61

associated with pottery apparently of Early of these was opened at Benty Grange, and an
Iron Age type, in a context dated to the 2nd Anglo-Saxon ceremonial helmet was found.
century ad. This is one of very few dated Unlike the SuTTON Hoo helmet, which has
occurrences of this period yet known from similarities to Swedish helmets, the Benty
Angola. Grange example is undoubtedly of native
workmanship. The helmet is an elaborate
Benghazi [ancient Euesperides; later object combining the pagan boar symbol with
Berenice]. Situated on the coast of Cyrenaica Christian crosses on the nail heads.
in Libya, the first city, Euesperides, was
probably founded from CYRENE in the 6th Beowulf. One of the earliest, longest and most
century BC; it was replaced in the mid-3rd complete examples of ANGLO-SAXON verse. It
century by a new city to the southwest, named takes the form of a heroic epic and was
Berenice after the wife of Ptolemy III. It probably written sometime during the 8th
continued in occupation until the 1Oth or 11th century. The poem is of singular historical and
century AD and was ultimately replaced by the social importance as well as being an out-
city of Benghazi. standing literary document of the period. Its
Excavations at various times have revealed themes are essentially the conflict between
evidence of the classical and Hellenistic levels, good and evil and the nature of heroism;
while British excavations in the 1970s have fantasy and reality are intertwined as the hero
revealed the final phase of occupation prior to Beowulf fights Grendel and other semi-
the town's capture by the Arabs in AD 642-5. mythological monsters. The poem gives an
The excavations confirmed the refurbishing of impression of Scandinavian nobility, warriors
the enclosing walls during Justinian's time (r. and lesser mortals, describing their customs,
527-565). They also charted the evolution and weapons, armour, dress and even the timber
later decay of a Christian basilica, which was banqueting halls.
used for some secondary purpose after the Perhaps Beowulf's greatest contribution to
capture of the town by the Arabs. archaeology is the light the poem has shed on
the funerary customs displayed in the SUTTON
Benin. This southern Nigerian city had HOO ship burial (see BOAT BURIAL). The
already risen to prominence before the first opening passages describe how the dead King
visit by the Portuguese in 1485. It was Scyld Scefing was borne out to sea in a ship;
probably shortly before that date that the jewels were placed on his chest, armour and
massive series of city walls, over 100 km in treasure heaped around his body, and a
total length, was constructed. Benin is best standard was hoisted overhead.
known to the outside world for the fine CIRE
PERDUE bronze castings, mostly relief plaques Bergen. A Norwegian royal foundation dating
and near life-size human heads produced back to 1070 and the reign of King Olaf. The
there over a long period; the heads show signi- town occupies a sheltered position on
ficant stylistic development until the 19th cen- Norway's western coast, and was from the
tury. It has been suggested that the origins of beginning an important trading port famous
the Benin bronze casting tradition may be for its role in the North Atlantic fishing
traced to IFE, but the connection is disputed. industry. Excavations begun in the Bryggen,
the harbour area, in the mid-1950s revealed a
Bennett, Wendell (1905-53). American sequence of levels that illustrate the evolution
archaeologist who excavated many important of the waterfront and its hinterland from the
sites in Peru. His studies of Peruvian ceramics 11th century onwards. These levels have been
made major contributions to the establishment accurately dated by a series of fires which
of the prehistoric sequences of both coastal occurred at various stages of Bergen's history.
and highland Peru. The waterlogged conditions have preserved
many of the timber buildings, streets and
Benty Grange Helmet. During the 19th quays, and it seems that building styles
century most of the prehistoric barrows in changed considerably over 400 years. The
Derbyshire were excavated, and secondary 11th-century houses and warehouses were
burials of Anglo-Saxon date were found in a carried on piles and had sills at ground level,
number ofthem. In 1848 the most spectacular while in the Hanseatic period during the 14th
62 Bering Land Bridge

and 15th centuries jetties became popular. include a stone stele of the pharaoh Sether.
The Bryggen excavations revealed a remark- Large numbers of tombs were excavated,
able collection of imported pottery from all representing all periods from the Early Bronze
over Europe as well as quantities ofleather and Age to the Byzantine period.
wooden objects. Parts ofthree trading ships or
freighters were also found in the excavations, Bewcastle Cross. A standing cross situated in
their timbers having been re-used in the the churchyard of Bewcastle, Northumber-
buildings. land, northern England, and one of the finest
examples of Early Christian NORTHUMBRIAN
Bering Land Bridge. The present-day floor of art. The headless sandstone column stands
the Chukchi and Bering Seas, which emerged 4.42 metres high and is profusely decorated in
as dry land during Late Pleistocene glacial the classically derived style typical of the
advances. Asian hunters, probably following period, probably transmitted to the British
migrating big game herds, are thought to have Isles by interchanges of missionaries and
entered the Americas by this route. During the imported manuscripts. The decoration is
most recent major advance (Late WISCONSIN) contained within distinct panels, and the
the ice-free bridge was open, to a maximum figures include Christ in Majesty, StJohn the
width of 2000 km, for most of the period Baptist and St John the Evangelist, while on
25,000 to 10,000 bp. The weight of the the back there is an inhabited vinescroll. Like
archaeological evidence shows this to be the the RUTHWELL CROSS, that at Bewcastle
most likely period for transmigration, possesses a poem inscribed in Runic script (see
although crossing during an earlier advance RUNES). Considerable debate surrounds the
cannot be completely ruled out. dating of Northumbrian sculpture, but current
opinion places this cross in the late 7th or early
berm. Flat area left between an earthwork 8th century.
such as a bank or BARROW and the top of an
associated ditch. Beycesultan. A TELL site on the Meander
River in southwestern Anatolia, with a long
betel nut. The hard nut of tne areca palm, occupation sequence through the CHALCO-
Areca catechu, is chewed together with LITHIC and Bronze Age. The most prosperous
powdered lime and pepper leaves (normally of period for Beycesultan was the Middle Bronze
Piper bet/e) as a stimulant from India through Age (early 2nd millennium BC), with a large
Southeast Asia to the Santa Cruz Islands of and elaborate palace, rather like those of the
MELANESIA. Archaeological occurrences MINOANS in Crete. A separate enclosure
include SPIRIT CAVE ( c10,000-7000 be), housed other public buildings, and a temple of
eastern Timor (early HOLOCENE) and several this phase has also been excavated. The whole
sites in the Philippines, where characteristic- settlement and a lower terrace on the river was
ally stained teeth have been found from c3000 enclosed by a perimeter wall. This town was
BC onwards. Oceanic peoples beyond Santa violently destroyed and although the settle-
Cruz used a different stimulant made from ment was rebuilt it remained relatively poor
roots of Piper methysticum (KAVA). into the Late Bronze Age. It is likely that
Beycesultan was a major city of the state
Beth Shan. A Palestinian mound with an known to the HITTITES as Arzawa.
occupation depth of 21.5 metres. A sounding
down to bedrock found traces of occupation Bhaja. A Buddhist site in western Deccan,
from the 4th millennium be onwards. Very India. In the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, STUPAS
little is known about the earliest levels, and rock-cut temples and monasteries were
although rectangular houses with apsidal ends excavated and decorated with sculpture in
of the late CHALCOLITHIC or Early Bronze relief. The early 2nd-century BC vihara
Age are documented. Most work was con- [monastery] has decoration which figures
centrated in an area containing superimposed VEDIC deities, appearing here as symbols of
temples from the Early Iron Age through to the Buddha who has assimilated their powers.
the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. A series
of fortresses of the 14th-12th centuries BC Bharhut. A Buddhist STUPA in central India.
attests a strong Egyptian presence, and finds The stupa may have been constructed in the
bird bones 63

AsOKAN period but the surviving structure orix, the defenders held on for 27 days before
belongs to the 2nd century BC. The railing the town was captured and the inhabitants
surrounding the stupa is decorated with scenes slaughtered by the Romans. The ramparts
from the Jataka stories. were of MURUS GALLICUS type and run for
nearly five km around the hilltop. Excavations
Bhir Mound. See T AXILA. in the 19th century revealed remains of both
the Iron Age settlement and of the Roman
bi [pzl. A JADE disc with circular central period, including a large temple, houses and
perforation. In Chinese texts of the Eastern metal-working workshops. As well as local
ZHOU period the word is used in this sense, but products, many imported objects were found,
can also refer more generally to any precious dating to before the Roman conquest- coins,
jade. Jade discs and disc-like axes have come amphorae, 'Campanian' black glaze and
from 4th- and 3rd-millennium BC graves at ARRETINE red glaze pottery - and it is clear
east-coast Neolithic sites such as BEIYINY ANG- that Bibracte was a major trading and pro-
YING (see also LIANGZHU). Polished stone disc duction centre in the late Iron Age.
segments are known still earlier at BANPO. The
traditional interpretation of bi discs as 'sym- Big Game Hunting tradition. An adaptation
bols of heaven' is a late invention unsupported to the grasslands environment of the Late
by archaeology or early texts. Pleistocene period in North America,
especially evident in the Great Plains. Large
bianzhong [pien-chung]. See BELLS (CHINA). game animals (megafauna) were hunted as the
primary means of subsistence. Lanceolate
Bible. The holy book of the Jewish (Old projectile points, such as CLOVIS and FoLSOM,
Testament only) and Christian (Old and New characterize the tradition. Approximate dates
Testaments) faiths. The Old Testament, are from 12,500 bp to 8000 bp, with consider-
written in Hebrew, represents a history of the able local variation. See Table 9, page 552.
Jewish people, beginning with the creation of
the world. The New Testament records the life
Bigo. A site in southwestern Uganda marked
and teachings of Christ. Much of early
by massive linear earthworks and recalled in
archaeological work in the Near East was
oral historical tradition as a former capital.
designed to illustrate or defend the biblical
The earthworks, over 10 km in total length,
account but today the Bible is used as a
attest to the organizational capabilities of the
historical source in a more critical and
early interlacustrine kingdoms. The site has
objective way and is recognized as a collection
also yielded an early 13th-15th century ad
of legends, myths and stories collected
occurrence of the roulette-decorated pottery
together long after events occurred. However
which is characteristic of the later Iron Age
archaeology has lent support to some biblical
over much of East Africa.
accounts, such as the population movements
of the biblical Patriarchs who moved into
Canaan during the 19th and 18th centuries BC. Bilzingsleben. Recent excavations on this
Moreover, the Bible has provided information travertine site in East Germany, not far from
on aspects of society such as marriage customs, Halle, have revealed thousands of stone tools
inheritance and land ownership which are of a Lower Palaeolithic CLACTONIAN-type
difficult to recreate from archaeological culture. A few human fossil skull pieces are
evidence. known. Numerous lines of evidence indicate
the interglacial environment and a date in the
Bibracte [modern Mont Beuvray]. An Iron penultimate or HoLSTEIN interglacial, perhaps
Age OPPIDUM near Bourges in central France. some 250,000-350,000 years ago.
The site of Mont Beuvray has been clearly
identified as Bibracte, capital of the Aedui bird bones. These are quite commonly
tribe before the foundation of Augustodunum preserved on archaeological sites. Identifica-
(AUTUN) some 30 km away c5 BC. Bibracte is tion is a very specialized skill, but considerable
known from Caesar's account as a major precision is often possible. Interpretation may
Aeduan stronghold and scene of one of the then be carried out in terms of diet and
fiercest battles against him. Led by Vercinget- reconstruction of the ancient environment.
64 Birdlip

Birdlip. A site near Gloucester with four CIST bred from zoo specimens. Two further species,
GRAVES of the 1st century BC. One cist now extinct, inhabited Europe for much of the
contained the skeleton of a woman together QUATERNARY period. The great steppe wisent
with bronze bowls, silver and gold bracelets, a (Bison priscus) was present during both
bronze brooch and a bronze mirror with INTERGLACIALS and cold periods. It was
incised and enamel decoration, a fine example particularly common in Britain during the
of insular CELTIC ART. DEVENSIAN cold stage. Bison schetensacki,
the smaller wood wisent, was only present in
Birsmatten. The Basis-Grotte at Birsmatten in Europe during interglacials. In America, a
the Bern district of Switzerland has one of the number of species preceded today's American
longest known sequences of MESOLITHIC bison.
deposits. There are several levels of SAUVE-
TERRIAN and TARDENOISIAN occupation and Black and Red ware. An Indian pottery type,
extensive human remains of Mesolithic man. red on the outside, but black on the inside and
round the rim, due to firing in the inverted
Bir Terfawi. A late ATERIAN site in the position. Characteristic forms include shallow
Egyptian Western Desert, dated to about dishes and deeper bowls. In one form or
42,000 be. The shores of a shallow lake were another this ware is found throughout much of
settled by hunters who preyed on a varied the Indian peninsula in the later 2nd and early
fauna including species of both Mediterranean 1st millennium BC. In the Ganges Valley it
and more southerly affinities. post-dates OCHRE-COLOURED POTTERY and
generally precedes PAINTED GREY WARE,
Bisitun [Behistun]. A rock face in northwest although on some sites it continues in use
Iran on which Darius I placed a trilingual alongside the latter.
inscription recording his military victories in
516 BC. The inscription was in Old Persian,
Black-figure ware. A phase in Greek vase
Elamite and Babylonian, all three written in painting. From about 720 BC vase-painters,
the CUNEIFORM script. In spite of the difficulty especially in Corinth and Athens, developed a
of gaining access to the high vertical face and of
characteristic style, in which one or more
copying the inscriptions, this feat was bands of human and animal figures are
accomplished by Henry RAWLINSON between silhouetted in black against a red background.
1835 and 1844. It enabled him subsequently
The red colour is given by the fabric of the pot
to understand the cuneiform script and to
when fired, but the exact details of the
decipher the languages of the inscription. This
technical process used are still unclear. The
provided the breakthrough to the decipher- delineation of the figures is often heightened
ment later of other languages in the cuneiform by the use of incised lines and the addition of
script, including SUMERIAN. white or purple colouring material. This style
Biskupin. An Iron Age settlement belonging was gradually succeeded, from c530 BC, by its
to the late LAUSITZ culture in northwest inverse, RED-FIGURE.
Poland. It was situated on an island and
defended with timber breakwaters and box Black Pottery cultures. See LoNGSHAN.
ramparts. More than 100 rectangular timber
houses were laid out on a regular street system Blackwater Draw. A deeply stratified site in
and may have housed up to 1000 people. eastern New Mexico, USA, with evidence of
Workshops for craftsmen in bronze, hom and occupation from earliest PALEO-INDIAN
bone were excavated. through ARCHAIC times. Stratigraphic
evidence has established unequivocally that
Bismarck Archipelago. See MELANESIA, the LLANO culture was earlier than FOLSOM,
NEW BRITAIN. and showed a clear association between
CLOVIS projectile points and mammoth kills.
bison. Two species of bison survive today: the Blackwater Draw is the type site for Clovis,
European bison or wisent (Bison bonasus) and has also become a major yardstick for
and the American bison (Bison bison). Only a evaluating chronological sequences at other
small number of European bison now exist, sites.
boat-shaped buildings 65

found in eastern Scandinavia in the late


Neolithic, so named because it resembles a
simple boat with upturned ends. The term
'Boat-axe culture' is sometimes used for the
east Scandinavian variant of the SINGLE
GRAVE or CORDED WARE culture in which
these axes occur.

boat burial. A pagan burial ritual widely


adopted by the VIKINGS, and practised to a
lesser extent by the ANGLO-SAXON and
Germanic races before them. The Anglo-
Saxon poem BEOWULF demonstrates the
belief that the journey to the afterlife could be
achieved in a vessel, and indeed the Saxon boat
graves excavated beneath the barrows at
SUTTON Hoo and Snape in East Anglia
provide physical evidence to bear out the
literature. But, although boat burials are
known from Europe at this time, they are a
fairly rare phenomenon and it was the Vikings
who from the 9th century onwards developed
Blade boat burial into a cult. In Norway alone there
are 500 known boat graves, and many more
blade. The basis of stone technology is the from the rest of Scandinavia and other Viking
removal of pieces of flint or other stone by colonies. To these seafaring people, ships were
striking the parent nodule or CORE with a a means of transport, a way of life, and symbols
hammer. When the flakes removed are of power and prestige, in death as in life.
elongated so as to be at least twice as long as Usually the body or cremated remains were
they are wide, they are called blades. A typical placed in a vessel which was then deposited
blade has parallel sides and regular scars under a mound; when excavated, only traces
running down its back parallel with the sides. of planks in the soil and a few iron clamps tend
The prerequisite for blade production is the to remain. The best-known burials after
preparation of a blade core of elongated or Sutton Hoo are the 9th-century barrows of
prismatic shape. Blades appear at an early 0SEBERG and GOKSTAD in Norway, and the
stage of technological development, but they lOth-century barrow at Ladby in Denmark.
become important from the Upper PALAEO- These boats have been a major source of
LITHIC onwards. evidence for the history of seafaring.

bleeper. A type of proton GRADIOMETER, in boat-shaped buildings. A variety of long


which the reading is given as a series of bleeps. house with bowed sides, known from Scand-
This design of MAGNETOMETER is very cheap inavia and Scandinavian colonies in other
to produce, and has therefore been widely parts of Europe throughout the VIKING
used in archaeology. period. The finest examples have been
excavated at 11th-century Viking camps such
bloodletting. See PERFORATION. as TRELLEBORG in southern Jutland. A typical
example has been reconstructed at Trelleborg
bloom. A spongy mass of IRON and SLAG, with walls made of halved tree-trunks set in
resulting from the initial SMELTING of iron ore. rows, with the curved face outwards as in stave
churches. In this case there seems to have been
bo [poj. See BELLS (CHINA). a series of angled posts around the outside
acting rather like buttresses and giving
Boadicea. See BOUDICCA. additional support to the gabled roof with its
curved ridge. The roof may have been covered
boat axe. A special type of stone BATILE-AXE in wooden shingles, thatch or turf.
66 Boca Chica

Archaeological investigations of the Viking bog burials. Name given to the human bodies
Age royal sites in Denmark as well as other found in peat bogs in Scandinavia and
settlements have revealed considerable northern Europe, including more than 160
variations in boat-shaped houses according to from Denmark. They are renowned for the
function and locality. There are examples built remarkable preservation of the bodies caused
in dry stone with internal aisles, or dry-stone by the chemicals in the peat, which has allowed
and turf, or half-timbered types, but most of archaeologists to study aspects of past life
them do not have provision for an animal byre, usually lost, including the soft tissues of the
which is the essence of the true European bodies themselves and the contents of the
LONG HOUSE. A few examples have been stomachs. Most of the bodies apparently date
discovered in English contexts, notably one to the first few centuries of the present era and
possible boat-shaped building from HAMWIH had been deliberately killed. It is not clear
and another from Bucken, Huntingdonshire. whether they represent executed criminals or
sacrificial victims, or both. See also GRAD-
Boca Chica. See CHICO !D. BALLE MAN, TOLLUND MAN.

Bochica See CHIBCHA. Boghazkoy. The site of the HITIITE New


Kingdom capital, Hattusas, occupying a rock
Bodh Gaya. A site in northeast India, famous citadel called Biiyiikkale in central Turkey.
as the scene of the Buddha's enlightenment. Little is known of the CHALCO LITHIC or Hittite
Archaeological remains include an AsoKAN Old Kingdom phases on the site; excavation
pillar, erected by the emperor on his pilgrim- has in the main concentrated on the
age of 249 BC, and a railing surrounding the monuments of the New Kingdom city, after
tree beneath which the Buddha meditated for c1400 BC, which covered c120 hectares and
six years before his enlightenment (perhaps was defended by a stone and mud-brick city
2nd century Be). wall. A series of major buildings on the citadel
represents administrative quarters and royal
Bodrogkeresztur. The eponymous site of the buildings, including an audience hall. Two of
Middle Copper Age culture of eastern these buildings housed archives of clay tablets
Hungary comprises a LINEAR POTIERY inscribed in the CUNEIFORM script and Hittite
domestic occupation stratified below a language; there were more than 10,000 of
medium-sized Copper Age inhumation these tablets and they have provided much
cemetery. The Bodrogkeresztur culture information about the Hittites. Another
represents the first peak of metallurgical important building was Temple I, not on the
development in Hungarian prehistory, citadel, but in the lower town, which consisted
defined by large-scale production of gold of a series of rooms around three sides of a
ornaments and heavy shaft-hole copper tools court with a colonnade on the fourth. Other
(axes, adzes and hammer-axes). The principal temples have been excavated on the citadel
landscape feature was the nucleated cemetery and in the lower town and there is a rock-cut
which served dispersed hamlets. Long- sanctuary c2 km away at Y AZILIKA YA. There
distance exchange is witnessed by the occur- were at least six gateways in the city wall and
rence in the Pannonian Basin of Transylvanian three of these were decorated with impressive
gold, Slovakian copper and flint from Poland carved reliefs. The city fell at the same time as
and the Dniester valley. the Hittite empire, in the early 12th century
BC.
bog. A term generally used to describe
communities of plants growing on acid water- Boian. After the excavations of !.Nestor in
logged ground, as opposed to FEN. Three main 1925 at the Boian A tell, it became possible to
types of bog can be distinguished: valley bogs divide the Rumanian Neolithic into two
remain waterlogged due to the concentration phases: an earlier, Boian, phase and a later
of drainage into a valley; raised bogs form as GUMELNITA, phase. The Boian culture is now
large pillows of PEAT, and are kept water- recognized as the principal Middle Neolithic
logged by high rainfall; blanket bogs form culture in Muntenia, in the lower Danube
through the growth of the organic horizons of valley of Rumania c4200-3700 be. During the
GLEYED PODZOLS. Boian period, settlement became more long-
bone dating 67

lived and spread from the hitherto favoured celebration). Aside from the artistic achieve-
first terrace-floodplain ecotone into the fertile ment, the murals provide remarkably detailed
interfluve zone. While intramural burial is information on Maya dress, music and
most common, occasional large inhumation weaponry.
cemeteries are known (see CERNICA ).
Flourishing exchange networks are known to Bondi point. A small asymmetric backed
involve Prut VaHey flint, SPONDYLUS sheHs point, named after a site at Bondi, Sydney,
from the Black Sea, and copper. Australia. It is usually less than 5 em long and is
sometimes described as a backed blade. A
Bolling interstadial. An INTERSTADIAL of the component of the AUSTRALIAN SMALL TOOL
WEICHSELIAN cold stage. It is dated to TRADITON, it occurs on coastal and inland sites
between 13,000 and 12,000 bp. across Australia, generally south of the Tropic
of Capricorn. The oldest examples come from
Bologna [Bononia ]. The general area at the southeast Australia, dating from about 3000
eastern end of the Po Valley now covered by be, and the most recent are 300-500 years old.
the sprawl of modern Bologna, is naturally The Bondi point was not being used by Abori-
favourable to agriculture, and straddles gines when Europeans arrived, but traces of
obvious lines of communication between resin on the backed margins of several exam-
plain, mountain and seaboard. Evidence for ples suggest that the points were set in wooden
settlement is often virtually obliterated by handles or shafts.
successive re-use. In the earliest phases, we
have transient Bronze Age groups, followed bone. In life, bone is one of the connective
by many traces of Iron Age huts and tombs tissues of the body and consists of crystallites
{VILLANOVAN). From the 6th century BC ofthe mineral hydroxyapatite, deposited on a
urbanization arrived with the Etruscans, for fibrous matrix of the protein COLLAGEN.
whom the city became the capital of the Po Mineral occupies 71 per cent of the volume,
Valley, under the name of Felsina, with coHagen 19 per cent, other proteins 2 per cent,
important trade links with Spina on the and water 8 per cent. After death, the proteins
Adriatic coast. Traces of street plans survive, slowly decompose (this gradual decomposi-
as do cemeteries with trench-type inhumation tion forms the basis of a BONE DATING method
and cremation. Finds include sandstone grave -nitrogen analysis). The remaining mineral is
stelae and many grave goods. Subsequently subject to solution in acid soil conditions.
occupied by the Boii, a Celtic tribe who Bones are preserved on a wide variety of
invaded the area and established themselves in archaeological sites, and the state of bone
the Po VaHey, the city became the regional preservation varies widely. Two main types of
capital for the invaders and, presumably from bone are found in mature animals: compact, or
them, gained its new name, Bononia. Taken by cortical bone and cancellous, spongy or
the Romans in 196 BC and declared a COL- trabecular bone. Compact bone forms the
ONIA, the city enjoyed considerable dense outer layer in a particular structure of
importance and success. the skeleton. Cancellous bone is found inside,
forming a light internal framework. Bones as
Bonampak. A MAY A CEREMONIAL CENTRE elements of the skeleton have a number of
located close to the Lacanha River in the forms: long bones- as in the limbs; flat bones
tropical rain-forest of northeast Chiapas, -as in the cranial vault of the skull; cuboidal
Mexico. Dating to the Late CLASSIC PERIOD bones - as in the wrists and ankles; irregular
( c450-750), it is most notable for its poly- bones - vertebrae and bones of the face and
chrome murals which can be tightly dated to jaws. For the study of bones from archaeo-
800 on the basis of LONG COUNT inscriptions. logical sites, see SKELETON.
The so-called Temple of the Paintings consists Bone was also used as a raw material for
of three rooms, painted from floor to ceiling making artefacts.
with scenes of ceremony, battle and sacrifice.
Hieroglyphs also occur frequently and the bone dating. BONE may be dated in a number
whole collection is seen as a continuous of ways. The most commonly used is RADIO-
narrative (showing the battle itself, the CARBON DATING: both the COLLAGEN and
disposal of the captives and the victory mineral components of bone are dateable.
68 bone measurement

Recently a number of bone samples have been Germanic interlace. The script is an Irish
dated by a URANIUM SERIES method. Relative minuscule combining elements of Latin, and is
dates may be obtained from time-related written on vellum. The contents of the work
chemical changes which occur in bone after include gospels, prefaces, summaries and
burial. In particular, these include FLUORINE concordances, with a large portion of 11th-
DATING, NITROGEN DATING and AMINO ACID century legal documents relating to the abbey
RACEMIZATION. of Kells.
The decorative style of the Book of Kells
bone measurement. Dimensions of skeletal owes something to the Book of Durrow and
structures can be taken using a variety of other earlier Irish manuscripts, but the tightly
calipers and other measuring equipment. The packed repetitious motifs are a new advance,
aim of such work is to compare the size and as are the interlinear drawings. The dazzling
shape of BONES between many different colours and profuse ornament range across the
individuals. This is done by statistical methods, carpet pages and large decorated monograms,
nowadays using MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS to while the many portrait pages display very
compare many measurements at once. Com- stylized versions of Christ, the Evangelists and
parisons of this kind can help in identifying the Virgin and Child, all with elaborate
bones (for example in distinguishing SHEEP hairstyles and stiffly folded garments. Much of
from GOAT), in sex determination and in the decorative inspiration for this work could
studying the genetics of groups of animals. have come from the metalwork produced at
Much work has been carried out with human the beginning ofthe 8th century.
skull measurements to investigate the
genetical relationships of ancient populations. boomerang. A curved wooden throwing stick
of thin bi-convex or semi-oval cross-section,
Bonfire Shelter. See PLANO. distributed widely over Australia but
unknown in Tasmania. The boomerang was
Bongkisam. See SANTUBONG. most frequently used as a fighting or hunting
weapon, with marked regional variations in
Bon-po religion. The ancient shamanic design and decoration. The returning type was
religion of pre-Buddhist Tibet. Many small usually regarded as a plaything. Boomerangs
bronze artefacts found throughout Tibet - excavated from peat deposits in Wyrie
evidently amulets, decorations for clothing Swamp, South Australia, have been dated to
and horse harness, and jewellery - incorpor- c8000 be.
ate its symbolism of significant numbers
(three, seven, thirteen) and mythical animals, Boomplaas. A cave near Oudtshoorn in the
especially the benevolent k'yun, a bird with Folded Mountain Belt of the Cape Province,
horns, and the demoniac mk'a'-Idin. South Africa, containing a long sequence of
The royal tombs at AP"YON-RGY AS are Upper PLEISTOCENE and HOLOCENE
entirely a product of Bon -po ritual, despite the deposits. The earliest occupation probably
fact that the kings buried within them had took place some 80,000 years ago. Following a
introduced Buddhism to Tibet. The kings of long 'Middle Stone Age' sequence which has
the Royal Dynastic period ( c620-842) were all not yet been reported in detail, there are
given traditional pre-Buddhist funerals, successive occupations attributed to the
conducted by Bon-po priests or shamans, in ROSBERG, ALBANY and WILTON industries.
tombs incorporating Bon-po symbolism. Excellent conditions of preservation com-
bined with meticulous excavation methods
Book of Kells. One of the earliest ILLUMIN- have yielded a wealth of information
ATED MANUSCRIPTS of Europe, produced concerning the exploitation of vegetable and
either at Kells (the Columban monastery animal foods through this long sequence. By
founded by the monks of IONA when they fled the 3rd century ad domestic small stock are
from the Vikings in 806) or at Iona itself. Its attested.
appearance bears a strong resemblance to Irish
manuscripts and metalwork ofthe early part of Boreal. A climatic sub-division of the FLAND-
the 8th century, with vibrant complex designs RIAN period, supposed to be warm and dry.
of Celtic spirals and scrolls intermixed with Godwin's POLLEN ZONES V and VI
bosing 69
correspond to the Boreal period in the British to c400 and thus being the earliest historical
Isles. Zone V was dominated by birch and document on the island, found in the present
hazel, the latter rising through the zone to Sultanate ofKutei, emanates from an obvious-
dominate Zone VI. The forest trees, elm, oak, ly Indianized king. The earliest secure Chinese
alder and lime rose through Zone VI, to information concerning Borneo (P'o-ni) is
dominate in the succeeding Zone VIla, the only from 977, and in 1082 the History of the
ATLANTIC period. In some areas, notably the Sung records an embassy from the Maharaja
North York moors, southern Pennines and of Borneo. But in a 13th-century Chinese
lowland heaths, MESOLITHIC man appears to source a country called Tan-jung-wu-lo (Tan-
have been responsible for temporary clear- jang Pura) in southwestern Borneo is men-
ances by fire, even before forest became tioned as the dependency of a Javanese king-
established, and initiated the growth of moor dom. From this time on, Borneo has to be seen
and heath vegetation. politically as an extended part of JAvA.

Borg-in-Nadur. A fortified promontory site in Borobudur. A Mahayana Buddhist monu-


southeast Malta, which has given its name to ment near Yogyakarta in Central Java,
the later Bronze Age culture of the island. The Indonesia, which is the largest Buddhist
settlement was surrounded by walls of monument in the world. In the form of a
CYCLOPEAN MASONRY and enclosed oval huts. stepped pyramid, constructed of local volcanic
The discovery of a sherd of MYCENAEAN stone around and over a natural hill, it consists
pottery points to long-distance trading of six square and three circular superimposed
contacts. terraces, crowned by a large STUP A; measuring
123 metres square at the base and with a height
Borneo. The largest island of Southeast Asia, of 3 5 metres to the top of the stupa. The monu-
situated at the eastern edge of the SUNDA ment was built as a place of meditation by SAIL-
SHELF. Borneo, withSUMATRAandJAvA, was EN ORA kings from c780 onward and was com-
joined to mainland Southeast Asia during pleted about 80 years later by SANJAYA kings.
PLEISTOCENE periods of low sea-level, but so The lower, square terraces, with their galleries
far no traces of settlement by Homo erectus, containing 1300 reliefs, represent the World
attested from 2 million years ago on Java, have of Form ( Rupadhatu), whereas the unadorned
been found. Archaeological sequences so far circular terraces above symbolize the World of
come from purely coastal locations, particu- Formlessness (Arupadhatu). There are 504
larly the NIAH CAVES of Sarawak, and the statues of the Buddha on the Borobudur.
MAD AI-Tingkayu region of Sabah (all in East
Malaysia). The Niah Great Cave sequence boshanlu [po-shan-lu]. A Chinese incense
suggests the presence of a population of early burner ( lu) with a lid designed to represent
Australoid affinity from about 40,000 years mountain peaks (Boshan is a mountain in
ago, and all the sites mentioned, together with Shandong province). Made either of pottery
linguistic evidence, suggest that the ancestors or bronze, the boshanlu takes the form of a
of the present AuSTRONESIAN-speaking stemmed bowl with a perforated conical lid.
populations of Borneo arrived with a horti- Most examples date from the Western HAN
cultural economy soon after 3000 be, probably period. One ofthe finest, from the tomb ofLiu
from the Philippines. No traces now survive in Sheng ( d.l13 BC) at MAN CHENG, is inlaid with
Borneo of earlier Australoid or Negrito gold, and shows the mountain, populated by
populations. For protohistoric sites and trade animals and men, rising from swirling ocean
with China, see KOTA BATU, SANTUBONG, waves. These censers may depict a mythical
T ANJONG KUBOR. Isle of the Immortals where elixirs of
The island does not seem to have played a immortality were supposedly to be found.
significant part in the early history of
Southeast Asia. The very few Brahmanic or bosing. A method of detecting buried features
Buddhist images found along the major rivers of archaeological sites. The fill of pits and
do not prove an Indian cultural influence. ditches, or hollow chambers, may resonate if
Some small INDIANIZED kingdoms must the ground is struck with a heavy implement.
nevertheless have existed from the 4th century Bosing has been successful in finding sites
in coastal areas. A Sanskrit inscription, dated (particularly tomb chambers), but it is not as
70 bossed bone plaque

objective as other geophysical methods of erected as early as the 6th or 5th millennium
investigation. be.

bossed bone plaque. Objects of unknown Boucher de Perthes, Jacques (1788-1868). A


function made of bone and carved with a row customs officer from Abbeville in northern
of adjacent round bosses; incised decoration France who collected stone tools of the type
may occur on the background and sometimes now known as HAND AXES from the gravels of
on the bosses themselves. Bossed bone the River Somme in the 1830s, 1840s and
plaques have been found in the eastern and 1850s. His claims that these objects were
central Mediterranean at TROY, LERNA, indeed the tools of ancient man and that they
Altamura in southern Italy, CASTELLUCCIO in occurred in association with the bones of
Sicily and on Malta. They all date to the later extinct animals were ridiculed by scholars of
3rd millennium be (earlier 3rd millenium BC) the time and his three-volume work Antiquites
and because of their close similarity are Ce/tiques et Antediluviennes, the first volume
thought to represent traded objects. of which was published in 1847, was largely
ignored. However in the 1850s scholars were
gradually converted to his views and in 1859
Bosumpra. A cave site near Abetifi in his excavations were visited by three dis-
southern Ghana which yielded one of the first tinguished Britons - Hugh Falconer, John
scientifically excavated assemblages of a West Prestwich and John EVANS - who were
African Neolithic industry. More recent convinced by what they saw. From that point
investigations have provided a radiocarbon on the antiquity of man was widely accepted in
chronology, showing that the site's occupation the scholarly world.
began around the middle of the 4th millen-
nium be and continued for at least 3000 years. Boudicca [inaccurately Boadicea]. Queen of
Throughout the sequence a microlithic the lceni, a British tribe inhabiting a large area
chipped-stone industry was associated with of East Anglia. Under a special client-king
simple pottery and with ground stone agreement (dependent sovereignty), their
implements of axe-like or hoe-like form; the King Prasutagus was permitted to continue
last two categories of artefact became ruling after the Romans began to occupy
progressively more common through the Britain in AD 43. Upon his death ( c60), Rome
occupation. The site has yielded no conclusive took advantage of the King's ill-advised will,
evidence for the practice of food production under which he left his kingdom jointly to the
which is, however, attested elsewhere in Emperor and his own daughters, and moved
Ghana from the 2nd millennium be (see directly to annex the territory. Apparently for
KINTAMPO). daring to object Queen Boudicca was savagely
beaten and her daughters raped. This pro-
Botta, Paul-Emile (1802-70). French vocation, coming on top of excessive taxation
consular agent in Iraq from 1840 to 1843 who and other forms of harassment, goaded
conducted excavations on the Mesopotamian Boudicca into leading a massive rebellion
sites of Kuyunjik (NINEVEH) and KHORSA- involving the entire southeast of the province.
BAD. These were the earliest excavations in TACITUS relates the burning of COLCHESTER
Mesopotamia and were conducted without [ Camoludunum], LoNDON [ Londinium] and
any kind of scientific method, with the sole St Albans [VERULAMIUM]. The rebellion was
object of unearthing, and where possible eventually crushed by the governor Suetonius
removing, antiquities; many of the Khorsabad Paulinus, and Boudicca committed suicide by
sculptures are now in the Louvre in Paris. taking poison.

Bouar. A numerous series of megalithic boulder clay. A type of TILL. The term is
monuments in a restricted area of the Central sometimes (erroneously) used to mean all
African Republic, consisting of settings of kinds of till.
standing stones associated with tumuli. Dating
evidence derived from such excavations as bouleuterion. Council-house for the meetings
have yet taken place is hard to interpret, but it of the Greek city council (boule). Probably not
is possible that some of the monuments were originally distinctive in architecture, it seems
Branc 71

to be one of a range of straightforward rect- brated radiocarbon years; the capitals BP


angular civic buildings. The internal space was denote a calibrated radiocarbon date,or a date
probably undivided, except by a number of derived from some other dating method, such
columns to hold up the roof structure, and as POTASSIUM-ARGON, that does not need
seating would normally be provided. CALIBRATION (see Table 8, page 422).
ARCHAIC and CLASSICAL examples have been
found at ATHENS, and a large elaborate brachycephalic. Broad headed, having a
HELLENISTIC example ( c170 BC) at MILETUS. CEPHALIC INDEX of 80 to 84.9.

Bouqras. A 7th-millennium be PRE-POTTERY Bradford-on-Avon. St Lawrence Church in


NEOLITHIC B village site near the River Bradford-on-Avon in Somerset, is possibly
Euphrates in Syria. The first occupation phase the finest and best-preserved AANGLO-SAXON
had two levels with rectangular mud-brick church in England. The church is a small
houses. The next four levels had more solid chapel, with a tall nave and chancel flanked by
mud-brick houses, some with plastered floors, two side-porticos. There is some controversy
benches and pillars. The animal economy was as to its date, but it is likely that the major part
based on the hunting of wild animals except in of the present building is the one that St
the final phase, when sheep and cattle were Aldhelm founded in the early 8th century. The
bred. On the plant side, sickle blades, interior is enhanced by two lOth-century
pounders and querns - used either for wild or angels in WINCHESTER style carved over the
cultivated plants - appear in the first phase, chancel arch, by the perfect examples of
but afterwards disappear from the toolkit. double-splayed windows, and the decorated
Artefacts include a 'white ware', made of stone altar. The exterior walls of the nave and
mixed lime and ash and used to cover baskets, chancel are embellished by an unusual form of
producing watertight vessels. Obsidian occurs arcading which stands out in relief from the
in large quantities, indicating extensive trade ashlar walls.
networks linking Bouqras with the source sites
in Anatolia. Brahmagiri. See MEGALITHS (INDIA).

bowl barrow. See BARROW. Brak, Tell. A TELL site of c30 hectares on the
Khabur River in northeast Syria overlooking
box flue. [Latin tubulus: box tile]. A term an important river crossing. Material from the
denoting the hollow box-shaped TERRACOTT A HALAF and UBAID periods indicates a long
tiles which were joined together to form history, but the site is best known for its
passages in the walls and roofing of Roman sequence of rich temples of the late URUK and
imperial buildings, especially BATHS, to carry JEMDET NASR periods, when it was clearly an
furnace-heated hot air up from the hollow important centre. Most famous of all is the so-
HYPOCAUST floors. called Eye Temple, richly decorated with clay
cones, copper panels and gold work, in a style
Boyne culture. The term used for the PASSAGE very similar to that found in the contemporary
GRA YES of the Boyne Valley in Ireland, dated temples of SUMER (southern Mesopotamia).
to the 4th millennium BC. They are notable for Later, in the 3rd millennium BC, Tell Brak
their size, the architectural expertise shown in became a provincial capital of the AKKADIAN
their construction, and their decoration. The empire; the palace of Naramsin of this period
area must have been a centre of some import- was more of a depot for the storage of tribute
ance, as five HENGES have been found, as well and loot than a residential seat. The city was
as a number of large mounds covering passage plundered after the fall of the Akkadian
graves, including KNOWTH and NEw empire, but the palace was rebuilt in the UR III
GRANGE. period by Ur Nammu.

BP, bp. Years before present. The 'present' Brant. Cemetery of the Early Bronze Age
referred to is the year AD 1950, the latest that Nitra group in southwest Slovakia. 308 graves
the atmosphere was sufficiently uncontam- have been excavated by J.Vladar, mostly
inated to act as a standard for RADIOCARBON simple rectangular pits, sometimes with a
DATING. The lower case 'bp' represents uncali- wooden lining, containing inhumation burials.
72 Brassempouy

An interesting study of the grave goods by He proposed a series of four successive art
Susan Shennan suggests that certain burials styles, based on the superposition of paintings
stand out as noticeably rich, on the basis of the found in many caves, and held the view that the
rarity of the raw materials employed and the purpose of the paintings was sympathetic
amount of time taken to produce the goods. magic, to ensure success in hunting.
Both males and females were buried with rich
goods (more females) and it is suggested that brick. A shaped CLAY block, used in building,
women may have achieved their wealth or the material from which such blocks are
through marriage. Some children's burials made. The brick clay may be hardened by
were rich, suggesting that wealth was ascribed baking in a kiln, in which case it may be termed
(inherited) rather than achieved. TERRACOTTA. In drier climates, such baking is
not so necessary and bricks may be dried in the
Brassempouy. The Grotte du Pape near sun; such bricks may be called mud-brick or
Brassempouy in the Landes, southwest adobe.
France, had a long series of early Upper
PALAEOLITHIC deposits, but the early excav-
ations by PIETTE do not enable the exact Bristlecone Pine. See DENDROCHRONOLOGY.
sequence to be reconstructed. The site is Britannia. Name given by the Romans to the
famous for a series of carved ivories, broken imperial province of Britain, occupied from 43
statuettes of the 'venus' (see VENUS FIGUR- to 410, and comprising England, Wales and
INES) type and a head with some facial (for much of the 2nd century) lowland
features. Scotland. In 197 the province was divided into
two, c300 into four, and in 369 into five
Bratthalio. See GREENLAND. smaller provinces.
breadfruit. The breadfruit tree ( Artocarpus
a/tilis) provides a large, starchy fruit which Brno [German: Briinn]. The capital of
requires cooking before it can be eaten. The Moravia, the central province of Czecho-
tree was probably first brought into cultivation slovakia. Important PALAEOLITHIC and
in a region extending from the Philippines to geological sites surround the town, and are
New Guinea, and attained its greatest illustrated in a fine regional museum. Several
economic importance in the Polynesian interesting Palaeolithic discoveries have been
Islands, especially the Marquesas and Tahiti, found in the confines of the town. The most
whither it was presumably carried by the first important was a burial found in Francouzska
settlers clS00-2000 years ago. The fruit was Street in 1891. Covered in red ochre and with
also dried or allowed to ferment, and could mammoth tusks and ornaments,it is one of the
then be stored for several years in earliest Upper Palaeolithic burials known,
underground pits (especially in the possibly c30,000 be. The skull retains such
Marquesas). In 1788 Captain William Bligh primitive features as large brow ridges.
was attempting to take breadfruit saplings
from Tahiti to the West Indies when the Broadbeach. A burial ground in coastal dunes
famous mutiny on HMS Bounty occurred. south of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Excavations indicated that during the last
breccia. A SEDIMENT composed of angular 1300 years about 200 individuals may have
fragments of gravel. been buried there. There were wide variations
in burial practices, possibly related to age, sex
Breuil, Abbe Henri (1877-1961). French and status; they included primary, secondary,
Catholic priest who made major contributions single and multiple burials, as well as
to PALAEOLITHIC archaeology and especially cremations. Skeletons were extended, flexed
to the study of the Upper Palaeolithic CAVE or wrapped in bundles, and deposited in
ART of France and northern Spain. He made vertical or horizontal pits. Red ochre was
detailed studies of nearly all the known present in nearly all graves, while grave goods
decorated caves and to this day many of the included stone and shell arrangements, and
illustrations of cave paintings published are bone and shell tools. Evidence of charcoal and
derived from Breuil's copies of the originals. food remains in and on top of the filled graves
Bronze Age 73
suggested that a cooked meal was part of the of the Charaman industry but of the SANGOAN
burial ritual. or late Acheulian material also found in the
vicinity.
broch. A type of circular building found in
north Scotland and the Isles from around the
tum of the Christian era. Brochs were built of Broken K Pueblo. A single-storey masonry
drystone walling, up to o:J metres thick; the PUEBLO located 18 km east of Snowflake,
brochs themselves may be up to 12 metres in Arizona, and one of the exemplary models of
diameter. They contained many chambers and the practice of NEW ARCHAEOLOGY along
stone stairways leading up to tiers of galleries with William Longacre's Carter Ranch
above, and may have been fortified home- excavations and James Deetz's Arikara study.
steads, since good arable land is usually to be Using pollen evidence, James N. Hill was able
found in the vicinity. to isolate the function of several room types,
and with detailed analysis of style based on
Broederstroom. An extensive Early Iron Age computer-related statistical techniques he
village site west of Pretoria, South Africa, extrapolated details of the social systems
which has yielded an unusually complete which operated at the site, such as division of
picture of village life in the mid-1st millennium labour and post-marital domicile.
ad. Remains of 13 circular houses, spread over
an area of some two hectares, have been
bronze. An ALLOY of COPPER. Tin bronzes are
investigated. Iron-smelting is attested, as is the
herding of cattle, sheep and goats. The copper alloys that contain more than 1 per cent
typology of the Broederstroom pottery TIN. Most Bronze Age bronzes contained
suggests that the Early Iron Age population of around 10 or 12 per cent tin, but some have as
this area had connections with contempor- much as 37 per cent. Bronzes, like copper, are
aneous peoples further to the northwest. relatively soft and can be COLD WORKED.
Similarly, they have a relatively low melting
Broken Hill. A mine at Kabwe in central point, and could be melted and CAST in
Zambia, exploited from the early years of the antiquity. The advantage of tin bronze over
present century. Mining operations have copper lies in ease of casting and in increased
exposed a long series of stone industries hardness. Many of the first bronzes to appear
extending from the ACHEULIAN to the in the European Early Bronze Age had a lower
CHARAMAN. Particular interest attaches to a tin content and a high ARSENIC content
cave, now completely quarried away, from (see COPPER). These may be regarded as
which abundant faunal remains were transitional between copper and bronze.
recovered in association with a Charaman Bronzes can be made by SMELTING copper
stone industry and perhaps with earlier and tin ores together in a simple furnace,
artefacts also. In 1922, fossil human remains but better control of the proportions can
were discovered, including a complete skull in be obtained by smelting the two metals
a remarkably fine state of preservation. separately and subsequently remelting and
Generally attributed to a sub-group of HOMO mixing them. During the Late Bronze Age
SAPIENS, H. s. rhodesiensis (RHODESIAN LEAD, which had hitherto been present at less
MAN], the skull has marked brow ridges, a than 1 per cent, was added at around 4 to 7 per
sharply receding forehead and a cranial cent (up to 15 per cent). The reason for this is
capacity of 1280 cubic centimetres. Different unclear.
authorities have varyingly emphasized the
specimen's affinity to the European and Near Bronze Age. Second age of the THREE AGE
Eastern neanderthaloids, or the features SYSTEM, defined by the use of bronze as the
which are reminiscent of HOMO ERECfUS. main material for making tools. The term is
Dating by the AMINO-ACID RACEMIZATION still widely used in West Asiatic and European
technique indicates an age of more than prehistory. The dates of the Bronze Age vary
100,000years. Together with thefactthatover from area to area, but in general terms it
25 per cent of the species represented by the belongs to the 3rd and 2nd millennia sc in
associated faunal remains are now extinct, this Western Asia, the 2nd and early 1st millennia
suggests that the skull is that of the maker not BC in Europe.
74 bronzes (China)

bronzes (China). See RITUAL VESSELS CULTURE by the decoration on the underside
(CHINA), BELLS (CHINA), MIRRORS, DRUMS of the capstone; such decoration is rare outside
(CHINA). Ireland, although it occurs on another Angle-
sey passage grave, at BARCLODIAD Y GA w-
Brook Street. See WINCHESTER. RES. Another distinctive feature of this tomb is
the four concentric STONE CIRCLES surround-
Brorup interstadial. An interstadial of the ing the chamber, the outer one surrounding
WEICHSELIAN cold stage. It has been dated by the base of the cairn.
radiocarbon to between 63,000 and 61,000
bp, but this is at the extreme range of the Brzesc Kujawski. A multi-focal site of the
technique (see RADIOCARBON DATING) and it LENGYEL culture located in the Blackearth
may be earlier. region ofKujavia, central Poland, and dated to
the early 4th millennium be. Brzesc Kujawski
Brown Forest soil. The type of SOIL which comprises a large settlement site of roO
develops under mature deciduous woodland. trapezoidal LONG HOUSES, smaller sites of one
Variants of the Brown Forest soil are thought or more house clusters and a large flat
to have covered most of the British Isles and inhumation cemetery with double graves,
temperate Europe under the great forests animal burials and rich copper grave goods.
which existed during the middle of the present The Lengyel village has four phases of
INTERGLACIAL (see ATLANTIC). The soil type occupation, indicated by overlapping house
is characteristically penetrated by tree roots, plans and suggestive of cyclic agriculture.
and actively worked by EARTHWORMS to a
considerable depth, so that litter from the trees Bubanj-hum. A poorly understood group
which falls on to the surface is rapidly incorp- dated to the late 4th to early 3rd millennia be in
orated into the soil. The top of the PROFILE is the Morava valley of eastern Yugoslavia. The
marked by a thick, strongly structured and eponymous site, on a gravel terrace of the
well-mixed HORIZON of mineral material and Nisava river outside Nis, was excavated by
HUMUS. Brown Forest soils are fertile and Garasanin in the 1950s. Four main periods are
stable, but if the woodland cover is removed recognized, after surface finds of the early
repeatedly, or nutrients are removed from the Neolithic STARtEVO culture; lA: four build-
soil by agriculture and animal feeding, they ing phases with graphite painted ware and
may degrade. In those areas where there is VINtA-derived dark burnished ware; IB: a
relatively low annual rainfall, a SOL LESSIVE short phase with BADEN pottery; II: a short
profile may develop. In areas of higher rainfall, phase with material like COTOFENI and
or under heath vegetation or coniferous SALCT,JTA IV; and III: a full Early Bronze Age
woodland, a PODZOL may develop. As a result occupation. The ceramic developments of
of such changes, true Brown Forest soils are Period lA reflect the diffusion of graphite
rare today. painted ware from Bulgaria into the west
Balkans, together with the gradual decline in
Brucato. See DESERTED MEDIEVAL VILLAGES. popularity of dark burnished wares on the
periphery of the late Vinca culture.
Bruniquel. A cave and a rock shelter at
Bruniquel in the Tarn department, southwest bucchero. Pottery fired so as to be grey
France, have revealed MAGDALENIAN throughout the fabric with a slight surface
deposits, including the remains of two or three sheen. It was inspired by earlier near-eastern
well-preserved skulls and skeletal parts, and models, and occurs principally in Greek-
mixed fragmentary remains of over a dozen speaking and Etruscan areas between the 8th
more individuals. Carved bone and antler art and 5th centuries BC. Shapes vary greatly as do
objects are known. styles of decoration (incised, stamped and
applied).
Bryggen. See BERGEN.
Buccino. A group of sites within the comune
Bryn Celli Ddu. A PASSAGE GRAVE in of Buccino in southwest Italy. In the San
Anglesey, Wales, under a cairn c50 metres in Antonio area, a cemetery of six rock-cut
diameter. This tomb is linked to the BOYNE tombs of the Copper Age GAUDO group, with
Bukhara 75

radiocarbon dates of 2580-1970 be ( c3350- Tibet, are symbolic buildings modelled on the
2500 BC) has been found. In the Tufariello Indian stupa. They are psycho-cosmograms,
area there is a settlement site of the Early representing the Buddhas and their teachings,
Bronze Age, belonging to an early stage of the and are made of dressed stone or sun-dried
APENNINE culture. The site was surrounded by brick with a plaster facing. They normally
a stone wall and contained rectangular stone- contain a cavity for religious relics and the
built huts. largest examples contain actual rooms.
Buddhism reached Southeast Asia in the
Buddhism. The Buddha, who lived in India in early centuries of the Christian era as part of
the 6th century BC, challenged the religious the process of INDIANIZATION. It reached
teachings of the Brahmans, who dominated Japan rather later: the Mahayana Buddhism
Indian civilization at the time. An early was officially introduced to the Japanese court
convert to Buddhism was Bimbisara, king of in 538, but it had probably been known in the
Magadha, but its most extensive development country for some time before that. After an
was under the MAURY AN empire of AsoKA in internal struggle over its acceptance,
the 3rd century BC, when there existed what Buddhism became part of the adminstrative
has reasonably been described as a Buddhist measures which the emerging central govern-
civilization. By the end of the Maury an empire ment adopted to tighten its control over the
in the early 2nd century BC, Buddhism had provinces. Syncretism with the indigenous
already developed internal divisions in its nature worship began by the 8th century, but
beliefs and practices and, although in the Buddhism remained the religion of the elite
subsequent centuries it both spread to other until the 14th century, when Pure Land
areas and continued to contribute to Indian Buddhism met an enthusiastic reception from
civilization, it lost its dominant role in that the masses.
development. Early in the present era a new
form of Buddhism appeared, known as the Bug-Dniester. The names of these two river
Mahayana or 'Great Vehicle', which had a valleys in southwest European Russia define
more flexible doctrine. It was this form of the distribution of a long-lived culture which
Buddhism that found its way from India developed throughout the 5th millennium be.
through Central Asia to China in the 1st or 2nd Three phases are recognized: Early
century AD. Very large numbers of Buddhist (Sokoletz), Middle (Samtcin) and Late
monuments survive in India itself, including (Savran). Each phase is typified by short-lived
STUPAS and rock-cut cave temples. sites on the edge of river terraces, occupied all
Tibet also has large numbers of Buddhist the year round, perhaps for five to ten years.
monuments. Buddhism was first introduced to Subsistence strategies changed little from the
Tibet from India during the reign of king Sron- preceding Mesolithic hunting, fishing and
brtsan-sgam-po ( c620-649) and revived in the shell-collecting, with the minor addition of
late lOth century by Rin-c'en-bzan-po (958- small quantities of domesticated pig, cattle and
1055) and the Indian teacher Atisa. Its einkorn wheat. Demand for increased storage
archaeological manifestations are the capacity led to the apparently independent
numerous temples, monasteries and shrines evolution of pointed-base pottery, although
found throughout the Tibetan cultural area. local FIRST TEMPERATE NEOLITHIC (Cri)
The earliest temples (lha-k'an) are small, pottery occurs in the early phase.
rectangular in plan and have massive inward
sloping walls and flat roofs. The original Bohen. A fort on the west bank of the Nile,
foundations of the Royal Dynastic period 260 km upstream of Aswan, erected during
( c620-842) are usually distinguished by tall the Middle Kingdom (see DYNASTIC EGYPT)
dressed stone pillars topped by a roof-like to secure Egyptian control of trade in gold and
canopy and sometimes bearing a dedicatory other commodities during the military
incription. The first true monastery in Tibet occupation of Nubia.
was that of bSam-yas, built by K'ri-sron-lde-
brtsan (755-?797). In its original form it had a Buka. See SOLOMON ISLANDS.
large seven-storey temple surrounded by eight
ancillary buildings to house the monks. Bukhara. A city in Soviet Central Asia,
mC'od-rten, a type of shrine very common in already an important town before the Arab
76 Bukk

conquest in 713. Bukhara flourished after the remains. Unlike other sites of the period the
conquest, becoming the capital of the Samanid fauna consisted of 90 per cent wild species, of
dynasty from 875 to 999. In 1220 the city was which the most important were red deer, roe
sacked by Chingiz Khan. The best-known deer, aurochs and wild boar. Domesticated
monument is the Mausoleum of Ismael the cattle, sheep, goat and pig were kept, but
Samanid, built shortly before the ruler's death clearly most meat food was obtained from
in 907. It is a domed cubic structure, 9.5 hunting. Among the artefactual material was a
metres across, decorated both inside and out number of copper beads, probably imported
with elaborate brick ornament. The minaret of from eastern Europe.
the Masjid-i Kalan, completed in 1127, also
has brick patterns, enlivened with an inscrip- burh. A small fortified town, found in later
tion made of bricks with turquoise glaze, one Anglo-Saxon England, where the population
of the earliest examples of coloured archi- could take refuge during times ofthreat. Burhs
tectural ornament in Central Asia. The were established as a national system of
mosque itself belongs to the 15th century, defence in the later 9th century by King
while the adjacent Madrasa Mir-i Arab was ALFRED of Wessex in response to the persist-
founded in 1535 (a madrasa is a school for ent threat of Viking incursions. This defensive
Quranic studies). The oldest surviving mosque system is known as the burghal system.
is the 12th-century Masjid Magoki Attari. Excavations in many burhs, such as Wareham,
Tamworth, Wallingford and Cricklade, have
Biikk. This mountain range in the north of revealed that the initial burghal defences
Hungary gives its name to a Middle Neolithic consisted of a wide palisaded bank and
regional group of the Alfold LINEAR POTTERY v-shaped ditch with turf and timber revet-
culture of the late 5th millennium be. The ments. Many of these burhs were also
appreciable number of cave sites in upland developed as market towns and gridded streets
locations indicates a seasonal focus on trans- were laid out within a number of them. These
humance, as well as the exploitation of rocks centres became the foci of the lOth-century
for axes and other tools. Within the Bukk urban revival in Anglo-Saxon England.
culture are sites with hoards of axes and half-
finished unused flint blades. While the dis- Burial Mound Period. The penultimate
tinctive painted and incised Bukk pottery and period of a chronological construction relating
obsidian was introduced into exchange to the whole of eastern North American pre-
networks north and south of the Carpathians, history. Formulated in 1941 by J.A.Ford and
it should be noted that, contrary to the claims Gordon Willey, the total chronology, from
ofV.G. CHILDE, there are no obsidian sources early to late, runs PALEO-INDIAN, ARCHAIC,
in the Bukk Mountains themselves. Burial Mound, TEMPLE MOUND. The Burial
Mound Period is divided into two sub-periods.
bulb of percussion. When a FLAKE is removed Burial Mound I (1000-300 BC) covers the
from a CORE by striking with a hammer, the period of transition from Late Archaic to
flake has a swelling adjacent to the point where Early WooDLAND ways of life and is
it was hit, and spreading over part of the newly associated especially with the ADENA culture.
exposed flake surface. This is called the bulb of Burial Mound II (300 BC-AD 700) is charac-
percussion and usually indicates human terized by the dominance of Middle and Late
manufacture. Woodland groups, especially HOPEWELL.

Buret'. A site in southern Siberia near Lake buried soils. Soils may be buried by structures
Baikal, occupied in late PALAEOLITHIC times, and deposits on archaeological sites. Such soils
famous for some peg-like female figurines are frequently preserved under RAMPARTS,
dressed apparently in fur suits. BARROWS and other mounds, or buried within
the fill of a DITCH. Turves, and the upper HORI-
Burgaschi-See Sud. Lakeside settlement site ZONS of the soil PROFILE which may have been
of the Neolithic CORTAILLOD culture in cut with them, can also be preserved within
Switzerland, dated to the mid-4th millennium mounds. The study of buried soils yields valu-
BC. Like other Cortaillod sites, Burgaschi-See able information about environmental change
Sud has excellent preservation of organic in the area. Sometimes the marks made by
Burzahom 77

move from eastern Tibet they had been


preceded by the Pvu, who had established a
kingdom there as early as the 3rd century. The
original historical inhabitants of Lower Burma
were the staunchly Theravada Buddhist MoN,
with their centres at Thaton, at the mouth of
the Sittang (often identified with SURV ARN AB-
HOMI), and at Pegu, former HAMSAVATi. It
was only in the 11th century that the Burman
kingdom of PAGAN established Burman
suzerainty over the Mon south, absorbing in
the process many Mon cultural elements
which now form the basis of the Burmese
civilization. The Pyus, whose kingdom of
SRiKSHETRA (Prome) was thus sandwiched
between the Mons and the Burmans, were
eventually assimilated by the latter. But the
kingdom of Pagan was to last only to the end of
the 13th century when it was conquered by the
Mongols, in the wake of whom the Shan (i.e.
Thais) rules over the area for such a long time
that it could have become another 'Thailand'
had not the Burmans once again taken the
political lead in the 16th century.

burnish. A polish given to the surface of a


pottery vessel, usually with a bone or wooden
implement, and carried out after drying but
before firing. The purpose is usually to make
Burin the vessel less porous and more watertight, but
burnishing is sometimes used for decorative
purposes. For instance, areas are sometimes
ancient ploughing are preserved in the ancient left matt to contrast with the shiny burnished
profile. In addition, the POLLEN or SNAIL shells areas, producing a decorative effect known as
which became incorporated into the soil by pattern burnish.
EARTHWORM sorting, and are preserved by
burial, may be used for environmental inves-
tigations. Soil profiles may be altered as a Burrill Lake rock shelter. A rock shelter
result of their burial and care needs to be taken situated on the southeast coast of New South
when studying them. Wales, Australia, with basal deposits dated to
c18,000 be. Stone artefacts in these Pleisto-
cene levels included flake scrapers and
burin. A kind of stone tool often made on a dentated saws. At about 3000 be BoNDI
BLADE. At one end, slivers or spalls of stone POINTS and other tools of the AUSTRALIAN
have been removed to make a kind of chisel SMALL TOOL TRADITION appeared. This is one
edge, probably used for carving antler and of the earliest dates for Bondi points.
bone tools, as well as art objects. There are
many kinds of burin and they are often
multiple. Burins are typical of sites of the Burzahom. A prehistoric site in Kashmir.
Upper Palaeolithic stage and especially typical Four phases of occupation have been identi-
of the MAGDALENIAN. fied, ranging in date from the 3rd-2nd
millennium BC to the 3rd-4th centuries AD.
Phase I is characterized by pit-dwellings, while
Burma. The history of the Irrawaddy basin is Phase II has houses of mud and mudbrick, as
that of several peoples, the ethnic Burmans well as burials of both humans and animals
being only one of them. On their southward (dog, wolf and ibex) in pits. To Phase III
78 Bush Barrow

belongs a group of large stones arranged in a development in its tum, with later phases
rough semicircle. Parallels for this stone ring, having houses of stone instead of mud-brick
as well as for the pit-houses of Phase I and and a well-built city wall. The city was violently
some of the associated artefacts of Phases I-III destroyed, perhaps by the AMORITES, late in
(pottery, polished stone and polished bone the 3rd millennium BC. It was rebuilt, however,
tools) occur in Central and Northern Asia, and urban life continued. The importance of
rather than in the Indian subcontinent. the site lay in its commercial role: its extensive
contacts with Egypt (which imported the
Bush Barrow. A rich grave under a BARROW, famous Lebanese timber mostly through
belonging to the WESSEX CULTURE of Byblos) and trade with many areas of inland
southern England. It contained a single male western Asia, including southern Meso-
inhumation with grave goods, including a potamia. Byblos dominated eastern Mediter-
bronze axe, two bronze daggers of 'Bush ranean trade in the 3rd and early 2nd
Barrow' type, one of which had a hilt millennia, but its role declined later in the
decorated with many tiny gold pins, a belt- millennium and UGARIT, SIDON and TYRE
hook and two lozenge-shaped plaques of gold became the great port sites of the later Bronze
with incised decoration, in addition to a stone Age. The most famous monument of the city
macehead and zig-zag shaped bone mountings was the temple of the 'Lady ofByblos' (Ba'alat
for the mace shaft; these have often been Gebal), a local variant of Astarte or Ish tar, the
compared to similar mountings from Semitic goddess of love.
MYCENAE, but the Bush Barrow examples are
probably several centuries earlier.
Bygland. A site in Norway where the grave of a
Bus Mordeh. See Au KosH. Viking Age smith was discovered. The
cremated remains were accompanied by an
Butmir. As with many type sites excavated in outstanding collection of 25 iron-working
the early 20th century and before, Butmir, tools, as well as some of the craftsman's
situated near Sarajevo in Bosnia, Yugoslavia, products: these included swords, shield bosses
is not characteristic of the whole of the Butmir and axes of mid-lOth century date.
culture. The site represents a classic, or late,
phase of the culture, defined by richly Bylany. A large village settlement of the
decorated ceramics (especially spiral and Bohemian regional group of the LINEAR
meander motifs) and a wide range of fired clay POTTERY culture, located on the fertile loess-
anthropomorphic figurines, depicting several lands of the Bohemian plain in Czecho-
physical types, varied costume and even slovakia. This 6.5-hectare site comprises
pathological conditions. The Butmir culture timber-framed LONG HOUSES from three main
comprises the Middle and Late Neolithic of phases (2-4) of the Linear Pottery sequence.
central Bosnia, in the period c4350-3700 be. According to the excavator, the late B.
An autochthonous local origin for this culture Soudsky, each occupation phase comprised a
from the preceding KAKANJ stage has recently small number of houses centred on a large long
been demonstrated (see 0BRE). house (or 'clubhouse') and associated with a
stock enclosure. Subsistence strategies were
Byblos [Gebal, Gebail]. An important coastal based on the cultivation of emmer wheat and
settlement in Lebanon, north of Beirut, cattle husbandry; the excavator has hypothes-
occupied for approximately 5000 years. The ized a form of cyclic agriculture.
earliest settlement was a modest Neolithic
village of the 6th millennium be with rect-
angular mud-brick houses with plastered Byzantium [later Constantinople, now
floors. This settlement developed through Istanbul], Byzantine. In the 7th century BC
several phases, throughout the 5th and into the Dorian Greeks founded the settlement of
4th millennium be. It was then abandoned for a Byzantium on a trapezoidal promontory on
period of unknown length and when it was the European side of the Bosporus channel
reoccupied before 3000 BC it was as a town which leads from the Mediterranean to the
with rectangular houses and paved streets. Black Sea and separates Europe from Asia.
This town went through several phases of Thus began a city which has been occupied to
Byzantium 79
the present day and which was the successor of II built the colossal surviving walls of stone and
Rome as the capital of both an empire and a brick-faced concrete, 19 km long with 96
civilization. variously shaped towers and the principal
The city's first millennium is known mainly entrance at the Golden Gate. A column and
from literary evidence. It prospered from its church of Marcianus ( 450-457) remain. Even
strategic position, but fell successively under more splendid were the works of Justinian
the domination of ACHAEMENID Persians (527-565). Probably his were the marble
(c512-478 BC), Athenian Greeks (478-339 Hippodrome seating, great cisterns and
BC), Hellenistic Greek kings (until 2nd century realistic white-ground palace mosaics;
BC), the Roman Republic (up to 30 BC) and certainly his were several churches, above all
thereafter Roman emperors. One of these, the domed, richly embellished HAGIA SOPHIA.
Septimus Severus (AD 193-211), after initially Constantinople withstood successive
damaging it, was responsible for restoring the outside attacks throughout its history and was
city, re-walling it and beginning the construc- once conquered by Frankish knights during
tion of the limestone racecourse (Hippo- the Fourth Crusade in 1204; it was finally lost
drome). to Christendom when it was besieged and
The greatest period of the city's existence captured by the Turks in 1453.
followed the year 330 AD when the first In spite of the renaming of the city by
Christian emperor, Constantine, inaugurated Constantine, it is the older name that survives
Byzantium, now renamed Constantinopolis, in the term Byzantine, used to describe the
as the new capital of the Eastern Roman Eastern Christian Empire and the civilization
Empire. The 'new Rome' became the inspira- that developed under the inspiration of the
tional force of the Christian Byzantine new faith. The Byzantines were responsible for
Empire, with its unique blend of late Roman preserving much of Greek and Roman culture,
and Greek culture. The city flourished over but they also provided an avenue for eastern
the succeeding centuries and in terms of its ideas to reach the west. Mixed eastern and
architecture and other aspects of civilized life western influences are most clearly seen in the
became one of the finest cities in the world. field of architecture: the great domed churches
Constantine himself erected new walls, of 6th-century Constantinople - Hagia
churches and (in his Forum) a porphyry Sophia, SS Sergi us and Bacchus and St Eirene
('Burnt') column with relief sculture; he - reflect Persian as well as Roman building
founded the imperial palace and finished traditions. In decorative art, the Byzantines
Severns' Hippodrome. His successors con- excelled at mosaics, which they used mainly
tinued its embellishment. In 368 Valens raised for walls and ceilings, rather than for floors.
his still impressive aqueduct. Theodosius I 'the Fine Byzantine mosaics, using, among other
Great' (379-395) adorned the Hippodrome materials, gilt glass, survive in Asia Minor and
with an Egyptian granite obelisk on a base with in Greece, but some of the finest examples of
reliefs, still standing; in 400-401 his son all are found in the West in PALERMO and
Arcadius erected a column. In 413 Theodosius RAVENNA.
c
Cabenge [Tjabenge]. A river terrace site in Caesarea. A coastal city in Israel, founded in
the Walarae valley of southwestern SULAW- the 4th century BC. It flourished under Herod
ESI, Indonesia, which has produced a pebble the Great, who enlarged the city and rebuilt its
tool and flake industry of presumed Upper harbour. After the death of Herod it became
PLEISTOCENE date. An archaic fauna (with the capital of the Roman province of Judaea.
Stegodon and Archidiskodon) thought to be An inscription naming Pontius Pilate is one of
contemporary with the tools is now known to the best-known finds from this site.
be of separate origin and of Late PLIOCENE The town became important again during
date. the Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries;
the still impressive defences date to this
cacao. The crop from which chocolate, the period.
favoured drink of the nobility of many
Mesoamerican cultures, is produced. Because Cagayan Valley. A broad valley in northern
its production is limited by the environmental Luzon, Philippines, containing several open
setting in which it will flourish (that is, tropical sites from which, according to some claims,
lowlands), cacao attained considerable comes an association of a pebble and flake
importance as a luxury item in the economies industry with a Middle PLEISTOCENE fauna
of the MAYA, TEOTIHUACAN and AZTEC. which includes Elephas, Stegodon, rhinoceros
Depictions on IZAP AN sculpture show that it and bovids. Recent geomorphological studies
was first used in the PRE-CLASSIC period. have established the authenticity of the fauna,
The CODEX Mendoza indicates that by Aztec but there is still debate as to the precise strati-
times it had become a medium of exchange graphic occurrence of the tools, which may be
and that tribute was commonly paid in this later.
commodity.
Cahokia. Located in an alluvial valley near
Caddoan. See SPIRO. East St Louis, Illinois, USA, Cahokia is easily
the most spectacular of the MISSISSIPPIAN
Caere. See CERVETERI. centres. The site is 15-20 square kilometres in
area, and at its height (1050-1250) had a
Caerleon [Isca]. The Romans established this population estimated variously between
20-hectare fort, named Isca, with its 64 10,000 and 38,000. It includes more than 100
barrack blocks, during the pacification of man-made mounds (both burial and platform
Wales, which was finally achieved in AD 78. types) built over the period 700-1600 (see
The fort is one of three major legionary TEMPLE MOUND PERIOD). Monk's Mound,
fortresses, the other two being at CHESTER and the largest of these, measures 330 metres long
YORK. Originally constructed of timber and by 218 metres wide and reaches a maximum
earth, it had been largely rebuilt in stone height of 30 metres. As is typical of flat-topped
before the garrison finally left for home during temple mounds, it served as base upon which
the abandonment of the province. Evidence civic buildings were erected. Its four terraces
has been found for centurion houses, work- underwent at least seven periods of recon-
shops, barracks, stores, ovens, hospital, baths struction, during each of which the surmount-
and latrines. Outside the immediate fortifica- ing buildings were completely razed. Portions
tion, in an associated civic settlement, lies an of a wall or palisade have already been
amphitheatre (built c80 AD of earth, timber uncovered and indications are that it probably
and masonry) now fully excavated, traces of enclosed some 120 hectares including Monk's
two bath buildings, and of extensive ceme- and 16 other large mounds.
teries. In addition to construction on a grand
80
calendar, calendrics 81

scale, evidence of long-distance trade, dealers, providing the large collections in


elaborate ceremonial activity and possibly museums all over the world.
astronomical observation indicate a centre of
notable social complexity. Artefacts include Calatagan. A peninsula in Batanga Province,
flint hoes (the characteristic Mississippian about 100 km south of Manila in the Philip-
artefact), shell and limestone-tempered pines, containing several burial grounds ofthe
pottery, and engraved stone tablets sometimes late 14th century to early 16th century. Burials
etched with the motifs of the SOUTHERN CULT. are normally extended (some children were
placed in urns); goods comprise local earthen-
Cahuachi. See NASCA. ware pottery, beads, glass bracelets, iron and
brass goods, and a large and important range
Cai (Ts'ai]. SeeSHOU XIAN. of imported pots from Thailand and MING
Dynasty China. Calatagan is the best reported
site of this period in the Philippines. See also
Caimito. See TUTISHCAINYO.
SANTA ANA.
cairn. See BARROW. calendar, calendrics. Most ancient civil-
izations (and perhaps some non-literate
Cairo. The capital of modern Egypt. In 641, prehistoric societies) developed calendrical
the Arab conqueror of Egypt, Amr Ibn al-As, systems to mark the passage of time. Where
built a new quarter, Fustat ['The Tents'], these were both carefully calculated and
outside the old town of Cairo. Among the first written down, as in Egypt, Mesopotamia and
monuments erected in Fustat was the Mosque Mesoamerica, they are of considerable assist-
of Amr; the present structure, however, is ance to archaeologists for dating purposes.
almost entirely of the 19th century. New The Egyptians employed a solar calendar
suburbs were added in the 8th and 9th of 365 days in a year (divided into 12 months
centuries, making Fustat a large city. Ahmad of 30 days plus 5 intercalary days) for civil
ibn Tulun, governor from 869, chose it as his purposes. This civil calendar naturally
capital. Two buildings are associated with ibn diverged from the real solar year (which has
Tulun: the Nilometer on Roda Island, which 365.2422 days) by increasing amounts. For
he restored in 872-3, and a mosque, finished in agricultural purposes and for determining the
879. The mosque is well preserved. It stands in dates of religious festivals they used a different
a precinct and consists of a rectangular calendar based on observations of the dog star
building, 140 metres long and 122 metres Sirius, known to them as Sothis, whose annual
wide, with a courtyard surrounded on three heliacal rising (i.e. rising atthe same time as the
sides by double arcades and a sanctuary five sun) conveniently preceded the Nile Flood.
bays deep. The interior is richly decorated with The two calendars would coincide every 1,460
stucco. In 969, the FA TIMms arrived in Egypt years (known as the Sothic cycle). The
and established another new town, al-Qahira fortunate survival of three texts which record
('The Visitors'] nearby. Cairo contains two the date in the civil year on which Sirius rose
major lOth-century monuments: the Mosque heliacally on three different occasions
of al-Azhar, completed in 972, and the (probably in 1469, 1537 and 1872 BC) has
Mosque of al-Hakim, begun in 990. The assisted in the reconstruction of ancient
original appearance of the former virtually Egyptian chronology.
disappeared in the course of alterations The calendar in use in ancient Meso-
associated with the University of al-Azhar, potamia and the Levant was lunar, based on
founded in 988. The latter has a monumental twelve months of 30 days each. This produced
entrance and sanctuary with a T -shaped plan a year of only 354 days, about 11'/4 days short
recalling the first Fatimid mosque at MAHD- of the true solar year; the necessary correction
IY A. In 1087, the caliph a!-Mustansir was made by the addition of seven months
strengthened the walls of Cairo, employing over a period of 19 years. This type of calendar
Armenian architects for such features as Bab is still used in both Judaism and Islam for
al-Futuh. Fustat, gradually abandoned in the religious purposes, though many countries
Fatimid period, has been excavated on several now also employ the Gregorian solar calendar
occasions and became a hunting-ground for for secular purposes.
82 Calendar Stone

Among the Greeks almost every commun- means of recording absolute time. Its starting
ity had a calendar of its own, but all were lunar date of 3113 BC (using the Goodman-
calendars. Some of the Greek month names Thompson-Martinez correlation) marks some
occur in LINEAR B, indicating that a calendar mythical event in Maya history and itself
ofthis type was already in use in MYCENAEAN stands at the beginning of a cycle 13 Baktuns
times. Ordinary years in Greek calendars long. A Baktun at 144,000 days is the largest
consisted of 12 months of 29 or 30 days; leap unit of time in the calendar. This is further
years of 13 months were inserted from time to divided into smaller units: the Katun (7200
time (but not apparently according to any days); the Tun (360 days); the Vinal (20 days)
organized system). The Romans originally had and the Kin (a single day). Thus Long Count
a calendar of 10 months, but subsequently dates are expressed in terms of these units in a
adopted the ETRUSCAN calendar of 12 five place notation. Therefore the date
months, with 28, 29 or 31 days each; correc- 9.18.0.0.0. indicates the passage of 9 X
tions were made by intercalating a 'month' of 144,000 plus 18 X 7200 days since the initial
22 or 23 days between the 23rd and 24th date of 31'13 BC. In cultural contexts, however,
February. However, this was so inefficient that the dates are inscribed as a series of hiero-
by the time of Julius Caesar the civil calendar glyphs which incorporate numeration via bars
was three months ahead of the solar calendar. (units of five) and dots (units of one).
In the year 46 BC Caesar corrected this by Short Count dating replaces the Long
having a year of 445 days (known as the Count after AD 900 and although based on a
'ultimus annus confusionii or 'the last year of similar system, the Katun replaces the Baktun
the muddled reckoning'). He then adapted the as the largest unit. Unfortunately, it is a good
Egyptian solar! calendar for Roman use, deal less precise from the point of view of the
inserting extra days in the shorter months to archaeologist. Its imprecise nature is best
bring the total up to 365, with the addition of a understood by analogy with our own habit of
single day between the 23rd and 24th recording only the last two digits of the year,
February in leap years. This calendar, known for example '82: such a date, of course, can be
as the Julian Calendar, remained in use until interpreted as 1882 or 1982.
the time of Gregory XIII in 1582, who made a The Secondary Series is a means of correct-
further correction (of eleven days) and ing the quarter day error in the 365-day Solar
instituted the calendar which is in general use Year (i.e. the equivalent of our leap year). As
today. an addendum to calendar dates inscribed on
A complex calendrical system was the hall- STELAE, the Secondary Series records the
mark of many MESOAMERICAN societies, but number of days by which the inscribed date
it found its extreme expression among the was out of synchronization with the actual 52-
MAY A. It seems, however, to have been year cycle of the Calendar Round.
introduced by the OLMEC some time in the Other calendars, based on long-term
PRE-CLASSIC ( seeTRES ZAPOTES and CHIAPA observations of heavenly bodies (see ASTRON-
DE CORZO). Two calendars were in use in both OMY), were used as a means of predicting
the Maya and later the AZTEC cultures. The events. Many aspects of daily life were
Sacred Calendar was 260 days long and regulated by the calendar, with certain periods
consisted of 13 months of 20 days; the Solar being considered dangerous or unlucky. The
Calendar of 365 days was made up of 18 five odd days of the Solar Year, for instance,
months of 20 days plus five extra (regarded as were unlucky days, while the completion of
unlucky) days. These two calendars were any Calendar Round was a particularly
integrated so that any given day would only dangerous time, since it was believed that the
occur once in 52 years. Known as the Calendar end of the world would come at just such a
Round, it is best visualized as a pair of meshing time.
gears of 260 and 365 teeth respectively, where,
if a line were marked on them at the initial Calendar Stone. A 20-tonne, 4-metre
point of their meshing, it would take 52 diameter, carved monolith, commissioned by
revolutions of the larger one to restore the the emperor Axayacatl in 1479, which
gears to their original relationship. symbolizes the AZTEC universe. The popula-
Far more useful to archaeologists is the tions of central Mexico believed that they were
Maya Long Count or Initial Series, which was a living in the fifth epoch of a series of worlds (or
camel 83

suns) marked by cyclical generation and India, it was on the Indochinese Peninsula that
destruction (see CALENDAR). The central the earliest known INDIANIZED kingdom
figure of the stone is this fifth sun, Tonatuih. developed, that of FuN AN. From small begin-
Surrounding this are four rectangular nings in the 1st century AD somewhere on the
cartouches containing dates and symbols for Lower Mekong it rapidly became the leading
the gods Ehecatl, Texcatlipoca, TLALOC and power of the region, with far-reaching trade
Chilchihuitlicue who represent the four worlds connections. In the 6th century Funan
previously destroyed. In a series of increas- declined; it was succeeded in its eastern part,
ingly larger concentric bands, symbols for the corresponding to present Cambodia, southern
20 days of the month, precious materials and LAOS and southern VIETNAM, by its former
certain stars are represented. The outermost vassal CHENLA, while other former posses-
band depicts two massive serpents whose sions became independent. Chenla in turn
heads meet at the stone's base. ceased to exist when, after having become a
JAvANESE vassal in the late 8th century, the
calibration. See RADIOCARBON CALIBRATION. independent KHMER kingdom of ANGKOR
was declared in 802. This kingdom developed
Callanish. An important group of MEGA- once again into the most powerful state on the
LITHIC monuments on the island of Lewis in Indochinese Peninsula, at its apogee in the
the Outer Hebrides. The main monument is a early 13th century occupying all but the most
STONE CIRCLE with an avenue to the north and northeastern parts (the newly independent
ALIGNMENTS to the south, east and west. In the state of Vietnam) and most western parts
middle, and probably of a later date, is a small (PAGAN), as well as much of the Malay
PASSAGE GRAVE under a round cairn. The Peninsula. The decline of the Angkorian
alignments are thought to have had an empire was heralded by the achievement of
astronomical role. independence of SUKHOTHAI in the middle of
the 13th century, accentuated by the establish-
Callejon de Loreto. See Cuzco. ment of the kingdom of A YUTTHA YA in 1350
and consummated by the conquest of Angkor
Calowanie. See SwmERIAN. by the Thais in 1431. See also DvARAVATi,
Oc-Eo, VYADHAPURA.
Camaracayu. See TuTISHCAINYO.
Camden, William (1557-1623). British
Camare. See EL Joso. antiquary who was among the first to describe
the visible antiquities of Britain. HADRIAN'S
Cambodia [present-day Kampuchea]. WALL and STONEHENGE are among the sites
described in his book Britannia, published in
Prehistory. Lying between THAILAND and
1586.
VIETNAM on the Southeast Asian mainland,
Cambodia has important remains of both the
camel. There are two surviving species of the
prehistoric and historic periods. Stone tools
genus Came/us, both domesticated: the two-
have been found in terraces of the Mekong
humped Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus) and
River in possible association with tektites from
the single-humped dromedary (C. drome-
a shower that fell c600,000 to 700,000 years
darius).
ago. In western Cambodia there is an import-
Archaeological evidence is hard to obtain
ant HOABINHIAN sequence from the cave of
but the domestication of the Bactrian camel
LAANG SPEAN, with cord-marked and incised
must have taken place within a broad area of
pottery in upper levels by 4300 be. The major
central Asia, bounded by the Caspian Sea on
NEOLITHIC site is the 4.5 metre-thick occupa-
one side and the Indus Valley on the other. The
tion mound at SOMRONG SEN near the Tonie
earliest evidence comes from the site of
Sap lake, which has produced an elaborate
SHAHR-1 SOKHTA in eastern Iran, where camel
assemblage which seems to predate 1000 be. A
dung (presumably from domesticated
number of DONG-SON drums and bronze
animals) was found in levels of the first half of
assemblages have also been found in the
the 3rd millennium BC. The dromedary was
country.
probably domesticated somewhere in the
Classical. In spite of its relative distance from Arabian peninsula; it is recorded from UMM
84 Camelot

AN-NAR in Oman, which should perhaps be wheats in the later phases. Cattle, sheep, goat
dated to the early 3rd millennium BC. and pig were all eaten, but it is not clear
Although some communities exploit whether these were domesticated.
camels for milk, meat and wool, they were The main Can Hasan mound was occupied
almost certainly domesticated for use as pack in the late Neolithic and CHALCOLITHIC
animals and this has always been their main periods. Several phases of occupation are
function. Alexander the Great is said to have documented, but the best explored is phase 2B
employed 5000 Bactrian camels, as well as which was destroyed by fire, carbon-dated to
other pack animals, to carry away the loot from c4900 be. This phase was characterized by
PERSEPOLIS after he sacked the city in 330 BC. rectangular mud-brick buildings, fine painted
wares mainly in red on cream, and the use of
Camelot. See ARTHUR, SOUTH CADBURY. copper. In the succeeding 2A phase poly-
chrome wares were made. The site was
Camerton-Snowshill. The name, derived subsequently abandoned but reoccupied in the
from two burial sites, given to a form of ogival Late Chalcolithic, late in the 5th millennium
bronze dagger of the later part of the WESSEX be.
CULTURE of southern England. The name is
also sometimes used for the whole phase of the Canterbury [Durovernum Cantiacorum ].
culture, during which cremation gradually Town in Kent, southeast England, occupied
replaced inhumation as the dominant burial from the later IRON AGE to the present day.
rite and there were changes in the goods placed Strategically well-sited at a crossing of the
with burials. This phase is dated to clSOO BC by River Stour, and at the intersection of
corrected radiocarbon dates. important land routes, Canterbury already
had a sizeable BELGIC settlement before the
Camulodunum. See COLCHESTER. arrival of the Romans in AD 43. The town was
refounded soon after the invasion as Dur-
Canaanites. A people who occupied Palestine overnum, the tribal capital (civitas) of the
in the 2nd millennium BC, the ancestors of the Cantiaci, probably c49. After a slow start,
PHOENICIANS. The most important Canaanite urbanization went ahead dramatically from
towns were JERUSALEM, GEZER, HAZOR, the Flavian period (69-96) onwards. Traces
LACHISH, MEGIDDO and, further north, have been found of a THEATRE (rebuilt c21 0-
BYBLOS and UGARIT. Excavations of temples 220), a FORUM, houses, streets and local
and the cemetery of Minet el Beidha near industries; a stone wall with earth bank was
Ugarit have revealed something of Canaanite added as fortification c270-290. There is some
religion and society. The Canaanites were evidence of Christian occupation from the 4th
responsible for the invention of the first century and prosperity seems to have declined
alphabetic writing system (see WRITING). sharply after 400, probably following the
withdrawal of Roman forces.
Canegrate. A group of urnfields in northern Canterbury is also an important medieval
Italy which have given their name to a Late town, famous firstly as the place to which Saint
Bronze Age group. This culture was probably Augustine came in 597 on his mission to
ancestral to the GOLASECCA culture of the convert the English, and secondly as the
Iron Age. greatest pilgrimage centre in the British Isles to
which millions flocked throughout the Middle
Can Hasan. Site of a number of TELLS in the Ages to worship at the shrine of Thomas a
Konya plain of southern Turkey. Can Hasan Becket, the Archbishop who was murdered in
III was an ACERAMIC NEOLITHIC settlement, Canterbury in 1170.
perhaps of the 7th millennium be. It had at Archaeological investigations in Canter-
least seven structural phases of small rect- bury have contributed to our understanding of
angular buildings abutting on to each other. the continuity of secular occupation in Roman
These were built mainly of slab pise coated towns after the imperial withdrawal from
with mud plaster and sometimes painted red. Britain; in particular, sunken huts and other
The villagers were agriculturalists, growing evidence ofthe Early Saxon period have been
einkorn and emmer WHEATS, lentil and vetch found to overlie the Roman buildings.
in the earlier phases, hexaploid bread and club Excavations have also been carried out on the
Capsian 85

unique group of churches which may date to western THULE follow in chronological order.
the late 6th or 7th century; these are St This horizontal sequence, in combination with
Augustine's Abbey, St Martin's and St the vertical stratigraphy of ONION PORTAGE,
Pancras, all of which were built in the Roman forms the most reliable chronological frame-
as opposed to the insular tradition, with work in Western Arctic prehistory.
flanking porticuses and apsidal chancels. The
later medieval town boasts the magnificent Capeletti. A cave in the Aures Mountains of
medieval cathedral, an impressive circuit of eastern Algeria which has yielded the clearest
town walls, a large 12th-century castle and picture yet available of early North African
some of the best preserved timber-framed pastoralism by a 'CAPSIAN NEOLITHIC'
buildings in England. population. The first appearance of small
stock (sheep and/ or goats) appears broadly to
cantharus. A type of pottery cup made in have coincided with the beginning of pottery
Greek-speaking areas and in Etruria between manufacture. Small stock were kept by
the 8th and the 1st centuries BC, with a deep transhumant herders in the Aures from the 5th
bowl, a foot, and characteristic pair of high millennium be. By the 3rd millennium small
vertical handles. Related Roman forms occur. domestic cattle are also attested.

Cape Gelidonya. Part of the rugged coast of capital. In architecture, the decorative top-
southwestern Turkey, famous for the under- member of a column, usually made of wood or
water excavation of a very early ship, wrecked stone. Portraying a moulded part ( echinus)
off this coast in the late Bronze Age (13th below, and a flat slab (abacus) above, it eases
century BC). The small merchant ship was the visual transition from column shaft to the
carrying a cargo of copper and bronze ingots, roofing beam (architrave) above. Decoration
still wrapped in basketry. The presence of tin was normally according to one of the so-
oxide suggests that the merchant himself may called orders, such as CORINTHIAN, DORIC or
have been involved in the manufacture of IONIC.
bronze. Half a tonne of bronze ingots, some
lettered, was removed from the wreck by the Capitol [Capitolium]. The Capitol in Rome
archaeologists. The excavation also produced acted as citadel and religious centre for the city
a structural plan of the ship, including evid- from its beginnings. The Capitol comprised
ence of a grill of twigs on the bows to keep twin hillocks overlooking the FORUM. On the
water off the deck - a technique still in use northern of the two hills was a citadel, and on
today. As well as the ingots, finds included the southern the great temple of Jupiter
pottery and three scarabs, one of which was of Capitolinus. The temple, whose founding is
FAIENCE and another of ivory. traditionally attributed to the early king
Tarquin, seems to have preserved its original
Cape Krusenstem. A site with evidence of 6th-century plan through successive rebuild-
long occupation on the north Alaskan coast, at ings. The capitol was approached by its own
which chronological associations have been street, the Clivus Capitolinus. The Sibylline
uniquely preserved. The major cultures of books were kept here, and rock-cut chambers
Arctic prehistory, spanning a period from underneath were apparently used as secret
c3000 BC to historic times, are represented treasuries. Here too the consuls made their
here. (The Palisades complex at nearby sacrifices and took their vows upon taking up
Ingitkalik Mountain may yet extend this office, and generals returning in triumph came
continuum further into the past, possibly as to give thanks for their victory. The northern
early as 8000 BC.) Cultural debris left from the site, that of the citadel, is now covered by the
exploitation of marine resources by successive church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli, while the
cultures, in combination with the seaward site of the great temple is partly covered by the
movement of the shoreline, has produced a Palazzo Caffarelli.
'horizontal stratigraphy'. This stratigraphy is
visible as a sequence of strips, roughly parallel caprovine. See SHEEP.
to the shoreline, with the oldest, DENBIGH,
being furthest from the present-day shoreline. Capsian. A post-PLEISTOCENE industry of
Old Whaling, CHORIS, NORTON, IPIUTAK and North Africa which occurs in several facies.
86 'Capsian Neolithic'

The Typical Capsian, dated to c6500 be, orthodox opinion, if there is such a thing in
characteristically occurs on shell middens and Etruscan language scholarship, would regard
has large burins, backed blades and other it as a religious or ritual text. In the 5th century
implements. It is restricted to a limited area BC Capua was taken over by the Samnites, and
south of Tebessa near the present border from 338 BC it became Roman, apart from a
between Tunisia and Algeria. The so-called brief period of secession after Rome's defeat at
Upper Capsian is more widespread, its dis- Cannae. The reputation for high living seems
tribution extending into western Algeria. to have survived into the imperial period,
Since it has now been dated to the 8th and 7th when its AMPHITHEATRE (associated with a
millennia be, it can no longer be interpreted as notorious gladiatorial school) rivalled the
derived from the Typical Capsian, although at COLOSSEUM at Rome for magnificence. Still
Relilai it does overlie a deposit of the latter listed by Ausonius Magnus as a great city in the
industry c5800 be. Backed microliths are 4th century AD, Capua was sacked by the
accompanied in the Upper Capsian by varied Vandals in 456 and virtually destroyed by the
bone tools. Hunting and snail-collecting seem Saracens in 840. The modem name would
to have formed the basis of the economy. perhaps confirm that only the church survived,
Human remains from Capsian sites are mostly the remnant of the population fleeing to
of MECHTA-AFALOU type. nearby Casilinum. Besides the fine amphi-
theatre, imperial remains include a THEATRE,
'Capsian Neolithic' The CAPSIAN industries a ceremonial arch of Hadrian, and a MITH-
of the Maghreb were succeeded by a some- RAEUM.
what heterogeneous series of assemblages,
including pottery and - in some cases - Carbon 14. See RADIOCARBON.
evidence for the practice of food-production,
to which the name 'Capsian Neolithic' carbonization, carbonized. Terms often used
[ Neolithique de tradition capsienne] has by archaeologists to describe organic materials
generally been given. Pottery first appears in preserved in a carbon-rich form, as a result of
this region in the 5th millennium be, by which partial burning. CHARRING is a more precise
time domestic small stock were herded. There word for this process.
is as yet no conclusive evidence for domestic
cattle before the 3rd millennium. In fact, carburization. See STEEL
several local Neolithic traditions may be
recognized in the Maghreb, as at EL KHRIL Carchemish. A TELL site on the Euphrates
near Tangier, where the pottery shows affini- River on the Turkish-Syrian border. It was
ties to Iberian wares, at Oued Guettara in occupied from the 5th millennium be, but
northern Algeria, and at CAPELETTI in the became an important city only after the HIT-
Aures Mountains. TITE conquest in the 14th century BC.
Carchemish remained important after the fall
capstone. A large slab of stone set horizontally of the Hittite empire, during the period of the
to cover a MEGALITHIC tomb or CIST GRAVE. Syro-Hittite city states (12th-8th centuries
BC). The city consisted of a heavily fortified
Capua (present-day Santa Maria di Capua citadel and a large walled town adjacent to it. It
Vetere]. This important coastal town in is famous for the carved reliefs and inscriptions
Campania, southern Italy, already had an in 'Hittite hieroglyphics' decorating the great
early Iron Age settlement in the 9th century gateways and the monumental buildings of the
BC. Some time towards the end of the 7th city. Carchemish was conquered by the
century BC it was occupied by the ETRUSCANS, Assyrians under Sargon II in 716 BC.
who transformed it into a very prosperous city,
famous for its bronzes and notorious for the Cardial ware. See IMPRESSED wARE.
luxury of its life-style. The Etruscan period has
left behind characteristic pottery, bronzes and cardo [Latin: 'hinge']. Term for the main
tombs, and one of the principal pieces of north -south axis of Roman towns and military
evidence for the still little-understood forts and camps. Technical use of the term
Etruscan language -the so-called Capua Tile, seems to originate with Roman agricultural
an inscription of some 62 lines. Majority surveying practice, where cardo denotes the
Cartailhac, Emile 87

principal north-south axis of the site, about and planned so that they decreased steadily in
which other measurements 'hinge'. In a typical size along the lines. The area was clearly an
process of CENTURIATION (division into a important ritual centre, as there are MEGA-
hundred parts), the cardo is used with the LITHIC tombs nearby and stone boxes
other principal axis, the decumanus (properly containing charcoal, cattle bones, polished
due east-west) to divide a given area up into axes and pottery. One suggestion is that the
squares (reckoned to be 2400 Roman feet area was a lunar observatory. The largest stone
square), each of which is subsequently to be - the Grand Menhir Brise - weighed 345
divided into one hundred smallholdings. It is tonnes; it is now recumbent, broken into three
likely that this agricultural technique underlies pieces and may in fact have fallen when the
what from the 4th century BC onwards became Neolithic builders first tried to erect it.
the characteristic Roman grid system that
Roman planners gave to so many army camps carnyx. A Celtic war-trumpet used in battle to
and new towns. For the technique itself, it is produce noise and panic. It was constructed
likely that the Romans were indebted to the with a straight body of bronze, topped by a
Etruscans (though probably not so slavishly as bronze animal head, usually that of a boar,
Roman writers would themselves suggest) and with the tongue acting as a clapper. The carnyx
to the Greeks, both of whom seem to have was in use from the 2nd century BC to the first
used grid town-planning, but almost exclus- century AD and is known mostly from repre-
ively only for colonial rapid expansion. The sentations (see GUNDESTRUP).
cardo need not be precisely aligned north-
south, nor the decumanus east-west; what Caroline Islands. See MICRONESIA.
matters for the grid is the right-angle con-
tained, and the subdivision into squares. The
actual superimposition of the grid upon the Carolingian. This adjective stems from
terrain might be varied for all kinds of reasons, Charles the Great [CHARLEMAGNE] (771-
some perhaps religious, and some practical, 814) and is used to describe the imperial terri-
such as the natural fall of the ground. The tory, concepts and cultural renaissance for
which he was responsible. The term is also
convention of referring to these urban axes as
cardo maximus and decumanus maximus used more generally to include the reign of his
son, Louis the Pious, and less specifically the
does not have direct classical authority.
remainder of the 9th century in Western
Europe, but in an archaeological and archi-
Carib. A native group occupying the Lesser
Antilles at the time of Columbus. Originating tectural sense, it is used to describe the period
somewhere on mainland South America, they c750-c900.
migrated along the islands, displacing the
ARA wAK, probably by force. The Arawak carp's tongue sword. A type of bronze sword
language, however, remained; and the new found mostly in north-west France and
group is distinguished from the old by the southern England in the Late Bronze Age
absence of ZEMI worship. Even though they (early 1st millennium BC). It had a flange hilt, a
were skilled pottery-makers and agricultural- broad slashing blade and a long projecting
ists, the Carib's spiritual emphasis seems to point, which has given the type its name. See
have focussed on warfare and the ritual eating ATLANTIC BRONZE AGE, HUELVA.
of human flesh (the word cannibal is derived
from Carib). Cartailhac, Emile (1843-1921). Eminent
French prehistorian of the 19th century.
carination. A sharp angle in the profile of a Although he made many contributions to
pottery or metal vessel. French archaeology, he is best remembered
today for his long refusal to accept the
Carnac. A region of south Brittany, northern authenticity of CAVE ART. When he was finally
France, famous for its stone ALIGNMENTS. convinced, after a visit to the Spanish site of
Each group consists of 10-13 parallel rows ALTAMIRA, he wrote an article for the journal
several kilometres long, some ending in semi- L 'Anthropologie in 1902, subtitled 'Mea
circular or rectangular enclosures. The stones, culpa d'un sceptique', which helped to con-
nearly 3000 in number, were chosen carefully vince many scholars of the day that these and
88 Carter

other cave paintings were indeed genuine and Carthaginian power and destruction of the city
the earliest manifestations of art in the world. in 146 BC.
Carthage was re-established as a Roman
colony by Julius Caesar and his heir Octavian,
Carter, Howard (1874-1939). Egyptologist
who sent 3000 settlers in 29 BC. The Roman
famous above all for his discovery in 1922 and city prospered as the port from which the grain
subsequent excavation (in an expedition and olive oil of Africa, on which Rome in-
organized by Lord Carnarvon) of the tomb of creasingly depended, were shipped overseas
TuTANKHAMUN in the Valley of the Kings at to Italy. Carthage replaced Utica as the capital
THEBES. of the province of Africa and became the
second largest city in the western part of the
Carthage. The city of Carthage was founded as empire after Rome itself. In the 4th and early
a colony from the PHOENICIAN city of Tyre 5th centuries it was a notable centre for
(the Phoenician name Qart Hadasht means Christianity and the home of St Augustine.
'new city'); traditionally this occurred in 814 The VANDALS, who had moved first to
BC, although Phoenician occupation on the Spain and then across North Africa with the
site is archaeologically attested from about a break-up of the western Roman empire, took
century later. The new city rapidly prospered Carthage in 439 and retained control until the
from its position overlooking the straits which BYZANTINE invasion under Belisarius in 533.
divide the eastern and western seas of the Carthage was the capital of the Byzantine
Mediterranean: by the mid-7th century BC it empire in Africa until the Arab take-over of
had planted its first colony at Ibiza in the 698, but with the reduction in Mediterranean
Balearics. The ASSYRIAN takeover of the trade in the 7th century the city had been in
Phoenician cities in the east had meanwhile cut severe decline for some years before the Arab
the western Phoenicians off from their conquest.
motherland. Until around 500 BC Carthage The site of ancient Carthage is now a sub-
was one of three great mercantile powers in the urb of Tunis but among the modem buildings
central Mediterranean, together with the there are remains of all periods: houses on the
ETRUSCANS and Western Greeks. Cartha- Byrsa hill, the Sanctuary ofTanit (or 'Tophet')
ginian wealth must have been derived mainly and the two manmade harbours survive from
from activities as a middle-man, possibly the Punic (pre-146 BC) period; Roman monu-
supported (as was certainly the case in the 4th ments include the Antonine Baths, fourth
century) by a trade monopoly over certain largest in the empire, the circus, a theatre and
areas, and the city had direct access to the amphitheatre and areas of streets and houses,
mineral-rich areas of southwest Spain. together with a number of early Christian
In the 5th century BC Etruscan power was churches, but are poorly preserved or heavily
in decline and Carthage embarked on more restored.
than a century offighting with the Greeks over
control of Sicily. The Carthaginians then caryatid. Properly, a standing female figure
moved to establish a West Mediterranean sometimes substituted in a classical building
empire out of a string of Phoenician trading for a column (usually of the IONIC order).
stations along the southern and western coasts Notable examples are to be found in the Cni-
of the Mediterranean, extending also through dian and Siphnian Treasuries (6th century
the Straits of Gibraltar to Mogador, southern sc) at Delphi in Greece, and one porch of the
Morocco, in the south and Cadiz in the north. ERECHTHEUM temple on the ACROPOLIS at
The previously small and seaward-facing city
ATHENS (late 5th century BC).
of Carthage turned to exploiting the fertile
agricultural land of northern Tunisia and
developed rapidly, so that in the 3rd and 2nd Casamance. A river in Senegal around the
centuries it had become a Greek-style metro- estuary of which are grouped several extensive
polis with a six-figure population. shell middens where occupation is dated
The emergence of Rome as a power between the last centuries be and the 17th
throughout Italy led eventually to a clash with century ad. The later phases are linked with a
Carthage. Three great wars in the 3rd and 2nd cultural pattern related to that of the recent
centuries culminated in the obliteration of Diola.
castle 89
Cascade point. See OLD CORDILLERAN CUL- which Cassibile was presumably one, since
TURE. although the settlement site itself has not been
securely identified, some 2000 tombs have
Cascioarele. A small long-lived settlement on been found. Characteristic artefacts include a
an island in a former loop of the lower Danube, distinctive painted ware with plume motifs and
in southern Rumania. Excavations by V. a number of typical bronze types, including
Dumitrescu have revealed multiple occupa- stilted and thick arc fibulae and shaft-hole
tion layers of the Middle Neolithic BOlAN axes.
and later Neolithic GUMELNITA cultures. The
former is dated c3900-3700 be, the latter Castanet. An Upper PALAEOLITHIC rock
c3700-3500 be, making Cascioarele the only shelter at Castelmerle, situated at the foot of
site with a clearly dated middle-late Neolithic cliffs overlooking the Vezere River of the
transition. A complete village plan is available Dordogne, southwest France. Two levels of
from the Gumelnita occupation, consisting of AURIGNACIAN type are present, containing art
one large central structure surrounded by six objects of carved or painted stone. The art
smaller structures. The Gumelnita finds are as from Castanet and the neighbouring Blan-
remarkable for their ritual implications - a chard rock shelter is amongst the earliest
large and elaborate fired clay model dubbed a known and, at c33,000 be, perhaps actually
'shrine' - as for their technological import- the earliest ever executed.
ance: a rare surviving fragment of an antler
plough. Another surprise is the heavy reliance Castelluccio. A settlement and cemetery site
on wild animal meat, including 40 per cent red in southeast Sicily which has given its name to
deer. an Early Bronze Age culture. The cemetery
contained several hundred rock-cut tombs
Cashel. A rock in Co. Tipperary, Ireland, used for collective burial; the tombs were
which rises dramatically above the surround- sometimes closed with rock slabs and these
ing plain, and houses a cluster of important were occasionally decorated with carved
ecclesiastical buildings of the medieval period. spirals, which were at one time compared to
St Patrick consecrated Cashel as a bishopric those found in the Mycenaean world; they are
and it later bcame the see of the infamous now thought to be of considerably earlier date.
Bishop Cormac who was killed at the battle of Grave goods include a fine buff ware painted
Ballaghmoon in 908 while attempting to make with black or green designs, and BOSSED BONE
himself the king of Ireland. PLAQUES demonstrating connections with the
The earliest and finest church on the rock is Aegean world well before 2000 BC.
known as Cormac's Chapel and was built by
Bishop Cormac MacCarthy in 1134, its style is casting. METALS with a low enough melting
heavily influenced by the German Roman- point can be melted in a crucible on a simple
esque with square flanking towers, but the hearth, and cast in a MOULD. COPPER,
blind arcading is a feature commonly BRONZE, GOLD and SILVER were all commonly
employed on Norman churches in France and cast in antiquity. IRON and STEEL could not be
England. The cathedral dates to the 13th melted by ancient hearths and furnaces. Metal
century and later, and stands near to the melted over fire absorbs gas resulting from
attractive perpendicular Gothic choral build- combustion of the fuel. Moulds have to be
ing. Beside the cathedral is a round tower of carefully designed to make sure that bubbles of
contemporary date. Other monuments of gas do not spoil the casting.
interest include a large sarcophagus carved in
devolved Scandinavian styles and a Christian casting jet. See MOULD.
standing cross which depicts the Crucifixion
on one face and St Patrick on the other. casting seam. See MOULD.

Cassibile. A Late Bronze Age settlement and castle. The castle has many different meanings
large cemetery of rock-cut chamber tombs in in European history and archaeology. Its most
southeast Sicily, of the early 1st millennium familiar use is to describe a fortified residence,
BC.It belongs to the PANTALICA culture, which but it is sometimes used to refer to later
is characterized by large urban settlements, of medieval fortified villages. The evolution of
90 castro

the castle has been well documented by being subsequently sealed. Walls and ceilings
European archaeologists. The first late are decorated with a variety of pagan and
CAROLINGIAN types were possibly modelled Christian motifs. Catacombs are generally to
on the fortified homesteads of the SLAVS, but be found in areas that were already in use as
in the lOth century the manor or principal cemeteries, outside the city proper, and their
house was set up on a raised mound within the subterranean nature is usually explained on
enclosure. This MOTIE AND BAILEY type was the basis of the need for security and secrecy
introduced to central and northern France in on the part of a religion that was at worst
the 11th century, whereas previously only banned and at best tolerated. Certainly they
simple enclosures had existed. The NORMANS appear to decline in use soon after the official
then introduced this type to the British Isles recognition of the Church. Other parallels, for
and to Southern Italy, and also built stone instance the multiple family nature of the
keeps within their enclosures, using their burials, may perhaps be drawn with Jewish
experiences in the Crusades to accelerate examples, Etruscan family/freedmen/slaves
castle design. Hence later 12th-century castles burials, and the 'pigeon-hole' approach of the
in France and England comprise large stone Roman COLUMBARIUM.
walls, inturned gateways modelled on Arabic
and Byzantine forts, and massive circular Catal Hiiyiik. A site located south-east of
central keeps. Multiple walls with strength- Konya in ANATOLIA, and one of the largest
ened gateways are an invention of the mid- Neolithic settlement known in Western Asia,
13th century, and splendid examples are still covering c13 hectares. In the small part
to be seen at Angers in France or in the excavated, 14 building levels were found,
Edwardian castles of North Wales. During the without undisturbed deposits being reached.
14th century the interior buildings within the Radiocarbon dates cover the period c6250-
walls were formed into rational plans to make 5400 be. Cereals were cultivated, and cattle,
these quarters more tolerable to live in for perhaps domesticated locally, were bred; in
longer periods, while at the same time rein- fact 90 per cent of the animal bones came from
forcing their defensive properties. In the later cattle and these animals were clearly of ritual
14th and 15th centuries the introduction ofthe as well as economic importance to the com-
cannon effectively undermined the value of munity, as bull horns and skulls form the
castles. Spanish and Italian builders com- dominant motif in the many shrines on the site.
pensated by constructing yet more formidable Sheep and goats were hunted and may have
multiple ramparts, while Rhenish castles were been domesticated in later levels.
sited on high precipitous positions, out of the The houses were built of mud-brick and
range of cannon. Henry VIII of England were of a standard type, c25 square metres
developed a very low form of castle with with kitchens, living and storage rooms. The
multiple bastions to hold cannon which was houses were built against each other, with no
the forerunner of the bunker used until recent streets or courtyards, suggesting rooftop
times. walkways and access from the roof. Built-in
furniture includes benches and platforms. The
castro. Portuguese term for a defended site, buildings designated shrines were identical in
most commonly applied to the local Iron Age form, but decorated with remarkable painted
HILLFORTS. and relief ornamentation, figuring bull motifs
predominantly,but also other animal hunting
catacomb. A name of obscure origin, perhaps scenes, and figures of the 'mother goddess',
first given to the extensive subterranean sometimes giving birth. Burials under the
Christian cemetery in the vicinity of the church floors and platforms were common; those
of San Sebastian on the Via Appia Antica, under the shrines were often accompanied by
south of Rome, and then generally to a large precious objects.
number of similar complexes around Rome As well as the unique shrines, this site is
and elsewhere. Characteristically, a labyrin- remarkable for its advanced technology in the
thine succession of narrow galleries and crafts of OBSIDIAN working, weaving and
chambers are cut into the soft bedrock. Rows woodwork and even in incipient metallurgy
of horizontal slots ( /oculz) are provided in the (copper and lead). The evidence suggests both
walls for single or multiple burials, the niche craft specialization and social stratification.
cattle 91

(:atal Huyuk: reconstruction of a decorated shrine

The great wealth and precocious development truly wild ones. Fossils of Bos primigenius are
of this settlement may have arisen through found right across Europe, Asia and into
control of the trade in obsidian from central North Africa, and are present from the Middle
Anatolian sources throughout the Near East. PLEISTOCENE. They appear to have been
mainly forest dwellers, presumably browsing
catapulta. See BALLISTA. foliage in the clearings. They are absent or rare
during colder periods (see QUATERNARY) in
Catfish Cave. See SHAMARKIAN. northern latitudes, when deciduous forest
would have been excluded. Wild cattle formed
cattle. Members of the genus Bos. Wild and a major component of the diet of Palaeolithic
domestic cattle are classified separately as Bos and Mesolithic hunters throughout Eurasia.
primigenius (wild cattle or aurochs) and Bos Two forms have been recognized, one rather
taurus (domestic), but they apparently smaller than the other (and classified by some
represent only one species. They differ mostly as Bos brachyceros), but it is likely that they
in size - the wild form being very much larger represent sexual dimorphism. The earliest
- but there are other, more detailed differ- evidence of domestication occurs at (:ATAL
ences in form. Bos primigenius is now extinct, HOYOK in Anatolia. The lowest levels so far
the last record being AD 1627 in Poland. It was, excavated at this site ( di400 be) show some
however, uncommon long before then (by evidence of'interference' by man. A reduction
clOOO be in Britain) and it is unclear whether in size of cattle bones occurs further up the
the historical accounts refer to feral animals or sequence ( c5800 be) and this is taken as the
92 cauldron

first morphological evidence of domestica- oxide and manganese dioxide. In addition


tion. Cattle have usually been thought to have many caves have engraved figures on their
been imported ready domesticated into walls. Altogether over 150 caves have wall art
Europe, although wild cattle would have been dated to Palaeolithic times, although such art is
present throughout and could have been very difficult to date, except by comparison
domesticated early. In fact domestic cattle with MOBILIARY ART. Most of the decorated
appear almost as early as at c;atal Hiiyiik at a caves are in southern France, though Spain
number of sites in Greece: NEA NIKOMEDEIA also has a large number. Some examples are
in Macedonia, ARGISSA in Thessaly and known from Portugal and Italy, but there is a
KNossos in Crete. The small domestic cattle big geographical gap between Italy and the
of the Bronze and Iron Ages in Europe used to only known Russian site, KAPOVO CAVE.
be differentiated as Bos /ongifrons, but there is The main subject matter is animals,
no reason to separate them from other cattle. especially the horse and bison; there are also
numerous signs and symbols. Human figures
cauldron. A large metal vessel for use in are exceedingly rare and usually hard to make
cooking, usually with a round base and out. The purpose of the art is largely unknown,
handles for suspending over a fire. In Europe, though it is likely that the caves were used for
cauldrons first appeared in the Late Bronze ceremonies of a magic or ritual kind, perhaps
Age. In the later Iron Age they were some- for initiation rites. Youthful footprints are
times made of silver, and became objects of found in some caves and hand silhouettes were
great wealth and prestige. One of the most made on the walls round hands which were too
famous comes from GUNDESTRUP. small to belong to adult males. Occupational
evidence is rarely found with the art and there
causewayed camp. A type of enclosure found are major problems in investigating it; even the
in the earlier Neolithic of southern England authenticity of some examples is in doubt.
(4th millennium BC), consisting of a number of See ADDAURA, ALTAMIRA, ANGLES SUR
concentric ditches with internal banks. The L'ANGLIN, ARCY-SUR-CURE, COVALANAS,
ditches were rarely continuous, but were FONT DE GAUME, GABILLOU, LASCAUX,
interrupted by causeways of untouched LAUSSEL, LES COMBARELLES, LES EYZIES,
ground. Their function is unclear, as there is NIAUX, PAIR-NON-PAIR, Roc DE SERS,
little evidence of permanent or seasonal TEYJAT, Tuc D'AuoouBERT.
occupation. They may have been tribal
meeting-places for annual or more frequent Cave Bay Cave. See TASMANIA.
fairs, or, alternatively, they may have been
ritual sites, as some have evidence for disposal cave dwelling. Especially during the colder
of the dead. See a/so WINDMILL HILL. periods of the ice ages, caves were frequently
occupied by PALAEOLITHIC man. The dwell-
Cavdar (Cevdar ]. One of the few TELL sites of ing was usually sited in the mouth of the cave
the west Bulgarian regional group of the FiRST or even outside under a rock overhang. Cave
TEMPERATE NEOLITHIC, located in the dwelling was rare or unknown before the
southern part of the upland Sofia basin and penultimate glacial period. Caves continued to
dated 6100-4700 be. Five Kremikovci be used for settlement and other purposes in
occupation levels are stratified below a some areas in later prehistoric periods and
KARANOVO VI level. The mainstays of the occasionally into recent times.
mixed farming economy were emmer wheat
and six-row barley, cattle and caprine cave earth. The name given to cave deposits
husbandry. Kremikovci painted wares include composed of shattered boulders and pebbles,
a rich polychrome assemblage dating to the arising from frost action and thermal weather-
end of the Early Neolithic. ing.

cave art. Possibly the best-known feature of Cave of Hearths. A cave near Pietersburg in
the Upper PALAEOLITHIC of Western Europe the northern Transvaal, South Africa, located
is the painted caves. Some caves contain close to the MAKAPANSGAT australopithecine
extensive paintings, some only a few. Only two site. The earliest deposits are ACHEULIAN,
pigments are known to have been used: iron followed by a thick sterile horizon represent-
Celtic art 93

ing a long period of abandonment. Next comes celt. An antiquated 19th-century term for an
a long succession of PIETERSBURG industries. axe or adze.
Despite the hiatus between them, there are
some signs of typological continuity between Celt, Celtic. Term used in a number of
the Acheulian and the Pietersburg assemb- different ways. In language studies it refers to a
lages at the Cave of Hearths, notably the branch of INDOEUROPEAN languages found
tendency in the final stages of the Acheulian to now only in the far northwest of Europe
the production of elongated blades. The (Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish and Breton) but once
Pietersburg industry was succeeded by one of much more widespread.
sub-triangular points and flake scrapers akin As an ethnic group Celts were described by
to the BAMBATA industry of Zimbabwe. classical writers such as Herodotus who placed
their homeland - rather ambiguously -
Cayla de Mailbac. See MAILHAC. somewhere in central or western Europe.
They are known to have invaded Italy and
f;ayonii Tepesi. An important early farming sacked Rome itself in the early 4th century BC,
site on a tributary of the Tigris River in eastern while in the following century groups of Celts
Turkey, occupied for about a millennium invaded Greece, sacking Delphi, and others
c7500-6500 be. The site had five major levels, invaded Anatolia.
all characterized by impressive architectural In archaeology the term Celtic is often used
remains with stone foundations. The to denote the peoples of the European Iron
economic evidence has shown that the Age, and it is hard to dispute the likelihood
community depended initially on hunting that many of these peoples would indeed have
large game animals (auroch and red deer), but been of Celtic ethnic stock and doubtless
by the latest phase concentrated on domest- would have spoken a Celtic language.
icated sheep and goats; pigs may also have However, archaeological cultures do not
been domesticated by this stage. On the plant necessarily coincide with ethnic or linguistic
side, einkorn wheat was cultivated from the groups and it is preferable to use the cultural
beginning, and later emmer wheat; peas and terms HALLSTATT and LA TENE when des-
lentils were also cultivated. Wild plants cribing archaeological remains.
collected include pistachio nuts, almonds,
hackberries and acorns. Another important Celtic art. Name given to the art of the
feature of this site was the very early appear- European Iron Age, which developed in
ance of simple copper objects, derived from central and western Europe from the 5th
the Ergani Maden lodes, c20 km away. century BC, among presumed CELTIC peoples.
The term LA TENE art is also used.
Cazador. See COCHISE, SULPHUR SPRINGS. Celtic art developed in the courts of the La
Time chieftains and it seems likely that the
Celebes. Surprisingly, this Indonesian island, craftsmen worked under the direct patronage
situated east of Borneo, has produced the of the chiefs themselves. It is primarily a metal-
oldest Buddhist image known in the Archi- worker's art, found on vessels associated with
pelago. The image is dated to the 4th century, drinking (jugs, buckets, bowls, cups and
and although not proof of the Indianization of tankards); on weapons (swords, daggers,
the area it is at least evidence of some con- scabbards, helmets and shields) and horse and
nections with India at an early date. In the chariot fittings; and on personal ornaments
late 14th century the island, perhaps with ( torcs, bracelets, armlets, brooches etc).
the exception of the north, became part of Techniques employed include decoration in
the JAVA-based Indianized kingdom of relief, engraving and inlay (in coral or, later,
MAIAPAHIT. enamel); two or more techniques are com-
monly applied on the same article. Although it
is most commonly found on metal objects, it
cella [Latin; Greek: naos]. Architectural term appears sometimes in other media, such as
used to describe either the whole of a temple pottery and stone sculpture.
apart from its outer colonnade or, in a more Stylistically, Celtic art combines elements
restricted sense, only the main hall, in which taken from the classical world (especially plant
the cult statues were placed. motifs), from the Scythians to the east (animal
94 Celtic field

motifs) and from the local earlier HALLSTATT The index describes the overall proportions of
Iron Age (geometric designs), to produce a the cranium (brain box); see BRACHYCEPHA-
strong curvilinear style, non-naturalistic, but LIC, DOLICHOCEPHALIC. In the past, it was
incorporating plant and especially animal and used alone to assess genetic differences
human motifs in stylized and sometimes between groups of human skeletal material
grotesque form. The art developed through (see SKELETON). Nowadays it is recognized
several styles on the Continent (Early, that far more measurements are needed to
WALDALGESHEIM, Plastic and Sword styles) compare skull shapes adequately.
but came to an end with the Roman occupa-
tion. In Britain an insular style developed in ceramic. A material, usually clay, which can be
the last 100 years before the Claudian moulded when in a soft, plastic state and is
invasion, producing, inter alia, a fine series of then hardened by heat. See POTTERY.
engraved bronze mirrors and splendid gold,
silver and electrum TORCS. On the fringes of ceramics (China). The Western world's
the Roman world in Britain, Celtic art survived awareness of China has, throughout most of
throughout the period of the occupation and history, centred on two export commodities:
the style of the early Christian ILLUMINATED the Romans knew China as Serica, the place
MANUSCRIPTS is still recognizably in the same from which SILK came, while for Europeans of
tradition (see BOOK OF KELLS, LINDISFARNE). more recent centuries the country was
synonymous with the porcelain it produced.
Celtic field. Term used for the remains of field China began to export pottery on a large scale
systems of pre-Roman times in Britain and not much before the TANG dynasty (AD 618-
northwest Europe. The earliest are certainly 907), a date secured by the vast deposits of
Bronze Age in date, and it is misleading to sherds at sites such as Fustat (Old CAIRO), but
associate them with the Celts. The fields are the qualities that made Tang stonewares
small and more or less square, and are visible sought-after rested on the technical achieve-
because of the LYNCHETS formed by cross- ments of a long ceramic tradition notable for
ploughing with a light ard. its sophistication even in Neolithic times.
Painted pots of theY ANGSHAO Neolithic were
cenote. The limestone formations of the arid fired at temperatures sometimes exceeding
Yucatan peninsula in Mexico are honey- 1000oC; unpainted LONGSHAN pots fired
combed with water-filled underground caves. under reducing conditions show expert
The collapse of the roofs of some of these caves control of kiln atmospheres as well as occa-
causes a kind of natural well, or cenote. These sional use of the potter's wheel. Glazed
became the major source of water forMA YAN stonewares appeared in SHANG times, shortly
and subsequent groups in the area. These after the middle of the 2nd millennium BC (see
formations also had some ritual significance. WucHENG), and kaolin, an important
The Sacred Cenote at CHICHEN ITZA, for ingredient of later porcelains, was used to
example, contained a considerable amount of make the Shang WHITE POTTERY. The glaze of
skeletal material together with luxury items the Shang stonewares and their ZHOU
such as jade, gold and copper. This material descendants (see TuNXI) was high-fired and
seems to confirm legendary accounts of leadless. Lead-glazed earthenwares came into
human SACRIFICE. use just before the HAN dynasty, later enjoying
a special vogue in the gaudy 'three-colour'
centuriation. Term used by the Romans to pots and figurines of the Tang period. Stone-
describe a method of land surveying, used in wares with high-fired Jeadless glazes con-
the area ( territorium) surrounding a town, tinued to be made, however, the gradual
especially a colony. See CARDO. perfection of these wares being associated with
the YUE region in the southeast. Growing
cephalic index. A combination of two skull experience with white-bodied stonewares led
measurements, L (maximum cranial length) eventually to the production of true porcelain
and B (maximum cranial breadth). around the 9th century AD.
B X 100 The term 'porcelain' is generally reserved
Cranial Index = for a vitrified ceramic material prized for its
L extremely hard white body; it can be so thin as
Cernavoda 95
to be translucent and to make a ringing tone written from China by the Jesuit Pere
when struck. The main constituent of Chinese d'Entrecolles in 1712 and 1722. At about the
porcelain is porcelain stone, which occurs in same time European experimenters managed
large deposits in several places in China, to produce ceramic materials that fire at
notably at Jingdezhen in Jiangxi province. temperatures in the same range as porcelain,
Porcelain stone consists chiefly of sericite, and factories at Meissen and elsewhere began
hydromica, and quartz (and differs in to manufacture European porcelains not as a
composition from European porcelain rule identical to Chinese porcelain in
stones); after crushing, washing, and precip- composition, but able to compete with it.
itation it is plastic enough to be thrown, and on
firing above 12ooc it becomes porcelain. In ceramique onctueuse. A distinctive type of
the SONG period the yingqing porcelains of medieval pottery made in western Brittany.
Jingdezhen and the Longquan celadons of Ceramique onctueuse is typically very soft and
Zhejiang province were made of porcelain has an unusual tempering material, talc, which
stone. From the 14th century kaolin was only occurs in a small region of Finistere. It was
added, as the mixture of kaolin and porcelain first made in the lOth century and production
stone gives a higher degree of vitrification and of fish-platters and bowls continued until the
a stronger body. 18th century. This unusual pottery appears to
Glazes that fire at the same high tempera- be a distinctive product of the Breton culture.
ture as the porcelain body are by and large
limited to the soft muted colours for which Cerbat. See HAKATA YA.
SONG porcelains are noted. Early in the 14th
century, however, it was discovered that cobalt Cerca Grande. See LA GOA SANTA.
can give an intense blue to such glazes; this
discovery was exploited in the immensely ceremonial centre. A complex of monu-
popular blue and white ware, blue decoration mental buildings which formed the hub of
being applied to the white porcelain body and religious and civic activities in the prehistoric
covered with a colourless or very pale bluish New World. Permanent residence was
glaze. Polychrome effects, in vogue from the restricted to a very few, usually the elite and
15th century onwards, were achieved by their retainers, and a regionally dispersed
applying enamels over the glaze; overglaze population visited the site on a periodic
enamels include the famille rose and famille (possibly seasonal) basis. Many prominent
verte wares of the QING period. sites in Mesoamerica, such as TEOTIHUACAN,
The unmatched technical quality of TIKAL and MONTE ALBAN, have been inter-
Chinese porcelain caused it to be imported preted as ceremonial centres. However,
and imitated in Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia subsequent fieldwork beyond the major
and the Philippines, India, throughout the architectural features has shown that many
Moslem world, and in Europe from the time of sites were directly associated with large
the Crusades ( seeSINAN). Unable to duplicate populations and thus challenges the original
the hard porcelain body, potters from Iran to premise of the ceremonial centre. Although
Delft copied the outward appearance of the term is employed a good deal less fre-
Chinese blue-and-white, whose decoration quently today, there are nonetheless import-
might be said to have enjoyed a worldwide ant sites to which it may still apply, for example
influence out of all proportion to its intrinsic LA VENTA and SAN LORENZO.
merit. The extent of the trade in Chinese
porcelain can be suggested by a single statistic Cernavoda. (1) An important cemetery site of
derived from the records of the Swedish East the Late Neolithic HAMANGIA culture, dated
India Company, one of the smaller European to the mid-4th millennium be and located near
companies engaged in the China trade: the Black Sea coast of the Rumanian
between 1766 and 1786, when the population Dobrogea. Over 300 extended inhumations
of Sweden was about 2 million, more than 20 are known, clustered in groups, some with
million pieces of Chinese porcelain were richer grave goods. (2) The eponymous site of
imported into Sweden alone. The imperial a Late Copper Age culture of the 3rd millen-
kilns at Jingdezhen, which supplied this nium be, distributed over much of the Black
enormous trade, were described in letters Sea coastal zone in Rumania and Bulgaria and
96 Cernica

closely related in the latter zone to the EZERO Cerveteri [Roman Caere vetus, Etruscan
group. Most sites are short-lived occupation Xaire, Greek Agylla]. A town in central Italy,
sites, with a small number of cemeteries with some 48 km north-west of Rome, Caere was
contracted inhumations. one of the 12 great cities of the ETRUSCAN
federation. Earliest occupation seems to be
Cernica. An important Neolithic site, com- Iron Age VILLANOV AN of 9th to 8th centuries
prising both settlement and cemetery, dated to BC. Two necropoleis from this period have
the late 5th millennium be and lying south of been identified, with evidence for pit, trench
Bucureti, Rumania. In the settlement, a and chamber tombs (some of the latter large
BOlAN II pit cuts superposed levels of the late and rich). The town's most splendid phase,
DUDE~TI and Boian I phases - one of the few however, was the Etruscan, which spans the
such stratigraphic relationships noted in 7th-5th centuries BC. Communications and
Muntenia. Adjoining the settlement is the key commercial prosperity clearly expanded (as
Boian I cemetery, the largest inhumation witness the large quantity of imported Greek
cemetery in the Balkan Middle Neolithic. pottery), and the accumulating wealth is
Comprising over 350 graves, the Cernica reflected in the grandeur of many surviving
cemetery contains zones of graves with richer tombs. Tomb architecture developed rapidly,
grave goods, interspersed with 'poorer' grave with the grand tumulus-type chamber tombs,
goods. Richer graves contained marble, shell containing several rooms or indeed several
and bone beads, as well as some of the earliest separate tombs, becoming common. In the
copper ornaments in the Balkans. In contrast more elaborate examples, the internal tufa
to most other Balkan burial rites of crouched may be sculpted in imitation of (presumably
inhumation, the Cernica burial rite is almost contemporary) roof and ceiling structures,
exclusively extended inhumation. architectural features, weapons and domestic
objects; and thrones and couches are carved
Cerro de las Mesas. A site in southern out. Decoration may be by painting and/ or
Veracruz, Mexico on the northern edge of the relief-work. The road network which is so
Tuxtla Mountains. Although there is a PRE- striking a feature of the necropoleis as seen
CLASSIC component to the site (possibly today may be a relatively late aspect of re-
associated with IZAPA), the major occupation organization, when streets of repetitive
was in the CLASSIC PERIOD. An inheritor of facades perhaps betray middle-class pressure
OLMEC traditions, along with nearby TRES for fashionable burial. Of Caere's two ports,
ZAPOTES, Cerro survived long after the Pyrgi and Alsium, the former has yielded
demise of the latter. The Classic occupation evidence of tern pies, and given scholars of the
contains abundant TEOTIHUACAN materials Etruscan language one of their most important
and two MAY A LONG COUNT dates (AD 468 pieces of evidence - a temple text on gold
and AD 533). Thus it is usually interpreted as a laminae. Unfortunately this bilingual text (one
redistribution point for materials from both version in Punic, and two different ones in
Mexico and the Maya lowlands. It is also well Etruscan) has perhaps created more problems
known for its cache of some 782 jade objects. than it has solved. One result is noteworthy:
the confirmation of the value 3 for the
Cerro Sechin. A site in the Casma Valley on Etruscan numeral ci. Caere lost importance
the north-central coast of Peru and probably during the Roman period, and by the early
dating to the INITIAL PERIOD (1800-900 be). Empire was reported to be no more than a
The primary construction of this CEREMONIAL village.
CENTRE is a rectangular platform mound with
an enclosing wall of decorated monoliths. Chac. See TLALOC.
Carvings of warriors, dismembered humans
and individual heads are incised in an Chacmool. A life-sized sculpted stone figure
'economy of line' rather than simple, crude in the standardized form of a reclining human,
style, implying an earlier artistic tradition. with flexed legs and head gazing to one side,
Dating is tenuous, but cross comparison holding a plate-like receptacle flat on the
suggests that the Sechin style is a precursor of stomach. A widespread phenomenon in the
CHAVIN; in any event the site does represent POST-CLASSIC PERIOD of Mesoamerica, it is
an early appearance of monumental art. particularly associated with the TOLTEC. The
Champa 97

precise purpose of the figure is uncertain, but but not bronze (an alloy of copper and tin).
since it is invariably located at the entrance The term is much less widely used than other
way to a temple it was probably a repository divisions and subdivisions of the THREE AGE
for offerings. SYSTEM, partly because of the difficulty in
distinguishing copper from bronze without
Chaco Canyon. An alluvium-filled canyon in chemical analysis, partly because many areas
northwest New Mexico, USA, occupied by the did not have a Chalcolithic period at all.
ANASAZI during PuEBLO I and II times. Different usages have grown up in different
Between 850 and 1150 it supported at least a areas and this can cause confusion: for
dozen pueblo-type towns, such as PuEBLO instance, the Italian and Spanish Chalcolithic
BONITO, as well as hundreds of small villages. or Copper Age cultures are equivalent - both
Evidence of town planning, water control chronologically and technically - to the Early
systems, inter-community roadways and long- Bronze Age in the Aegean.
distance trade indicates that this was a well-
organized centre of commercial and political Chaldea. The Chaldean (Kaldu) tribes
activity. occupied the swamp area of the lower courses
of the Tigris and Euphrates in southern BABY-
Chagar Bazar. A TELL site in the upper LONIA. They were controlled by sheikhs who
Khabur valley in northeast Syria, occupied assumed the kingship of Babylonia in the 7th
from the HALAF period (5th millennium be) to century BC. The Chaldean Dynasty was
the mid-2nd millennium BC. It gradually grew founded in 625 BC by Nabopolassar and
in size and importance and during the reign of continued with his son Nebuchadnezzar II.
the Assyrian king, Shamsi Adad I (early 2nd During this period Babylonia became known
millennium BC) it was an administrative centre as Chaldea, and replaced Assyria as the main
and possibly one of the king's ruling seats. power in the Near East. In 539 BC, in the reign
of Nabonidus, the Empire fell to the Persians
Chakipampa. See HUARI. under Cyrus.

Chalandriani. An Early Bronze Age (3rd chaltoon [choltun, chultun]. A bottle-shaped


millennium BC) settlement and cemetery on underground chamber or series of chambers,
Syros in the Cyclades. The settlement was found in MESOAMERICA. Principally for
surrounded by dry-stone defences with six storage, they may also have been used as sweat
semi-circular bastions; inside were a number baths or burial chambers. In the southern
of small rooms, separated by narrrow paths. Maya Lowlands they were most often used to
The cemetery of c500 tombs, built of dry- store dry foods especially ramon (bread) nuts.
stone walling and housing one or two bodies, In the northern Yucatan, however, they were
produced material of the so-called Keros- more frequently used as water cisterns, in
Syros culture, including the highly decorated which case they were usually lined with stucco
dishes known as FRYING PANS. to prevent seepage.

Chalcatzingo. See LAS BOCAS. chamber tomb. Term for any tomb, whether
rock-cut or built above ground, with a large or
chalcedony. A very finely crystalline form of fairly large chamber to contain the dead and
the mineral silica, rather similar to CHERT. accompanying grave goods. Chamber tombs
There are many varieties, several of which are were often, but by no means always, used for
prized as semi-precious stone - agate, onyx, collective burial over long periods of time.
cornelian and jasper, for example. These may They occur in many parts of the world at
be used in making beads and other jewellery. different times, but the term is particularly
widely used in Europe to describe tombs of the
Chalchuapa. See BARTON RAMIE. prehistoric and classical periods. See also
MEGALITHIC MONUMENTS.
Chalcolithic. A term used, like its alternatives
Eneolithic and Copper Age, to refer to a Champa. A now-vanished Indianized king-
period between the NEOLITHIC and the dom on the eastern coast of the Indochinese
BRONZE AGE when copper was used for tools, Peninsula, corresponding roughly to present
98 champleve enamelling

central Vietnam. There, to the south of their expanding Vietnamese. Chams continued to
own province of CHIAO-CHIH, the Chinese occupy the Mekong Delta until the 17th
mentioned the foundation of the kingdom of century. In the 1950s there were about
LIN-YI in 192 AD, later called Champa 105,000 Chams left, of whom about 70,000
(unknown etymology) in Sanskrit sources. lived in Cambodia; their present fate is
Well-developed sculpture and reliefs occur unknown.
from the 7th century and impressive archi-
tecture in the form of brick towers from the 9th Chancay. A cultural entity which arose in the
century; both art forms eventually vanish in Late INTERMEDIATE PERIOD in the northern
the 13th century. After unsuccessful attempts area of the Peruvian central coast. Found in
to expand towards the north, into Chinese- the Huara, Chancay, Ancon and Chillon
held territory, Champa itself lost ground from valleys, it is characterized especially by a
the time Vietnam gained independence from unique black-on-white pottery style. It has a
China in 939. Lacking a solid economic basis, white (often yellowish) slip and black line
the Chams could not prevent their country geometric decoration, usually of parallel lines
from being absorbed little by little by the or chequered design, which is sometimes
southward-expanding Vietnamese. In 1471 augmented by small applique biomorphic
the then capital VuA YA was taken, and by the figures. The most common forms were tall,
end of the 18th century Champa had ceased to two-handled collared jars and large figurines.
exist, even as a nominal vassal of Vietnam. See Regional expressions such as Chancay came
AMARAVATI, KHAUTHARA, PANDURANGA about in the political vacuum left after the
and VIJAYA. decline of HUARI and TIAHUANACO.

champleve enamelling. An effective enamel- Chanchan. See CHIMU.


ling technique which was probably developed
by CELTIC metal-workers and afterwards Chandoli. A site in southern India occupied in
copied by the ANGLO-SAXONS. The process the 2nd millennium BC. Ground stone axes,
involved the melting of enamel into the incised copper objects (flat axes and antenna swords
hollows in a piece of metal. It was often or daggers) and pottery of MALwA type were
employed in the decoration of the escutcheons found. Urn burials also occur.
on hanging bowls, on the roundels which
supported the handles of the bowls. ChandraguptaSee MAURY AS.

Champollion, Jean-Fran~ois (1790-1832). Chang'an (Ch'ang-an]. Capital of the


French scholar, one of a number brought to Western HAN dynasty in China and, moved to
Egypt under the French occupation of a site just southeast of the Han city, of the
Napoleon Bonaparte, who accomplished the TANG dynasty; the modern city of Xi'an,
decipherment of the Egyptian HIEROGLYPHIC capital of Shaanxi province, occupies the latter
writing system. His work, which was published site. In the Tang period, Chang'an was the
in 1822, was based largely on the ROSETTA eastern terminus of the SILK ROUTE and one of
Stone, which has inscriptions in Greek, the world's great cities, its walls enclosing an
hieroglyphs, and in the Egyptian demotic area of 84 square kilometres. The site of the
script. QIN capital Xianyang is near Xi'an, and the
Western ZHOU CAPITALS Feng and Hao are
Chams. An AUSTRONESIAN-speaking supposed to have been in this area as well,
population of unknown origin (possibly possibly lying within the boundaries of the
Borneo or the Philippines) who settled modern Chang' an district southwest of Xi'an
Vietnam from about 1000 BC. Their early (see ZHANGJIAPO, KEXINGZHUANG).
prehistory appears to be associated with the
SA-HUYNH culture, with its strong Philippine Changsha (Ch'ang-sha]. Present-day capital
connections. From the 2nd century AD the of Hunan province, China. Only a few isolated
Chams developed the powerful Indianized finds hint at SHANG and Western ZHOU settle-
kingdom of CHAMP A on the east coast of the ment in this area, but in Eastern Zhou and
Indochinese Peninsula. This lasted until 1471, HAN times Changsha was a major centre of the
when it was overrun by the southward- CHU culture. Well over a thousand Chu burials
chariot burials 99
have been excavated in the neighbourhood, widely disseminated through the deposits of an
the richest by far being the early 2nd century archaeological site. Charcoal survives because
BCtombsatMAWANGDUJ. Changshalayin the catbon cannot be utilized by the organisms of
southern part of the Chu state; finds made at decomposition, and it is the best material for
the Chu capital 250 km to the north at JIANG- RADIOCARBON DATING. Fragments of
LING are comparable in date and importance. reasonable size and preservation may be
identified to th!! tree of origin.
Changtaiguan [Ch'ang-t'ai-kuan]. See XIN-
YANG. Charentian. After a detailed analysis of the
Middle Palaeolithic MOUSTERIAN culture, F.
Changzhi [Ch'ang-chih]. SeeLIYU. Bordes and his collaborators suggested that it
had two distinct components: a Charentian
Chanhu-Daro. A town of the HARAPPAN group characterized by the dominance of
CiVILIZATION of the 3rd millennium BC. racloirs (side scrapers) and QUINA retouch,
Situated on the eastern side of the Indus and another 'true' Mousterian group including
Valley, c130 km south of MOHENJO-DARO, the Mousterian with Handaxes. The Char-
Chanhu-Daro covered c6.5 hectares, and was entian seems to originate in the penultimate
characterized by the typical gridiron street glacial period, and has a distribution across
plan and well-built drainage system of Europe and Russia. It is least typical of
Harappan towns. The most interesting dis- northwest Europe. In most of the cases where
covery was a bead-maker's workshop, where classic NEANDERTHAL man is known to have
evidence was found for the processes of come from a definite archaeological context,
sawing, flaking, grinding and boring of stone that context is Charentian. Two types were
beads. Excavation has shown that, like recognized by Bordes: the Quina and the
Mohenjo-Daro, Chanhu-Daro had been Ferrassie (see LA FERRASSIE).
inundated by floods: it was twice destroyed
and subsequently rebuilt on a different plan. chariot burials (China). Chariots and chariot
Finally, after the end of the Indus Valley civil- burials provide the earliest generally acknowl-
ization, it was reoccupied by representatives of edged evidence of foreign influence on
the JHUKAR culture, living in village rather Chinese Bronze Age civilization. The first
than urban style. Chinese chariot burials are at the ANY ANG site
(at Xiaotun, Dasikongcun, and Xiaomintun)
Chanka. See INCA. and belong to the latter part of the SHANG
dynasty. The large Anyang tomb WKGM 1
Charaman. A stone industry of Zimbabwe, near Wuguancun, dating from the 13th
parts of southern and central Zambia and century BC, lacked clear evidence of chariots
adjacent areas, where it was the local successor but contained skeletons of 27 horses. Shang
of the SAN GO AN. Formerly often referred to as chariot burials usually include horses and
'Proto-Stillbay', its connections with the charioteers, and often also contain certain
Sangoan are now seen to have been stronger distinctive bronze fittings ('bow-shaped
than was previously implied. Many Charaman ornaments') and knives that, like the chariot
assemblages come from surface or river-gravel itself, have not yet been found at pre-Anyang
occurrences, as at VICTORIA FALLS. In sites. Chariot burials occur throughout the
contrast with the Sangoan, large picks and ZHOU period, at BAOJI, BEIJING, LINGTAI,
core-axes are rare and there are many XINCUN, and ZHANGJIAPO in Western Zhou,
scrapers, sub-triangular points and other flake and at LIULIGE, LUOY ANG and SHANGCUN-
tools. Of cave sites with Charaman deposits LING in Eastern Zhou. At Liulige, 19 chariots
the most important, now destroyed, was at were buried in a single pit. The mausoleum
BROKEN HILL, which yielded the remains of complex ofQIN SHI HUANGDI (r.221-210 BC)
Homo sapiens rhodesiensis. included not only burials of real chariots
drawn by pottery horses but also a pair of
charcoal. Partly burned ('charred') wood, nearly life-sized four-horse chariots, the
consisting mostly of carbon, sometimes found horses, chariots, and drivers all made of
in situ as burned timbers of buildings and other bronze.
structures or in hearths, but more frequently Chariots thus seem to have arrived in China
100 Charlemagne

midway through the Shang period, perhaps in etc. Many organic materials may not retain
the 13th century BC. Thereafter they formed their structure, and become an amorphous
an important part of Chinese armies; the charred residue in the ashes of a fire. Charred
power of an Eastern Zhou state was measured remains are preserved on archaeological sites
in chariots. In Chinese histories the abandon- because carbon on its own, as an element, is
ment of chariots in favour of cavalry is relatively inert in the soil. The micro-organ-
associated with a king of the northern state of isms which would normally break down
Zhao ( r.325- 299 BC) who adopted tactics and organic material are unable to make use of
equipment from his steppe-nomadic adversa- carbon in this form. Charcoal and charred
ries; the QIN state's reliance on large armies of seeds are therefore preserved for many
infantry may, however, have been a more thousands of years. They are a particularly
significant change. Lavish bronze chariot good material for RADIOCARBON DATING.
fittings, during Eastern Zhou often inlaid with
gold and silver, hint that in addition to their Charsada. This site on the plain of Peshawar,
military function chariots always had a role in at the foot of the Khyber Pass in Pakistan, is a
ceremony or pageantry. In this role they series of mounds, up to 20 metres high,
survived to later periods, as shown for instance concealing the caravan city of Pushkalavati
by bronze miniatures of chariots found in HAN [Peukolaotis], one of the capitals of GAND-
tombs (see WuwEI). HARA. Occupation extended from the 6th cen-
tury BC, when the Achaemenians occupied
Charlemagne. Charles the Great [Charle- Gandhara, to the 2nd or 1st century BC. A
magne] is one of the greatest historical and rampart and ditch at the foot of the largest
legendary heroes of western romance. The son mound, the BaJa Hisar, are identified as
of Pepin the Short, he became sole king of the defences against ALEXANDER THE GREAT,
FRANKS and leader ofthe Amulfing dynasty in who took the town in 327 BC. Not far from the
771. The monk Einhard, Charlemagne's court BaJa Hisar, in an area known as Shaikhan,
biographer, gives the impression of a cultured, aerial photography revealed the rectilinear
intelligent, charismatic figure blessed with street-plan of an Indo-Greek city of the last
outstanding ability and strength. It was two centuries BC.
Charlemagne who finally united the Frankish
kingdom, restoring its laws and economy, and Chartres. A city in Eure, northern France,
re-establishing the institutions of the Western where since the Carolingian period there has
Church. Charlemagne was also an able always been an important pilgrimage church
military leader, and extended his kingdom to holding relics ofthe Virgin Mary. A series of
encompass most of western Europe, except disastrous fires destroyed the earlier churches,
Spain and southern Italy. Charlemagne although part of the Ottonian period (lOth
gathered men of culture and learning at his century) ambulatory crypt still survives below
court, and through his patronage and energy the present east end. After 1145, dedicated
the late 8th and 9th centuries have become townsfolk helped to reconstruct the church as
known as the period of the CAROLINGIAN one of Europe's greatest Gothic cathedrals.
Renaissance. The emperor died in 814 and The late 12th- and 13th-century building was
was succeeded by his son, Louis the Pious. The constructed out of Bercheres stone to an
images that survive portray Charlemagne as advanced Gothic design, starting with its twin-
the Christian successor to the Roman towered facade containing three magnificent
emperors. The same image is to be found in his portals. The long nave terminates in an
palatial complex at AACHEN, and on his advanced chavet with aisled transepts and an
reformed coinage, where he sometimes ambulatory apse with radiating chapels. The
appears with a laurel wreath around his head. nave is very high, and has ribbed quadripartite
vaults supported externally by flying
charred, charring. Organic materials may be buttresses and internally by slender piers
preserved as a result of charring. Partial surrounded by columns. The most outstanding
burning reduces the material to a carbon-rich feature of Chartres Cathedral is its series of
residue. In the case of WOOD, this residue is 173 stained glass windows dating from the
familiar as CHARCOAL. Other parts of plants 12th and 13th centuries; indeed the town itself
may also be charred - SEEDS, GRAIN, twigs, became a centre for stained glass production,
Chavin 101

and the interior of the building mirrors the merely starved the defenders, who in the last
great regard that local businesses and shops resort surrendered.
held for their church. Almost as famous as the
cathedral's stained glass is its school of Chateauneuf-les-Martigues. A large rock
sculpture, examples of which can be seen shelter north-west of Marseilles in southern
around the portals and entrance ways of the France, with a series of deposits from the
exterior. Upper PALAEOLITHIC to the NEOLITHIC.
Particular interest has focused on a level with
chasing. One of the methods used in RE- IMPRESSED WARE, possibly domesticated
POUSSE metal-work. The term 'chasing' may sheep and a radiocarbon date in the early 6th
also be used in a more general way, to describe millennium be; however, another date from
any decorative work on metal employing this level is much later, and the true date is
hammer or punch. uncertain.

Chassey. A Neolithic culture of France, Chatelperron, Chatelperronian. A cave site


named after the site of Camp de Chassey in in Allier, central France, which has given its
Burgundy. In southern France, the Chassey name to the Chatelperron point, a curved
culure succeeded the IMPRESSED WARE backed blade point typical of the PERIGORD-
culture after c4000 be, but in much of central IAN I stage of the initial French Upper
and northern France the Chassey culture PALAEOLITHIC. The phase is also called
represents the earliest NEOLITHIC, and has Chatelperronian.
radiocarbon dates after 3000 be. Both cave
and open settlements were occupied, and a Chatham Islands. Occupying an isolated
well-established mixed farming economy was position in the South Pacific, 860 km east of
practised. Burials in pits, in CIST GRAVES and Christchurch, New Zealand, these islands
in MEGALITHIC CHAMBER TOMBS occur. The were settled by POLYNESIANS from NEW ZEA-
characteristic pottery is dark, burnished and LAND about AD 1000-1200. They are of great
round-based; in the southern Chassey version interest because they lie climatically beyond
incised decoration often occurs. VASE SUP- the limits of prehistoric Polynesian horticul-
PORTS and PAN-PIPE LUGS also occur. ture, and thus supported a fishing and collect-
ing Polynesian population until European
contact (1791). Material culture remained
Chateau Gaillard. The magnificent castle of similar to Archaic MAORI throughout. The
Chateau Gaillard was built at Les Andelys in original inhabitants, called Morioris, died out
Normandy by Richard Coeur de Lion, King of following contact with Europeans and con-
England and Duke of Normandy, on his return quest by New Zealand Maoris in 1835.
from the Third Crusade in 1196. It was
situated on a promontory overlooking the Chavin [Chavin de Huantar]. In the period
Seine to control the approach to Rouen, the 900-200 BC (see EARLY HORIZON), the
capital of Normandy, and its natural defensive Chavin Horizon art style became the dominant
position meant that it need only be protected cultural influence in Peru. Probably developed
on one side. The design of Chateau Gaillard, in the medium of low-relief stone carving, it
which probably took its inspiration from was ultimately expressed in other media as
KRAK DES CHEV ALlERS and other major well, for instance, pottery, metals and bone. A
fortifications in the Holy Land, was soon to highly distinctive style, its themes are bio-
become outmoded: its first defence was a wide morphic (especially feline) and are executed in
ditch cut across the spur, then came an outer flowing curvilinear lines. The eye with an
bailey, and then a moat between the inner eccentric pupil is a highly characteristic motif.
bailey and the so-called chemise wall protect- Origins are obscure, but the frequent depic-
ing the keep. The chemise wall had a series of tions of the jaguar, a tropical lowland animal,
round towers at extremely short intervals, imply a non-Andean beginning. Some
while the walls of the keep were 3.6 metres archaeologists propose CERRO SECHIN as a
thick. Although a massive and impressive possible precursor.
construction it was successfully besieged by The art style takes its name from the type
Philip Augustus in 1203: the French king site at Chavin de Huantar, which is located at a
102 Cheddar

3200-metre elevation on a tributary ofthe Rio out during the 11th century, but the layout
Maranon in the Cordillera Blanca of north- remained essentially the same.
central Peru. The main structures of the site,
originally decorated with carved relief sculp- Chedworth. Here, in idyllic surroundings in
ture, are a complex of platforms faced with cut the Cotswold area of southern England, stand
stone blocks. Two major building phases are the ruins of a large Roman villa, one of the
evident. The earlier Old Temple, built on a best-preserved in Britain and probably, in its
U-shaped plan similar to EL PARAISO, was final phase, typical of a whole group of rich
enlarged and altered to form the New Temple villas that characterized the last years of the
or Castillo. Despite the solid external appear- Roman occupation. At Chedworth three
ance of the structures, one third of their total phases may be distinguished: in the first
volume is a honeycomb of stone-lined galleries ( c1 00-150 AD) there were two buildings and a
and rectangular rooms. separate bath block; in the second (early 3rd
The most famous examples of elaborate century) there seems to have been rebuilding
Chavin carving are the great image or Lanzon, and enlargement after a fire; and in the third
a 4.5-metre high sculpted megalith located in (early 4th century) the villa acquired its
the central gallery of the Old Temple, and the present-day layout, with the various elements
Raimondi Stone, which is associated with the united by a verandah. Notable features include
New Temple. Pottery is typically black or a fine dining-room with mosaic floor depicting
brown, dark fired and finished by polishing, the seasons personified, a nymphaeum, and a
incision or rocker stamping (see also CUPIS- modest Romano-Celtic temple
NIQUE).
Although Chavin de Huantar was a CERE- Chelford. An INTERSTADIAL of the DEV-
MONIAL CENTRE of some importance, a ENSIAN cold stage. It has been dated by
number of nearby sites appear to be assoc- radiocarbon to c61,000 bp, but this is near the
iated, indicating that it was also a population present extreme range of the technique (see
centre of some size. RADIOCARBON DATING) and the date may be
older.
Cheddar. (1) Gough's Cave in the Cheddar
Gorge in the Mendips, southwest England, has Chellian. The name given by de MORTILLET in
produced late PALAEOLITHIC remains, the 1880s to the epoch characterized by hand
comprising bone and stone tools and skeletal axes in his classification, equivalent to the
remains which include the nearly complete Lower PALAEOLITHIC. It replaced the term
skeleton of Cheddar man. These finds prob- ACHEULIAN, which was eventually reinstated
ably date from about 8000 to 10,000 be and after a long and confused debate. The concept
are often called CRESWELLIAN or Cheddarian, of epochs, favoured by de Mortillet, has now
being a kind of late MAGDALENIAN. generally been abandoned, and the term
(2) The site of the palace complex of the Acheulian is normally used for hand-axe
kings of WESSEX. The Cheddar site is well assemblages. Chelles sur Marne, after which
documented from the reigns of ALFRED, the Chellian was named, is a site near Paris.
Edmund, Edwin and Edgar, and is described
in charters and chronicles. Excavations have chemical analysis. Archaeological artefacts
revealed a sequence of wooden halls and and materials can be analysed to determine
outbuildings representing the nucleus of the concentrations of major, minor and TRACE
complex, with no obvious residential quarters. ELEMENTS. The methods used for this include
One of the most interesting features was the X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY, OPTI-
elaborate drainage system, constructed prior CAL EMISSION SPECTROMETRY, ATOMIC
to 930 to protect the long hall and outbuildings ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY and NEUTRON
from flood waters. After 930 a new west hall ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. This information can
was built, with a small stone private chapel and be used in the study of technology, trade and
ancillary agricultural buildings nearby. The distribution.
entrance to the palace was protected by a
timber stockade and ditch, and the founda- Chenes. One of three architectural styles
tions for a timber pole or flagstaff were located occurring in the Lowland MAY A area of north-
beyond this. Extensive rebuilding was carried central Yucatan. Its hallmark is the employ-
Chesowanja 103

ment of elaborately decorated pre-cut veneer 8th century it split into Upper (or Land) and
masonry, but it is distinguished from both RIO Lower (or Water) Chenla, the latter part
BEC and Puuc by its concentration on tower- coming under Javanese suzerainty towards the
less, low, single-storey buildings and a prefer- end of the same century. Chenla ceased to exist
ence for certain motifs, notably the earth with the establishment, in 802, of the kingdom
monster. As with other styles, the Chenes of ANGKOR which succeeded it. As no site of
dates to AD 800-1000, a period which overlaps this period has so far been excavated, the
the CLASSIC and the POST-CLASSIC, but material culture of Chenla is little known, but
stylistically it is often viewed as intermediate from local inscriptions, architectural remains
between Rio Bee and Puuc. Its best expression and Chinese sources it is clear, that it was a so-
is found at Hochob. called INDIANIZED kingdom. In art history the
time is known as the 'pre-Angkor' period. See
Chengdu [Ch'eng-tu]. Capital of Sichuan also lSANAPURA.
province, China. The material culture of the
Chengdu plain kept a strong local flavour long Chernigov. A town on the River Dnieper in
after its first contact with the Bronze Age the western Soviet Union, probably founded
civilizations of North China, which on the by the Swedish Vikings between the 9th and
evidence of RITUAL VESSELS found in nearby 11th centuries. It was principally a trading
PENG XIAN must be dated no later than the town on the north-south route across eastern
beginning of the Western ZHOU period. Apart Europe between the Black Sea and Baltic
from the Peng Xian bronzes there is little sign areas.
that Western Zhou influence in Sichuan went
beyond the introduction of bronze weapons; chert. A very finely crystalline form of the
in the course of the Zhou period these mineral silica, found as nodules in limestones.
weapons evolved local forms that often appear Many cherts are so fine-grained that they
peculiar or archaic by comparison with behave like a GLASS - they fracture almost as
counterparts from more metropolitan centres. sharply as OBSIDIAN, and may be chipped or
In the late Eastern Zhou period, when Sichuan flaked to make artefacts. All have been used as
was the route by which influences from the materials for making artefacts, but the most
northern steppes reached the DIAN KINGDOM commonly used has been the particularly
in southwestern China, the Chengdu plain was glassy variety called FLINT, which is found in
occupied by the kingdom of Shu (see BA AND the chalk of England and Europe.
SHu). Though still a cultural backwater,
Chengdu at this time seems to have been a Chesowanja. An open site in Kenya, which
major centre for the manufacture of painted has produced the earliest evidence yet
LACQUERS. In the HAN period state-operated recorded of fire in association with tools. The
workshops at Chengdu and nearby Guanghan site is dated to 1.4 million years ago and pre-
dominated the lacquer industry, and their dates the previous earliest evidence for fire -
products have been found as far away as at ZHOUKOUTIEN -by nearly 1 million years.
]!ANGLING and MAWANGDUI in Hunan However, it has been suggested that the
province, NoiN ULA in Outer Mongolia, and burning documented at Chesowanja was
LELANG in Korea. produced not by man, but by some natural
cause such as lightning. If it was man-made,
Cheng Zhou [Ch' eng Chou] (distinguish the problem arises as to which hominid was
from ZHENGZHOU). See ZHOU CAPITALS. responsible. At a date of 1.4 million years the
most plausible candidate is Homo erectus, but
Chengziyai [Ch'eng-tzu-yai]. See LONGSHAN. the only hominid actually documented at
Chesowanja is Australopithecus robustus,
Chenla. The first kingdom of the KHMERS normally regarded as neither a tool-maker nor
which came into being in what is now southern a meat-eater (and therefore an implausible
LAOS in the middle of the 6th century. Its candidate for a fire-maker). One view that has
etymology is not known. It gradually been expressed is that A. robustus was the
expanded towards the south to absorb the victim of the fire-making Homo erectus, but in
territories formerly occupied by FuNAN (i.e. the absence of actual H. erectus fossils, this
present CAMBODIA). At the beginning of the seems like special pleading. See also
104 Chester

AUSTRALOPITHECUS, HOMO ERECTUS, China and possibly survives in 'Cochin-


HUMAN EVOLUTION. China'.

Chester (Roman Deva]. City in northwest Chiapa de Corzo. Located on the banks of the
England. Modern Chester overlies a massive Grijalva River in the central depression of the
Roman camp ( castra) of some 24 hectares, state of Chiapas, Mexico, Chiapa de Corzo has
sited strategically on the River Dee to control one of the longest occupational sequences in
communications with the Northwest and Mesoamerica. Although it spans the period
Wales, to separate the warring tribes of the c1500 BC to the present, it is most interesting
Brigantes and the Ordovices, and to assist the for its coverage of Late PRE-CLASSIC to Early
sister camp at CAERLEON in the continuing CLASSIC times. Evidence of construction
programme of subjugation in Wales. Perhaps (adobe fragments), utilitarian ceramics and
already a small fort by AD 60, the fortress was figurines occur at the earliest level; PYRAMIDS
firmly established, as inscriptions show, in a date to 550 BC and residential complexes of cut
surge of construction in the years 76-79. This stone to 150 BC.
initial phase of timber and earthworks was The site is particularly notable for its record
itself subsequently renewed in stone. Water of constantly changing external influences.
supply by aqueduct was also laid on by 79. The Elements of style and iconography in certain
layout, externally and internally, was typically artefacts indicate contact with IZAPA and
rectilinear, with perimeter wall and ditch, KAMINAUUYU in the Late Pre-Classic.
corner towers, a gateway in each side, and Hundreds of broken sherds found in Mound 5
intermediate towers. A street grid linked the tell of trade contact with sites in the Peten,
principal quarters of the camp. Outside the MONTE ALBAN and TEOTIHUACAN in the
fortifications lay a civilian settlement, an Early CLASSIC. Deliberate destruction of
amphitheatre, cemeteries and quarries. Mound 5 occurred in AD 500 and was followed
Abandonment came about 380. by a brief period of abandonment. Reoccupa-
tion appears to have been by an entirely new
chevaux de frise. A form of defence devel- group, possibly the Zoque.
oped especially to break cavalry charges,
although also effective against foot soldiers; Chibcha. A culture centred on the eastern
consisting of closely spaced stakes or stones cordillera of Colombia, near to present-day
placed on end, chevaux de frises are some- Bogota, which was still flourishing in the 16th
times associated with HILLFORTS in prehistoric century at the time of Spanish contact. Much
Europe. of what is known comes from historical
documents of that time, although excavations
Chiao [also Giao]. Name of the formerly at the huge site of La Ramada have provided
independent kingdom of NAM-VII':T (Chinese some archaeological information.
Nan-yiieh) w~n it was incorporated as a Large populations living in palisaded towns
province into the Han empire in 111 BC. The were governed as autonomous chiefdoms by
province of Chiao consisted of nine com- an absolute ruler. (The ceremonial coating of
manderies, six of which correspond to the the chiefs body with gold leaf may well be the
present Chinese provinces of Kwangtung and origin of the El Dorado legend.) Ceremonial
Kwangsi and the island of Hainan, while the practice centred around sun-worship and
other three formed the northern half of present included human sacrifice. Rituals associated
Vietnam which gained independence from with the culture hero/ god Bochica show
China in 939. See also CHIAO-CHIH. marked similarities to rituals connected with
Mesoamerican deities.
Chiao-chih (Giao-chi ]. One of the nine com- The Chibcha were successful agricultural-
manderies of the Han Chinese province of ists, farming, among other things, MAIZE and
CHIAO which corresponded to the region of POTATOES. As such, their artefact inventory
the Red River delta, the heartland of the later (especially ceramics) tends to be utilitarian;
(lOth-century) independent state of VIET- distinctive human effigy vessels, however, may
NAM. The name was used by early European have some ritual significance. Gold, copper
and West Asian traders to designate this state and tumbaga (a copper-gold alloy) were also
long after it had gained independence from worked in a variety of techniques - soldered
Chilca 105

wire embellishments are characteristic - but Maya warriors submitting to Toltec warriors
the art style is rather crude compared to have been found on gold discs recovered from
contemporary Columbian cultures such as the Sacred Cenote.
TAIRONA. The terminal date for Chichen Itza is
uncertain but the chronicles indicate either
Chicane). A phase of the Lowland MAY A 1187 or 1227 as the time of the disappearance
PRE-CLASSIC dated 300 BC to AD 150. It is of the Toltec. Certainly by the mid-13th
characterized by a complex of architectural century power had shifted to the Late Post-
and ceramic traits which presage the rise of Classic centre at MAYAPAN.
CLASSIC Maya civilization, for instance
temple-pyramids, corbelled arches and Chichimec. In the Early PosT-CLASSIC
painted murals. Also notable is increasing PERIOD, mixed groups of nomadic hunters and
uniformity between sites, a growing variety of gatherers and displaced farmers began drifting
ceramic forms and the disappearance of south from the northernmost margins of
figurines. See also MAMON. Mesoamerica. The reasons for this migration
are uncertain, but it is thought that these
Chichen Itza. The primary centre of power in northern areas were subject to sustained
the northern Yucatan during the Early PosT- climatic deterioration, reducing available
CLASSIC PERIOD. Although there is a PRE- subsistence resources below critical levels.
CLASSIC occupation and Chichen Itza Revered as warriors, they were claimed as
functioned as a minor CEREMONIAL CENTRE in antecedents by numerous Mesoamerican
the CLASSIC PERIOD, its major occupation was groups including the T ARASCANS and the
between clOOO and 1250. From historical AzTECS. The TOLTECS also claimed to be
sources it seems likely that the Itza (see also descendants, but it has been shown that the
CozuMEL) arrived in 918 and were respons- Chichimecs did not establish their major
ible for the early structures, some of which are centre at TENAYUCA until1224, after the fall
in the Puuc style, for example the High of TuLA, for which they were supposedly
Priest's Grave, the inner structures of the responsible. The Chichimecs are also
Castillo and the Caracol (the Observatory). associated with the introduction of the bow
There is a good deal of confusion over who the and arrow into the Valley of Mexico.
Itza were and how they relate to the TOLTEC,
but they were probably a Mexican-influenced Chicoid [Boca Chica]. One of two ceramic
PvTuN group. series (the other being MEILLACOID) that
The arrival ofthe Toltecs at Chichen Itza is appear to have developed out of the OSTINOID
coincident with the banishment of QUETZA- series. Originating in eastern Hispaniola -the
COATL from TuLA in 987; indeed, represent- type site is at Boca Chica in the Dominican
ations of the feathered serpent abound after Republic - Chicoid influence spread over
this time. This second building phase, much of the eastern Antilles, probably by
although clearly Toltec-inspired (several diffusion of ideas rather than actual migration.
buildings are markedly similar to structures at The artistic and ceremonial traits with which
TuLA) also incorporates strong MAY AN Chicoid materials are associated represent the
elements. At the centre of the site is the cultural climax of the Caribbean area.
Castillo or temple-PYRAMID of Kulkulkan, the Paraphernalia of the BALL GAME, ZEMIS and a
Maya equivalent of Quetzacoatl; this is linked variety of wood and stone carvings are among
by a causeway to the nearby Sacred CENOTE. these traits. A strong BARRANCOID influence
Other major structures include the Temple of is evident in the ceramics, especially modelled
the Warriors (in front of which stands a CHAC- ornamentation and incision, although the
MOOL ), large 'dance platforms', the Group of a painted decoration normally associated with
Thousand Columns, the Temple ofthe Jaguars Ostionoid is replaced by curvilinear incision.
and, at 150 metres long, the largest BALL The series first appears in clOOO AD and
COURT in Mesoamerica. Bas-relief carvings on continues into the time of European contact.
a massive skull rack ( tzompantft) shows the
BALL GAME to be associated with scenes of sac- Chilam Balam. See CODEX.
rifice. Relief carvings with themes of conquest
and violence abound, and representations of Chilca. Dating to the PRE-CERAMIC PERIOD
106 Chilchihuitlicue

V (4200-2500 be), the Chilca site, 67 km In addition to a very large number of technical
south of Lima, Peru, was originally a summer books and articles, Childe wrote many books
camp for ARCHAIC groups. An increasingly about archaeology for the general public.
warmer climate, however, caused the drying
up of the LOMAS and coastal sites such as Chimu. Centred on the north coast of Peru,
Chilca became favourable loci for a new the Chimu kingdom was the largest of the
subsistence pattern (see EN CANTO). Remains independent states to appear in the Late
of semi-subterranean cane and grass houses, INTERMEDIATE PERIOD. Developing out of
coupled with increasing evidence of exploita- MOCHE, the kingdom at its zenith stretched
tion of marine resources and of wild and from the borders of Ecuador to the Chillon
domesticated plants, such as beans, emphasize Valley. The capital, Chanchan, was located in
the tendency to sedentary life. Radiocarbon the Moche Valley and consisted of nucleated
dates for the early period of occupation are in monumental architecture covering an area of
the range 3800 to 2650 be. DOLICHO- over six square kilometres. The site is
CEPHALIC human remains date to this period dominated by ten rectangular enclosures with
but appear ultimately to have been replaced by walls from 200 to 600 metres long and up to 10
BRACHYCEPHALIC types some time after 2500 metres high. The nature of the complexes
be. within these enclosures - large rooms, court-
yards, sunken gardens, rich tombs - suggest
Chilchihuitlicue. See CALENDAR STONE. that they were occupied by the ruling elite of
Chimu society. (Although an alternative
Childe, Vere Gordon (1892-1957). Aus- interpretation is that they were occupied by
tralian by birth, Childe spent most of his groups defined either by kinship or craft
life in Britain, where he was successively specialization.)
Abercromby Professor of Archaeology at A system of inter-valley highways (popu-
Edinburgh and first Professor of European larly supposed to be INCA) confirms the
Prehistory in the Institute of Archaeology at likelihood of a widespread trade network.
London University. For more than 30 years Such roads, in company with garrisons and
Childe dominated European prehistory. He fortified posts, would also have been a factor in
was the chief proponent of the DIFFUSIONIST the maintenance of control by a strong central
view which interpreted all major develop- government. Canal irrigation on a grand scale
ments in prehistoric Europe in terms of the was also practised.
spread of either people or ideas from the Near Mould-made, burnished black ware,
East. He developed this theme in great detail decorated in low-relief, was the characteristic
in a number of seminal works, among the most Chimu pottery, although polychromes
important of which were The Danube in displaying HUARI-inspired designs occurred
Prehistory( 1929) and The Dawn ofEuropean in earlier contexts. The STIRRUP-SPOUT and
Civilization ( 1925, 7th ed. 1957). Although in SPOUT-AND-BRIDGE vessels are the most
European archaeology Childe is associated common forms.
with the idea of diffusion, he also studied Near Although Chimu characteristics are still
Eastern prehistory and in that context he distinguishable as late as 1600, the culture was
studied developments occurring locally - effectively absorbed into the Inca empire some
what today is often called processual time in the mid-15th century.
archaeology. In his books The Most Ancient
East(1928) and its later edition New Light on chinampa. An extremely productive method
the Most Ancient East(1934) he emphasized of agriculture practised in MESOAMERICA,
the importance of the change from hunting especially by the AzTEC. Although often
and gathering to farming as the basis of life, incorrectly called 'floating gardens', the
which he called the Neolithic or Food- method is rather similar to a system of land
producing Revolution, and the later develop- reclamation. Successive rectangular mats of
ment of civilization, which he called the marsh vegetation were floated to suitable
Second or Urban Revolution. Though the shallow-water sites and anchored first to the
term 'revolution' is rarely used in these lake bottom and then successively to each
contexts today, these developments remain a other. Once built up above the water level,
major focus of study for scholars of the 1980s. nutrient-rich lake mud was dredged up and
Chiusi 107
piled on top. Periodic renewal of this mud chipping floor. In the process of flaking stone
layer created a permanent supply of fertile soil tools, large quantities of waste chips are pro-
so that as one crop was harvested it could be duced. A land surface on which a scatter of
immediately replaced with another. The these is found is a chipping floor. At least from
chinampas were normally separated by a the earlier stone age, it is rare to discover a
system of canals which allowed both access chipping floor where finished tools and
and water circulation. A carrying capacity of indications of other activities are absent.
60 to 100 persons per hectare is estimated for
the system at TENOCHTITLAN. Chiricahua. The second of three chrono-
logical stages of the CocHISE culture, with
Chincha. A small autonomous state of the dates clustering between 3500 and 1500 be. A
Late INTERMEDIATE PERIOD, centred on the mixed foraging economy is indicated by
Chincha Valley in south coast Peru. Although assemblages commonly including cobble
known mostly from its pottery, some sites do MANOS, shallow basin grinding slabs,
exist: notably the administrative complex at choppers, scrapers and distinctive, side-
Tambo de Mora (probably the capital), La notched projectile points. Some degree of
Centinela and La Cumbe. Chincha pottery permanence can be inferred from the occur-
was widely traded and is typically a smoked rence of large base camps, storage pits and
black ware, although there were some poly- outlying specialized-activity camps. Evidence
chromes. A reputation for military prowess from BAT CAVE indicates that primitive
appears to derive from the early (and probably MAIZE was also being cultivated during this
exaggerated) reports of the Spanish conquista- period, although botanical remains are rare at
dores. Whatever their fighting ability, the other sites.
Chincha were ultimately incorporated into the
INCA empire. Chiripa. A site located at the south end of
Lake Titicaca in Bolivia and dating to the
MIDDLE HORIZON. It consists of a series of
Chiozza. A Neolithic settlement site in Emilia, rectangular rooms, some with underfloor
northern Italy, of the later 5th or early 4th stone-lined graves, arranged around a rect-
millennium be. The only structural remains angular plaza. An unusual feature is the use of
were oval and circular pits, possibly the floors the space between the double walls of some of
of sunken huts, but more probably storage these structures for storage. Chiripa's distinc-
pits. Pottery was of the SQUARE-MOUTHED tive ceramics are part of a region-wide artistic
type and indeed the term Chiozza is sometimes tradition linked both to PuCARA and the
used as an alternative name for this type of beginnings ofTIAHUANACO. Typical pottery is
pottery, or sometimes just for a later phase of a cream-on-white ware, decorated with
it. geometric designs (usually broad steps or
serrations); modelled and incised felines are
another favoured motif. The common form is
chip carving. A technique that probably a flat-bottomed, vertical-sided open bowl.
originated in the Roman and Celtic world. The
method required an incised strip to be drawn Chitope. A village site in northern Mashona-
across the surface of the piece to be decorated, land, Zimbabwe, occupied briefly during a
and then a series of lozenges were cut inside final phase of the local Early Iron Age in the
the borders of the strip; each lozenge section 11th or 12th century ad. The presence of a
was individually eased out with a chisel in such single glass bead suggests that this period saw
a way that the resulting cavity sloped in the beginning of contact with the coastal trade,
towards the centre in a pyramidal depression. which greatly developed during the succeed-
The end result was a pattern of combined ing later Iron Age.
V -shaped incisions, with a glittering faceted
appearance. The technique was effectively Chiusi [Roman Clusium]. Town in central
adapted by Germanic wood-carvers to make Italy. Situated on a hill commanding the
animal ornaments, and by metalsmiths of the southern end of the Val di Chiana, Clusium
Migration Period to produce objects of enjoyed in antiquity good agricultural fertility,
unparalleled skill. deposits of iron and copper ore, natural hot
108 Chivateros

springs, and a key position on trade routes. Although these assemblages are clearly
Settlement appears to be unbroken and hunting-oriented, no bone survives at
successful from the first VILLANOVAN Chivateros and it is supposed that the
dwellers onwards. Under ETRUSCAN rule population lived away from this workshop site.
(6th-4th centuries sc), Clusium prospered as
one of the great 12 cities of the confederation, chloromelanite. A form of JADEITE.
and gained a reputation for bronze and stone
craftsmanship. Numerous Etruscan tombs, Chodo. See PuSAN.
mostly cut into the soft tufa rock and dating
from the 7th to the 1st centuries BC, some Choga Mami. A settlement site of the
richly decorated, some with rich contents of SAMARRA culture near Mandali in southeast
vases, sarcophagi, sculpture and CIPPI, bear Iraq. The site which has radiocarbon dates of
eloquent witness to this wealth. In general, the the late 6th millennium be, has several
great preponderance of material originating occupation phases spanning the transition
from tombs and cemeteries (both Villanovan from the Samarran to the UBAID culture. The
and Etruscan) gives the evidence a funerary subsistence economy of Choga Mami was
imbalance that needs cautious interpretation. based on mixed farming, involving the rearing
There is the impression of a continuous of cattle, sheep and goats and the cultivation of
Villanovan-Etruscan settlement that was slow wheat, barley and flax. These crops were
to admit other influences. In particular, there is cultivated with the help of irrigation, for which
evidence for a marked persistence of the unequivocal evidence survives in the form of a
cremation rite, a continuity that produces a series of ditches on the edge of the settlement.
wide variety of cinerary urns, 'canopic' jars The site covers c3500 square metres and
(with human representation), and the char- contains buildings of mud-brick with external
acteristic hollow seated figures (hollowed out buttresses; houses were rectangular and
from so-called pietra fetida limestone, to act as consisted of ranges of rooms, in two or three
cinerary containers). By contrast, although rows. A mud-brick tower guarded the
contact with Rome came early, Roman entrance to the settlement. Artefacts from the
influence seems to exert very little effect. site include the typical Samarran painted
pottery and elaborate female figurines of clay.
Chivateros. A stratified site in the coastal
Chillon Valley of central Peru, which has Choga Mish. A site in southwest Iran occupied
produced a lithic flake industry dating to as in the 6th millennium be. The earliest layers
early as the Late PLEISTOCENE. Radiocarbon have painted pottery related to that from
dates of c8500 be, taken from wood frag- MUHAMMED JAFFAR, followed by pottery of
ments, have helped to define Chivateros I as Tepe SABZ and Susiana A (see SusA) types.
the period c9500 to 8000 be. By cross-
comparison of artefacts with a nearby work- Choga Zanbil. City near SusA in southwest
shop (designated the Oquendo complex) a Iran which was founded as a second capital of
date of pre-10,500 be has been convincingly ELAM in the 13th century BC by Untash-Gal,
postulated for the underlying Red Zone. The from whom it took its ancient name, Dur-
whole industry is characterized by burins and U ntash. The city was lavishly laid out but never
bifaces with the upper level (Chivateros II) completed; it declined in importance after the
containing long, keeled, leaf-shaped projectile death of Untash-Gal. Excavations have
points which resemble points from both exposed three concentric city walls, three
LAURICOCHA II and EL JOBO. palaces, a huge central ZIGGURAT still surviv-
Dating has also been aided by the deposi- ing to a height of c28 metres but probably
tion of both LOESS and salt crust layers which originally almost twice that height, other
seem to suggest alternating periods of dryness associated temples in the same complex and a
and humidity, and which furthermore can be reservoir.
synchronized with glacial activity in the
northern hemisphere. (Note, however, that Cholula. One ofthe independent PosT-CLAS-
our knowledge of the glacial stages in the SIC centres of Mexico to survive after the fall of
southern hemisphere is still highly speculative: TEOTIHUACAN, and the major locus for the
see also A YACUCHO.) production of the elaborate polychrome wares
Chu 109
of the Mixteca-Puebla art style (see MIXTEC). coarse stamped pottery, the technology for
Located in the state of Puebla in Mexico, it is which was probably imported from Asia. Tool
dominated by the largest PYRAMID in assemblages are usually diverse and clearly
MESOAMERICA. This structure covers an area different from earlier levels, for example at
of 16 hectares and rises to a height of more Point Barrow. Tools of polished slate and oil
than 30 metres. lamps first appear in Choris times. Consider-
Limited excavation via tunnelling shows able local variation in assemblages at Choris
four earlier pyramids nested inside the Great sites makes it difficult to generalize about this
Pyramid, the earliest of which goes back to the tradition. The type site is at Kotsebue Sound
PRE-CLASSIC PERIOD when the site was first but there are Choris components at CAPE
occupied. Cholula survived as a political and KRUSENSTERN and ONION PORTAGE as well
mercantile centre until the time of the Spanish as other Arctic sites. The most characteristic
and appears to have flourished in spite of dates are c1500-500 be.
having been dominated by a series of con-
quering groups including the historic OLMEC, Chotnica [Hotnica]. A long-lived TELL settle-
Tolteca-Chichimec and the AZTEC. ment site of the later Neolithic period, located
in the Yantra Valley in north Bulgaria and
Chondwe. An Iron Age site on the Zambian dated to the late 5th to early 4th millennium
Copperbelt. It has given its name to the local be. The cultures found represent regional
manifestation of the Early Iron Age complex variants on Rumanian groups of the lower
apparently established in the 4th or 5th Danube valley and occur in three main
century ad. Its closest affinities at this time occupation horizons: I, a thin DUDE$TI level
were with the Lusaka area (compare KAPWIR- with pits and post holes, associated with a rich
IMBWE} and, probably, with areas further to pottery assemblage; II, a BOlAN level with
the west. Smallscale exploitation of the ceramics of the Boian II phase; and III, a thick
region's copper deposits dates from the time of horizon ofthe GUMELNITA culture, in which a
this Early Iron Age occupation, when there is complete village plan with over 15 houses is
also some evidence for the growth of inter- known. In the smallest structure in the
regional trade. Gumelnita village was found the Chotnica
hoard of 44 or 48 gold ornaments ( 4 pendants
Chono. See FuEGIAN TRADITION. and 40 or 44 bracelets). The exact context of
the hoard inside the building is still unknown.
chopper/chopping tool. These names are
given to simple forms of stone tool made on a Choukoutien. See ZHOUKOUDIAN.
nodule or cobble with a roughly flaked sharp
edge. By convention, tools with the cutting Christy, Henry (1810-65). English banker
edge flaked from one direction are called who in the last three years of his life supported
choppers and those flaked from two directions financially and assisted in person the French
are called chopping tools. Their use is archaeologist Edouard LARTET in excavations
generally unknown, though a few examples in many of the great caves of southwest France,
from the CLACTONIAN in England are including LAUGERIE HAUTE, LA MADELEINE
believed, on the basis of wear traces, to have and LE MoUSTIER. Christy left money for the
been used for chopping wood. The term publication of his and Lartet's work, which was
chopperI chopping tool tradition is frequently eventually produced serially under the title
applied to the Pleistocene pebble and flake Reliquiae Aquitanicae and finally completed
industries of eastern Asia, to differentiate in 1875.
them from the HAND AXE industries of western
Eurasia and Africa (see ANYATHIAN, PACI- chronology. A related sequence of dates.
TANIAN, ZHOUKOUDIAN} although their dis- Chronologies may be built up on archaeo-
tribution is by no means restricted to eastern logical grounds (e.g. CROSS DATING, STRATI-
Asia. GRAPHY or TYPOLOGY) or from independent
dating techniques (e.g. RADIOCARBON, AR-
Choris. The earliest manifestation of the CHAEOMAGNETISM etc).
NORTON tradition of Western Arctic pre-
history. The most characteristic artefact is Chu [Ch'u]. A state that ruled a large area of
110 chullpa

central China during the ZHOU period. was painted LACQUER. Lacquered objects
According to tradition a Chu ruler was given a range from containers of all sorts to strange
title by the second Western Zhou king, wooden effigies, musical instruments, coffins,
implying that a Chu kingdom existed as early and other wooden tomb furniture. Paintings
as c1 000 BC. Little is known of this kingdom on lacquer and SILK together with a few
until the Eastern Zhou period, however, when illustrated silk manuscripts hint at a rich
archaeology and historical sources reveal it as mythology made explicit in the Chu ci, whose
a distinctive, highly civilized cultural and shamans and weird demons have no parallel in
political entity. From the 8th century until its contemporary texts originating outside the
destruction by QIN in the 3rd century BC Chu Chu sphere. The bronze RITUAL VESSELS
was the largest and most powerful of the essential to the religious observances of the
Eastern Zhou states, presenting a constant northern states seem to have been less im-
threat to its neighbours on the west, north, and portant to Chu ceremony than the musical
east. instruments, especially BELLS and DRUMS,
Chu occupied modern Hubei province and found in large numbers in Chu tombs. The
adjacent parts of Hunan, Jiangxi, Anhui, and bells and also certain animal motifs ubiquitous
Henan. The distribution of Chu sites suggests in Chu art - birds, snakes, tigers - argue for
that the main settlements lay on the shores of a continuity with Shang-period local cultures of
great lake called Yunmeng in ancient texts, of the Yangzi region (see NINGXIANG). Silk,
which Lake Dongting is today the remnant, lacquer, and IRON were all Chu specialities,
and along the rivers that flowed into or out of and the northern states felt the appeal of Chu
the lake (Xiang, Han and Yangzi). Major finds material culture long before the Han dynasty
have also been made to the north of this region (see YUNMENG). With the incorporation of
(see XIASI) and northeast across the Chu into the Han empire - whose founder
Dabieshan mountains in the Huai River valley was of Chu descent -the influence of Chu art
(see XINYANG), but Chu remains are most throughout China became overwhelming. The
densely concentrated at JIANGLING in contributions made by Chu literature,
southern Hubei and CHANGSHA in northern philosophy, and government administration
Hunan. The Chu capital was at Jiangling from seem to have been equally crucial for the
689 to 278 BC, when the city fell to Qin. The genesis of Han civilization.
Chu court then retreated to the Huai valley,
remaining there until its final overthrow in 223 chullpa. A burial tower commonly found in
BC (see SHOU XIAN). the southern Peruvian Andes, especially in the
Although surviving documents show that Lake Titicaca basin. Of either circular or
the Chu people wrote and thus presumably rectangular plan, chul/pa are built from adobe
spoke Chinese, the contemporary states in the or from a variety of natural or dressed stone.
north, direct heirs of the SHANG and Western Often associated with the INCA, they were
Zhou empires, always regarded themselves as already being built and used in the Late INTER-
'more Chinese'. The cultural differences that MEDIATE PERIOD, especially by the Colla (see
set Chu apart are clearly visible in the archaeo- AYMARA).
logical record and also in ancient texts such as
the Chu ci or Songs of Chu, a remarkable Chunqiu [Ch'un-ch'iu]. The SPRING AND
collection of Chu poems. These differences AUTUMN PERIOD, 770-476 BC. See ZHOU.
are of special interest to the historian, for much
in Chu culture that was exotic by comparison chunyu [ ch 'un-yit]. See BELLS (CHINA).
with the Shang and Zhou tradition had by the
end of the HAN period entered the mainstream Chuqitanta. See EL PARAISO.
of Chinese civilization.
Few Chu habitation sites have been church. A building used for collective
excavated. Evidence for the material culture Christian worship, the performance of cere-
of Chu comes instead from countless tombs, monies, pilgrimages and the veneration of
including some that date from the Han dynasty relics. The earliest churches were hidden in
(see MAw ANGDUI). Chu bronze-casting was caves and CATACOMBS but with the official
highly developed and idiosyncratic (see XIASI, acceptance of Christianity in the 4th century
SUI XIAN), but the Chu art form par excellence larger buildings, typically the BASILICAN halls,
Cirencester 111

were built specifically for communal worship. uished in a three-metre stratigraphy, all of
In the early Christian period, baptistries, which are defined by rich painted ware
martyria, and covered cemeteries often assemblages. Level I includes some of the
remained separate to one side of the building earliest white-on-red painted pottery of the
for worship. FIRST TEMPERATE NEOLITHIC, with affinities
Although the usual form of churches has in the Proto-Sesklo repertoire of Greece,
been the hall or axial plan, other forms have whilst in the latest level (IV) the latest style of
also been used: circular, polygonal or cross- STARCEVO-CRI~ polychrome painted pottery
shaped. However, the plan and appearance of in Rumania is found.
a church is not determined only by its liturgical
and ceremonial functions, but by other Circumpolar cultures. Alternatively labelled
symbolic and spiritual considerations. All the Arctic Stone Age, these cultures are found in
details and proportions in a medieval church the most northerly regions of Eurasia. The
are to some extent a material reflection of population remained hunter-gatherers long
deeper spiritual and symbolic meanings. after farming had been established further
south, exploiting food sources such as elk,
Ciempozuelos. A Copper Age cemetery near reindeer and seal. In some areas, a lively rock
Madrid in central Spain, which has given its art is found, depicting scenes of hunting and
name to a late variety of Spanish BEAKER. fishing, as well as equipment such as skis,
Most of the burials were flexed inhumations in sledges and skin boats. Tools were often made
cists. The Ciempozuelos beakers and other of slate, and amber was widely used for
pots are of high quality with a red or brown ornaments. Trading connections with farming
burnished slip and incised decoration; they groups to the south were well established and
belong to the 2nd millennium BC. amber may have been the main commodity
traded. The practice of pottery-making was
Cieneza. See AGRELO. acquired through these contacts.

Cimmerians. A nomadic people of the south circus. An oval race-course with a central wall
Russian steppes, known to us through the (spina) and columned turning points ( metae),
writings of Herodotus and the AsSYRIAN particularly for chariot races. There were
records. In the 8th century BC, under pressure several examples in ancient Rome, the greatest
from the SCYTHIANS, they moved into being the Circus Maximus. It is essentially a
Anatolia, while a related group called Roman development from the Greek ST AD-
Thracians moved north-west into Europe. IUM or HIPPODROME.
They may have played a part in the spread of
iron technology to the west, though this view Cirencester [Corinium Dobunnorum].
has fewer adherents today than formerly. The Situated in Gloucestershire, southwest
name Thraco-Cimmerian has been attached to England, Cirencester was the site of a cavalry
a particular kind of horse-bit found widely in fort during the period AD 43-70. It sub-
Europe, but its real association with either sequently became the CIVITAS capital of the
Thracians or Cimmerians is not well estab- Dobunni tribe and by the 3rd century the town
lished. walls enclosed clOO hectares. Occupation
continued well into the Anglo-Saxon period.
cippus (p/: cippi). A short pillar of stone, Most of ancient Corinium lies under modern
usually rectangular or cylindrical, and often Cirencester, but part of the wall can still be
with mouldings at top and bottom. Often seen and an amphitheatre to the southwest of
inscribed, it is normally associated with burials the town. Excavations have revealed much of
or tombs, and essentially serves as a grave- the layout of the town and the plan of the
stone. forum and basilica, a market hall, shops and
houses.
Circea. A multi-level settlement site of the Work on the cemetery containing c450
Early Neolithic CRI~ culture, located in the Olt individuals, published in 1982, has cast
Valley of southwesten Rumania and dated interesting light on the health of the popula-
from the late 6th-mid-5th millennia be. Four tion of Cirencester. The skeletons contained
main occupation phases have been disting- high levels of lead, lending suppport to the
112 eire perdue [lost wax] method

view that lead poisoning contributed to the however, perhaps its main use has been as an
decline of the Roman Empire. The lead level adjunct to lost-wax casting. The lost-wax
in the bones of some children was so high that method sufferS from the drawback that the
they may have actually died of lead poisoning, model is destroyed in the process of making
although this cannot be ascertained from the the mould, so that only one casting can be
skeletons. Other conditions identified in the obtained from each model; moreover any
skeletons include arthritis and gout. accident to model or mould can mean the loss
of all the effort invested in preparing the wax
eire perdue[Iost wax] method. A method of model. The solution to this problem, exploited
constructing moulds for metal casting. In the in Greek foundries in the 5th century BC if not
lost-wax method, a model of the object to be before, is to begin with a permanent model that
cast is made in wax and then invested with clay; is not of wax and to form a section mould on
when the clay is baked the wax runs out, this; the section mould is then used to shape
leaving a clay envelope in which an exact metal duplicate wax models, each of which can be
replica of the wax model can be cast. If the used to make a casting mould. Modern art-
metal object is to be hollow, it is only necessary foundry work generally relies on some such
to give the wax model a clay core (which will combination of the section-mould and lost-
become the core of the casting and may be seen wax techniques, using first the section-mould
in X-rays of ancient artefacts). The lost-wax method to make a wax model and then the
method is well-suited to produce objects of lost-wax method to cast a metal replica of the
irregular or undercut shape. Since the thick- wax model. The procedure necessarily
ness of wax applied to the clay core is easily sacrifices some of the freedom of shape
controlled, it also helps the craftsman to keep offered by the lost-wax method, since the
the walls of a hollow casting uniformly thin, model must not be so complicated that a
saving metal and reducing the risk of flaws due mould cannot be conveniently removed from
to uneven cooling. The earliest lost-wax it in sections. By way of compensation, it
castings yet identified come from a 4th allows duplicate castings and keeps the
millennium BC hoard of copper and arsenical original model intact. The expression 'lost-
copper objects, some cast around clay cores, wax process' in many contexts refers to the
found in Nahal Mishmar near the Dead Sea. entire procedure just described, including the
The main alternative to the lost-wax first step in which a section mould is formed on
process, called the piece-mould or section- the permanent model.
mould technique, constructs the mould
without the aid of an evanescent model. In this Cishan [Tz'u-shan]. See BANPO.
technique, clay is packed around a permanent
model, not of wax, and then removed from the cist. A simple square or rectangular tomb
model in sections, the sections being re- made of stone slabs set on edge and covered by
assembled to fol1tl the mould. The number of a CAPSTONE. Cists may be sunk into the
sections into which the mould must be divided ground or built above it and they may be free-
in order to free it from the model depends on standing or covered by a BARROW.
how intricate or undercut the shape of the
model is. Bivalve moulds, the simplest of Cistercian ware. A distinctive 15th-16th-
section moulds, are adequate to produce many century manganese glazed ware commonly
weapons and tools. Castings with mould marks associated with Cistercian sites in pre-
corresponding to the divisions of three- or Reformation times. This type of pottery marks
four-part moulds were among the metal a break with earlier traditions of LEAD GLAZED
objects unearthed by WOOLLEY in the Royal wares, and the various forms were produced in
Cemetery at UR. For shapes that are not many kilns. Production was concentrated in
excessively complicated, the section-mould Yorkshire, and the unusual two-handled cup
method is practical and straightforward (see forms found favour not only with monks but
RITUAL VESSELS, CHINA). with households of all kinds.
The section-mould method was used
extensively in ancient China, where lost-wax Ciume~ti. A small cluster of Mesolithic and
casting did not appear until about the 6th Neolithic settlement sites, located on the sand
century BC (see XIASI). Outside China, dune zone of the upper Crasna River in the
claw beaker 113

Maramure area, northwest Rumania. Within ARCHAEOLOGY of the United States. Clarke
a radius of 10 km short-term Late Mesolithic, emphasized the need for an explicit theory and
Early Neolithic CRI~ and later Neolithic a more rigorous methodology in archaeology
LINEAR POTIERY sites are found, sometimes - both of which are now widely accepted by
with superimposed culture levels. The chipped the new generation of archaeologists.
stone assemblages are distinguished by a high
percentage of obsidian, procured from the Classical. A term derived from the Latin
Tokaj Mountains some 180 km away in classicus ('of the highest class'), used to
northeastern Hungary. designate a supposedly high point of a civiliza-
tion. It is frequently the central term in a three-
Cividale. The little church of Santa Maria in tier series: ARCHAIC (for preceding periods,
Valle or the 'Tempietto' at Cividale, near with implications of primitivity), Oassical
Friuli in northeast Italy, is one of the finest (central period of greatest achievement), and
surviving examples of LoMBARDIC archi- 'late' (of subsequent periods, with implica-
tecture. It was built between 762 and 776 and tions of degeneracy and breakdown). In a
combines elements of Lombardic 'proto- broader sense, the term often describes the
Romanesque' with Arabic and Byzantine whole period of Greek and Roman antiquity.
influences. The groin-vaulted nave is carried
on columns and leads to a small sanctuary. The Classic Period. Conceived as the period of
plainness of the exterior greatly contrasts with florescence of the great civilizations of
the abundant carved decoration and sculpture MESOAMERICA, initially defined by the
which adorns the inside; most of which is earliest and most recent LONG COUNT dates
carried out in the unusual medium of stucco. found on MAY A stelae, AD 300-900. As more
The most impressive feature of all is the frieze sites came to light, it became increasingly clear
of six full-length stucco figures, whose graceful that many well-developed cultures did not fit
poses resemble mature Romanesque sculp- comfortably into this dating scheme (e.g.
ture. 0LMEC, MONTE ALBAN). While the period
largely applies to those civilizations which
civitas. A term used in the later Roman arose in central and southern Mesoamerica,
Republic and under the Roman Empire, to the notion of an area-wide florescence is now
describe certain self-governing communities, untenable. A division between Early and Late
which comprised a town with its local citizens Classic was arbitrarily set at AD 600, but since
and magistrates together with its surrounding in some areas, e.g. TEOTIHUACAN, great
territory. See a/so COLONIA, MUNICIPIUM. civilizations had already collapsed, some
scholars regard this date as marking the end of
Clactonian. A series of river and estuarine the Classic Period. The term is also adopted in
deposits on the Essex coast near Oacton, other areas of the New World, but it is in
southeast England, date from the HOXNIAN or Mesoamerica that it is most widely used. See
MINDEL-RISS period, and contain stone tools Table 9, page 552.
and animal and plant remains. There is one
URANIUM SERIES date of about 250,000 years. classis Britannica [Latin: British fleet]. The
The stone artefacts consist of thick flakes and fleet based at Boulogne during the Roman
rough cores, but typical hand axes are not occupation of Britain (43-410). With its
found. The type of assemblage or culture is captains ( trierarchz) and marines ( milites), its
called Oactonian. See Tables 5 and 6, pages responsibilities were the transporting of
418-9. supplies, military activities and, later, the
patrolling of the Channel, when its scout craft
Clarke, David (1938-76). A British archaeo- were painted sea-blue.
logist who made major contributions to
archaeological methodology and theory claw beaker. Glass claw beakers date from the
before his death at a tragically early age. His late 6th-7th centuries and occur in Early
seminal book Analytical Archaeology, Saxon graves and Frankish burials. In form
published in 1968, is sometimes regarded as they are similar to free-standing conical
heralding in a new era in the development of beakers, but they are embellished by a series of
archaeology, equivalent to the so-called NEw unusual claw-like protrusions, and in many
114 clay

clay tablets. The main wntmg material


employed by the scribes of the early civiliza-
tions of Western Asia. Signs were inscribed or,
more usually, impressed on the soft clay, which
was then dried in the sun. See also CUNEIFORM.

cleaver. A large flake tool of the PALAEO-


LITHIC period. The butt end is often worked
into the approximate shape of a hand axe butt,
but the other end always has a wide axe-like
cutting edge. In the typical African form,
much of the flake surface is left unretouched.
On some hand axes the tip is flaked into
cleaver form.

Cleland Hills. A PANARAMITEE-style rock-


art site 320 km west of Alice Springs in central
Australia. In addition to the usual Panarami-
tee motifs, there are 16 deeply engraved and
weathered heart-shaped 'faces' with con-
centric circle 'eyes', unique in Australian rock
Archaic Uruk clay tablet art.

Cloggs Cave. A limestone cave in the lower


cases the glass is tinted in shades of brown, Snowy River valley, northeastern Victoria,
blue and yellow. These beakers were probably Australia, with human occupation deposits
made in glasshouses either in Cologne or Trier which included ochre and hearths and are
in Germany. dated from about 16,000 to 7000 be. Stone
tools belonging to the AUSTRALIAN CORE
clay. Strictly, the word clay describes the size TOOL AND SCRAPER TRADITION showed use-
of the particles which go to make up a SEDI- wear interpreted as resulting from skin-
MENT, soil or similar material. Clay particles working, and resembled similar Tasmanian
are those that are less than 0.002 mm (BS artefacts. Bones of extinct animals ( Sthenurus
1377) in diameter (seePARTICLESIZE). Thus a orienta/is) were excavated from deposits more
clay is a sediment consisting largely of clay- than 20,000 years old and separated from the
sized particles; strictly used, the term has no human deposits. AUSTRALIAN SMALL TOOL
implications about colour, organic content or TRADITION artefacts were excavated from late
any property other than particle size or TEX- HOLOCENE deposits in a rock shelter outside
TURE. However, there may be other the main cave.
connotations. The minerals most frequently
found as clay-sized particles are the 'clay cloisonne. A technique used in Anglo-Saxon
minerals' such as kaolinite, illite or mont- England and by other Germanic metalsmiths
morillonite. Clay as a material frequently as a means of decorating POLYCHROME
consists largely of one or more of these clay JEWELLERY and metalwork with inlaid stones
minerals. In general usage, 'clay' may imply of glass. The cloison (or cell) into which the
the material used for making POTTERY, BRICKS jewel was set is fabricated from bands of thin
or tiles. These, however, frequently contain metal attached to a base plate, and these were
large quantities of other particle sizes, such as often separated from each other by FILIGREE
SILT or SAND. 'Clay' in this context merely wire. A piece of stamped metal was placed at
implies that the material is more or less mould- the bottom of each cell to reflect back through
able when wet, but on drying out becomes the stone and enhance its beauty.
hard. This property is shared by most materials
that contain any significant quantity of clay- Clovis. A complex of cultural traits from the
sized particles (see POTTERY). PALEO-INDIAN period which characterize the
LLANO culture of North America. A distinc-
coconut 115

tive, fluted, lanceolate projectile point, TITLAN. A fine example still stands at
especially when found in association with TENAYUCA.
mammoth bones, is particularly diagnostic.
The type site for this complex is BLACKWATER Cochise. A manifestation of the DESERT
DRAW. Numerous sites throughout North TRADITION, the locus of which was an area
America have a Clovis component that usually spanning the common borders of south-
falls within the date range 10,000 to 9000 be. western New Mexico and southeastern
Arizona, USA. Irs origins are obscure but a
cluster analysis. A technique of MULTI- largely ARCHAIC lifestyle is indicated through-
VARIATE ANALYSIS, which compares the out its three-stage sequence. Evidence from
distances between points, objects or items, BAT CAVE, however, indicates that some
distributed in a hyperspace whose dimensions horticulture was practised in its later stages.
are measurements or scores for a number of The earliest stage, SULPHUR SPRINGS (7300-
vARIABLES. Cluster analysis results are 6000 be), is followed by CHIRICAHUA (3500-
normally plotted as a 'dendrogram', a tree-like 1500 be) and then by SAN PEDRO (1500-200
representation of the distances between be). The poorly understood Cazador phase
objects in hyperspace. Items that are closer may bridge the long hiatus between Sulphur
together in hyperspace are deemed to be more Springs and Chiricahua, but as yet the
closely related, and are linked more closely in evidence is inconclusive.
the dendrogram. Like any other multivariate
technique, cluster analysis could conceivably Cocijo. See TLALOC.
be done by 'pencil-and-paper' methods; it is
Code. A province on the Pacific coast of
the number of calculations involved that
Panama where deep rectangular tombs -
usually necessitates the use of a digital COM-
especially at the type site ofSitio Conte- have
PUTER.
yielded grave goods evidencing a rich ceramic
and metallurgical tradition. The extremely fine
Clyde-Carlingford tombs. A group of MEGA- polychrome pottery is characterized by
LITHIC CHAMBER TOMBS found in southwest decoration of intricate geometric patterns and
Scotland and northern Ireland. They are by stylized biomorphic forms. Gold- and
sometimes described as segmented GALLERY tumbaga-working techniques, probably
GRAVES, since they consist of rectangular imported from Columbia, include CIRE
chambers subdivided into a number of seg- PERDUE casting. Some stylistic congruence
ments. Another important characteristic was with T AIRONA is recognized in some artefacts,
the forecourt, concave or semicircular in especially in the wing-shaped pendants. In
shape; in some of the Irish examples this may addition to these grave goods, faunal evidence
be oval or circular and the term 'court cairn' is indicates that wife and servant sacrifice took
sometimes used for these tombs. The over- place at the death of an important personage.
lying cairns are normally long, but may be oval, Dates are largely hypothetical, but Code's
rectangular or trapezoidal in shape. Collective estimated time-span is from c500-1000 AD
inhumation was the normal practice, although with some survivals up to the time of the
cremation sometimes occurs in Ireland. Two Spanish Conquest.
sites have produced radiocarbon dates before
3000 be, demonstrating that these tombs were coconut. Cocos nucifera was probably being
constructed from an early stage of the cultivated by AusTRONESIAN-speakers in
Neolithic. Island Southeast Asia by 3000 BC, although
early history is obscure owing to the absence of
coatepantli. A precinct wall elaborately a wild ancestral form. The palm was un-
decorated with a serpent motif and used doubtedly spread by Austronesians through
principally as a means of demarcation the Pacific, perhaps eventually to the Pacific
separating ceremonial buildings from other coast of central America, and westwards to
civic architecture in Mesoamerica. It is India and East Africa. Charred fruits occur in
associated especially with Late PosT-CLASSIC Western Melanesian sites back to c3000 BC,
cultures such as the TOLTEC and the AzTEC and the coconut must always have been of
and was employed at both TuLA and TENOCH- importance in coastal tropical economies
116 codex

owing to its enormous range of uses. It has high coinage.


~alt-tolerance and the seed (the coconut itself)
Western Asia. The earliest true coins were
1s easy to transport.
minted in the kingdom of LYDIA in Asia Minor
codex. ( 1) An early Christian gospel book, in in the 7th century BC and were made of the
gold-silver alloy electrum. In the 6th century
the form of a handwritten manuscript, pro-
the legendary King Kroisos (Croesus) intro-
duced in one of the monastic establishments of
the Post-Roman era .. duced coinage of pure silver and, to a lesser
(2) A type of Mesoamerican document, extent, gold. The coins were in origin simply
made of folded strips of bark or deer skin, on pieces of metal of standardized weight and
which various aspects oflife are recorded. The stamped with designs- and later, inscriptions
-identifying the issuing authority. They were
information, in hieroglyphic or pictographic
form, concerned astronomy, religious cere- almost certainly used, like most early coinage,
for specialized, prestigious purposes, and not
monies, calendrics, genealogy or simple
for everyday exchange. The principal Lydian
accounting. Very few pre-Conquest codices
mint was at the capital SARDIS. After Cyrus the
survive; the best example of these is the Codex
Great gained control of Lydia in the 6th
Dresden. A number were commissioned by
century, the ACHAEMENID Persians adopted a
the Spanish, and at least some are copies of
gold currency; their coins usually bear a punch
earlier works. The best known of these are the
mark on one side and a portrait of the king on
MAYAN Book of Chilam Balam, the Popol
the other. It was probably through the
Vuh, and the AzTEc tribute lists of the Codex
Achaemenid satrapy of GANDHARA that
Mendoza.
coinage was introduced to India.
Cody. A late PLANO tool assemblage which
probably represents the last of the plains- Greece and Rome. The eastern Greek cities of
based hunting groups. First identified at the Asia Minor adopted the new invention of
Horner site in Cody, Wyoming, USA, it is coinage from their Lydian neighbours at an
characterized by finely-worked lanceolate early stage and thereafter it spread rapidly
blades and projectile points (e.g. Eden and throughout the Greek world. The early Greek
Scottsbluff) and by the unique asymmetrical coins were also made of electrum, silver or
Cody knife. gold and were produced by the individual city
states; the Greeks never adopted a copper or
Coedes, George (1886-1969). A French bronze coinage. The earliest coins were struck
scholar who has been hailed by his colleagues on one side only; then the same design appears
as the unchallenged dean of Southeast Asian on both sides; then, in the 6th century,
classicial scholarship. Coedes spent most of his separate obverse and reverse designs become
career in French Indochina and Siam. He is common. Later the reverse often bore an
best known for his major work of synthesis The inscription showing the coin's place of origin.
Indianized States of Southeast Asia, first The first Roman coins were produced in
published in French in 1944 and re-edited the early 3rd century BC and were also made of
three times; it was translated into English in precious metals. Later in that century the first
1968. The most significant of his many original bronze coin - the as - was introduced and
contributions, published in more than 300 this was followed by the silver denarius
papers from 1904, was the discovery in 1918 (equivalent to 10 as). Under the Republic
of the Indonesian empire of SRiVUA YA. coins were usually issued by senatorial decree,
but in the imperial period they came under the
Cohohina. See HAKATA YA. close control of the emperors themselves, who
used them for propaganda as well as economic
Cohuna. The site ofthe discovery in 1925 of a purposes (for instance, designs commemorat-
cranium with morphologically robust features, ing important events often appeared on the
excavated from a swamp close to Murray reverse of the coin, while the emperor's head
River, Victoria, Southern Australia. The age appeared on the obverse). The coinage was
of the specimen is unknown, but it closely altered and devalued several times during the
resembles the nearby Kow SWAMP skulls, Empire in response to inflation and other
which have dates of 11,000-7000 be. economic pressures.
Colchester 117

Prehistoric Europe. In the last two centuries shape and inscription according to the issuing
BC, prehistoric communities in several parts of state or city. Unlike coins made in the West,
Europe, in close contact with the Romans, Chinese coins were not as a rule minted (i.e.
started to produce coins of their own. This struck) but nearly always cast, inscription and
coinage, labelled CELTIC, was produced in all. In the Yangzi region, however, the Eastern
Austria, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia, Zhou state of CHU circulated both bronze
Germany, France and southern England cowries and gold bars, the latter stamped with
(associated with BELGIC groups). These coins mint marks. Towards the end of Eastern Zhou
were normally of precious metals, although several states began issuing round coins
some copper coins do appear. They are provided with holes for stringing, and such
derived from Greek and Roman prototypes - coins were made standard throughout the
most commonly the 4th-century gold staters of country after the QIN unification in 221 BC.
Philip II and Alexander III of Macedon - but The Qin coin, round with a square hole,
the designs were developed by the European remained the pattern for Chinese coins until
Iron Age craftsmen according to their own the 19th century.
artistic traditions (see CELTIC ART): the
naturalistic human heads and animals of the Coixtlahuaca. See MIXTEC.
classical coins appear in highly stylized
versions or are entirely transformed into Coka [Cs6ka]. A TELL settlement of the later
complex abstract designs. Neolithic period, located in the middle Tisa
Valley in the Yugoslav Banat and dated to the
India. The earliest Indian coins were produced
late 5th to early 4th millennium be. Totally
by the cities of the GANGES CIVILIZATION in
excavated by F. M6ra in the first decade of this
the 5th century BC; they take the form of small
century, the site has two main chronological
bent bars or circular pieces, both made of silver
phases: a mixed SZAKALHAT-Early VINCA
and with symbols punched on both sides. The
horizon, and a mixed TISZA-Late Vinca
symbols show connections with ACHAEMENID
horizon. These 'mixed' assemblages denote
Persia - the most likely source of Indian
overlap zones in pottery consumption rather
coinage. Copper coinage was only introduced
than ethnic differences and occur throughout
in the MAURY AN period (with coins cast in
moulds), whereas die-struck coins appear only the Neolithic of the north Banat. Two of the
earliest hoards of jewellery in the Balkan
in the post-Mauryan period, introduced by
Neolithic occur in the Szakalhat layers and
Indo-Greeks from Bactria. These coins
include shell, bone and stone ornaments and
established the standard type for much of the
malachite rings. Workshops for making antler
later coinage of north India, carrying repre- harpoons and bone finger rings are known
sentations of the king and a deity and a legend,
from the Tisza levels.
usually including a royal title. The KUSHANS
produced gold coins, as well as the more
Colchaqui. See DIAGUITA.
common copper and silver coinage.
China. Cowrie shells were used as money in Colchester [Roman Camulodunum ). A city in
China at least as early as the SHANG dynasty; southeast England, some 80 km northeast of
inscriptions name them as royal gifts, and the London, formerly an Iron Age Celtic settle-
tomb of Fu HAO contained nearly 7000 ment ( oppidum) surrounded by dykes. It was
cowries. Hoards of miniature bronze axes the capital of the tribal chieftain, Cunobelinus,
suggest that these also served as money in who seems to have been known to the Romans
Shang times, at least in the Yangzi region. A as King of the Britons. This local importance
few bronze copies of cowries are known from probably made the site a principal objective for
the latter part ofthe Shang dynasty (12th-11th the Romans in their invasion of 43 AD, and it is
centuries BC) but metal coins were not in wide possible that some kind of military camp was
use until the EASTERN ZHOU period, and even established here almost at once. Certainly, in
then did not replace cowries altogether. the year 49 the Romans built here their first
Eastern Zhou coins were usually of bronze, colonial town (COLONIA), alongside the town
though a few silver coins have been found; of Cunobelinus, and they may have intended
they fall into two main categories, spade- this as their capital for the new province, since
shaped and knife-shaped, varying in size, a huge temple was erected to the Emperor
118 Coldstream Cave

Claudius, in Roman style, and with massive collared urn. A special type of URN used in the
vaulted substructures which still survive. British Early Bronze Age. Previously called an
Destroyed in BOUDICCA'S rebellion of 60-61, 'overhanging rim urn', the collared urn has a
the site was subsequently rebuilt as a pleasant developed rim which may be straight, convex
Roman provincial town, eventually extending or slightly concave in profile. Decoration is
to some 44 hectares with stone walls (partly normally confined either to the rim alone or to
surviving, as at the Balkerne Gate), houses the upper half of the vessel. Collared urns were
with painted wall plaster and mosaics, and normally used to contain cremation burials,
sizeable cemeteries. though some have been found in apparently
domestic contexts.
Coldstream Cave. A cave near Humansdorp
on the southern Cape coast of South Africa. Collingwood Bay. See NEW GUINEA.
Particular interest attaches to a painted stone
from a grave associated with a microlithic colluvial. Resulting from SOIL erosion.
industry of WILTON type. The stone, some 300 Colluvial deposits accumulate at the bottom of
mm across, depicts three human figures in slopes, where soils above have lost their
polychrome, one of which appears to be structure and are being eroded. This is fre-
holding a palette and painting utensils. quently caused by man's clearance of forest,
ploughing and cultivation. Typically, colluvial
cold working. Most METALS, such as COPPER, material has gathered in the dry valleys of the
BRONZE, GOLD and SILVER, are soft enough to chalklands. Fans of colluvial material may be
be worked whilst cold. Operations such as found at the foot of escarpments or valley
hammering- and beating.(including REPOUSSE sides. Where field boundaries present a barrier
and CHASING), cutting and engraving could be to downslope movement, step-like features
carried out without any heating to make the called LYNCHETS develop.
metal softer. IRON and STEEL, by contrast,
have to be heated before they can be shaped Co-loa. Capital of the kingdom of Au-LAc
(see FORGING). Most of the softer metals, which existed from 258 to 207 BC. Situated
however, cannot be cold worked indefinitely. about 20 km northwest of Hanoi in northern
With continous working, the metal becomes Vietnam, it comprised three walls more than 4
brittle and eventually fractures. This has to be km long which surrounded the city in a spiral;
counteracted by periodic gentle heating of the hence the nick-name of 'Conch-City'. When
metal, called ANNEALING. If the annealing is Vietnam became independent from China in
carried out correctly, it allows crystals within the lOth century, Co-loa was again chosen as
the metal to recrystallize and so distribute the the site of the capital in order to renew links
stress that has built up. Cold working can then with the pre-Chinese past. See also DONG-
go on until the metal becomes brittle again. SON.
METALLOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION, by study of
the crystal structure, can yield information Cologne [Roman Colonia Agrippinensis].
about the cold working and annealing pro- City on the left bank of the Rhine, West
cesses in the last stages of making an artefact. Germany. In about AD 50 a Roman COLONIA
Pure gold is one of the few metals that can be was founded here by the emperor Claudius at
cold worked indefinitely without annealing. the prompting of his wife Agrippina who,
Tacitus tells us, was connected with the area by
coleoptera. An order of the class Insecta, birth. Formerly, from 38 BC, there had been a
comprising the BEETLES. modest town, established for the local (and co-
operative) tribe of the Ubii by Agrippa. Later
Colla. See A YMARA. (perhaps 5-9 AD) a ceremonial altar to Rome
and Augustus ( ara Romae et Augustz) had
collagen. The major organic component of been added, and the area strengthened by a
BONE. It is the best part of bone for RADIO- legionary camp. Now the new colonia became
CARBON DATING and can be extracted by the capital of the province of Lower
dissolving the mineral component of bone Germania, an important commercial centre
with an acid. Very old bone may need a large and the regional mint. Numerous, if un-
sample to produce enough collagen for a date. spectacular, traces of the Roman period
Columnata 119

survive, including the principal elements of the either full (Roman) citizenship or limited
street plan, town walls and gates, Roman and (Latin) citizenship.
'Gallo-Roman' temples, water installations,
Rhine port, bridges and fort, pottery and glass Colosseum. Ancient and modern nick-name
factories, villas and cemeteries. for the Flavian Amphitheatre in Rome,
In the 5th century, the Roman town was construction of which began under the reign of
overrun by the FRANKS and their famous the emperor Vespasian (AD 69-79). The name
leader Clovis was baptized here. Throughout apparently derived from an adjacent colossal
the Frankish and CAROLINGIAN periods and statue. See AMPHITHEATRE.
during much ofthe Middle Ages Cologne was
a major bishopric and a leading commercial colour-coated wares. Many kinds of pottery in
and cultural centre. the Greek and Roman periods were given an
Cologne suffered enormous devastation in extra surface coating, usually slightly glossy
World War II and the destruction provided an and most often red. Recent research suggests
opportunity for large-scale archaeological that the coating was made from fine clay
investigation. The impressive Roman praet- particles suspended in water with a peptizing
orium and two early extra-mural martyr agent added; iron oxide produced the red, and
churches of St Gereon and St Severin were illite the gloss.
excavated, but the investigations in and
around the cathedral have proved of the Colt Hoare, Sir Richard (1758-1838). British
greatest interest. These established that the antiquary who excavated a large number of
Gothic cathedral overlies a Roman temple and BARROWS mostly on Salisbury plain. His
a complex sequence of Merovingian and excavation techniques were relatively good for
Carolingian churches. In the course of the his time, but due to the undeveloped state of
excavations, two spectacular Frankish royal the study he was unable to date any of the
graves dating to the mid-6th century were material he found.
uncovered. The first of these belonged to a
woman buried with fine garments, gold belt, columbarium [Latin: dovecot]. The name
fibula and head band, a bucket, glasses and derives from the pigeon-holes ( loculz)
flask of wine. The second was of a small boy provided for cinerary urns and other ash
laid to rest in the manner of a warrior; he was containers, which characteristically lined the
clothed in finery and lay on a wooden bed, funerary complexes of certain large Roman
wearing a miniature helmet and surrounded by households. This type of burial is typically
full-size ceremonial weapons. These inter- afforded to the large staff of slaves and freed-
nments were placed in a small eastern chapel men, and probably derives ultimately from
which was later converted into the ambo of the ETRUSCAN examples. See a/so CATACOMB.
mid-8th-century church. This first Caro-
lingian church had a ring crypt at its eastern column. A Latin architectural term denoting a
end and an open ambulatory at the west end, cylindrical pillar, usually of wood or stone. In
both of which contained altars. The west end classical architecture a column is visually
was embellished by a magnificent west work. composed of three parts, the base (not always
This church was soon replaced by a larger present), shaft and CAPITAL. The shaft, when
building constructed by Bishop Willibert in of stone, would typically be made up of several
870 with two choirs, transepts, and an apse superimposed drums, so jointed and pinned
flanked by two round towers with a lower ring together as to appear completely flush. The
crypt. This church remained until1248, when column was normally tapered upwards
work on the present Gothic cathedral com- (though not always uniformly, as bulging
menced. 'cigar'-shapes, entasis, are also found) and the
surface was finished with vertical fluting.
colonia. The Latin name given in the later
Republican and imperial Roman periods to a Columnata. A site some 200 km southwest of
township, often of retired veteran soliders, Algiers which has yielded human skeletons of
strategically placed to defend imperial MECHTA-AFALOU type associated with a
interests. A self-governing constitution stone industry of IBEROMAURUSIAN affinities.
imitated that of Rome, and the citizens had Some of the burials were accompanied by red
120 Combe Grenal

ochre and perforated shell ornaments, often systems, controllers of measuring devices etc.
covered with settings of stones and, in one
case, bones of wild cattle. By about 8000 be the Conca d'Oro. A Copper Age culture in
Iberomaurusian was replaced by a local blade northwest Sicily, which takes its name from the
industry which has been named Columnatan. area around Palermo. A number of cemeteries
of rock-cut tombs of the a forno or oven-
Combe Grenal. A site near Domme on the shaped type have been investigated. They
Dordogne River, southwest France. With were used for collective burial, and the
some 64 archaeological levels, the large rock associated grave goods include pottery vessels
shelter and small cave have the largest number and stone and occasional metal tools and
of culture levels of any PALAEOLITHIC site weapons. As well as pottery of purely local
known to date. The 55 MoUSTERIAN levels style, imported BEAKER pottery occurs, as
have formed the basis for the analysis of the well as a local imitation known as the 'Carini
Mousterian into five main types. The bottom beaker'. A 3rd millennium BC date seems
nine levels are ACHEULIAN and are believed to likely, although we lack radiocarbon dates.
precede the last interglacial. A burial pit has
been recognized in the Mousterian levels, and Conchopata. A site dating to the Early
some human bones are also known. The site MIDDLE HORIZON, located in the Ayacucho
has fauna and pollen evidence from all levels. Valley near HUARI, Peru, and probably the
site of a religious shrine. Large beaker-shaped
computers. Machines which can be pro- urns, intentionally smashed and concentrated
grammed to calculate and compare, store and in only a few locations, appear to have votive
manipulate information. They consist of four or some other ceremonial significance. The
main components: (1) a central processing polychrome decoration is distinctive but is
unit, in which program instructions are clearly TIAHUANACo-influenced: depictions
interpreted and calculations carried out; (2) of the 'Gateway God' are common. Concho-
storage units, where information may be held pata materials frequently appear in early
temporarily or permanently; (3) input facili- Huari contexts.
ties, into which are fed instructions and
information; (4) output units, from which the Conelle. Ditched settlement site near Arcevia
results can be obtained. in the Marche, which, together with the site of
Computers are controlled by a program Ortucchio in Abruzzo, has given its name to a
called the operating system. Instructions are Copper Age culture of east central Italy
input as a series of codes and key words that (Conelle-Ortucchio group). The charac-
the system interprets and causes the computer teristic pottery is decorated with bands of
to obey. Additional programs can be written in impressed dots.
a number of international 'high level' lang-
uages, which th,e system converts to a code that Constantinople. See BYZANTIUM.
the computer can 'understand'. Such pro-
grams may then be run by issuing the approp- contamination. In general, the term contam-
riate commands to the operating system. ination is applied to SAMPLES of archaeo-
Programs have been written to carry out, for logical deposits or materials which have been
example, STATISTICAL calculations, MULTI- affected by contact with other matter. In
VARIATE ANALYSIS, DATABASE MANAGE- particular the term is often applied to samples
MENT, SIMULATION and GRAPHICS. taken for RADIOCARBON DATING which have
Computers may be of any size, from the been affected by their environment. For
vast 'mainframe' machines, to micropro- instance, they may have been contaminated by
cessors and small programmable calculators. HUMUS. The humus, which also contains
Mainframe computers are normally shared carbon, may be much younger than the
between a large number of activities. Micro- sample, thus resulting in an inaccurate date.
processors are so cheap that they can be Samples that have been contaminated in this
dedicated to one user or one operation. way can be treated with sodium hydroxide to
Archaeology already uses computers widely. dissolve out the humus. Dates are then
Microprocessors have started to make their determined for the treated sample and the
appearances as finds- and site-recording dissolved 'humate' separately. This makes it
copper 121

possible to see how much contamination has his colleague Frederick Catherwood still
occurred. survive and are a great source of iconographic
detail.
convergence. Term used to describe the
appearance of similar traits or techniques in Coppa Nevigata. A site on the coast of south-
different contexts, as a result of parallel or east Italy. The first occupation was by a com-
converging evolution (in contrast to DIFFU- munity of shellfish-gatherers, who have left us
SION). no trace of other economic activities, though
these may well have been practised; they used
Cook, Captain James (1728-79). From 1769 IMPRESSED WARE and a specialized microlithic
until his death in the HAW AllAN ISLANDS in flint industry, and may have been present as
1779, the great English navigator made three early as the 7th millennium be. A later occupa-
voyages of exploration in the Pacific and made tion belongs to the APENNINE BRONZE AGE.
many discoveries in POLYNESIA and Australia. At this stage the site was defended by a sub-
Cook was not the first European to discover stantial stone wall.
most of the islands he visited, but his accounts
of the native peoples of Polynesia, MELAN-
ESIA and Australia at the crucial point of first copper. A relatively soft metal, which can be
European contact are by far the most import- COLD WORKED and melts at a low enough
ant in maritime history. His journals are used temperature to be cast using the technology
constantly by archaeologists who work in the available in antiquity. The metal occurs,
Pacific region. rarely, as nuggets of native copper; it is in this
form that it was first worked by man. More
Cook Islands. An extensive island group in the frequently, copper is obtained from ores.
central Pacific, settled by PoLYNESIANS about These are quite widely found, and may be
1000 to 1500 years ago. Archaeological oxide ores (including MALACHITE) or sulphide
excavations have been undertaken on Ram- ores. SMELTING of these ores can be
tonga, Aitutaki and Penrhyn, and many accomplished in a simple furnace, assisted by
islands of the group have well-preserved bellows. The oxide ores involve the least
examples of Polynesian temples (MARAE). complicated smelting process. The resulting
copper ingot could be cold worked or re-
coombe rock. A PERIGLACIAL deposit that melted and cast in a MOULD. 'Pure' copper
results from solifluction (see PERIGLACIAL). may contain up to one per cent of impurities.
The concentrations of these impurities may
Copan. An important CLASSIC PERIOD centre indicate the source of the ore. The metal is said
of the Southern MAY A located in western to be an ALLOY when it contains more than one
Honduras on the Rio Copan, a tributary of the per cent of another element. Tin BRONZE thus
Rio Motagua. Although it is a CEREMONIAL contains more than one per cent TIN. Europ-
CENTRE of massive proportions, including ean Early Bronze Age copper-based artefacts
temple-PYRAMIDS, plazas and a BALL COURT, may also contain quantities of ARSENIC. These
Copan is best known for its ornate stone fall into two groups. Those with one per cent or
carving. 20 elaborately carved STELAE, less arsenic are classed as 'pure' copper.
unusual in that they are carved in the round, Others, which commonly have two or three
are clustered in the north end of the site. per cent arsenic (sometimes as much as seven
Buildings are constructed in a locally per cent) can be classed as arsenical copper
available greenish volcanic tuff, and almost all alloys. These may come from an ore body
have some heavy relief carving in this unique particularly rich in arsenic or may be deliber-
regional style. Access to the Acropolis (the ate alloys. Arsenical copper alloys have some
central complex of the site) is gained via the advantages over pure copper in ease of casting
Hieroglyphic Stairway, the 63 risers of which and in the hardness of a hammered edge.
are carved with some 2500 hieroglyphs. Copper occurs fairly widely in the Old
J.L. Stephens visited the site in 1839 and World, and was first used in Western Asia
'purchased' it for a mere $50. Since then much before 6000 be, though it did not come into
of the beautiful carving has deteriorated, but common use until after 4000 be. It was also
the highly detailed pen-and-ink drawings of used by prehistoric communities in the New
122 Copper Age

Maya corbelled arch

World, both in the Arctic area and in South also a hallmark of Classic MAY A architecture
America. in Central America. Its earliest expression is in
Late CHICANEL tombs at TIKAL and ALTAR
Copper Age. Another term for CHALCO- DE SACRIFICIOS.
LITHIC. See a/so THREE AGE SYSTEM.
Corbridge [Roman Corstopitum]. A Roman
Coppergate. See YoRK. fort in northeast England, situated on the
north bank of the River Tyne at the point
coprolite. Fossilized animal droppings. These where the Roman York-Scotland road (Dere
are preserved on a variety of archaeological Street) forked for Carlisle (the so-called
sites, coming from a whole range of animals, STANEGATE road). Probably first established
including man. The contents can be analysed by the governor Agricola in 79-80 AD, it was
and food plants, animals and parasites identi- burnt and re-erected in c105, only to be
fied. neglected once more c124, when HADRIAN'S
WALL with its own forts was built not far to the
corbel, corbelling. A way of building in stone north. In about 139, when the Roman frontier
that can be used to bridge columns or walls or was pushed further north, the fort was re-
to roof chambers, but which lacks the key- constructed in stone, presumably reflecting
stones of the true arch or vault. It is built up of increased strategic importance. Later, when
successive stones each of which juts out over the frontier fell back to Hadrian's Wall once
the one below until the gap can be closed by a again, Corbridge flourished as a market town
simple CAPSTONE. This method of roofing, and a military supply depot. Remains of
sometimes labelled a false vault, was used in military quarters, granaries and temples may
some of the PASSAGE GRAVES of prehistoric still be seen.
Western Europe, such as NEW GRANGE and
MAES HOWE, and in the THO LOS tombs of the Corded Ware. A culture found over large
MYCENAEAN world. The corbelled arch was parts of the north European plain in the earlier
Corinth 123

3rd millennium BC. The characteristic pottery, Medina al Zahara; this is now an archaeo-
which has given its name to the culture, is logical site, where the remains give an im-
decorated with twisted cord impressions; the pression of buildings adorned with luxurious
most common forms are beakers and and costly materials.
amphorae. Associated characteristics are
stone battle-axes and the practice of single core. Any lump or nodule of stone from which
burial under round barrows; some groups also FLAKES have been intentionally removed.
had metal artefacts. There is some evidence Frequently, cores are of special types, shaped
that Corded Ware people had domesticated to facilitate the removal of particular blanks
horses and wheeled vehicles, and they are like BLADES or bladelets, or large oval flakes
sometimes interpreted as nomadic groups - with a sharp edge all round.The most dis-
possibly Indo-European speaking - who tinctive cores of the last-mentioned kind are
spread across northern Europe from the east. called tortoise cores, from their resemblance
A closely related group is the GLOBULAR to that animal, and are associated with LEVAL-
AMPHORA culture. LOISIAN technology.

Cordoba. Early in the 8th century, Visigothic Corinth. Major ancient Greek city on the
Spain was conquered by the Arabs and Isthmus of Corinth, excavated since 1896 by
became the independent caliphate of AI the American School of Classical Studies at
Andalus with its capital at Cordoba. The city Athens. The city, with its exceptionally high
quickly rose to become one of the finest in acropolis on Acrocorinth Hill, profited from
Europe, rivalled only by Baghdad and having ports on both the Corinthian and
Constantinople for its wealth and splendour. Saronic Gulfs and was an important trading
Cordoba was a centre of culture and learning city at most periods.
where the arts and sciences flourished; by the Prehistoric settlement is well documented
lOth century it was described as the 'Jewel of and there is evidence of a Neolithic and an
the World' because of its schools, libraries and Early Bronze Age settlement at Corinth, both
mosques. In 785 the Emir Abd al Rahman apparently of considerable size. By contrast,
built his great mosque, which remains as there is rather little evidence of MYCENAEAN
testimony to the glory of Muslim Spain; the settlement and, although enough has been
mosque is square in plan, with an outer court- found to indicate some activity at this period,
yard and an interior hall divided by parallel Corinth was clearly not a major Mycenaean
arcades supported on slender columns. In the site. The next major settlement belongs to the
lOth century, one of the rulers of Cordoba Dark Age, beginning perhaps in the late lOth
built a pleasure-city outside its walls known as century BC. Thereafter Corinth was a very

Cores: prepared core (left and centre) and blade core (right)
124 Corinthian

important city throughout the Archaic, medieval period it then passed from Frankish
Classical and Hellenistic periods. to Venetian and eventually to Turkish hands.
During the period of Greek colonization Substantial buildings from all these periods
Corinth founded colonies at Corcyra and were found in these excavations.
SYRACUSE. From c720-570 BC Corinthian
painted vases in the BLACK-FIGURE technique Corinthian. In traditional classical archaeo-
(which the Corinthians invented, although it is logy, used principally of:
best known in the Athenian or A TIIC version) (1) an important stage of Greek vase-painting,
were exported all over the Greek world. notably the Proto-Corinthian and Corinthian
Workshops dating to this period have been schools of c720-550 BC, to which may be
excavated in the potters' quarter at Corinth, attributed perhaps the invention of BLACK-
producing both pottery and terracottas. FIGURE technique, and some new shapes, such
Corinthian pottery provides the most useful as the graceful ARYBALLOS;
dating method available to archaeologists (2) the Corinthian 'order' in classical archi-
studying this period. tecture, characterized by a capital having a
In the 6th century BC a fine limestone Doric bell-shaped echinus (see CAPITAL) decorated
temple, which is still standing, was raised to with a combination of spiral and plant (espe-
Apollo; this replaced an earlier temple, built in cially acanthus) motifs. The innovation is
the early 7th century. The Pirene fountain may traditionally ascribed to Callimachus of
also have been built in the 6th century.ln the Corinth ( c450-425 BC). The Corinthian
next century Callimachus is said to have capital became very popular with Roman
invented the CORINTHIAN column capital here architects, who adapted it in many free
c 450-425 BC. The city flourished until a variations, and reappears again in the so-
Roman punitive destruction in 146 BC. In 44 called 'composite' order - a combination of
BC it was re-founded as a Roman colony and four-sided IONIC and Corinthian. See also
flourished again. CORINTH.
Many of the visible remains date from the
classical Greek and especially the early correlation. ( 1) In STATISTICS, correlation
Roman periods. These include Lechaion means the degree of relation between v ARI-
Street; the Roman market place (agora) with ABLES. Correlations between pairs of variables
vaulted shops where St Paul doubtless spoke in may be calculated using a correlation coeffi-
AD 51-2; the Odeon and the refurbished cient. MULTIV ARIA TE techniques for assessing
Pirene fountain; the Glauke fountain; correlation also exist.
temples; baths; a basilica; a theatre and (2) In geology, the term correlation refers
amphitheatre; houses with mosaics and (in the to the relation of one stratigraphical unit with
Museum) sculptures. Parts of the classical another, by petrological, osteological or palae-
fortifications on the acropolis survive, re-used ontological means. It may also be used in this
in the medieval period: the defences of this way to refer to stratigraphical units on
time are well-preserved. archaeological sites.
The American expedition's work included
valuable studies of the Byzantine and later Cortaillod. A LAKE VILLAGE on the edge of
periods at Corinth. Various buildings, for Lake Neuchatel, and type site of the earliest
example, betray a violent phase towards the NEOLITHIC culture in western Switzerland.
end of the 6th century AD, while the hypo- The houses were built on wooden frames with
thetical Metropolitan Church in the Julian walls of clay set on closely spaced timbers; the
Basilica decayed and disappeared. The build- roofs were probably thatched. The inhabitants
ings in the South Stoa area became ruinous practised mixed farming, but supplemented
while the Central Stairway in this monumental their diet with the products of hunting and
complex was pulled apart. There are clear fishing. The round-based dark burnished
signs of urban revival in the 10-12th centuries pottery demonstrates connections with the
and among the structures from this period CHASSEY culture of France. The lakeside
there were several churches, town houses and positions of many Cortaillod sites has ensured
a pottery kiln. In 1082 the Venetians were the survival of a large number of wooden and
allowed to use the port and from then on its birch-bark utensils and containers, and also
buildings take on a grander air. In the later many plant remains, including fruits and nuts,
counterscarp bank 125

as well as cereals, pulses and flax. Dates for the most of Rumania and dated to the 3rd mil-
Cortaillod culture begin c3000 be ( c3800 BC). lennium be. The preponderance of sites are
small, short-lived settlements with an alti-
Cortes de Navarra. A settlement site in the tudinal range from the lowest Danube flood
Ebro valley, northern Spain, occupied during plain to high mountain plateaux. Seasonality
the 1st millennium BC. The site is really a TELL, and presumably pastoralism was important in
as the building material used was mud-brick Cotofeni economies, although agriculture and
and successive rebuildings raised the level of fishing is also evidenced. Most burial sites used
the site. The houses wer~ rectangular and inhumation rites, although cremation is found.
arranged in rows. The cultural material is said Although poor in metal, Cotofeni sites have a
to show some URNFIELD characteristics and rich pottery assemblage with Furstenstich and
some archaeologists regard the appearance of lentil-impressed decoration ( Linsenker-
such traits in southern France and northern amik).
Spain in the early 1st millennium BC as indi-
cating the movement of CELTIC groups into Cotte de St Brelade. A cave with PALAEO-
the area. LITHIC occupation in the granite of St
Brelade's Bay, Jersey. A long sequence of
Cosa [Modern Ansedonia]. A town on the MousTERIAN levels is known, and beach
west coast of Italy, some 140 km north of deposits possibly of last interglacial date
Rome. Cosa was a Latin colony, founded on a intervene in the sequence, suggesting a pre-
coastal crag in 273 BC to confirm Roman Mousterian age for the first occupation levels.
domination in an area that was still felt to be Human remains include large teeth and a piece
too strongly ETRUSCAN. The fate of Etruscan of a child's skull, presumed to be NEANDER-
Cusi (from which the Roman name derives) is THAL.
obscure, and the site has not been identified.
Roman Cosa enjoyed its greatest prosperity cotton. Plants of the genus Gossypium, cultiv-
under the later Republic. Massive polygonal ated for their hairy flowering heads, from
masonry survives, as do remains of the grid which come fibres widely used in textiles.
street-plan, FORUM, BASILICA and citadel. There are some 30 diploid (with two sets of
Some of the engineering in the port area may chromosones) members of the genus- all of
be Etruscan. The Imperial period brought a which originated in the Old World -and 4
decline, although there is some use into the 3rd tetraploid (four sets of chromosones) species,
century AD. Later, in the 4th-5th centuries, the originating in the New World. Most oftoday's
ruins of the forum became the centre of a large cotton is produced from the cultivated tetra-
estate. ploid species G. hirsutum and G. barbadense;
very little is grown of the cultivated diploids G.
costrel. A medieval pottery flask. Flasks were herbaceum and G. arboreum. The earliest
probably very common in the Middle Ages, cotton yet found comes from the site ofMEHR-
but most were made of leather and have not GARH in Pakistan, where it was probably being
survived. MEROVINGIAN and CAROLINGIAN cultivated before 4000 BC. Actual cotton
pottery costrcls tend to be roughly round in fabrics appear in the same area at MOHENJO-
shap, with a slight neck into which a stopper DARO at about 2500 BC. The earliest finds of
was rammed. The best-known is the Zelzate cotton in the New World are from Mexico and
eostrcl, made in the 'BADORF-type' industries Peru, at about 3500 BC. The Mexican finds are
of the central Rhineland, which contained a of domestic G. hirsutum, already considerably
Viking-period hoard dating to 870. The other different from the wild hirsutum which is
well-known type is the barrel variant found in found today through Mexico and the Carib-
13th-16th-century contexts, and probably bean. The Peruvian finds are intermediate
made in northern and western France. Barrel between the wild and domestic forms of G.
costrels were in great demand and were widely barbadense found in the area today.
traded; a hoard of them was found in Win-
chester. counterscarp bank. Low bank found on the
outer side of a defensive ditch, most of the
Cotofeni. Eponymous site of a widespread material from which has gone into the main
Late Copper Age culture distributed over bank on the inner side. The purpose of
126 coup de poing

counterscarp banks is unclear, since they do some time, Cozumel is the putative starting-
not enhance the defensive value of the earth- point for the Itza migrations into the northern
work; they may have served to provide visual Yucatan.
emphasis for the main bank and ditch. They The Conquistadore Hernan Cortes briefly
are commonly found on the HILLFORTS of the reviewed his small army here in February
British Iron Age, but also occur on earthworks 1519.
of other periods and in other areas.
Cracow [Krakow]. A city in western Poland,
coup de poing. French name for the PALAEO- situated on the once-great trade route which
LIITHIC tool type known in English as a HAND ran across Europe to BYZANTIUM in the early
AXE. middle ages. Excavations have revealed that
by the lOth century there was a well-estab-
court cairn. See CL YDE-CARLINGFORD lished trading centre here, with a large fortified
TOMBS. acropolis containing stone palaces and
churches. The lower part of the town was
court markers. See BALL GAME. mostly devoted to artisans' workshops.

Covalanas. An Upper PALAEOLITHIC painted crannog. A small artificial island constructed


cave in the Cantabrian region of northern beside or in the middle of a Jake, usually
Spain. The style, including a finger-blob defended by a wooden palisade and support-
technique, suggests that it belongs to a primi- ing houses. Crannogs are confined to Ireland
tive stage of cave art, possibly preceding the and Scotland; their origins are believed to go
SOLUTRIAN. back to the pre-Roman Iron Age period, and
on many of them occupation continued
cover-sand. See LOESS. throughout the medieval period. As monu-
ments, crannogs are not very impressive, and
Coveta de I'Or. A cave in eastern Spain near perhaps the most interesting is that in LOUGH
Valencia. An Early NEOLITHIC level with IM- GuR, Co. Limerick. Excavations at Lagore
PRESSED wARE has produced remains of crannog revealed an extremely rich royal site
einkorn, emmer and bread wheats, and naked of Early Christian date.
barley, together with radiocarbon dates of the
mid-5th millennium be. Large deep pottery crater [Greek: 'mixing bowl']. Originally a
jars may have been used for grain storage. vessel for the mixing of wine with water, the
normal custom in antiquity. In the study of
Coxcatlan. See TEHUACAN VALLEY. classical Greek vases, the term is usually
applied to a fairly large vessel with deep round
Coyotlatelco. A ceramic horizon of the Early bowl and wide mouth, standing on a broad
POST-CLASSIC PERIOD which begins to occur base. The classification is normally subdivided
in central Mexican Mesoamerica following the into four types: column crater, volute crater,
fall of TEOTIHUACAN. A distinctive red-on- calyx crater and bell crater, which take their
buff painted ware, it appears in the early names from the characteristic shape either of
phases of both TuLA and CHOLULA, and is a the handle or of the body of the vase.
forerunner ofthe late MAZAPAN style.
Crawford, O.G.S. (1886-1957). British
Cozumel. An island located 16 km off the east archaeologist who made many contributions
coast of the northern Yucatan Peninsula in to the development of archaeology. Like Cyril
Mexico. Although its earliest artefacts date to Fox, Crawford brought a geographical
c 1000 be, its major period of occupation was approach to his studies; as Archaeological
in the PosT-CLASSIC. Important as a redis- Officer of the Ordnance Survey, he was largely
tribution centre in coastal trade networks, it responsible for the high standard of mapping
was coincidentally a place of pilgrimage to the of archaeological sites in Britain. He made
MAY AN moon goddess Ix Chel. Its ceremonial major contributions to the development of
architecture, however, is considerably more AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY for archaeological
modest than the great CLASSIC centres of the purposes. Another interest was the dissem-
mainland. Under the control of the PuTuN for ination of the results of archaeological
crossbow 127

research to a wider public; in 1927 he founded southwest France. In 1868 several skeletons
the journal Antiquity, which he edited until his were found here, resting on the Upper PALAE-
death in 1957. OLITHIC levels. Their exact age is not well esta-
blished, and might be anything in the range
Creswell. The Creswell Crags group in a lime- 28,000 to 10,000 be. Nevertheless, these finds
stone gorge in Derbyshire, northern England, have given their name to the type of fossil man
includes two caves with MoUSTERIAN levels, found in the European Upper Palaeolithic,
Robin Hood's Cave and Pin Hole Cave. In which in turn is usually grouped with modern
addition, Pin Hole has an early Upper P ALAE- man.
OLITHIC level and all the caves in the gorge
have a late Upper Palaeolithic usually called Cromerian. The Cromerian stage is a group of
Creswellian, with some points of similarity to INTERGLACIAL deposits of the QUATERNARY
the latest MAGDALENIAN. Two engraved art system in Britain. These deposits are stratified
objects are known, and there are miscellan- under ANGLIAN glacial deposits and above an
eous and poorly documented human remains. extensive sequence of earlier Quaternary
deposits. The type site of the stage is at West
Crickley Hill. Neolithic CAUSEWAYED CAMP Runton, Norfolk, but a number of other
and Iron Age HILLFORT in Gloucestershire, deposits have been correlated with it - from
southwest England. The Neolithic site was Suffolk, Oxfordshire and Somerset.
used for several centuries and the ditches and Confusion may arise from the use of
banks were refurbished several times. The 'Cromerian Complex' to describe part of the
final Neolithic phase had deeper quarry Quaternary succession in northwest Europe.
ditches and a rampart faced with drystone In this case, the term is used to describe a group
walling at the front and a timber stockade at of deposits representing several interglacials
the back and a wooden fence on the top. This and intervening cold stages. These deposits are
substantial defensive work was pierced by two stratified below ELSTER glacial deposits and
gateways; evidence of burning and finds of above a sequence extending back into the
many flint arrowheads indicate that the site PLIOCENE. The Brunhes/Matuyama bound-
was attacked and burnt down around 2500 BC. ary of c700,000 BP (see PALAEOMAGNETISM)
The site was abandoned for nearly two occurs within the European 'Cromerian
millennia, when it was once again used for a Complex', but it is unclear how these deposits
defended settlement. Two phases of Iron Age should be correlated with the Quaternary of
occupation are represented, probably falling Britain. See Tables 5 and 6, pages 418-9.
between 700 and 500 BC. The site was
defended by a substantial drystone wall and cromlech. A Welsh term applied to all MEGA-
ditch, with a single entrance. The earlier phase LITHIC tombs, sometimes used in France to
was characterized by rectangular houses and apply to STONE CIRCLES as well. The term is no
square storage huts, while the second phase longer used by archaeologists, but persists in
had one large round house, smaller round popular usage in Wales.
buildings and more small square huts, perhaps
granaries. The site was burned down for the crop marks. Variations in the colour or growth
last time c500 BC and never reoccupied. of a crop or other vegetation, shown on an
aerial photograph, may reveal the buried
Cri. See FIRST TEMPERATE NEOLITHIC. walls, ditches and pits of an archaeological site.
In particular, buried pits and ditches may
Crnolacka Bara. A three-level occupation site retain moisture better than the surrounding
of the late STARCEVO, early and late VINCA subsoil, and during a dry spell plant growth is
periods, located in the low foothills east of the often enhanced over such features. Crop
middle Morava valley in Serbia, Yugoslavia. marks of this kind are best seen during a dry
The site indicates repeated, intermittent summer, and in drier areas.
occupation rather than continuous settlement
of a preferred long-term site. crossbow. A bow made with a crossbow
parallel to the arrow and operated by a
Cromagnon. A small cave at the edge of the mechanical trigger release. The crossbow
village of LES EYZIES in the Dordogne, appeared in China no later than the 4th
128 cross dating

century BC (some scholars say far earlier) and connected by purlins and provided with
may be a Chinese invention. Cast-bronze vertical in-filled walls. The main paired
trigger mechanisms are commonly found in timbers are usually the identical halves of one
late Eastern ZHou burials along with inlaid tree trunk. Not only was this form of building
bronze bow fittings and bronze arrow points; easy to design and raise but it proved a very
the arrow points, sometimes fitted to IRON effective means of distributing the load of the
shanks, either carry three low fins or are round roof through the walls down to the ground.
in cross-section, without fins. True crucks have no break between the wall
timbers and those of the roof, but there are
cross dating. DATING by relation to established many variations and adaptions of this part-
chronologies. Artefacts from an archaeo- icular idea, for example, what are known as
logical site are often dated by correlation with base crucks, half crucks, raised crucks and
typologies of similar artefacts in the sur- upper crucks, all of which contain some ele-
rounding area. The method is based on the ment of the curved, paired truss.
assumption that typologies evolved at the
same rate and in the same way over a wide area Crvena Stijena. A long-lived cave site in the
or alternatively on assumptions of DIFFUSION. karstlands of the southern Dinaric mountains,
By itself, a cross-dated chronology does not located in the Trebisnjica Valley 20 km inland
give absolute dates (see SEQUENCE DATING), from Dubrovnik, in Dalmatia, Yugoslavia. 31
but it may be calibrated by reference to other levels have been distinguished in a 20-metre
dating methods. The Swedish prehistorian stratigraphy: XXXI-V, Palaeolithic, with
Oscar MoNTELIUS built up a chronology for deposits of the MOUSTERIAN and Upper
prehistoric Europe by cross dating to the Palaeolithic covering the last two major glac-
historical chronologies of Egypt and Meso- iations; IVb-IVa, Early and Late Mesolithic
potamia, and this was further developed by respectively, with microlithic flint industries
Gordon CHILDE. Unfortunately, RADIO- and a large faunal sample dominated by red
CARBON DATES have demonstrated that these deer and chamois; III, pottery of Early Neo-
chronologies for Europe were in many cases lithic IMPRESSED WARE type associated with a
erroneous (in some cases by a millennium or fauna dominated by hunted mammals; II,
more) and it seems that the typological com- pottery of DANILO-KAKANJ style associated
parisons on which they were based were with wild mammal bones and a macrolithic
insufficiently rigorous. A kind of cross dating flint industry; I, a Late Bronze Age level with
has always been used in geology, and strati- HALLSTATT A-B metalwork.
graphical sequences are often correlated by
the assemblages of fossils they contain; this is cryoturbation. See PERIGLACIAL
known as biostratigraphy. The archaeological
version of cross dating may have been devel- Cucuteni-Tripolye. The double-barrelled
oped directly out of the geological method and name indicates national terminology for a
may have been based on a false analogy more-or-less identical cultural assemblage.
between biological fossils and archaeological Cucuteni, the Rumanian version, distributed
artefacts. over Moldavia, is divided into stages: Pre-
Cucuteni, Cucuteni A, AB and B, dating
crucible. A vessel, usually of pottery, in which c4200-3000 be. Tripolye, the Russian version,
METAL may be melted. This process may be spreading eastwards across the Ukraine to the
carried out for extraction, ALLOYING or CAST- edge of the forest steppe zone near Kiev, is
ING. divided into five phases- A, Bl, B2, Cl and
C2 -the latest dating to the full Early Bronze
crock. A simple, easily constructed form of Age in the 3rd millennium be. The late
timber-framed building, well known from the Cucuteni-Tripolye phase is regarded as the
13th century onwards and most commonly local climax of Neolithic cultural develop-
used for barns, farm buildings and dwellings. ment. Beside the achievement of large-scale
The distinguishing feature of the cruck, as production of fine wares and long chipped
opposed to box-frame construction, is that the stone blades stands the technological mastery
essential longitudinal supports take the form of metallurgical techniques such as alloying,
of a series of curved, triangular trusses, casting and welding. Such craft specialization
Cumae 129
evolved in large nucleated villages, the largest Noah's Flood was the last. For a contrasting
covering over one square kilometre. The view, see LYELL, Sir Charles.
subsistence economy is as remarkable for its
range of fruits (including the hybrid apricot) as culture. As used by archaeologists, the term
for the earliest recorded domestication in has two separate meanings. In the more
Europe of the horse. general sense it refers to everything that man
does that derives from 'nurture rather than
Cuello. A site located on a ridge between the nature' (V.G. CHILD E), that is, behaviour that
Rios Hondo and Nuevo in northern Belize is learned rather than genetically controlled.
(formerly British Honduras] which is notable An alternative definition of culture in this
for its evidence of early settlement in the sense is man's 'extra-somatic means of
MAY A Lowlands. Its long stratigraphic and adaptation' (L. Binford).
ceramic sequences cover the period from the The second and more restricted use of the
Early FORMATIVE to the Late CLASSIC. The term refers to an ASSEMBLAGE of artefacts and
earliest Swasey Phase (radiocarbon dated to other traits (e.g. house plans or burial rites)
c1950 be) has evidence of MAIZE cultivation that regularly occur together within a re-
and a unique, fully developed ceramic com- stricted area and are thought to represent the
plex of great variety. physical remains of a particular group of
The site operated as a minor CEREMONIAL people. Cultures are usually named after
CENTRE in the Late Classic Period. either a type site (e.g. STARCEVO CULTURE) or
after a characteristic artefact (e.g. LINEAR
Cueva de Ia Sarsa. A cave near Valencia in POTTERY CULTURE). The use of the concept of
southeast Spain with Neolithic settlement of cultures was popularized by Childe and it is
the IMPRESSED WARE phase. As well as still widely used today, although there is
pottery, finds include polished stone axes, flint considerable controversy over the nature of
tools, bone spatulae and spoons, and stone and the social groups that they are thought to
bone jewellery. Evidence on the subsistence represent.
economy is provided by the remains of
carbonized wheat, shellfish and bones of
sheep, goat, cattle and pig. Comae. A town in Campania, southwest Italy,
best known as one of the first Greek colonies
Cuicuilco. Located at the southern end of in Italy and the home of the Sibylline oracle.
ancient Lake Texcoco, Cuicuilco was the Evidence exists for earlier (Bronze Age)
largest and most important centre of the Basin occupation. Lying in the area known to anti-
of Mexico in the Late PRE-CLASSIC PERIOD. quity as the campi phlegraei ('fiery fields')
Early large-scale construction in the form of because of the volcanic and hot-spring
adobe and stone-faced platforms occur in activity, the site probably appealed to Greek
c400 BC. Cuicuilco appears to have been a colonists (from Colchis, c750 BC) by virtue of
thriving centre and an early rival ofTEOTIHUA- its fertility and the natural advantages of the
CAN. An eruption of the Xitle volcano inc150 port, land defences and citadel. Prosperity was
BC destroyed not only Cuicuilco but much of rapidly established, and Cumae went on to
the surrounding agricultural land. It was never found daughter colonies, most notably
reoccupied and its destruction probably gave a Neapolis (which was to become NAPLES) and
considerable impetus to the growth of its rival probably Puteoli. Aided by Syracuse, Cumae
at the nothern end of the lake. finally ousted the Etruscans from Campania in
474 BC, only to fall under Oscan control from
Cuidadela. See TEOTIHUACAN. c420 BC and Roman domination from 338 BC.
As a port, Cumae always had problems with
Cuivier, Baron Georges (1769-1832). silting-up, and the whole installation was
Eminent French geologist (nicknamed the radically re-engineered by Agrippa in 36 BC.
'Pope of Bones') who was one of the foremost A popular tourist resort for upper-class
proponents of the catastrophist geological Romans of the late Republic and early
theory, which held that the record of the Empire, Cumae was one of a trio of such
earth's surface could only be interpreted in watering-places, with Baiae and Puteoli;
terms of a series of great catastrophes, of which Cumae was gradually eclipsed by Puteoli,
130 cuneiform

possibly because of the latter's greater prox- by the defenders, apart from building very
imity to the ever-popular Baiae. massive walls with very deep foundations,
It is probably through 7th-century Cumae included laying a bronze shield on the ground
that a Chalcidaean version of the Greek to track vibrations, digging counter-mines,
alphabet was transmitted to the Etruscans and and smoking out the diggers.
thence eventually to the Italian peninsula.
Also notable is the spectacular nature of the Cunnington, William (1754-1810). British
tunnels, grottos and cuttings which char- antiquary who, like his contemporary CoLT
acterize the area, especially Agrippa's supply HOARE, recorded and excavated many
tunnel under Monte Grillo, Domitian' s cutting barrows and other prehistoric monuments in
through the same hill (spanned by a high-level southern England, especially on Salisbury
bridge) and the famous grotto ofthe oracular Plain. His excavations were of good quality for
Sibyl, described with apparently eye-witness the time, but his work lacked the framework of
accuracy by Virgil in the opening of the sixth a classificatory system, such as was later
book of the Aeneid provided by the THREE AGE SYSTEM.
cuneiform. Writing system developed in
SUMER in the early 3rd millennium BC and cup and ring mark. The commonest form of
used in many areas of western Asia until the rock carving in the British Isles, consisting of a
last few centuries BC. The system involved cup-like depression surrounded by one or
making impressions on CLAY TABLETS with a more concentric grooves. Cup and ring marks
wedge-shaped stylus, which has given the are found on standing stones, on their own or
script its name (from the Latin cuneus, a in STONE CIRCLES, and on the slabs of burial
wedge, and forma, shape). Cuneiform cists, as well as on natural rock surfaces. The
developed out of the simple pictographic majority are thought to belong to the Bronze
script of the late URUK period, which is the Age; their function is unknown.
earliest known writing in the world and
evolved as a response to the demands of the Cupisnique. Centred on the Chicama Valley
growing temple administration, in order to in north coast Peru, Cupisnique is charac-
cope with the necessary book-keeping. The terized by CHAVIN-like pottery, so much so
fully developed cuneiform writing was no that it is sometimes referred to as Coastal
longer pictographic, but a partly syllabic script Chavin. Most often associated with graves,
of several hundred signs, consisting of a pottery is typically a polished grey-black ware
mixture of ideograms, phonograms and and STIRRUP-SPOUT vessels are a common
determinatives. The cuneiform script was form. There is, however, considerable variety
evolved for the SUMERIAN language, but it was in both technique and form. Early Cupisnique
subsequently adapted for many other lang- tends to be strongly modelled by plastic
uages, including AKKADIAN, ELAMITE, HIT- manipulation of the surface. In later phases red
TITE and Old Persian. The decipherment of and black banding, separated by incision and
cuneiform was the work of a number of life modelling, especially stylized felines,
scholars of the 19th century, including appear increasingly.
GROTEFEND and Sir Henry RAWLINSON,
whose transcription of the massive trilingual Curacchiaghiu. A rock shelter in southern
inscription at BISITUN in western Iran pro- Corsica with a sequence of deposits from a
vided the key to the decipherment. pre-NEOLITHIC level dated to the 7th millen-
nium be (the earliest evidence of man in
cuniculus [Latin: 'a mine']. Latin military Corsica) to the LateN eo lithic. A level with 6th
term, usually an area of excavation by a besieg- millennium be dates had pottery with punc-
ing force beneath a fortification wall with the tated and incised decoration, and a lithic
aim of undermining the structure and/ or industry with geometric trapezes on hard rock
gaining access. The digging soldiers ( cunicu- and obsidian imported from Sardinia. Because
larit) would normally be protected by various of the conditions in the rock shelter no bones
structures of wooden posts, shields, arrange- survived and unfortunately we have no evid-
ments of chariots etc, variously called testudo ence about the subsistence economy of this
(tortoise) and vinea (vine). Countermeasures community.
Cyrene 131
curia. A Latin term used in the early period of The city was planned on a grid system and
Rome's history to denote a principal subdivi- the CYCLOPEAN masonry walls of some streets,
sion of the Roman people. Each of the original such as Callejon de Loreto, still exist, as do
three tribes of Romulus were subdivided into those of the nearby fortress of SACSAHUA-
ten curiae. This division was important for MAN. A system of stone conduits set in the cen-
military organization, and for political repre- tre of the streets assured residents of a good
sentation - an early assembly is called the water supply from diverted river sources.
comitia curiata. From this association with Though the Spanish built the Church of Santo
political meetings comes the more general use Domingo over it in 1534, thelowerwallsofthe
of curia for 'senate' - often, under the massive Temple of the Sun (Curicancha) also
Empire, a municipal senate. The term is also still remain. Excavations after the collapse of
used for the senate house itself, and particu- the church in 1950 due to an earthquake did
larly of the Senate House at Rome. Rebuilt uncover a small gold statuette, but nothing
many times, this building now survives in a remains of the fabulous gold-clad buildings
version restored by Diocletian in 303 AD, and and monumental statues of Spanish report.
owes its survival to Church use.
Cuzoul. The rock shelter of Le Cuzoul de
Curicamcha. See CUzco. Gramat in Lot, southwest France, has a series
of Mesolithic levels, mostly TARDENOISIAN.
currency bar. A term used to describe long Well-preserved human remains including a
iron obj.ects found in the British late Iron Age skeleton came from these deposits.
and thought to represent a form of currency.
Three standard types have been identified - Cycladic. Term for the Bronze Age of the
sword, spit and ploughshare; they are thought Aegean Islands, equivalent to HELLADIC on
to represent regional preferences rather than the Greek mainland and MINOAN in Crete. It is
different values. usually divided into three major divisions:
Early, Middle and Late. In the earlier Bronze
cursus. A type of NEOLITHIC earthen monu- Age, Cycladic culture seems to be largely
ment found in Britain, consisting of a long independent, but in the late Middle Cycladic
narrow enclosure or avenue delineated by to early Late Cycladic (mid-2nd millennium
banks and external ditches. The antiquary BC) Minoan influence becomes important.
William SlUKELY was the first to identify a After c1400 BC mainland (MYCENAEAN)
monument of this type, near STONEHENGE, influence replaces the Minoan and indeed
and he is responsible for the name: he com- many islands may have been colonized by the
pared the monument to a Roman racetrack. Mycenaeans.
The Stonehenge example is more than 3 km
long, but the longest known example, the
Dorset cursus, is nearly 10 km in length. These Cyclopean masonry. A style of building with
monuments clearly represent a very consider- large, irregular blocks of stone fitted closely
able investment of labour for Neolithic together. It is named after the Greek mythical
communities; their function is unknown. character Cyclops, thought by the Greeks to
have built the walls of TiRYNS, which are
Cuzco. Still a thriving community, this site of constructed in this way.
the INCA capital is located in the Urubamba
Valley in Peru at an elevation of 3500 metres. cylindrical tripod vase. A ceramic form
A CEREMONIAL CENTRE rather than a popula- popular in the Early CLASSIC PERIOD in
tion centre, it stood at the intersection of the Mesoamerica and a hallmark artefact of TEO-
four administrative quarters of the empire TIHUACAN. As the name suggests, it is cylindri-
(called Tawantinguyu). Although a pre-Inca cal in shape and stands on three slab or cylin-
ceramic complex has been defined (named drical legs; it frequently has a knobbed lid.
Killke, a fusion ofHUARI and other elements),
legend has it that the capital was founded by Cyrene. A Greek colony in Libya founded
the first emperor Manco Capac in c1200 AD. c630 BC by settlers from Thera who, according
The major public works, however, were com- to a standard explanation by Herodotus, had
pleted by Pachacuti some time after 1440. been driven from home by shortage of food.
132 Cyrene

Later, as capital of the imperial province of prosperity was probably largely agricultural,
Cyrenaica, it was important enough to merit based on the staple products of com, oil and
being given the title of metropolis. It is likely, wool. Cyrene was also famous in antiquity for
however, that Cyrene was always a cultural its horses, and the production of the plant sil-
and commercial outpost, isolated by large phium (possibly laserwort) which was a
tracts of desert from Egypt to the east and favourite with the Greeks in the preparation of
CARTHAGE to the west, and looked north certain medicines and dishes. The extensive
across the sea for its communications and remains still visible today are mostly Roman,
trade. The site, on a raised plateau some 8 km laid out on an Hellenistic plan. Evidence exists
inland, was perhaps chosen for its water for earlier buildings, as for instance the
supply, the so-called Fountain of Apollo, and important 6th-century BC Temple of Apollo
overseas contact was maintained by a separate with stone columns and mainly mud-brick
port, Apollonio. The foundation of the city's walls.
D
Dabar Kot. A large site in the Loralai Valley in of Qinglian'gang, Liulin, and Huating.
northern Baluchistan, Pakistan, probably Archaeologists commonly refer to these three
occupied from the 5th millenniuum BC. In later levels as successive phases of the QING-
levels, material of HARAPP AN type was LIAN'GANG culture. The lowest
associated with local artefacts such as figurines (Qinglian'gang) level at Dadunzi yielded a
of ZHOB type. The latest occupation of the site radiocarbon date of c4500 BC. In the middle
is represented by a large Buddhist structure. (Liulin) level, extraordinary painted pottery
was found side-by-side with the usual
Dabban. A blade industry of Cyrenaician undecorated pots native to the local Qing-
Libya, named after the site of HAGFET ED lian'gang tradition. Both the shapes and the
DABBA but best known at HAUA PrEAH. At painted designs copy the YANGSHAO pottery
the latter cave it appears in the sequence of MIAODIGOU; radiocarbon dates from
c40,000 be, making a sharp break with the Miaodigou ( c3900 BC) and also from DAHE
preceding Libyan Pre-AURIGNACIAN. The ( c3700 to c3050 BC) can therefore be taken to
Dabban is clearly related in some way to the suggest that the Liulin phase belongs in the 4th
broadly contemporary Upper PALAEOLITHIC millennium BC. The intrusive Miaodigou-style
complex of Europe and the Near East, backed ware at Dadunzi, occurring in the middle of
blades, burins and endscrapers being its most the Qinglian'gang-Liulin-Huating sequence,
characteristic artefacts. Dabban occupation of argues against the so-called nuclear theory,
Haua Fteah continued until cl2,000 be. according to which the painted pottery of
Miaodigou should antedate the entire east-
Da But. A five-metre deep marine shell coast Neolithic (see LONGSHAN).
midden near Thanh-hoa in northern Vietnam, Some graves of the Liulin phase at Dadunzi
which has produced a mixed BACSONIAN and contained sacrificed dogs. At Dawenkou in
NEOLITHIC stone industry together with Shandong, where the lower level belongs to
ochre-stained burials and pottery. Excavated the Huating phase, pigs appear instead, and
in the 1920s, the site has recently been dated to the graves often take the form of a stepped pit
c4000 be. (i.e. they have ercengtai; see SHAFT TOMBS).
These features are significant as early fore-
Dacia. A Roman frontier province held from runners of characteristic SHANG burial
c106-270 AD, comprising an area to the north practices. Perforated tortoise shells from
of the Danube and roughly equivalent to Liulin graves may likewise foreshadow the use
modern Rumania. The Dacians had con- of tortoise plastrons in Shang scapulimancy
stituted a threat to Rome for some time, and (see ORACLE BONES) and the pottery drinking
their leader Decebalus had to be recognized as vessels found in Liulin and later graves are so
a client king by Domitian. A more determined impractical as to suggest a ceremonial purpose
and successful onslaught was made by Trajan, like that served by Shang bronze RITUAL
who may also have been attracted by mineral VESSELS.
deposits. Trajan celebrated his triumph on the
spiral frieze of a ceremonial column at Rome Dahe [Ta-ho]. The site of a Neolithic village,
(see TRAJAN'S COLUMN). Colonies were now preserved as a museum, at Zhengzhou in
planted at Sarmizegethusa and Apulum. The Henan province, China. Several Y ANGSHAO
province was abandoned by Aurelian in 270. levels are overlaid by HOUGANG II and SHANG
remains; four radiocarbon dates for the
Dadunzi [Ta-tun-tzu]. A Neolithic site in Pei Yangshao levels range from c3700 to c3050
Xian, northern Jiangsu province, China, with BC. The uppermost Yangshao level represents
three main levels named after the nearby sites a late stage of the MIAODIGOU I culture,
133
134 Daima

known also from Guangwu Qinwangzhai and sub-divided into two provinces, known by the
seen here at the eastern limit of its distribution. Flavian period as Dalmatia and Pannonia.
In this level at Dahe the expected painted
pottery is found alongside unpainted pots, Dalriada. In the later 5th century a group of
including DING and dou shapes, that recall the Gaelic-speaking people known as the Scotti
Huating-Dawenkou phase of the east-coast travelled from western Ireland to the northeast
QINGLIAN'GANG culture. Apparently coast of Scotland (modern Argyllshire ). There
intrusive at Dahe, this pottery may represent they founded the kingdom of Dalriada, which
the beginnings of a westward movement of was imposed upon a native Pictish population.
east-coast influences that eventually trans- The Dalriada introduced the Piers to their
formed the Yangshao tradition, in Henan version of the OGHAM script as well as the
giving rise to the Hougan II culture (see LONG- Scottish/Gaelic language.
SHAN). There are secure place-name and linguistic
links between this part of Scotland and Ire-
Daima. A large occupation mound in the land, and the history and royal successions of
extreme northeast of Nigeria, on the season- Dalriada are recorded in The Chronicle of
ally inundated plains adjacent to Lake Chad. Dalriada and elsewhere. However, there is
The site's occupation began shortly before the little archaeology to illuminate this migration.
middle ofthe last millennium be, but reflected The one site of real importance is DUN ADD in
the continuation of a life-style that had been Crianan Moss, a nucleated fortified citadel
established in the area at least 500 years dating to around 500 and thought to be the
earlier. Herding of cattle and cultivation of capital of Dalriada. It consists of a dry-stone
sorghum were the joint bases of the econmy. central stronghold with two outer walled
Stone for tool manufacture had to be enclosures, and was extensively excavated in
imported, but iron was introduced at some as 1929.
yet poorly defined time between the 1st and
6th centuries ad. The adoption of iron was Dalton. A complex of cultural traits from the
apparently not marked by any discontinuity in late PALEO-INDIAN period, centred on the
the archaeological sequence. Some centuries Southeastern United States. It is characterized
later, however, more pronounced change took by the Dalton point, a fish-tailed variation of
place as Daima became part of a more wide- the CLOVIS point. Most Dalton sites indicate
ranging trade system; it is tempting to link this that major subsistence effort was in hunting
phenomenon with the rise of the kingdom of deer. There is inconclusive evidence that
KANEM. gathering of plant food may also have been a
subsistence activity. Brand in northeast
Arkansas and Stanfield-Worley Bluff in
Dainzu. See BALL GAME.
Alabama are the best-known sites.

Dai Viet. [Sino-Vietnamese: 'Great Viet']. Damascus. Modern capital of Syria. A rich
Name of VIETNAM during certain periods of its oasis city, Damascus was occupied by the 3rd
history, notably from the 11th century to the millennium BC, but the settlements of the
14th century, when the expansion towards the prehistoric, biblical and Roman periods
south and the absorption of the kingdom of underlie the modern and medieval city and are
CHAMPA began. therefore not readily available for excavation.
Egyptian texts and references in the Bible
Dalmatia. A Roman province, called after the attest the city's importance in international
local tribe of the Delmatae, which corresponds trade from the 16th century BC; it appears as
partly to modern Yugoslavia. The whole Damashqa in the Tell EL-AMARNA docu-
eastern Adriatic area, roughly equivalent to ments. The Aramaeans conquered Damascus
present-day Yugoslavia and Albania put in the late 2nd millennium BC and it was sub-
together, was finally annexed by Rome in 9 AD sequently annexed by the ISRAELITES (lOth
and became the province of Illyricum, valu- century BC) and later the ASSYRIANS (8th
able to Rome for its mineral deposits, land century BC). By 85 BC it had become capital of
routes and harbours, and the legendary fight- Nabatean kingdom; by 64 BC it was a Roman
ing qualities of its soldiers. Illyricum was soon city of commercial and strategic importance,
Dantu 135

and subsequently a major Byzantine garrison. imported luxury items including a great deal of
Damascus was captured by the Arabs in West European glass. It may well be a MIGRA-
635 and chosen as their capital by the TION PERIOD royal site.
Ummayads, who formed the first Islamic
dynasty and ruled from 661 to 750. Its most Dane law. An agreement by formal treaty
famous Islamic monument is the Great between King ALFRED of Wessex and the
Mosque of the caliph al-Walid, built in 706- Danish leader Guthram in 878, establishing a
714/5 in the temenos of a Roman temple political boundary along the line of the old
which at the time of the Arab conquest Roman road, Watling Street, from Chester
contained a church. On the south side of the through Lichfield and Hertford to London.
temenos, al-Walid erected a sanctuary with The Danes were given the large area to the east
three aisles bisected by a tall nave with of the line, which was known as the Danelaw.
clerestory windows and a dome over the This division only lasted until the early lOth
central bay. Single arcades surrounded the century, when Alfred's son Edward began the
courtyard in front of the sanctuary and the process of reconquering the area for the
corner towers of the temenos were converted English monarchy.
into minarets. The mosque was adorned with
mosaics and marble panels, some of which Danger Cave. A site of long occupation in
survive. northwest Utah, USA, containing one of the
most complete inventories of material from
Damb Buthi. A prehistoric site in south- the DESERT TRADITION. Characteristic arte-
western Sind, Pakistan, which has produced facts, such as baskets, MANOS, METATES and
material of both AMRI and HARAPPAN types, small projectile points, were found in abund-
but from separate locations on the hill. ance. The earliest evidence of human
occupation dates to 9500-9000 be. Sub-
Damb Sadaat. A prehistoric site in the sequent levels, although discontinuous, are
QUETTA valley of West Pakistan which was evidence of occupation into the Christian era.
occupied during the 3rd millennium BC. The
population of this period lived in well-built Danilo. The eponymous site for the Danilo
mud-brick houses consisting of several small culture, distributed over central and southern
rooms, used tools of copper, and had wheel- Dalmatia from c4 700 be to the early 4th
turned pottery painted in black designs on a millennium be. Excavated by D. Rendic-
buff or greenish ground known as Quetta Miocevic and J .Korosec, the site, near Sibenik,
ware. In Period III there was an interesting consists of large numbers of pits and post
structure on the highest part of the mound: it holes, whose associated material has been
was built on a brick platform and had thick subdivided typologically into five phases.
spur walls leading to the lower parts of the Typical finds include incised and encrusted
mound. This building may have had some wares, bichrome and trichrome painted wares
special function, as eight female figurines were and a long blade and tanged point stone
found in its vicinity and underneath the main industry closely related to fishing practices.
wall was a stone-built hollow containing a The economic base of the Danilo culture is
human skull. broad spectrum in nature, with mixed farming
supplemented by fishing, hunting and shell-
Dammayan Temple [Dhammayazika, collecting. The so-called 'cult rhyton'
Dhammaramshi). One of the largest Buddhist (resembling a miniature coal-scuttle in
brick monuments in PAGAN, northern appearance), a form characteristic of the
BURMA, built under king Narapatisithu in the culture, is more plausibly interpreted as a salt-
late 12th century. It is similar in style to the pot.
ANANDA TEMPLE.
Dantu [Tan-t'u ). A district just south of the
Danekirke. A 5th-century site situated out- Yangzi River in Jiangsu province, China. A
side Ribe in Western Jutland. It poses interest- Western ZHOU tomb found in 1954 at Dantu
ing archaeological problems as the excavators Yandunshan contained a few pieces of glazed
found traces of only one large timber hall, pottery and 12 bronze RITUAL VESSELS. The
associated with enormous quantities of inscription on one of the bronzes, a GUI of
136 Danubian culture

conventional early Western Zhou style, names Morocco, some 200 km south of Tangier,
the marquis of a fief called Yi, which may have where excavation to :s revealed a late ATERIAN
been located on this remote frontier of the industry associated with human remains of
Zhou empire. The other bronzes are evidently MECHTA-AFALOU type. Later levels contain a
local products; their decoration is copied in long sequence of IBEROMAURUSIAN-related
some cases from the repertoire of the native industries.
GEOMETRIC POTTERY tradition, an influence
more pronounced in later bronzes from the Darwin, Charles (1809-82). The founder of
same region (see TuN xi). evolutionary theory, which he expounded in
his seminal work Origin of Species by Means
Danubian culture. Term used by Gordon of Natural Selection or the Preservation of
CHILDE to describe the sequence of prehistoric Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life,
cultures found in central Europe, along the published in 1859. Its particular relevance for
valley of the Danube and other rivers; it is not archaeology was to boost the acceptance of the
often used today. Danubian I is the LINEAR antiquity of man, which had already gained the
POTTERY culture; Danubian II the later support of some scholars by 1859 (see
Neolithic cultures, such as TISZA, LENGYEL, BOUCHER DE PERTHES, MACENERY, PEN-
STROKE-ORNAMENTED WARE and ROSSEN; GELLY). In a later work, The Descent of Man
Danubian III-VI were used by Childe to (1871) Darwin spelled out the implication of
describe the various phases of the Copper and his theory for man's origins and suggested that
Bronze Ages in the area, but were never widely man evolved from some ape-like ancestor,
adopted by other scholars. probably in Africa.

Danzantes. Stone slab, bas-relief carvings Dasht-i Nawar. See Ao KuPRUK.


dating to clOO BC - AD 100 (see also PRE-
CLASSIC) that flank the earliest flat-topped Dasikongcun [Ta-ssu-k'ung-ts'un]. See
mound at MONTE ALBAN, Mexico. They CHARIOT BURIALS (CHINA).
depict nude male figures, some with mutilated
or elaborately emphasized sexual organs, in database management system. A COMPUTER
unnatural dancing or possible swimming program that stores information and allows it
poses. Sometimes interpreted as dead, to be retrieved in any desired combination or
possibly sacrificed captives, certain elements order. Filing systems of various kind are
of the iconography, such as thick lips and already widely used in archaeology; database
downturned mouths, indicate an OLMEC management systems are merely an extension
origin. Associated hieroglyphs and CALEN- of these.
DAR dates also tend to confirm this.
dating. The determination of a date for
Dapenkeng [Ta-p'en-k'eng]. A Neolithic site objects, deposits and buildings is at the centre
in Taiwan, near Taibei, characterized by of all archaeology. In later periods this may be
coarse cord-marked pottery of a kind widely accomplished by historical methods (e.g. coin
represented at sites in south and southeastern dating) but if such evidence is not available
China that fall somewhere between the late 5th other methods have to be used. CRoss DATING
and the 3rd millennium BC. The relationship of and SERIATION or SEQUENCE DATING are the
this corded-ware Neolithic, sometimes called traditional approaches. Since 1948, inde-
the Yue Coastal Neolithic, to the Neolithic pendent methods have become available,
cultures of the lower Yangzi region (see LoNG- including RADIOMETRIC dating, THERMO-
SHAN, sense 2) is not clear. At a later stage LUMINESCENCE, ARCHAEOMAGNETISM, DEN-
the corded ware gave way to GEOMETRIC POT- DROCHRONOLOGY, FLUORINE and NITROGEN
TERY. DATING, OBSIDIAN HYDRATION and dating
from AMINO-ACID RACEMIZATION. These
Dapona (Ta-p'o-na). See DIAN KINGDOM. methods have varying applications, accuracy,
range and cost.
Dara-i Kur. See Ao KUPRUK.
daub. A clay-based material, acting as the
Dar es Sol tan. A cave on the Atlantic coast of matrix in a w ATILE and daub wall. The daub is
deep sea cores 137

plastered on to the wattle framework and was published in 1908; the second part came
allowed to dry, forming a quick and relatively out in separate volumes, that on the Bronze
weathertight structure. The imprint of wattle Age in 1910, on HALLSTATT in 1913, and LA
has survived on some ancient daub from TENE in 1915 (completed by Albert Grenier
archaeological sites. after Dechelette's death early in World War 1).

Davis, E. H. ( 1811-88). American doctor who decumanus. See CARDO.


together with E.G. SQUIER studied the pre-
historic mounds of the eastern USA. deep sea cores. Since the development of the
piston corer in 1947, it has been possible to
Dawenkou [Ta-wen-k'ou]. See DADUNZI, take long cores of SEDIMENT from the ocean
QINGLIAN'GANG, LONGSHAN (sense 2), GUI. bottom. A wide variety of such sediment
exists, but those most studied have been the
Dazaifu. The remains of the centre of frontier oozes. Oozes form by accumulation of the
adminstration near Fukuoka, Japan. Estab- dead skeletons of foraminifera and radiolaria,
lished shortly after Japan's spectacular defeat together with a variable amount of inorganic
in the Korean campaign of 663, Dazaifu material. These sediments build up very
remained an important outpost of the govern- slowly, from 10 mm per 1000 years up to 50
ment in the western frontier for the next few mm per 1000 years, but their sequence is
centuries. The Dazaifu area, with adminstra- uninterrupted. Some cores have provided an
tive buildings and temples, has been invest- unbroken record for the whole of the QuA-
igated since 1968. TERNARY. The main problem with such
sequences is disturbance by animals living on
Dead Sea Scrolls. Ancient Hebrew manu- the ocean bottom. Dating of the succession is
scripts found in a cave near the ruin of Khirbet accomplished by RADIOCARBON, which covers
Qumran, north-west ofthe Dead Sea, in 194 7. the last 70,000 years (the top 400 mm or so of
They are believed to be the library of the most cores) and by PALAEOMAGNETISM,
monastery at Qumran, occupied by an which provides fixed points of known date,
extreme religious sect known as the Essenes between which further dates have to be
between 100 BC and AD 100. The library interpolated. There are still problems with the
included all the Old Testament texts as well as detailed dating of cores. Two main types of
sectarian works. The scrolls, together with the investigation have been carried out:
excavations at Qumran, have provided much
(a) Faunal variation. Foraminifera can be
information about the beliefs and way oflife of
the Essenes. It is thought that the library was identified from their skeletons. Changes occur
hidden in the cave in anticipation of the in the relative proportions of different species,
destruction of Khirbet Qumran by the through the sequence shown in the cores. Such
variation is compared mathematically with the
Romans, which occurred in AD 66-70.
known ecology of today's foraminifera. This
Debeira West. An extensive village site in allows the reconstruction of variation in such
Nubia, occupied between the 7th and 13th factors as surface temperature and salinity
centuries. Excavation of its two-storey brick throughout the time which the cores represent.
buildings has yielded a clear picture of its (b) Oxygen isotope ratios. Sea water contains a
inhabitants' life-style. Dates and sorghum number of isotopes of oxygen, the most
were cultivated with the aid of irrigation; common being 18 0 and 16 0. During periods of
cattle, pigs, sheep and goats were herded. The growing ICE-SHEETS, water rich in 160 is
village had its own church with associated preferentially bound up in ice-sheets. Con-
cemetery. versely, sea water becomes relatively rich in
18 0. Thus the 18 0/ 16 0 ratio is an indicator of
Dechelette, Joseph (1862-1914). French the global extent of ice-sheets. Both isotopes
archaeologist who produced a masterly syn- are incorporated into the skeletons of
thesis of European prehistory in the early part foraminifera. These skeletons then become
of this century. Entitled Manuel d'Archeol- deposited as ocean-bottom ooze, appear in
ogie Prehistorique, Celtique et Galla- cores and can be analysed for 18 0/ 16 0
romaine, the first volume - on prehistory - content. Temperature may also affect the rate
138 Deir el Bahari

at which either isotope is taken up by the established, and myth claimed the island as his
foraminifera. This effect can be eliminated by birthplace. This religious link, coupled with
studying only species that live deep in the vigorous promotion by Athens from the
water, where temperature varies little. This middle of the 6th century to the end of the 4th
technique has been combined most success- century BC, turned the island into a populous
fully with palaeomagnetism by Shackleton and religious and political centre for the Aegean,
Opdyke, on core number V28-238 from the with an oracle that was perhaps second only to
south Pacific. Numbered stages are assigned to Delphi. Delos was also chosen as the head-
the fluctuations in isotope ratio up the core. At quarters and treasury for the important
least eight major glacial episodes are shown to maritime alliance against the Persians, the
have occurred during the past 700,000 years. Delian League. After 314 BC a period of
This is difficult to correlate with terrestrial neutrality brought commercial prosperity, and
sequences of Quaternary deposits. Hellenistic kings contributed towards its
monuments. Further success came with the
Deir el Bahari. A location at Thebes in Upper status of free port from 166 BC, and a cosmo-
Egypt, the site of several temples, notably the politan community helped to create fine
funerary temple of Queen Hatshepsut, streets, Greek and oriental temples, meeting-
daughter of the Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh houses for the merchant guilds, a unique
Thutmosis I, who reigned over Egypt in her colonnaded ('hypostyle') hall, and splendid
own right 1511-1480 BC. The temple includes houses. From 88 BC various pirate attacks
a series of colonnaded terraces. Particular indicate a lessening investment and this,
interest attaches to the fine relief carvings, one combined with the general westward shift in
of which illustrates an Egyptian trading commercial and political focus which had
expedition to the Land of Punt, believed to come with Roman domination of the eastern
have been part of the African coast near the Mediterranean, eventually led to the
southern end of the Red Sea. abandonment of the island. Excavations have
been conducted since 1873 by the French
Deir el-Daleh. See GAZA. School (Athens).

Dejbjerg. A bog site in west Jutland, where Delphi. A dramatic site on the steep slopes of
two pre-Roman Iron Age vehicles were found, Mount Parnassus, central Greece, famous in
believed to be imports from South Gaul. They classical antiquity as the home of the Delphic
were decorated with openwork bronze, oracle. It is likely that there was pre-Hellenic
bronze masks, bosses and lattice work. The use as an earth deity shrine, and the setting,
wheels had iron tyres and pegs of hard wood to with its striking backdrop of cliff-face, rock
act as ball-bearings. fissures and springs, was no doubt deliberately
chosen. In addition to answering consultations
Deloraine Farm. A site near Rongai in the Rift by states and individuals (the answers were
Valley highlands of central Kenya, dated late often couched in obscure hexameter verses
in the 1st millennium ad. Domestic cattle were which left the enquirer none the wiser) Delphi
herded in large numbers. The associated seems to have acted as a religious and festival
pottery is unlike that found on PASTORAL centre for the different Greek city states who
NEOLITHIC sites: the relatively small number organized themselves into the so-called
of chipped obsidian artefacts recovered Amphictyonic League. The Pythian Games,
suggests that iron may have been known to the held at Delphi, became a great national
site's inhabitants. festival, and over the years an elaborate
complex of religious and ceremonial buildings
Delos. Tiny central member of a group of grew up. Along a Sacred Way were placed
islands in the central Aegean known to anti- some 20 temple-like treasuries, erected by
quity as the Cyclades (from the Greek kuklos, member states to house valuable offerings.
'circle') because they encircled the holy island Above, on a terrace supported by a wall of
of Delos. There is evidence for some late unusual polygonal masonry, stood the great
Neolithic and some MYCENAEAN settlement. Temple of Apollo, containing in a holy of
Sometime early in the 1st millennium BC holies ( adyton) a navel-shaped stone
association with the worship of Apollo is (omphalos) marking the centre of the earth,
dendrochronology 139

and a rock fissure from which emanations were their growth, tree rings differ in width and
supposed to inspire the Pythian priestess. The structure; for instance, during good growing
virgin priestess would fall into a trance to give years a thicker ring is added than in poorer
(inarticulate) answers to male priests (women years. Trees of a similar age in the same area
were not admitted). The temple was recon- will all be similarly affected and so will have
structed after earthquake damage in c350 BC, similar sequences of ring widths; therefore
and a theatre and stadium were added. After sequences can be correlated btween trees.
c300 BC the oracle began a slow decline in Correlation can also be carried out with
authority, and Roman rule, sceptical of its overlapping parts of tree-ring sequences from
value, brought further deteroriation, with older trees, dead trees and timbers preserved
some prominent Romans plundering the site on archaeological sites, In this way, an over-
for its art treasures- the emperor Nero, in a fit lapping sequence of tree-ring widths can be
of pique at the oracle's comments on his built up and ideally such a sequence would
murder of his mother, is said to have carried off extend back unbroken from the present day.
five hundred statues. The oracle was finally However, timbers linking parts of the
closed by the Emperor Theodosius in 390 AD sequence may be missing and in these cases
as anti-Christian. 'floating chronologies' are built up. Floating
chronologies have to be dated approximately
demography. The study of population. It is by radiocarbon, but as more timbers are
difficult to study the size of ancient human found, it is hoped to join them to the sequence
populations, since it is most unlikely that which is anchored in the present day, thus
skeletons excavated from sites in a given providing an absolute chronology. Once a
area represent the local population size reli- master chronology has been constructed,
ably. However, age and sex may be deter- other timbers from buildings and sites can be
mined from most human skeletons, and study dated by matching them into the sequence.
of the proportions of different age-groups and Range. The long-living Bristlecone Pine
sexes may yield valuable information about (Pinus aristata) of California has yielded a
the way of life of an ancient population.See sequence extending back to c9000 BP. In
AGEING OF SKELETAL MATERIALS. Ireland, oak preserved in bogs has produced a
floating chronology from c2850-5950 BP.
Denbigh Flint Complex. The type collection Similar chronologies are being built up
for the ARCTIC SMALL TOOL TRADITION throughout Europe.
which was first excavated at Cape Denbigh on
Norton Bay, Alaska. The site yielded a radio- Accuracy. Correlation between sequences is
carbon date of 2000 be, which became a never perfect and has to be accomplished
landmark in the chronology of Arctic cultures. statistically. In addition, rings may be missed
Denbigh artefacts have been found at out-in some years (between 3.4 per cent and
numerous Arctic sites, notably at ONION 0.86 per cent of rings may be missing in one
PORTAGE, CAPE KRUSENSTERN and Ityatet. tree); other years may produce multiple rings
Finely worked microblade tools are char- (this is much rarer). Accuracy therefore varies,
acteristic, and land mammals seem to have but the method appears to be much more
been the primary focus of subsistence activity. accurate than any of the other dating methods.

dendrochronology. The construction of Problems. To use dendrochronology as a


chronologies from tree-ring sequences. dating method, a sequence has to be built up
Dendrochronology can be used as a dating for the area in which sites exist. This chron-
method for timbers in buildings and other ology will then apply to only one species of tree
archaeological sites. It has also been used with in one particular area. The size of the area will
great success for the calibration of RADIO- vary, but Bristlecone Pine sequences can be
CARBON DATES. Tree-ring sequences are also correlated between trees up to 1600 km apart.
used as indicators of environmental change. Radiocarbon calibration. Once the Bristle-
Principles. It is common knowledge that the cone Pine absolute chronology had been
age of a tree may be determined by counting established,small blocks of wood ( clO rings)
the number of tree rings. Depending on the were sampled at intervals down the sequence.
growing conditions in the particular years of These were dated by radiocarbon and the
140 Denekamp interstadial

difference between the two sets of dates used stemming from later Viking times have also
to construct calibration tables. been surveyed or partially excavated.
Dendrochoronology and climate. Since tree Deserted villages are perhaps the most
ring widths are dependent on environment, it common archaeological sites of the medieval
is possible to use the sequence of width period, and their investigation has become
changes to reconstruct environmental fundamental to the modem study of medieval
(particularly climatic) history for an area. archaeology in Western Europe.

Denekamp interstadial. An interstadial of the Desert Tradition. A post-PLEISTOCENE


WEICHSELIAN cold stage. It is dated to around adaptation to the arid environment of the
28,000 be. Great Basin area of the western USA, which
continues to be practised in some areas to this
day. It is characterized by the utilization of a
Dereivca (Dereivka]. A late Neolithic site wide variety of food sources. Both big and
located on the river Omifinev, some 25 km
small game animals as well as numerous plant
south of Kremencug in the Ukraine, USSR, species were exploited in a cyclical pattern
and dated to the 3rd millennium be. The main typical of the ARCHAIC lifestyle. The hallmark
site component is a cemetery of the Mariupol artefacts are the basket and the flat milling
type, with 106 extended inhumations
stone. Evidence of the Desert Tradition has
arranged in groups. Adjacent to the cemetery been found not only in much of the western
is a settlement site with DNIEPER-DONETS USA, for example VENTANA CAVE and
pottery associated with a 10-metre-long
DANGER CAVE, but also in northern Mexico.
timber-framed house. Probably its best known manifestation is
CocHISE. See Table 9, page 552.
Desborough. The find spot in central England
of a 1st-century BC bronze mirror, with fine Deva. See CHESTER.
engraved decoration in the insular British LA
TENE art style. Devanija [Sanskrit: 'God-King']. Name of a
Hindu religious mode, known as the Devaraja
deserted medieval village. The fossilized cult, which prevailed in the kingdom of
remains of hamlets and villages in Western ANGKOR, Cambodia, from the 9th to the 13th
Europe with earthworks or walls representing centuries. It was based on the belief that during
the church, the MANOR, the dwellings, and his lifetime the king was the incarnation or
other features associated with medieval rural representation of a Hindu god, with whom he
life. Some settlements were deserted each became one after his death. This interpretation
century, but many of these villages were has lately been contested; however, it seems
abandoned following the series of plagues in certain that some form of apotheosis of kings
the 14th and 15th centuries. was a characteristic element of Angkorian
Excavations have been carried out in many civilization.
villages, and the density of deserted villages in
certain regions has been accurately recorded. Devensian. A grqup of British, mainly GLA-
The most extensive excavations in the British CIAL, deposits, stratified above IPSWICHIAN
Isles are at WHARRAM PERCY in North INTERGLACIAL deposits (see Table 6, page
Yorkshire, but sites such as Goltho in Lincoln- 419). Much of northern England, Scotland
shire and Hound Tor, Devon, illustrate the and Wales is covered by a blanket of Deven-
wide variety of settlements that can readily be sian TILLS, sands and gravels. These SEDI-
found. Sites have been excavated in every MENTS were deposited by an ice-sheet which
region of France; the settlement at Rougiers is spread out from centres in Wales, the Lake
possibly the best-known. French archae- District, the Pennines and southern and high-
ologists have excavated Brucato in Sicily, and land Scotland. South of the ice-sheet margin is
comparable sites are under investigation in a series of related PRO-GLACIAL and PERIGLA-
Tuscany. Lowland sites have been excavated CIAL deposits. Most of the Devensian stage can
in Holland and North Germany, and a detailed be dated using RADIOCARBON, and by this
survey has been made of the large number of means it has been correlated with the WEICH-
sites in the Eifel Mountains. Scandinavian sites SELIAN in northwest Europe and the WISCON-
Dhar Tichitt 141

SIN in North America. All these formations deposits dating from the late PLEISTOCENE.
represent one cold stage, which lasted from Human occupation debris was relatively
c120,000 bp until 10,000 bp and directly pre- sparse and occurred mainly between levels
ceded our present period of predominantly dated to 27,000 and 10,000 be. The stone
warm climate (the FLANDRIAN or HOLOC- assemblage included cores, scrapers, denticul-
ENE). Not all of the Devensian deposits are ated flakes and adze flakes. Several artefacts
strictly glacial. Some contain abundant fossils carried tracers of resin, suggesting use in
which can be used as ENVIRONMENTAL INDI- composite tools. Three unifacially incised
CATORS. The species present in various of limestone plaques (10,000-18,400 be) and a
such deposits indicate warmer INTERSTADIAL piece of artificially perforated marl were
periods amongst the generally cold Deven- interpreted as ritual items or adornments.
sian climate. Three interstadials have been CHERT sources for some of the artefacts are
defined in Britain, using BEETLES as environ- not evident on the present coastline, but
mental indicators for temperature: the CHEL- undersea-drill cores from the nearby contin-
FORD INTERSTADIAL ( c61,000 bp); the ental shelf have produced the same Eocene
UPTON WARREN INTERSTADIAL complex fossiliferous chert from a zone which would
(45-25,000 bp) and the WINDERMERE INTER- have been exposed during Pleistocene low sea-
STADIAL (13-11,000 bp). PALAEOBOTANY levels. Bone artefacts included points dated
supports the beetle evidence for Chelford and C27 ,000 be and beads between 13,000 and
Windermere, where the existence of decidu- 10,000 be, claimed to be the oldest known
ous trees (birch and pine) suggests warmer ornaments in Australia.
temperatures. There is, however, no evidence
of trees for Upton Warren, which had a tundra Devon Downs. A limestone shelter in cliffs
flora similar to the older parts of the Deven- beside the lower Murray River in South
sian. Britain was by no means ice-covered Australia. The two-metre deep deposit, rich in
throughout the Devensian cold stage. Ice- faunal material as well as stone and bone tools,
sheets seem to have appeared only during the was excavated by H. Hale and N.B. Tindale in
cold STADIAL between 26,000 and 13,000 bp. 1929, as was the nearby open site of TART-
These sheets were lost completely during the ANGA. This was the first systematic archae-
Windermere interstadial; then during the cold ological excavation in Australia. Later
LoCH LoMOND STADIAL that followed only radiocarbon dating of samples from the
one ice cap and small glaciers were formed in excavation estimated human occupation of the
the highest hills. SEA LEVEL fell during the shelter from 3000 bc.Interpretation of the
colder parts of the Devensian, exposing the STRATIGRAPHY and stone tool sequence at the
bottom of the Irish Sea, North Sea and the two sites introduced concepts of antiquity and
Channel and connecting Britain to the cultural change in Aboriginal prehistory which
Continent. LEVALLOISIAN, MOUSTERIAN and had previously been denied in Australian
Upper PALAEOLITHIC artefacts are found in anthropology.
Devensian deposits. In addition, bones of
HOMO SAPIENS have been found in Devensian Dharmarajika. See T AXILA.
cave sediments.
Dhar Tichitt. Located in south-central
Deverei-Rimbury. Middle to Late Bronze Mauritania on the southern edge of the Sahara
Age culture of southern England, named after Desert, the Dhar Tichitt sites provide a clear,
two burial sites in Dorset. Palisaded farm- dated picture of the local beginings of cereal
steads, nucleated settlements and some HILL- cultivation. Wild sorghum and bulrush millet
FORTS of this culture are known and many are indigenous to the area. Around 2000 be
CELTIC FIELD systems are recorded. The dead there were extensive lakes at Dhar Tichitt,
were cremated and placed in globular, barrel- supporting a population which relied for its
or bucket-shaped urns either under BARROWS livelihood on collecting, hunting and fishing.
or in flat cemeteries. By c1500 be the inhabitants had obtained
domestic cattle and goats. Desiccation
Devils Lair. A limestone cave near the south- resulted in marked shrinkage of the lakes at the
west coast of Western Australia, containing close of the 2nd millennium, by which time a
deep, well-preserved organic and stone number of species of wild grass, still used in the
142 Dhimini

southern Sahara in times of famine, were being tradition (Colchaqui) is distinguished by its
collected. Shortly after 1000 be, in the so- introduction of new motifs, such as stylized
called Chebka phase, bulrush millet of a reptiles, avia and humans, and is characterized
clearly domesticated type was the cereal most by its polychrome funerary urns - the pre-
frequently represented. Villages at this time ferred method of burial for children; adult
were no longer situated beside the lakes but in burials were stone-lined pit inhumations.
defensive positions on the adjacent escarp- Chilean Diaguita ceramics are, on the
ment; they were also larger than their whole, smaller and more delicately decorated.
predecessors. Increases both in population In its later stages especially, new forms make
and perhaps also in competition for control of their appearance, for instance shoe- or duck-
resources may be indicated. By the 4th century shaped vessels and bird effigy jars. Influence
be bulrush millet clearly formed the staple diet from the north (TIAHUANACO in the early
of the inhabitants of the area. stages and INCA later) is also apparent. Petro-
glyphs are common throughout the Diaguita
Dhimini. A small fortified settlement in area, but it is doubtful whether they are related
Thessaly, northern Greece, which has given its to the ceramic tradition. The early date for
name to the local late Neolithic. The settle- Diaguita is c900 AD and it continued into
ment occupied dl.5 hectares and contains Conquest times, at which time forced reloca-
houses and a larger building in MEGARON tion of the natives dispersed the tradition.
form. The finely decorated pottery is painted
in black or sometimes white on a yellow or buff Diana. A site on the island of Lipari, one of the
surface and the motifs include spirals and Aeolian Islands north of Sicily, which has
meanders. given its name to a local Final NEOLITHIC
culture, with dates in the early 4th millennium
Dhlo Dhlo. A later Iron Age site located BC. Diana had a very distinctive pottery with a
northeast of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Occupa- glossy red slip and splayed lugs or tubular
tion probably began during the 16th century handles, which has also been found on Sicily
and was marked by the erection of elaborate and mainland Italy. The Diana culture is
dry-stone terrace-retaining walls surrounding associated with the last phase of intensive
extensive house-platforms. The foundation of exploitation of the Lipari OBSIDIAN source.
this site, like that of comparable stone struc-
tures at KHAMI and Naletale, is traditionally Dian [Tien] kingdom. A barbarian kingdom
attributed to the Rozwi, following the decline in southwest China centred on Lake Dian in
of the Monomotapa empire. Throughout its Yunnan province. According to Chinese
occupation, the inhabitants of Dhlo Dhlo sources the Dian royal house traced its descent
appear to have had access to imported luxury from a CHU general who invaded Yunnan in
goods derived from the African east coast the late 4th century BC and remained to rule
trade. the local tribes. In 109 BC Dian surrendered to
HAN armies and the Dian king was enrolled as
Di [Ti). See RONG AND DI. a Han vessal. A generation later the kingdom
was destroyed after a revolt.
Diablo. See T AMAULIPAS. The highly distinctive culture of the Dian
kingdom is known mainly from cemetery sites
Diaguita. A cultural group of the south- excavated since 1955 near Lake Dian. Of
central Andes characterized by distinctive these the richest is Shizhaishan in the Jinning
ceramic complexes. Two principal sub-groups district, where the burials date from the Han
have been defined: the Argentinian, on the occupation (2nd-1st centuries BC). Earlier
eastern side of the Andes and the Chilean, burials of the period c600-300 BC have been
centred on the western side. Although they excavated at Dapona and Wanjiaba. Many of
have some cultural traits in common (funerary the objects unearthed at Shizhaishan were
practices, use of bronze and probably lang- imports from China: coins, mirrors, belt
uage), there are grounds for regarding them as hooks, silk, crossbow mechanisms, and a gold
being only marginally related. seal, the gift ofthe Han court, that reads 'Seal
Argentine Diaguita replace AGUADA in of the King of Dian'. Other finds, such as
the Valliserana region. The new pottery lacquer coffins and eccentric GE blades, seem
Dinas Powys 143

to represent local adaptations of prototypes from European MEGALITHIC tombs to central


originating in the state of Ch u, the likely source American platform mounds was regarded as
also of certain ornamental motifs (e.g. com- derivative of the Egyptian pyramids. This view
binations of birds and snakes). was never widely accepted by scholars, but a
Chu and Sichun were the intermediaries by modified version - often known as 'modified
which influences reached Dian not only from diffusionism' and associated especially with
Chinese civilization but also from the northern Gordon CHILDE - gained support. This
steppes. Dian bronze plaques copying version did not accept far-fetched connections
ANIMAL STYLE models show the animal- and allowed for the possibility of independent
combat motif in the most animated and invention in more than one area, but none-
realistic versions known in the full range of theless accounted for most major develop-
Animal Style art and indeed in the entire ments in European prehistory in terms of
history of this very ancient motif. The vivid diffusion from the Near East. Until relatively
narrative art and mastery of lost-wax casting recently this was the standard interpretative
(see CIRE PERDUE) seen in these plaques are framework for European prehistory, but in the
the salient features of Dian material culture. last 10-15 years many of its tenets have been
Both are illustrated again in the characteristic challenged, partly as a result of radiocarbon
drum-shaped containers for cowrie shells dates and the tree-ring calibration( see DEN-
found regularly in Dian burials. Three- DROCHRONOLOGY, RADIOCARBON DATING),
dimensional figures grouped on the tops of partly on theoretical grounds.
these containers portray scenes of ritual, war
and daily life with a lively movement and Dilmun. A name appearing in Mesopotamian
enthusiam for realistic detail unmatched in texts of the EARLY DYNASTIC, AKKADIAN and
contemporary Chinese art. Prominent in UR III periods. It seems to be used in two ways,
nearly all the scenes are bronze drums, the referring sometimes to a mythical land, a sort
same drums that the cowrie containers of Paradise; the epic hero GILGAMESH visited
themselves imitate. Similar in shape to the Dilmun in his search for immortality. On other
chunyu bells of Sichuan, the Dian drums are occasions, however, the name Dilmun appears
regarded by many scholars as prototypes of in economic documents and clearly refers to a
those found in neighbouring Guangxi pro- real land, with which the cities of Meso-
vince and in Vietnam, where they are the potamia traded. In recent years it has been
defining artefact of the DONG-SON culture. See identified with the island of BAHRAIN, or,
BELLS (CHINA), DRUMS (CHINA). perhaps more probably, with a larger area
including the Arabian coast from the head of
diffusion [diffusionist). The spread of a the Gulf to Bahrain. From the Mesopotamian
technique or cultural trait or a complete way of documents it seems that Dilmun served mainly
life from on area to another. This can take as an entrepot for trade between the Indus
place through the movement of people or Valley civilization and Mesopotamia, but it is
through the spread of ideas (sometimes known also recorded as exporting dates and pearls of
as stimulus diffusion). It is clear that diffusion its own.
has often taken place in the past and that it has
sometimes been a potent force for change. Dimolit. A site in Isabela Province, northern
However, general interpretative frameworks Luzon, and one of the earliest Neolithic open
based on diffusion are now less popular than sites to have been excavated in the Philippines.
they once were. The occupation, with pottery, flakes with
In the early part of this century Sir Grafton edge-gloss and postholes of small square
ELLIOT SMITH and his followers, like William houses, probably dates from between 2100
Perry, expounded a view which is often and 1200 be.
described as 'hyperdiffusionist'; they believed
that all inventions had taken place only once, Dinas Powys. An Iron Age HILL FORT near
in ancient Egypt, and that the knowledge of Cardiff, Wales, which was refurbished in the
these inventions and practices had spread sub-Roman and medieval periods. Some time
outwards from Egypt, carried by crusading in the 5th or 6th century the northern end of
missionaries, the 'Children ofthe Sun'. To take the hill was cut off by a modest bank c3 metres
a single example, every mound-like structure wide and 1.5 metres high and a rock-cut ditch.
144 ding

Inside the enclosed area the excavators found ence between the two methods is that discrimi-
the traces of a dwelling in the form of hearths, a nant functions are specially calculated to show
collection of Mediterranean imported pottery, up differences between previously defined
and metal-working debris such as moulds, groups of items (for instance artefacts from
furnaces and ovens. Very fragmentary out- several different sites), whereas principal com-
lines were found of two main structures ponents do not make any distinction between
including one possible hall, though it seems groups.
that dry stone used for these Dark Age build- Classification. The object of this operation is
ings was re-used in the construction of the to see how widely separated are the multi-
11th-century rampart. This important sub- variate distributions of a number of previously
Roman phase at Dinas Powys has been defined groups of items in hyperspace. Each
attributed to a petty chief engaged in localized item is taken in tum, and the likelihood of its
industrial activities. The small Norman ring- belonging to a group is calculated for each of
work is also of interest. the group distributions. The results are
presented as a 'classification results table' in
ding [ting). A Chinese tripod bowl with solid which the known grouping of items is com-
legs (compare LI). The ding is almost unknown pared with the most likely grouping, calculated
at Y ANGSHAO sites but is ubiquitous in pottery from the variables supplied to the analysis. The
of the east-coast Neolithic and of the Henan smaller the proportion of items 'correctly
Longshan culture (see LONGSHAN, HEMUDU). classified' in this way, the more overlapping
It was made in both pottery and bronze are the previously defined groups. Conversely,
versions throughout the Chinese Bronze Age the larger the proportion 'correctly classified'
(see RITUAL VESSELS). the less the groups overlap. Classification is,
for example, particularly useful in comparing
dingo. Australia's native dog (Canis famil- groups of skulls from different sites, on the
iaris) and only terrestrial non-marsupial basis of their measurements.
Discriminant analysis can be, and was
carnivore. Distributed widely on the cont-
inent, it does not occur in Tasmania. The originally, done by 'pencil-and-paper'
methods, but nowadays it is usually carried out
oldest well-authenticated dates for dingo
bones come from the sites of FROMMS LAND- by digital computer. See also COMPUTER,
STATISTICS.
ING (South Australia), Madura Cave,
(Western Australia) and Wombah (coastal distribution.
This term is used in two different
New South Wales), between 1000 and 1500 ways in archaeology.
be. At present the dingo's external origins are ( 1) In general it refers to the spatial location
unknown, but the answer to this question will of archaeological sites or artefacts. These
are
have implications for the investigation of usually
plotted on one or more distribution
human migrations and contacts between maps, which are used in
a number of ways. For
Australia and Asia in the mid-Holocene. instance, they may simply indicate the spatial
extent of the items in question, or they may be
disc barrow. See BARROW. used to indicate the distribution of material
from a source, or to suggest relationships
discriminant analysis. A technque of MULTI- between one archaeological feature and
VARIATE ANALYSIS. Most discriminant another or between archaeological features
analysis programs perform two operations. and topography or other aspects of the natural
One is to calculate discriminant functions and environment.
the other is known as 'classification'. (2) The second use of the term relates to
Discriminant Functions. New VARIABLES STATISTICS. In this context distribution refers
which are calculated from the original, large to the way in which values of vARIABLES are
number of variables. The discriminant func- spread throughout a group of cases, objects or
tions are somewhat akin to PRINCIPAL COM- items. Distributions for one variable are easily
PONENTS - calculated so that most of the var- represented by histograms (bar-charts). It is,
iation in the original DISTRIBUTION is squeezed however, just as possible to have a distribution
into the first few functions, which can then be for two, three or many more variables (see
plotted or analysed statistically. The differ- MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS).
Doc Chua 145

ditch. A common feature of archaeological tamia, from the late 4th to the early 2nd
sites, not only as defensive structures in millennium BC and the investigation of a
association with RAMPARTS and walls, but also number of important buildings of the JEMDET
as a means of drainage or as a construction NASR and EARLY DYNASTIC periods.
trench. Large ditches which are allowed to
erode, without much interference from man, Djeitun. The type site of a 6th millennium be
go through three phases of infilling. Primary Neolithic culture of Turkmenia, Soviet
fill accumulates rapidly as the sides of the ditch Central Asia. Characteristic settlements were
collapse. When the sides reach their angle of villages of up to 30 one-roomed houses, built
rest, the rate of deposition slows down, of mud-brick with lime-plastered floors. Both
vegetation colonizes the bottom of the ditch floors and walls were sometimes painted. The
and the secondary fill starts to build up. This subsistence economy was based on cereal
material has a much finer texture than primary agriculture, probably employing simple
fill; it accumulates by inwash and from wind- irrigation techniques, accompanied by the
borne particles trapped in the ditch bottom rearing of sheep and goats and the hunting of
vegetation, and is subject to SOIL-forming gazelle, onager, wild pig and sheep and a
processes. The rate of secondary fill deposition variety of smaller animals. The equipment of
is related to soil erosion in the surrounding the Djeitun culture includes a micro lithic flint
area. Finally, ifthe land adjacent to the ditch is industry and chaff-tempered pottery,
being ploughed, thick COLLUVIAL deposits, decorated with simple painted designs.
called tertiary fill, may bury the secondary fill.
This sequence may be interrupted by tipping- Djoser. Either the first or the second pharaoh
in of additional material by man. The smaller of the Third Egyptian Dynasty, c2660 BC.
drainage ditches within a site tend to be filled Later tradition was probably correct in regard-
by the tipping of rubbish and similar material ing him as the effective founder of the Old
rather than by the sequence of fills seen in Kingdom. His most lasting monument is his
larger ditches. EXPERIMENTAL ARCHAE- burial place, the step pyramid complex at
OLOGY has shown that as a result of erosion the SAQQARA, designed by the royal architect
excavated PROFILE of the ditch may bear little Imhotep.
relation to the original form, and that LAYERS
within the fill of a ditch may be more related to Dnieper-Donets. Denotes a long-lived 3rd-
erosion and soil-forming processes than to 2nd millennium be Late Neolithic culture of
human activity. these two valleys in southwest Russia. Large
numbers of small settlements are known,
Divostin. A three-level site of the Early employing largely fishing and hunting strate-
STARCEVO phase and early and late parts of gies. Large quantities of comb-pricked pots
the Late VINCA phase, west of Kragiyerac in are known, especially from a series of rich
central Serbia, Yugoslavia. The occupations cemeteries concentrated on the Dnieper
date from c5250-4960 be (Starcevo) to c3900 rapids area, in which 30-130 burials are found.
be and c3300 be (Late Vinca). Open excava- Extended inhumation is the norm, with grave
tion uncovered seven complete house-plans of goods rare except for copper rings and deer-
the Late Vinca village, including one house and carp-tooth necklaces. The physical type in
containing 100 pots. The subsistence economy these burials is identified as CROMAGNON.
was based on cattle husbandry and plough
agriculture. A wide range of cult objects Dniester-Bug. See BuG-DNIESTER.
included a model ritual scene and many fired
clay anthropomorphic figurines. Doc Chua. [Vietnamese: 'Pagoda Point']. A
recently discovered rich Bronze Age site in
Diyala. A tributary of the Tigris River, east of southern Vietnam, near Xuan-loc, north of
Baghdad in Iraq. In the 1930s important Ho Chi Minh City (former Saigon). Many
excavations were carried out in this area by the finds typical of the so-called DONG-SON
University of Chicago on four sites: Tell culture have been made here including
Asmar (ESHNUNNA), Tell AQRAB, KHAFAJE Chinese-style ko-axes; the presence of these
and Ischali. This allowed the establishment of so far south on the Indochinese Peninsula is an
a pottery sequence for this part of Mesopo- enigma.
146 dog

dog. All domestic dogs appear ultimately to found buried in pits, in extended or flexed
have been derived from the wolf. Today's dogs position. The presence of iron nails suggests
are the product of very intensive artificial the use of wooden coffins in some cases, while
selection and show exceptional variation in in others a stone was placed at each side of the
size and shape. Selection for particular forms head and feet of the body. In a few instances
has been so intense that in many breeds of dog the walls and the top of the pit were covered
it has led to physical deformity. Snouts, in with stone slabs. Burial jars were not used.
some breeds, have become so excessively Apart from personal ornaments of glass, stone
shortened as to cause dental and respiratory and shell, the burials were sparsely furnished,
problems. In some of the extreme variation in unlike the Middle Yayoi burials, such as SUGU,
size, there seems to be a link with congenital in Kyushu.
deformities such as achondroplasia and
acromegaly. dolichocephalic. Long-headed, that is, having
By contrast with the enormous variation of a CEPHALIC INDEX greater than 75.
today, the early domestic dogs are difficult to
distinguish from wolves. In general, dogs are dolmen. A term once used to describe any
smaller than wolves, have shortened snouts MEGALITHIC CHAMBER TOMB. Today it is used
and jaws, and crowded teeth which are by French archaeologists to describe a mega-
themselves decreased in size. There is, lithic tomb of simple form, whereas in England
however, considerable variation in wolf its use is retained only in the specialized term
populations - European wolves being larger PORTAL DOLMEN. In other areas of the world
than Asian and Indian wolves - and there is the term is still used in the general sense.
overlap between dog and wolf in many char-
acteristics. A number of PALAEOLITHIC, Dolni Vestonice. Perhaps the most important
MESOLITHIC and NEOLITHIC sites have of the central European mammoth-hunters
yielded skeletal remains which may be of dog camps of the Upper PALAEOLITHIC. Like
or wolf. At many of these, it is not possible to PAVLOV, it is situated on the loess plains of
determine the extent of domestication. There southern Moravia. The main occupation level
must have been considerable interchange of dates from the end of an INTERSTADIAL period
genes between the animals kept by man and when climate was less intensively cold, about
those of the wild population. But at several of 26000 be on the radiocarbon time-scale,
the sites, the skeletal material is sufficiently although the thermoluminescence dates come
different to allow it to be distinguished as dog. out higher. The culture has been called
The earliest such site is the Upper Palaeolithic Pavlovian or eastern GRA VETTIAN. A series of
cave of PALEGA WRA in Iraq, with a date of human remains has been found, including a
clO,OOO be. Other early sites are STAR CARR, female burial under a mammoth scapula.
England (c7500 be) and CAYOND, Turkey Several huts were excavated, and one seems to
( c7000 be). The dog is thus among the earliest have had an oven inside, where clay figurines
of domestic animals, and is found in hunter- were fired. One of these is the famous venus of
gatherer communities as well as early farming Dolni Vestonice (see VENUS FIGURINES).
communities.
Domburg. The 7th-9th century trading settle-
Doian. A stone industry found exclusively in ment of Domburg was situated upon the sand
the southern and eastern areas of Somalia and, dunes of the island ofWalcheren, north ofthe
perhaps, in the adjacent northeastern part of Scheidt estuary in the Netherlands. Nothing
Kenya. Doian assemblages contain backed now remains of the settlement, but plans of the
microliths and flake scrapers with both site made in the 19th century and the rich
unifacial and bifacial points. The industry has unstratified collection of pottery, metalwork,
not been subjected to recent research and no worked bone and English SCEATTAS suggest
radiocarbon dates are available. A post- that it once flourished as an important trading
Pleistocene age is, however, probable. site.

Doigahama. A YAYOI cemetery in Yama- Domesday Book. A survey of land ownership


guchi prefecture, Japan. The remains of at in England after the Norman Conquest. The
least 200 men and women of various ages were ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE relates how at a
Dong-son 147

council held in Gloucester at Christmas 1085 See, for example, CATILE, DOG, DONKEY,
it was decided to make a record of the number GOAT, HORSE, PIG, SHEEP; BARLEY, BEAN,
of hides in land existing in each English shire MILLET, MAIZE, OATS, RICE, RYE, WHEAT.
and to establish the amount and value of
acreage and livestock possessed by individual domus de janas. Sardinian name for the type
landowners. The idea behind this was to ofrock-cut tomb found in the island during the
untangle the complexities of tenure in post- Copper Age and Bronze Age. The term means
Conquest England, and lay down the terms for 'house of the fairies' and describes often
a new rating system which would protect and complex, multi-chambered tombs. See also
enlarge the king's revenue. The resulting ANGHELU RUJU.
document - a two-volume survey of land
ownership arranged under tenurial rather than
Dong-dan. The second Bronze Age phase of
territorial headings -is the great testament of
North VIETNAM (bronze moyen), dated to the
feudal England. Domesday Book is of funda- second half of the 2nd millennium BC. Bronzes
mental importance to both historians and contain about 20 per cent tin, and forms and
archaeologists of the Late Saxon and early casting methods are ancestral to those of the
Norman periods, as it gives the names and classic DONG-SON (bronze final) phase. The
sizes of villages, farms, manors, churches and Dong-dau phase is also classified as a late
other properties that existed at the time as well
phase of the PHUNG-NGUYEN culture.
as certain sales and transactions. It has some
limitations, not only because there are a
number of omissions and errors but because Dong-duong. Important archaeological site in
the country as a whole is viewed as a collection the AMARA VATi region of northern CHAMPA,
of manors, sokes and berewicks. As a result it now central Vietnam. The main building is a
is sometimes difficult to gain from its pages a big monastery built in brick and dedicated to
completely clear impression of village struc- Lokesvara by king Indravarman II in 875. This
tures or population density. Domesday lists is the first evidence of the existence of
13,000 pre-existing units or vills and even by Mahayana Buddhism in Champa; it is also
the time of its compilation the rapid spread of recognized as a particular style in Cham art. A
manorialization and deliberate afforestation bronze Buddha figure of the Amariivati-style
were evident. (2nd-4th century) has been found on the site.
See also BUDDHISM.
domestication. The process by which wild
plants and animals have been adapted to man's Dong-son. The classic Bronze Age of North
needs and methods of husbandry. The division VIETNAM (bronze final), dated c500 be to ad
between domestic and wild is not clear-cut. 100 and preceded by the Go BoNG ( c2000-
Many domestic plants and animals differ 1500bc), DONG-DAU ( cl500-100bc) and Go
markedly from their wild relatives, others are MUN ( cl000-500 be) phases of the Viet-
very similar; several have no living wild rela- namese Bronze Age. The Dong-son culture
tive at all. Some plants and animals are not thus overlaps the Chinese conquest of
'farmed' by man in the sense of deliberately northern Vietnam in 111 BC. Characteristic
being bred or cultivated, but are still very are large incised bronze drums, rich burial
closely associated with man. To add to the assemblages (in lacquered wood coffins at
confusion, many of today's 'wild' stocks may, Viet-khe) and evidence for developing
in fact, be feral. urbanism (defensive earthworks at 0)-LOA)
Domestication involves a process of selec- based on wet rice cultivation. Dong-son drums
tion. It may be seen as part of evolution. of presumed Vietnamese manufacture were
Selection for particular features of shape, size traded through vast areas of south China and
and behaviour causes domestic animals and Southeast Asia to as far as New Guinea, and
plants to diverge from their wild progenitor. the Dong-son bronze-working tradition was
Selection of this kind also leads to the estab- by far the richest and most advanced ever to
lishment of varieties and breeds. The enor- develop in Southeast Asia. Most Vietnamese
mous range of breeds in animals such as the assemblages contain iron, although the culture
dog is probably due to selection for congenital is termed bronze final by Vietnamese archae-
deformities. ologists.
148 donkey

donkey. A domesticated Ass. slab-like abacus. Over the columns were


placed directly the linking beams (architrave),
Dorestad. An early medieval trading site and over these, a frieze of alternating triglyph
advantageously situated on the confluence of ('triple groove') and metope ('brow') - a
the Rivers Lek and Rhine in central Holland. pattern generally believed to originate from a
Although it was first recognized in the 19th decorative treatment of beam-ends and
century it was not until the 1960s that spaces.
excavations established the true extent and
importance of this 7th-9th-century emporium rDorin. The megalithic ALIGNMENTS at rDo-
which conducted trade with the Viking and riii, c50 km south of the sPail-grmi-mts'o-sha
Anglo-Saxon worlds. salt lake in Tibet were discovered by J.N.
The recent extensive excavations have Roerich in the 1920s. There were 18 parallel
shown that the medieval settlement of Wijk bij rows of upright stone slabs, aligned east-west.
Duurstede lies close to a possible Roman At the west end were two concentric semi-
LIMES fort, and that the emporium probably circles of slabs, within which were three large
covered an area of more than 50 hectares. The standing stones, the central one c2.75 metres
shifting river-bank was flanked by timber high, with a stone table or lha-t'o in front of
walkways and jetties constructed on piles them. This standing stone showed traces of
which seem to have been individually owned butter libations and was said to be the home of
by the occupants of nearby rectangular a local god. At the east end there was a huge
structures. In contrast, the central area of the arrow-shaped figure marked out with large
settlement was occupied by a series of FRIS- slabs, pointing west. Roerich does not, un-
IAN-type farm units comprising a LONG HOUSE fortunately, record any overall measurements.
often accompanied by wells and granaries set Very similar sites were also found at RAn (in
within fenced enclosures. One of Dorestad's Nag-tshan), at Lap-c'un and at Tsuk-c'uii.
two cemeteries was fenced off in the centre of
the farms and this incorporated an interesting Dorpfeld, Wilhelm (1853-1940). German
timber structure and possible bell-tower. The archaeologist who excavated many important
modem excavations have produced enormous sites in the Greek world, both prehistoric and
quantities of occupation debris including large classical. He worked under Ernst Curtius on
amounts of imported Rhenish and local pot- the excavations by the German Archae-
tery, wine casks from the Mainz area (which ological Institute at OLYMPIA in the late 1870s
were often re-used as wells), Niedermendig and then assisted SCHLIEMANN on his third
lava QUERNS, and stone mortars made in east- and fourth seasons at TROY in 1882-3 and
em Belgium. The Rhenish glassware and the 1889-90, bringing to this work the careful
great variety of metalwork and coin assem- digging and recording techniques worked out
blages from Dorestad are also of singular at Olympia. After Schliemann's death he
importance, while the faunal assemblages continued work at Troy in 1893-4. He later
include substantial numbers of fresh- and sea- lived and worked on the Ionian island of
water fishes. There is also evidence of indus- Levkas, off the west coast of Greece which,
trial activities like weaving, ship-building, contrary to most other authorities, he believed
bone and metal-working. Dorestad is the best- to be Homer's Ithaka; he excavated many sites
excavated and finest example of a CAROLIN- on the island.
GIAN emporium and illustrates the scale of
commerce between the imperial estates in the Dorset tradition. An eastern Arctic tradition
Rhineland and other North Sea communities. whose stone-working technology is clearly
related to the ARCTIC SMALL TOOL TRADI-
Doric. (1) One of the principal regional TION. Its core area was centred on the North
dialects of ancient Greece, traditionally Foxe Basin in northern Canada, but ultimately
named after the tribe of the Dorians. its influence spread as far as Greenland.
(2) In classical architecture, the 'Doric Whether the culture originated in Alaska or
order', a plain, early Classical, Greek style from a point somewhere south is still un-
characterized by a simple, often rather stubby certain. The earliest manifestation, known as
COLUMN, fluted but without base, with a CAPI- pre-Dorset (in some areas as Sarqaq) is
TAL with shallow bowl-shaped echinus and represented at sites on Baffin Island and dates
Druids 149

from c2400 be. A slow and steady transition Dralang. A MEGALITHIC site at Dralang in
marked the passage from pre-Dorset to southwestern Tibet, discovered by
Dorset, and by 700 be the latter is distinctly A.H.Francke between 1900 and 1910. It
different from the former. By clOOO ad Dorset consisted of a cleared space with a stake in the
had almost universally been replaced by centre, flanked on two sides by lha-t'o,
THULE. arrangements of two stones supporting a third
flat slab to form a small table-like structure.
Dos Aguas. A rock shelter with paintings of Within the space were three large standing
the SPANISH LEVANTINE (Mesolithic) type stones or rdo-riti, the middle one bearing an
situated in Valencia province, southeast inscription Om a huti, which is probably much
Spain. later than the monument's construction and
use. Pits not far away were supposedly for
dotaku. See BELLS (JAPAN). infant sacrifices. According to inhabitants of
the area, the site had formerly been used for an
don (tou]. See RITUAL VESSELS (CHINA). annual Shar-rgan festival at which dances
were performed in the cleared space and
Douar Doom. A site outside Rabat in human sacrifices were offered to the goddess
Morocco which has revealed some of the Tara.
earliest stone tools in Africa. The tools are in
rough stone and include a variety of pebble drift. The name given to all unconsolidated
tools, but no hand axes. They are typical of the sediments which lie on the top of the 'solid'
OLDOW AN or pebble culture of Africa, and are geology. This term originates from the belief
contemporary with the Moulouyan dunes of that such deposits were transported across the
about 2 million years old or more. Earlier waters of the Catastrophists' 'Flood', frozen
levels are devoid of stone tools, but tools are into drifting icebergs. The Catastrophist view
associated with later beaches at around 100 of geology held that the observable changes in
metres above modern sea-level. the earth's surface had come about as a result
of a series of natural catastrophes, of which
double axe. A shaft-hole tool with symmetri- Noah's FLooo was the latest. (Seea/soCUiv-
cal double axe blades. It can be made of stone IER and LYELL). The term 'drift' remains in
or copper or bronze. In MINOAN Crete it was common usage and includes alluvium, PRO-
an important cult symbol, as well as a practical GLACIAL deposits, TILL and ice-contact strati-
tool. fied drift (forming against the edge of
ICE-SHEETS and GLACIERS).
Douglass, A.E. (1867-1962). American
astronomer who developed the DENDRO dromos. [Greek: 'course', 'avenue']. A cere-
CHRONOLOGY dating method. He outlined the monial corridor or avenue, often fairly long,
method as early as 1901, but it was not until and sometimes on a descending ramp, that
1929 that he was able to publish an unbroken leads to the entrance of certain types of 'room-
sequence of tree-rings for the Southwest USA like' tomb; see CHAMBER TOMB, THO LOS.
extending back from the present day to the
early years of the present era. This provided a Druids. A powerful Celtic priesthood,
dating method for the PuEBLO villages of that evidence for which we derive mostly from late
area. Roman Replublican and Imperial literary
sources. Since they provided a focus of opposi-
Don Wan [Tou Wan]. SeeMANCHENG. tion to Roman expansionist aims, Druids tend
to be viewed with hostility by Latin authors,
dowsing. A practice similar to water divining. and are credited with various barbarisms, such
There have been a number of claims for the as the practice of human sacrifice. Led by an
detection of archaeological sites by dowsing, arch-Druid, their tribal responsibilities seem
but until the explanation of such phenomena is to have included functions that were social
established it is difficult to assess the applica- (e.g. calling the annual assembly), juridical
tion of dowsing to archaeology. (e.g. holding court and issuing sentences) and
scholarlyI archivist (e.g. the maintenance and
Drachmani.See ELATEIA. transmission of knowledge in subjects such as
150 drums (China)

physics, astronomy and theology). Archae- remained one of the foremost sea ports in the
ological evidence with direct named connec- British Isles. Excavations have been continu-
tion is lean, but Druids are, for instance, ing for over a decade in many parts of the town.
thought to be associated with a hoard of Remarkable waterlogged conditions have
bronze and iron at Llyn Cerrig Bach in preserved organic material from levels dating
Anglesey. Supposed association with the stone to between the 9th and 14th centuries. The
circles of Stonehenge and A vebury should be footings of wattle-and-daub and timber-
consigned where they belong - to the world of framed buildings have been recovered, with
popular myth. door posts, screens and hearths, as well as
timber streets. There is also abundant evid-
drums (China). Traces of a wooden drum ence of the crafts and industries practised in
were found in a SHANG tomb at ANY ANG, and the Hiberno-Scandinavian and Anglo-
drums are mentioned in a poem of the Shi jing Norman periods; these include wood-
anthology, which purports to be Western working, metal-working, hooping, comb-
ZHOU. Only two bronze drums as early as the making, leather-working and cobbling.
Shang period are known, however, and they Associated with these crafts were numerous
do not belong to the metropolitan Shang items such as shoes, wooden bowls, soapstone
culture of Anyang but instead to a provincial bowls, and ornate objects like bone trial pieces
Shang culture of the Yangzi region (see decorated in URNES and RINGERIKE STYLE, a
NINGXIANG). Leaving aside these few highly ornate Borre style disc brooch with pin,
examples from the late 2nd millennium BC, the and an incised drawing of a ship on a piece of
earliest Chinese drums come from the Eastern wood dating to the 11th century.
Zhou period: wooden drums supported on
lacquer stands are regular furnishings in CHU Dudeti. Type site of a Middle Neolithic
tombs of the 6th century BC and later (see culture distributed in Oltenia and Muntenia,
XIANYANG, SUI XIAN). These Chu drums are Rumania, in the late 5th millennium be.
found in the same region of central China as Dudeti sites are typically single period, short-
the provincial Shang examples and they are lived occupations, defined by storage pits and
loosely comparable in type (barrel-shaped and post-holes. Most sites are limited to the first
supported with the drum heads to the side). terraces of major Wallachian river-valleys.
Drums of the same variety may have been The largely undecorated pottery is a derivative
known as far south as Guangxi province, for a of the dark burnished ware tradition of the
drum on a stand similar to the one from the Sui south Balkans.
Xian tomb is depicted in the decoration of a
locally cast early Eastern Zhou bronze vessel
found in the Gongcheng district of Guangxi. Duff, Sir Roger (1912-78). Leading New
This is an isolated find, however, and Guangxi Zealand archaeologist, best known for his
lies in the sphere of a very different and far excavations at the site of WAIRAU BAR, his
more common bronze drum, the defining classification of Polynesian and Southeast
artefact ofthe DIAN and DONG-SON cultures of Asian stone adzes, and his fundamental work
Yunnan, Guangxi, and Vietnam. These drums The Moa-hunter Period ofMaori Culture, first
from the southwest, which stand with the published in 1950.
single drum head horizontal, have no obvious
connection with the much rarer drums of dui [ tw). See RITUAL VESSELS (CHINA).
central China. Their profile, which bulges just
beneath the drum head, seems to relate them dun. Term used for stone-built fortified settle-
instead to the chunyu, an eccentric form of ments found in western and northern Scot-
bronze bell common just to the north in land. Most are quite small, representing an
Sichuan province; see BELLS (CHINA). individual homestead, but the term is some-
times applied to larger settlements defended
Dublin. The city of Dublin, the modern capital with stone walls. Many duns were built in the
of Eire, was founded by Norse settlers in the later Iron Age, but they continued to be built in
9th century. Its position near the Liffey estuary the post-Roman period. Characteristic
provides a sheltered and defensible harbour, features are very thick stone walls with internal
and througout much of the Middle Ages it rooms and galleries.
Dviiravati 151

Dunadd. A site in Argyllshire, Scotland, walled up in a cave around 1035 and redis-
which was a nuclear fort of the Kingdom of covered only in 1900 contained thousands of
DALRIADA, besieged by the PICTS in 683 and manuscripts written in Chinese and various
736. Unfortunately, excavations carried out at Central Asian scripts, some with dates ranging
the beginning of the present century ruined from 406 to 996. Manuscripts and paintings
much of the internal plan, but the more recent on silk and paper from the Dunhuang library
investigations succeeded in establishing that were obtained by Aurel STEIN for the British
the main citadel measured c30 by 12 metres Museum and Paul Pelliot for the Bibliotheque
and that it was connected to a middle court- Nationale; others are now in Beijing and
yard by a stone wall. At the bottom of the slope Japan. Among the material in the British
was a lower enclosure with the remains of later Museum is the oldest extant printed book in
houses inside it. The most important finds the world, a Chinese translation of the
from Dunadd are several carved stones and Diamond Sutra, a Buddhist text, dated 868.
imported Mediterranean pottery.
Dura Europus. A TELL site on the middle
Dundo. A town of northeastern Angola, the Euphrates River in Syria, which was an
centre of extensive mines where alluvial important PARTHIAN city, serving as a centre
deposits of the northwards-flowing Congo for trade, where merchants from areas as far
tributaries are worked for diamonds. The apart as Palestine and Mesopotamia met. The
nature of the deposits and the circumstances of site was occupied from its foundation by the
the recovery of the prehistoric artefacts which SELEUCIDS in the late 4th century BC, until its
they contain have ensured that little archae- destruction by SASSANIANS in AD 256. The
ological material has been discovered in walled city was laid out on a grid plan and
undisturbed contexts. It has nevertheless excavations have revealed many sanctuaries
proved possible to establish a sequence of and temples dedicated to the manifold deities
stone industries, for part of which radiocarbon of the mixed population that lived there,
dates are available. Sparse ACHEULIAN including Christians and Jews as well as others.
occupation of the area was succeeded by Architectural styles, burials, frescoes and
SANGOAN and then by LUPEMBAN industries, reliefs all demonstrate a wide range of cultural
the last being dated at Mufo near Dundo to and artistic influences.
before 30,000 be. The Lupemban continued,
with reduced artefact size, until c13,000 be. Durrington Walls. A very large HENGE
Throughout this period it seems likely that the monument in southern England, belonging to
local climate was not significantly different the Late Neolithic period and dated to the later
from that of the present. From cl2,000 be 3rd millennium BC. The monument has a
TSHITOLIAN industries developed and appear diameter of nearly 500 metres and encloses an
to have continued in vogue until after the area of clO hectares. Inside, the excavators
introduction of iron-working technology found remains of two large circular timber
around the beginning of the Christian era. structures, each of which had evidence for
several different phases of construction. The
Dunhuang [Tun-huang]. A Chinese frontier pottery associated with the henge monument
outpost at the western end of the Gansu was GROOVED WARE and BEAKER wares, but
Corridor where the SILK ROUTE branches there was also an earlier occupation, pre-
before crossing Central Asia. Dunhuang was dating the construction of the henge, which
established as a HAN military commandery in yielded pottery of WINDMILL HILL type.
111 BC and many documents and manuscripts
dating from the Han dynasty have been found Duyong Cave. See T ABON CAVES.
there. It was a flourishing Buddhist centre
from the 4th to the 13th century AD, when the Dvaravati. A Buddhist kingdom in present-
Silk Route was the main path taken by day Thailand, first mentioned in Chinese
Buddhist missionaries and pilgrims between sources as T'o-lo-po-ti in the middle ofthe 7th
China and Central Asia and India. To this long century; it is believed that the kingdom came
period belongs a complex of nearly 500 into being as a result of the dismemberment of
Buddhist cave temples with well-preserved the far-flung empire of FuNAN. Its centre was
paintings and sculptures. A Buddhist library probably in the Suphanburi area of south-
152 dyke

western central Thailand, but its territory must figurehead of the official religion, the person-
have comprised almost all present Thailand. ification of the sun god Ra, counterpart of
The population ofthe kingdom seems to have Osiris, the god of the land of the dead.
been predominantly MON. Apart from Preparation for life after death was of very
architectural remains, the art of Dvaravati great importance to the ancient Egyptians, as
consists mainly of a Buddhist statuary in is shown by the complex and costly efforts
bronze or stone. The kingdom came to an end made to protect the bodies of the dead by
when the KHMERS under king Suryavarman I mummification and secure entombment. It is
(1002-50) expanded into the Menam basin thus hardly surprising, but nevertheless un-
and incorporated the area in the empire of fortunate, that archaeological research has for
ANGKOR. See a/so LAVO. many years tended to concentrate on the
tombs of the dead rather than on the settle-
dyke. A linear earthwork, consisting of a bank ments of the living. The royal tombs in part-
and ditch, running across country. They may icular reflect the great wealth and concen-
be defensive structures or territorial bound- tration of resources, both human and material,
aries. See OFFA"S DYKE. at the pharaoh's disposal,whether at the Old
Kingdom pyramids at GIZA or in the under-
Dynastic Egypt. The history of ancient Egypt ground chambers of the Valley of the Kings at
is traditionally tied to a framework of 30 THEBES.
dynasties of kings, or pharaohs, who ruled In evaluating the technological achieve-
over the country from the time of its unifica- ments of the ancient Egyptians it is necessary
tion into a single kingdom in about 3100 BC to remember the limitations under which they
until its conquest by ALEXANDER THE GREAT worked. The wheel was unknown before the
in 332 BC. This scheme, summarized below, is New Kingdom; the pyramids, for example,
based upon the records of the historian were built of stone blocks weighing over 2.5
Manetho who wrote in Greek during the 3rd tonnes which were presumably moved and
century BC. erected with the aid of levers and rollers.
The great wealth of ancient Egypt was Copper, bronze and gold were effectively the
based primarily upon the annual Nile flood only metals used, for iron did not come into
which deposited fertile silts of high agricultural regular use before the 26th Dynasty in the 8th
productivity: thus crop yields were sufficient century BC.
to support a substantial population concen- Much of our information about ancient
trated in the narrow Nile Valley. Secondly, Egyptian history comes from the records that
control was exercised over valuable natural were carefully maintained by the Egyptians
resources, and these were supplemented by themselves, notably by the priests who were
extensive foreign trade. regarded as the guardians of the state's
The pharaohs of the 1st Dynasty are fre- accumulated wisdom. Scenes of everyday life,
quently depicted as conquerors, and it appears at least for the upper classes of society, were
that unification of the kingdom was brought often depicted on the walls of tombs. The
about by means of conflict. These political political history, largely derived from written
developments were accompanied by major sources, has a detailed and, for the most part,
growths in craftsmanship, industry and trade precise chronology.
in raw materials. It has been claimed that these After the Early Dynastic period, during
developments owed much to contact with which the unification of the Egyptian state was
Mesopotamia, and certainly some innovations consolidated, the accession of the 3rd Dynasty
may have been so derived, although there is no in about 2700 BC marks the start of the first
reason to suggest that the Egyptian state- major period of prosperity, the Old Kingdom.
system itself was of foreign inspiration. Through patronage and the control of trade,
The Egyptian state was headed by the power and wealth were effectively concen-
divine ruler, the pharaoh, to whom the whole trated in the hands of the ruling dynasty. This is
of its complex bureaucracy was ultimately reflected most clearly in the scale at which
resposible. In the earlier periods, the resources and manpower were devoted to
pharaoh's position was strengthened by the state works, notably to the construction of
appointment of members of the royal family as pyramids for the burial of deceased pharaohs.
senior officials. The pharaoh was also the By later Old Kingdom times the pharaoh's
Dynastic Egypt 153

Table 1. Dynastic Egypt


Period Dynasty Date BC

Early Dynastic I c3100-2890


II c2890-2686
Old Kingdom III c2686-2613
IV c2613-2494
v c2494-2345
VI c2345-2181

First Intermediate VII-XI c2181-1991

Middle Kingdom XII 1991-1786


XIII 1786-1633

Second Intermediate XIV-XVII 1633-1567

New Kingdom XVIII 157-1320


XIX 1320-1200
XX 1200-1085

Late Dynastic XXI 1085-945


XXII-XXIII 945-730
XXIV-XXV 730-668
XXVI-XXXI 664-332

control over the state bureaucracy seems to quency of trade-goods of Palestinian origin,
have weakened, and the proportion of the particularly in the Nile Delta, indicates greater
state's resources devoted to royal works was contact with southwest Asia during the period
consequently diminished. This process may be of Hyksos rule.
seen reflected in the smaller size of the 5th Eventually, a dynasty (the 17th) from
Dynasty pyramids after those of the 4th Thebes achieved the expulsion of the Hyksos
Dynasty. Shortly after 2000 BC, following a rulers and the re-establishment of Egyptian
period of contraction from the peak of Old unity and independence. From this base
Kingdom prosperity and wide-ranging trade, developed the greatest florescence of ancient
Egyptian political unity broke down for some Egyptian power and prosperity in the New
200 years during the First Intermediate Kingdom. Egyptian control was established
period. Famine may have added to the general over Nubia and substantial areas of the Near
impoverishment of this time. Reunification East, all governed by a complex imperial
under the 11th Dynasty heralded the Middle bureaucracy set up by the pharaoh Tuthmosis
Kingdom, based at a new capital at Thebes. III. Egyptian trade ranged far and wide, even
The new-found stability was short-lived, to the Land of Punt in eastern Africa. During
however, and during the 13th and 14th the 18th Dynasty occurred the remarkable
Dynasties there was a rapid succession of reign of the pharaoh AKHENATEN who, from
pharaohs as different factions competed for his new but short-lived capital at EL-
supremacy. Early in the resultant Second AMARNA, attempted to impose monotheism
Intermediate period a group of invaders from in place of the traditional religion.
Palestine, the so-called HYKSOS rulers, took Akhenaten's successor was the young TuTAN-
advantage of Egypt's weakness and estab- KHAMUN, the only pharaoh whose grave, near
lished themselves in Lower Egypt as the 15th Thebes, has survived virtually undisturbed and
Dynasty in about 1670 sc. Increased fre- unrobbed to reveal the full richness and splen-
154 dyss

dour which surrounded the New Kingdom Dysser are associated with an early phase of
rulers. the TRB CULTURE.
From the 21st Dynasty onwards, Egypt's
cohesion once again broke down, and from the
11th to the 7th centuries BC Libyan, Asian and Dzibilchaltun. A MAY A site of long occupa-
Nubian contenders vied with Egyptians for tion located close to the ocean in the north-
control of the state. The 25th Dynasty origin- eastern corner of the Yucatan Peninsula in
ated in Nubia and finally lost control of Egypt Mexico. Its earliest occupation is denoted by
to an invasion from Assyria, after which MAMON ceramics and CHICANEL structures,
ancient Egypt never regained its independ- although there are no corbelled arches. The
ence. site centres around the CENOTE Xlacah, with
major plazas and associated civic architecture
dyss [plural: dysser]. Danish name for the nearby; numerous causeways ( sacbe)
earliest type of megalithic CHAMBER TOMB converge in the middle of the site. Although
found in Scandinavia. Dysser are simple the main structures, dating to the Puuc period,
rectangular chambers containing one to six are unprepossessing, archaeological remains
bodies; one or more such chambers may be cover an area larger than 46 square kilometres,
found under the characteristic rectangular indicating a population of 10-20,000- a huge
mounds, surrounded by a kerb of stones. population for the time.
E
Early Dynastic Period(Mesopotamia). Term harpoons occur in an aceramic context dated
describing the earliest historical period in to c6300 be.
Mesopotamia, dated 2900-2370 BC on the
middle chronology, 3100-2450 BC on the high Early Man Shelter. An Australian rock shelter
chronology (see Table 3, page 321). The term at Laura, Cape York, containing paintings and
is derived from the Sumerian 'king list' which engravings of humans, animals, tracks and
implies that Sumer was ruled by kings at this abstract motifs. Charcoal from occupation
stage, although archaeological evidence for deposits covering wall engravings yielded
the existence of kingship is meagre before the radiocarbon dates between 10,000 and
middle of the period. Traditionally the period 13,000 be, which are the earliest for rock art in
is divided by archaeologists into three - ED I, Australia, other than the engravings at KooN-
II and III - each of approximately 200 years ALDA Cave, dated to c18,000 be. The shelter
duration. The Royal Tombs of UR belong the also contained the oldest known remains of
the ED III period. The Early Dynastic phase Sarcophilus harrisii (Tasmanian devil) in
shows clear continuity from the preceding tropical Australia: it is now found only in
JEMDET NASR, and represents a period of Tasmania.
rapid political, cultural and artistic develop-
ment which saw the establishment of inde- Early Nomad Period. See ALTAI.
pendent states governed - ultimately at least
- by kings. Within this period the picto- Early Shang. See ERLIGANG PHASE.
graphic writing of the earlier period developed
into the standardized CUNEIFORM script. earth. A rather general term, best used to
describe mixed material which is cast up from
Early Horizon. One of a seven-period chron- an excavation. Earth is not really the same as
ological construction used in Peruvian SOIL, which has a more precise definition,
archaeology. It runs from 900 to 200 BC and although earth may include material from soils
coincides with the duration of the CHAVIN in addition to material from other sources.
style and its derivatives, such as CuPISNIQUE.
See Table 9, page 552. earthworms. One of the main agents by which
plant litter, HUMUS and minerals are incorp-
Early Khartoum. A site within the area of the orated and mixed in SOIL. Earthworms are
modem Khartoum conurbation which pro- responsible for the maintenance and stability
vided the first clear picture of the so-called of various types of soil, especially the BROWN
'AQUATIC CIVILIZATION'. The site was FOREST SOILS. The character of a soil may
evidently a substantial base-camp, and traces change markedly if the plant litter produced by
of sun-dried daub suggest the presence of the vegetation changes to a kind which is
structures which would have been occupied on unpalatable to earthworms (see PODZOL ). The
more than a temporary basis. Fishing by means effects of earthworm sorting may be seen on
of bone-headed harpoons, in a Nile flowing at archaeological sites in the blurring of LAYERS
a higher level than the present, formed the and the development of worm-sorted layers in
economic basis of the settlement. Nets were the top of BURIED SOILS, where a line of stones
probably also used. Other artefacts include marks the lower limit of worm activity.
chipped and ground stone, and pottery with
'wavy-line' decoration. No radiocarbon dates Easter Island. 4000 km from South America
are available for this settlement, but an age and 2000 km from the closest inhabited islands
in the 6th or 5th millennium be seems prob- of POLYNESIA, Easter Island was settled by
able: at Tagra, 200 km to the south, similar Polynesians by about AD 400. The MEGA-
155
156 Eastern Zhou [Chou] period

LITHIC stone platforms and statues were languages, SUMERIAN and the local language,
constructed between 700 and 1700, after a Semitic tongue now labelled Eblaite. Work is
which the culture and population declined, still continuing on the tablets, but they have
virtually to die out after European contact. already revealed a wealth of information about
Only occasional contacts occurred with South the economy, political organization and
America (see SWEET POTATO, VINAPU). The religion of Ebla. The city was clearly an
islanders erected stone statues weighing up to important commercial centre, exporting
100 tonnes and also carved on wooden boards woollen cloth, wood and furniture to areas as
in an undeciphered script (RONGORONGO ). far flung as AssuR in Mesopotamia and
Easter Island culture represents perhaps the KANESH in Anatolia. The settlement of this
most bizarre cultural development ever to period was destroyed, probably by the
occur in an isolated human community, and its AKKADIAN ruler Naram-Sin, but the city was
decline may have been purely internal rebuilt and a great palace complex and some
(through overpopulation or warfare for wealthy burials of the early 2nd millennium BC
example). See also ORONGO, PuRAPAU, have been excavated. The Ebla texts include
RANO RARAKU. many Semitic names which recall those of the
Old Testament, but extravagant claims of a
Eastern Zhou [Chou] period. The latter part cult of Yahweh at Ebla and oftexts mentioning
of the Zhou dynasty, from 770 BC to the the biblical patriarchs, the cities of Sodom and
extinction of the Zhou royal house in 256 BC Gomorrah, and the Flood story are without
(or, more loosely, to the founding of the OIN foundation.
dynasty in 221 BC). See ZHOU.
Eburran. A recently proposed name for an
East Rudolf. See TuRKANA. idiosyncratic obsidian industry of the central
Rift Valley, Kenya, previously known as the
East Spanish rock art. See SPANISH LEVANT 'Kenya Capsian' and before that as the 'Kenya
ART. Aurignacian'. Both these former names
implied a connection with distant industries
Ebbsfteet. A small valley close to SwANS- which is not upheld by recent research. The
COMBE and BAKERS HOLE in southern distribution of the Eburran is restricted to a
England with an important series of loams and small area around Lake Nakuru, and its time-
gravels later than the Swanscombe high- span to between the 11th and the 8th millennia
terrace deposits, spanning the last two glacial be. The assemblages, as recovered from
periods and intervening interglacial. Stone GAMBLE"S CAVE and NDERIT DRIFT, com-
tools included LEV ALLOIS flakes, but only a prise large backed blades, crescentic micro-
few hand axes and other tool types were found liths, burins and end-scrapers.
in the various levels. Both warm- and cold-
indicating animal fossils were found at ecology. The relationship of plants and
different levels. animals with their environment. The environ-
The area has also given its name to a ment in this sense consists not only of climate,
decorated pottery style of the Neolithic but also geology, soils, vegetation, other
period. animals, man-made structures- anything that
impinges on the organism being studied.
Ebla, Eblaite. Ancient city excavated at the ENVIRONMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY is con-
site of Tell Mardikh on the River Orontes in cerned not only with the ecology of man
Syria. Recent excavations have yielded himself, but also with the ecology of other
evidence of the previously unknown language animals and plants living in the same environ-
and history of a powerful state of the 3rd ment.
millennium BC. Although the site was
occupied from the 4th millennium BC on- Eden. See ConY.
wards, the period of its greatest wealth and
power was in the mid-3rd millennium; a large edge-ground axes (Australian). See OEN-
royal palace of this period has yielded an PELLI SHELTERS.
archive of more than 15,000 CLAY TABLETS
inscribed in the CUNEIFORM script in two Edo. See MIRRORS (JAPAN).
Elam, Elamite 157

Eemian. A group of QUARTERNARY INTER- include cereals, lentils, beans and flax, pre-
GLACIAL deposits in northern Europe (see sumably all cultivated, and also wild straw-
Table 5, page 418). They are found right berries and chestnuts; animal remains include
across Europe from the Netherlands to the both domesticated and wild animals, duck,
USSR, containing FOSSILS that indicate warm and salmon, perch and carp from the lake. The
conditions. Their exact age is unknown, but site also produced evidence about the nature
they are older than the extreme range of of farming at this time: a building near the
RADIOCARBON dating ( c70,000 bp) and can be village entrance contained layers of vegetable
shown by PALAEOMAGNETISM to be younger matter and many pupae of the common
than 700,000 BP. They are directly overlain by housefly. It is suggested that this building
WEICHSELIAN glacial deposits. In the Nether- served as a stall for cattle during the winter and
lands and north Germany, SEA LEVEL rise that flies laid their eggs in the accumulated
caused the deposition of Eemian marine dung. Stacks ofleaves, mistletoe twigs and hay
sediments. Recent evidence from a borehole probably represent collected winter fodder for
in northern Germany has shown that there are, the cattle.
in fact, two sets of marine deposits - one
stratified underneath WARTHE glacial Egtved. An Early Bronze Age burial in east
deposits and the other stratified above the Jutland, Denmark. A round BARROW covered
Warthe deposits. Thus the Eemian appears to the remains of a young woman in an oak coffin.
represent at least two interglacial stages. The acid soil had destroyed all bones but, as in
Further recent evidence suggests that there other oak coffin burials of this kind, remains
may even be three. Despite this, the term such as skin and hair, as well as clothing,
'Eemian' is still frequently used to mean the survived. She was wearing a woollen jacket
'last' interglacial only. LEVALLOISIAN and and skirt and was covered by an ox-hide
MOUSTERIAN artefacts are found in Eemian shroud. Bronze bracelets and a bronze disc on
deposits. her belt also survived. The grave also con-
tained a birch-bark box containing an awl and
Efate. See ROY MATA. a hairnet. Beneath the woman's body were the
cremated remains of a child.
Effigy Mound culture. A Middle/Late
WOODLAND group (possibly an extension of Ehecati. See CALENDAR STONE, QUETZA-
HOPEWELL) centred on the upper Mississippi COATL.
Valley to the west of Lake Michigan, USA. It is
characterized by the construction of low Ehringsdorf. A travertine quarry in central
mounds of various shapes, especially (though Germany near Weimar. A badly broken skull
not always) life forms. Bundled, flexed and and other human remains have been found
cremated burials are common, with certain here with stone tools resembling the Mous-
locations within the life-form mounds being TERIAN. The fossil man is of generalized
preferred (e.g. the head, heart and hips). NEANDERTHAL type, but earlier than the usual
Grave goods, if they occur at all, are very Mousterian and classic Neanderthal finds.
simple. No clear chronology has emerged for Often ascribed to the last interglacial (about
this culture, but evidence indicates continuing 120,000 years ago), the remains have also
activity beyond AD 1000. been dated by the URANIUM SERIES method to
about 220,000 years ago and may really date
Egoizwil. A series of Neolithic sites around the to a temperate period before the last inter-
shores of Lake Wauwil in Switzerland. Most of glacial.
them belong to the CORTAILLOD culture and,
like so many of the lakeside settlements of this einkorn. See WHEAT.
culture, have produced very well-preserved
organic material. The site of Egolzwil4 had ten Elam, Elamite. Important state in southern
rectangular wooden houses placed close Iran with its capital at SusA. The development
together. Each house probably contained a of civilization in this area closely paralleled
nuclear family of about five people, giving an that in Mesopotamia proper; for instance,
overall population for the settlement of not writing appeared almost as early (see PROTO-
more than 50 people. Surviving food remains ELAMITE), before 3000 BC, though later the
158 El-Amarna

Elamites were to take over CUNEIFORM and in simple shapes, including pedestalled bowls
adapt it to their language. The Elamites and cups, and a variety of metal goods, includ-
usually appear in the Mesopotamian texts as ing daggers, swords and axes of copper or
enemies, and indeed it was Elamite incursions bronze and ornaments of gold and silver.
that brought down the Third Dynasty of UR Silver was particularly common, perhaps more
late in the 3rd millennium BC. The high point common than anywhere else in Europe at this
of Elamite civilization was reached in the reign time, and was used especially for diadems.
ofUntash-gal, who extended the kingdom and
invaded KAssiTE Babylonia. He also built a Elateia. The earliest known Neolithic settle-
royal city at CHOGA ZANBIL. The kingdom of ment in central Greece, near Phocis, dated to
Elam fell to the ASSYRIANS when Ashurbani- the mid-6th millennium be. Rectangular
pal sacked the city of Susa, ro40 BC. houses were built of timber with earthen
The sculpture, bronze work and jewellery floors. A series of pottery styles has been
of the Elamites were of a high standard and recognized, starting with undecorated dark-
demonstrate strong local styles, while sharing and light-surfaced wares, later replaced by
an overall similarity with Mesopotamian work. black polished and polychrome painted wares.
Little is known about the Elamite language, Coal-scuttle shaped vessels, presumably for
which is not related to any known tongue and ritual use, show connections with the DANILO
still not fully deciphered. culture of Yugoslavia. This site is also known
as Drachmani.
El-Amarna. A city in Upper Egypt built as his
capital by the Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh El Bani. See IZAPA.
AKHENATEN during the 14th century BC.
Palaces and temples, erected to support the elbow stones. See BALL GAME.
worship of the divine sun-disc Aten, were
abandoned and largely destroyed on Ele Bor. A group of rocky outcrops in the
Akhenaten's death. The art of this brief period north Kenya plains, not far from the foothills
of monotheism was realistic and unrestrained, of the Ethiopian escarpment. A group of rock
in contrast with the stereotyped art-style of shelters yielded a composite sequence extend-
other periods in ancient Egypt. Important ing from 'Middle Stone Age' into recent times.
diplomatic correspondence has also been A backed-microlith industry appeared at an as
recovered during excavations at El-Amarna. yet unknown date and continued in use by
hunter-gatherers into the period when fisher-
Elandsfontein. A farm southwest of Hope- men of the 'AQUATIC CIVILIZATION' were
field in Cape Province, South Africa, and 25 established beside Lake Turkana to the west.
km southeast of Saldanha Bay, which has Domestic sheep/ goat and, it appears, camel
produced several Palaeolithic cultures and a were present in small numbers from about the
human skull somewhat like that of BROKEN 3rd millennium be, at which time pottery also
HILL. The skull is believed to be associated came into use. Seeds and numerous grind-
with late AcHEULIAN tools and may be stones suggest intensive exploitation of -
100,000 or so years old. Traces of 'Middle presumably wild - cereals. The climate at this
Stone Age' and 'Late Stone Age' tools were time was somewhat moister than that of the
also found. present. With subsequent desiccation, cereal
use was abandoned, but both hunting and
El Argar. Situated on a hilltop near Almeria in small-scale pastoralism continued into the
southeast Spain, El Argar is the type site and present millennium.
largest known settlement of the Argaric
Bronze Age of the 2nd millennium BC. The electromagnetic surveying. A GEOPHYSICAL
settlement was fortified and contained rect- surveying method. Instruments designed for
angular stone houses, though these are less this technique have two coils. One, through
well preserved than at other Argaric settle- which an alternating electric current passes,
ment sites such as at Ifre and EL OFICIO. The produces a magnetic field. This field induces
settlement also contained 950 burials, the electrical currents in buried objects, which are
earlier ones in cists, later ones in large jars. detected in the second coil of the apparatus. It
Grave goods include plain burnished pottery is possible to detect buried features of archae-
El Inga 159

ological sites by this method, due to differ- for one or more archaic temples and possibly
ences in electrical and magnetic properties a Mycenaean-type MEGARON. The sanctu-
between the fill of the features and the subsoil. ary continued to enjoy great popularity into
Electromagnetic systems are, however, more Roman times, and it was only devastation by
widely used in METAL DETECTORS. Alaric and his hordes (see GOTHS) and the
edicts of the emperor Theodosius that finally
elephant. A group of the order Proboscidea. led to its abandonment.
The living elephants are confined to Africa -
Loxondonta africanus ( Elephas africanus) - El Garcel. A settlement of the 4th millennium
and India - Elephas maximus ( indicus). The be ALMERIAN Neolithic culture of southeast
African elephant is adapted to a savanna Spain. Excavations in the 19th century pro-
environment and formerly occupied a far duced evidence of round houses, storage pits,
larger area, as is attested by skeletal evidence undecorated round-based pottery and, before
and cave paintings in North Africa. The the end of the settlement, copper slag, suggest-
reduction in its range is probably due to the ing the local development of metallurgy.
combined effects of climatic change, human
hunting and cattle-grazing. Other species of
Elgin, Lord (1766-1841). British diplomat
elephant are now known to have existed. The
best known for transporting the marble sculp-
straight-tusked elephant, E/ephas ( Palae-
oloxodon) antiquus, apparently adapted to tures from the Parthenon in ATHENS to
London. Since 1816 these sculptures, known
the open deciduous woodlands of interglacials
as the 'Elgin Marbles', have been among the
in Europe, became extinct at the end of the
IPSWICHIAN interglacial. Related forms prime exhibits of the Department of Greek
existed in Asia, North Africa and East Africa. and Roman Antiquities of the British
Dwarf forms of the straight-tusked elephant Museum. The removal of these sculptures
from their source has often been criticized and
evolved on islands of the Mediterranean.
MAMMOTHS seem to have been adapted to the issue of their possible return to Greece is
more open conditions, and although present raised from time to time, most recently in the
during interglacials were particularly common early 1980s, though it is not easy to foresee a
during colder periods. mutually agreed solution to the problem.

Elephantine. An island in the Nile near Aswan El Guettar. An ATERIAN site in southern
on the ancient boundary between Egypt and Tunisia. The relatively moist climate of the
Nubia. The area was famed for its quarries, Sahara at this time is demonstrated by the
which yielded the granite extensively used presence of rhinoceros remains in these
throughout ancient Egypt. northerly latitudes.

Eleusis. Greek city, some 22 km west of El lnga. A PALEO-INDIAN site in highland


Athens, famous in antiquity as the home ofthe Ecuador, 24 km south of Quito, at which a
Eleusinian Mysteries, a mystery cult in honour large and varied inventory of flint and OBSID-
of Demeter and Persephone. Situated on a bay IAN tools provides evidence for man's
that is virtually an inland lake, the town enjoys southward passage through South America.
good protection from the sea. This advantage, Fishtail points from El Inga level I show
coupled with a naturally defensible acropolis, technological and morphological similarities
would have made the site attractive, and to CLOVIS/FOLSOM points and to the fishtail
occupation is attested from the early Bronze points of MAGELLAN I. Levels II and III
Age onwards. Use as a sanctuary seems to go contain willow-leaf points similar to those at
back at least to MYCENAEAN times. The major AY AMPITIN, LAURICOCHA CAVES and else-
ritual building of the sanctuary, the so-called where, as well as stemmed points, flaked
te/esterion (Hall of Initiation), was a temple knives and scrapers.
of unusual design dedicated to Demeter, Although El Inga seems to represent a
incorporating such rare features as a lantern hunting-based society and some bone was
over the anaktoron (holy of holies) and built- found nearby, no faunal remains or hearths
in seating to the main hall. Interpretation of the were associated with stone tools. Absolute
site is not straightforward, with some evidence dates are rare. but the earliest radiocarbon
160 ElJobo

date is c7000 be and a 4000-5000-year period Northern Europe. In diagrams plotted from
of occupation is postulated. PROPORTIONAL POLLEN COUNTS, other trees
are largely unaffected. Radiocarbon dates for
El Jobo. One of a series of stone tool com- the elm decline in Britain mostly fall between
plexes found at a group of sites in northwestern 3300 and 3100 be, some time after the first
Venezuela. Designated the Joboid series, they appearance of Neolithic culture. Explanations
appear to span a considerable time period. for the decline include climatic change, a
There are no absolute dates but ancient rapidly spreading selective disease, and
erosional episodes have defined a series of human interference. But in a number of
terraces upon which man-made lithics were diagrams plotted from ABSOLUTE POLLEN
deposited and which seem to represent suc- COUNTS it has been shown that although elm
cessive complexes. The highest, and also the declines most markedly other trees are
oldest, is Camare, which contains crude affected as well. This makes disease a far less
chopping tools; next is Las Lagunas, which likely cause. In addition, small transient forest
contains bifaces. This is followed by El Jobo, clearances are increasingly being shown in
characterized by lanceolate leaf-shaped pollen diagrams, just before and during the
points; El Jobo is followed by Las Casitas, the elm decline. It is therefore quite reasonable to
lowest and most recent terrace, containing suggest that elm may have been particularly
stemmed points. The leaf-shaped points of El affected by man's activities in the forest. Elm is
Jobo resemble tools elsewhere, especially at among the most palatable of tree foliage, and it
LERMA and SANTA ISABEL IZTAPAN and thus may be that Neolithic cattle browsing in the
may indicate the presence of intrusive forest, and the gathering of foliage for their
PALEO-INDIAN groups. Comparison with winter fodder, caused the selective decline of
these and other sites has led to an estimated the elm.
age of 8000-9000 be. Some archaeologists,
however, prefer to see the complex as a local
development unassociated with the movement Elmenteitan. A Neolithic industry which
of BIG GAME HUNTERS into South America. occurs in a restricted, well-watered highland
area on the west side ofthe central Rift Valley
El Khril. A CAPSIAN NEOLITHIC site near in Kenya. Typical artefact assemblages include
Tangier in northern Morocco. The pottery is of large double-edged obsidian blades, plain
cardial type, akin to contemporary Iberian pottery bowls and shallow stone vessels of
wares, and is associated with evidence for the unknown function. Domestic cattle and small
herding of small stock. stock were herded; it is not yet known whether
cereal agriculture was also practised. The dead
Elliot Smith, Sir Grafton (1871-1937). An were cremated, as at the mass-burial site at
anatomist by training, who became interested NJORO RIVER CAVE. The latter, dated to
in many aspects of archaeology. He was clOOO be, appears to be one of the earliest
involved, for instance, in the examination of Elmenteitan sites; but the industry continued
the remains from PILTDOWN and it has even into the 1st millennium ad. The Elmenteitan is
been suggested that he may have been implic- best regarded as a localized and specialized
ated in the forgery. He is best known, however, facies of the PASTORAL NEOLITHIC complex of
for his espousal of the exaggerated form of DIF- East Africa.
FUSIONISM, sometimes called 'hyper-
diffusionism', which interpreted the appear- El Molle. See AGRELO.
ance of new developments anywhere in the
world in terms of a spread from Egypt.
El Oficio. A hilltop settlement of the ARG-
Ellora. A site in central India with several ARIC Early Bronze Age in Almeria, northeast
rock-cut Buddhist, Jain and Hindu temples, Spain. The site was surrounded by a thick def-
mainly of the 6th-8th centuries AD. Many of ensive wall. Inside were rectangular houses of
them have fine sculptures. stone, some with evidence of wooden upper
storeys, packed tightly together. 200 burials
elm decline. A permanent fall in elm pollen, were found within the settlement, some under
seen in POLLEN DIAGRAMS from Britain and the floors of houses.
Encanto 161
El Paraiso. Located in the flood plain of the modified TALUD-T ABLERO style.
lower Chillon Valley on the central coast of El Tajin, however, rose to prominence after
Peru, El Paraiso (also known as Chuquitanta) the fall of Teotihuacan. Its location in an area
dates to PRECERAMIC PERIOD VI. Consider- where rubber grows naturally and its unusually
ably larger than other contemporary sites, its high number of ball courts (at least seven)
massive architectural complex of mounds, indicates that it may have been a centre for the
courts and rooms interconnected by corridors BALL GAME. In addition, vast quantities of ball
covers an area of 50 to 60 hectares. Five to six game paraphernalia (YOKES, hachas and
building phases are evident in the construc- pa/mas) have been uncovered.
tions of fieldstone masonry laid in clay (some The artefact most commonly associated
with mud-plastered walls). Although the with Classic Veracruz culture is the hollow,
population at its maximum is estimated at only clay 'smiling face' figurine; but the main centre
1500, the whole complex represents an for its manufacture lies to the south at REMO-
investment of labour considerably beyond JADES. El Tajin's final destruction by fire was
what could be expected of such a population. probably at the hands of the CHICHIMECS. The
The low population figure (confirmed to a site was abandoned in cllOO.
great extent by the small amount of cultural
refuse) suggests that El Paraiso was an early eluvial horizon. A SOIL HORIZON from which
CEREMONIAL CENTRE. No pottery or maize minerals, HUMUS or plant nutrients have been
was found at any level, but twined and woven lost. See ILLUVIAL HORIZON.
textiles are common (found in fabric-wrapped
burials) and domesticated beans and squash El Zacpool. See JAIN A.
remains were also recovered.
Emery, Walter Bryan (1903-1971 ). British
El Riego. See TEHUACAN VALLEY. Egyptologist whose long career involved more
than 40 years of fieldwork, as well as the
Elsloo. A settlement of the Neolithic LINEAR production of general books and technical
POTTERY culture in southern Holland. Long articles. His most important excavations were
houses of various types have been found, as in at EL-AMARNA and SAOOARA.
the other Dutch sites of this culture, such as
GELEEN, SITTARD and Stein. Emiran. Named after the Emireh ['princess']
cave north of the Sea of Galilee in northern
Elster. See ANGLIAN. Israel, this is the earliest stage of the Upper
Palaeolithic recognized in the east Mediter-
Els Tudons [Es Tudons ]. A tomb of NA VETA ranean region. It is characterized by Emireh
type on the island of Minorca. It is c14 metres points, a kind of elongated MousTERIAN point
long and contains a two-storeyed chamber with the bulb thinned away by retouch. The
originally housing the remains of many Emiran is believed to date from about 30,000
individuals. It is built in CYCLOPEAN MASON- be and may be transitional from the Mous-
RY and, as the term naveta implies, is vaguely terian.
boat-shaped in plan. Like the othernavetason
the island, Els Tudons belongs to the TALAY- emmer. See WHEAT.
OTIC culture of the 2nd millennium BC.
Emporiae. See AMPURIAS.
El Tajin. The major CLASSIC PERIOD centre
located in a rain forest valley in northern enamel. A decorative coating of glassy
Veracruz, Mexico. Its central structures are material which is fused to the surface of a metal
very tightly grouped but there are hundreds of artefact.
other structures spread about the valley which
remain to be investigated. The art style of the Encanto. A complex of 13 sites concentrated
site was subject to many influences including on the Peruvian central coast, including
MAYAN, IZAPAN and 0LMEC, but TEOTI- CHILCA and Ancon Yacht Club, which
HUACAN influence dominates the early demonstrate the changing subsistence patterns
period; the central structure, the Temple ofthe resulting from the decreasing availability of
Niches, for example, is constructed in a LOMAS vegetation. Dating to the PRE-CER-
162 end scraper

AMIC PERIOD V, the Encanto phase is father's title of 'father' or 'king' of the
characterized by the gradual abandonment of pantheon. Like Anu, he is credited with giving
ARCHAIC subsistence practices in favour of kingship to man, and the Tablet of Destiny,
sedentary ways of life, particularly increased through which the fate of man and gods was
exploitation of marine resources and the decreed, also belonged to Enlil. The god was
practice of limited agriculture. thought to have been responsible for the
downfall of AKKAD: because of the desecra-
end scraper. See SCRAPER. tion of his shrine at Nippur by Naram-Sin, he
called on the Gutians to invade. Enlil was
Eneolithic. Another term for CHALCOLITHIC. ultimately dislodged from his prime position in
See also THREE AGE SYSTEM. the pantheon by the god of Babylon, Marduk,
but this did not occur till late in the 2nd millen-
Engaruka. Located on the western side of the nium BC.
Eastern Rift Valley between Lake Manyara
and Lake Natron in northern Tanzania, Enserune. An Iron Age promontory fort in
Engaruka preserves the remains of an Iron Languedoc, southern France. It had defences
Age irrigation system covering more than 20 of CYCLOPEAN MASONRY from the early 4th
square kilometres. There are indications that century BC and well laid-out stone houses.
settlement of the area began by the mid-1st Both defences and houses are very similar to
millennium ad, but the major irrigation those found on Greek settlements in the area
developments are probably subsequent to the (see MARSEILLES). Large storage jars and silos
14th century. Water from streams flowing into excavated into the tufa were probably for grain
the valley was dispersed through an elaborate or water. Nearby is a large cremation cemetery
network of stone-lined furrows to serve a large of the 3rd century, with the cremated remains
number of small stone-terraced fields. placed in urns.
Sorghum was one of the crops that was cultiv-
ated. The affinities of the Engaruka people to entrance grave. A type of MEGALITHIC tomb
any contemporary later Iron Age populations characterized by a chamber without separate
in East Africa remain to be demonstrated passage, under a round BARROW. Although
satisfactorily. the chamber form is similar to that of the
GALLERY GRAVE, the round barrow is more
Englefield Island. See FuEGIAN TRADITION. characteristic of the PASSAGE GRAVE tradi-
tion. Entrance graves are found in southern
Enkomi. A Middle and Late Bronze Age Spain and along the Atlantic seaboard to
settlement on the Bay of Salamis in Cyprus. Brittany and southwest Britain, and on the
First settled early in the 2nd millennium BC, by other side of the Irish Sea in southeast Ireland.
c1500 BC it had become a major metal-
working and trading settlement; many copper Entremont. An important OPPIDUM near Aix-
ingots have been found on the site and it is en-Provence, southern France, which was the
clear that Enkomi was involved in trading the capital of the Salyes from the 4th century BC
metal from which Cyprus derives its name until it was taken by the Romans in 123 BC. It
throughout the east Mediterranean. In the had ramparts built of large stone blocks, with
13th century BC Enkomi seems to have been watch towers. Inside were streets, houses of
taken over by MYCENAEANS, perhaps dry stone, drainage and water systems, all laid
refugees from the Mycenaean collapse on the out on a rectilinear system. It also had a
Greek mainland. The site continued to flour- sanctuary of the SEVERED HEAD CULT, with
ish as a trading centre until c1200 BC when it four-sided pillars of stone carved with severed
was attacked again, perhaps by the PEOPLES heads, separate carved stone heads and torsos
OF THE SEA. It was not abandoned, but started and actual human skulls in niches, supported
to decline from this point and by c1 000 BC the by iron nails.
site was deserted.
environmental archaeology. The aspect of
Enlil. The SUMERIAN god of air or 'Lord archaeology that is concerned with recon-
Wind', the patron deity of the city of NIPPUR. structing past environments and understand-
He was the son of Anu and inherited his ing the ECOLOGY of man and other animals
Epidauros 163

and plants living in the same environment. influences from mainland Greece and pres-
Many disciplines are involved in this study: sures from the hinterland of Asia Minor,
climatology, QUATERNARY geology, SOIL notably in this case from Lydia and Persia.
SCIENCE, PALAEOBOTANY, zoology (see Artemis herself, for instance (Diana to the
SKELETON, MOLLUSCS, BEETLES) and human Romans), may be seen as a Greek equivalent
biology. for the Anatolian goddess, Cybele. Supreme
prosperity, however, only arrived once general
environmental indicators. Species of plants conditions in the eastern end of the Mediter-
and animals that are used to indicate a feature ranean had stabilized under the Hellenistic
of the environment. If the modern environ- kings and Roman rule. Apart from the great
mental requirements are known, the presence temple, this later Greco-Roman city boasted a
of preserved remains of the same species in generalized magnificence, as, for instance, in
ancient deposits and soils may suggest that the grand scale of its AGORAS, BATHS,
similar conditions prevailed in the past. Many THEATRE (the setting for Paul's address, Acts
such indicator fossils are used to reconstruct of the Apostles XIX), the Library of Celsus,
temperature. Ivy is a well-known example: this the Gymnasium of Vedius, and the arcaded
plant is particularly susceptible to hard winters streets, notably the Arkadiane (whose visible
and autumn frosts, and is today restricted to remains date from the period of the Emperor
areas of moderately high summer temperature Arcadius AD 395 onwards), running more
and average temperature in the coldest winter than 500 metres from the theatre to the
month above -lSC; the appearance of ivy in harbour, and equipped with a central
a POLLEN DIAGRAM is thus often taken to be vehicular lane, mosaic pavements, shops, and
evidence of an amelioration of climate. There even street-lighting.
are, however, pitfalls with these methods.
Many other factors of ecology may also exert Epi-Palaeolithic. This name is sometimes
control over the distribution of a species, and given to the cultures of the very end of the
the absence of an environmental indicator Palaeolithic, such as the FEDERMESSER or
does not imply lack of the conditions which it is AHRENSBURG groups, or even to post-glacial
supposed to indicate. In addition, the ECOL- cultures more usually described as Mesolithic.
OGY of the species may have changed. The Because of this confusion and imprecision, the
method only becomes reliable when whole term is better avoided.
communities, comprising many different
species, all indicate the existence of a particu- Epidauros. Classical Greek city on the east
lar environment. coast of Argolis with site close to that of
present-day Palaia Epidavros. The lower city
eolith. A roughly chipped stone widely and harbour are now submerged, while sec-
claimed in the past to be evidence of man's tions of Cyclopean wall (see CYCLOPEAN
most primitive handiwork during a remote MASONRY) are still visible. Epidauros was
eolithic period. Most eoliths were frost-split famous, especially from the 4th century BC
chunks with irregular chipping round the edge, onwards, for its sanctuary ( hieron) of
now generally thought to be natural in origin. Asclepius, the god of healing, and mythical
saviour I doctor figure. The sanctuary lay in a
Ephesus. One of the richest and most splendid broad valley some 13 km inland, where a
cities of the classical world, on the west coast of network of buildings grew up to serve the twin
Turkey, famous in antiquity for its colossal functions of faith-healing and general spa-
temple of Artemis (one of the SEVEN type recreation. The centrepiece was the
WONDERS OF THE WORLD). The town was Temple of Asclepius itself. This modest-scale
situated strategically in the delta area of the DORIC building seems to have been strikingly
River Cayster, and there is some evidence for decorated, with black-and-white marble floor,
occupation from MYCENAEAN times. Tradi- and the widespread use of inlays of ivory,
tion, however, describes the settlement as ebony and gold. The cult figure was similarly
founded from Athens by King Androklos. It is chryselephantine. A second cult building was
likely that Ephesus soon took on the uneasy the enkoimeterion or adyton, in which visiting
balancing role - familiar to the major cities sufferers might hope to obtain a cure by sleep-
and ports along this seaboard - between ing and dreaming. Also probably associated
164 Erbil

with the cult, but of obscure function, was a plan consisting of a long central room, flanked
fine Doric rotunda with labyrinth. Facilities by symmetrically grouped side chambers, and
seem to have been comprehensive, including was built on a substantial platform.
baths, gymnasium and palaestra for exercise, The earliest phase of occupation, named
hospitals for the sick and sanatoria for the the Eridu phase, is dated to c5000 be; this is
convalescent, accommodation for the priest- followed by the Hajji Muhammed phase and
doctors and a magnificent (4th-century BC) both of these precede the UBAID culture
theatre for cultural recreation, which is proper; they are often regarded as early or
exceptionally well preserved. proto-Ubaid. The settlement at Eridu can be
regarded as proto-urban from the beginning; it
Erbil. The ancient Assyrian city of Arab'ilu grew into a substantial city by the EARLY
and a modern town in Iraq. It has been con- DYNASTIC period; and two royal palaces of
tinuously inhabited for about 8000 years and this period have been excavated.
provides a living example of the formation of a Outside the temple precinct a large ceme-
TELL. Because it lies under the modern city tery of the late Ubaid period was found; this
there has been little excavation, but it is known contained perhaps 1000 graves, of which c200
from texts that it had a temple dedicated to were excavated. Grave goods include painted
Ishtar and was a cult centre of importance, pottery vessels, terracotta figurines and baked
second only to AssuR itself. The earliest clay tools, such as sickles and shaft-hole axes.
records referring to Arab'ilu belong to the late One contained a model of a sailing boat, and is
3rd millennium BC. a very early indication of the use of wind power
to propel boats.
ercengtai [ erh-ts'eng-t'ai]. See SHAFf TOMBS
(CHINA). Erimi. A deeply stratified site in southern
Cyprus, which has produced evidence of a
Erd. A recently excavated MousTERIAN site in sequence of pottery styles covering most of the
Hungary near Budapest. Radiocarbon dates 4th millennium BC. To begin with houses were
suggest that it was occupied by bear-hunters in cut into the rock, but were later built free-
the later part of the Mousterian period. standing. The site is best known for its single
copper chisel, the earliest evidence on the
Erech. Biblical name for the Mesopotamian island for the use of the metal from which it
city of URUK. derives its name and for which it was famous in
the ancient world.
Erechtheum. A religious building on the
North side of the ACROPOLIS at ATHENS, Erligang [Erh-li-kang] phase. A stage of the
named after the legendary King Erechtheus of early Bronze Age in North China defined by
Athens, and put up in the name of various cults two strata at ZHENGZHOU Erligang in Henan
to house cult objects and to cover cult areas. It province. The Erligang phase is assumed to
is a large and complex rectangular building in belong to the earlier part of the SHANG
the IONIC style, built of white Pantelic marble dynasty. It follows immediately on the ERLI-
and dark Eleusis stone, and was erected in the TOU phase and precedes the historical
period c4 21-407 BC. Architecturally it is most ANY ANG period ( cl300-c1030 BC; see
noteworthy for the Porch of the Maidens on its SHANG, GAOCHENG). Two radiocarbon dates
south side, with its delightful marble CARY- obtained from the Lower and Upper Erligang
ATIDS. levels at Zhengzhou are c1600 BC and c1550
BC respectively. Remains comparable to those
Eridu. The most southerly and possibly also from Erligang are very widely distributed in
the earliest city of SUMER in southern Meso- North China, reaching from the Wei River
potamia. A sounding excavated underneath a valley in the west to Shandong in the east, as far
ZIGGURAT of the late 3rd millennium BC south as PANLONGCHENG near the Yangzi
revealed a sequence of 18 religious buildings. River, and in the north to parts of Shanxi and
The earliest building was a simple mud-brick Hebei provinces and to BEIJING. The Erligang
shrine resting on virgin sand. By the time of its phase may correspond to the widest sway of
tenth rebuilding it had acquired the standard the Shang empire. The period is notable for its
form of the Sumerian temple, with tripartite highly developed bronze-casting industry.
Esh Shaheinab 165

Until recently the Erlitou and Erligang Erosd. See ARIU~D.


phases were often referred to as Early Shang
and Middle Shang respectively; these terms Ertebolle. A coastal shell-mound site in
have gone out of use since radiocarbon dates Jutland which has given its name to a late
raised doubts as to whether Erlitou is a Shang Mesolithic culture in Denmark. Pottery was
site. Some Chinese archaeologists have even apparently introduced in this culture.
begun calling the Erligang phase Early Shang.
Escomb. A village in Co.Durham which
Erlitou [Erh-li-t'ou]. Type site ofthe Erlitou contains one of the most complete upstanding
phase, near Luoyang in Yanshi, Henan Anglo-Saxon churches in England, the small
province, north China. The Erlitou phase chapel of St John. A simple double-celled
represents the earliest known stage of the building, its square-ended chancel has a tall
Chinese Bronze Age. Radiocarbon dates narrow chancel arch with jambs formed of
suggest that the four levels at the Erlitou site monolithic blocks laid in 'long and short' style
span the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. that have given their name to the term
The two lowest levels have yielded only 'Escomb fashion'. The church, which dates
insignificant metal remains, but in the third from the early to mid-8th century, has several
and most important level were found the early constructional features such as roughly
earliest bronze RITUAL VESSELS yet known coursed masonry (including a great many re-
from China, along with bronze GE blades and used Roman stones), side alternate quoining,
fine jades. To the same level belongs a very and round-headed, single-splayed windows.
large HANGTU palace compound whose Excavations here have shown that at one stage
pillared hall and south-facing plan establish in its history Escomb had a pair of flanking side
the norm of later Chinese palace architecture. chapels or porticos, and that the windows were
The hall, raised on its own hangtu podium, glazed from an early stage.
stood on a square hangtu terrace 100 metres
on a side; the terrace was enclosed by a Eshnunna. The ancient name of a city under
corridor-like structure. the mound of Tell Asmar, excavated by an
Archeaologists at first assigned the Erlitou American team led by Henri Frankfort in the
site to the early SHANG dynasty, some identi- 1930s. Situated in the Diyala area, to the
fying it as the capital of the dynasty's founder; northeast of SUMER proper, Eshnunna was
current opinion holds that it is probably too nonetheless to all intents and purposes a
early to fall within the Shang period and might Sumerian city. Although it was occupied from
instead belong, at least in part, to the preced- the EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD onwards,
ing XIA dynasty. The fourth level at the site is politically it was most important in the period
described as transitional to the full-fledged after the fall of the Third Dynasty of UR, in the
Bronze Age culture of the ERLIGANG PHASE, first two centuries of the 2nd millennium BC,
which is generally believed to correspond to when it was the centre of an independent
the earlier part of the Shang dynasty. Thus kingdom of some size and importance.
whatever the political status of the city may Subsequently it was conquered by Hammur-
have been, the Erlitou remains provide the abi and absorbed into the growing power of
fullest evidence now available for the emerg- BABYLON, after which it rarely appears in the
ence of the Shang civilization from its local texts and presumably declined in importance.
forbears.
Esh Shaheinab. A site near the eastern bank of
Ermine Street. Name given to the Roman the Nile, 50 km downstream from Khartoum,
road that ran north from LONDON to LINCOLN. dated to the second half of the 4th millennium
Doubtless following more ancient tracks, it be. For long the only fully investigated
was most likely established very soon after the manifestation of the so-called 'Khartoum
Roman invasion ofBritian in AD 43, to provide Neolithic', the site was held to illustrate the
communications with the legionary fortress at small-scale beginnings of food-production in
Lincoln. Later, when Lincoln became a the Sudanese Nile Valley. New excavations, as
colonial town c90, it retained its importance as at KADERO, show that Esh Shaheinab repre-
a trunk route, running on north to reach the sents only one, possibly atypical, aspect of a
Humber at Winteringham. complex economic system. The material
166 Eskimo

culture of Esh Shaheinab, together with the Veneti, the tribe recorded as occupying this
general life-style of the site's inhabitants, area in the classical sources.
shows much continuity from the older occur-
rence of EARLY KHARTOUM. Fishing was ethnoarchaeology. The study of living
evidently of major importance and was con- societies from an archaeological point of view.
ducted both by means of shell fish-hooks and The ethnoarchaeologist studies the material
with harpoons whose barbed bone points were remains of such societies with the aim of
now pierced for the attachment of the line. furthering understanding of the patterns of
Edge-ground axes and adzes were made both material remains that emerge from archaeo-
from bone and stone. The microlithic stone logical contexts. In particular, ethnoarchae-
industry and the pottery were very similar to ology is concerned with establishing system-
those from Early Khartoum. The animals atic relationships between patterns of material
slaughtered by the Esh Shaheinab people were culture and other aspects of society, as, for
mostly wild but included a few examples of instance, residence patterns or systems of
small domestic goat. inheritance, which do not leave very direct
indications in the archaeological record. Lewis
Eskimo [Inuit]. A long-standing and widely Binford's study of the Nunamiut Eskimo is
used term for the Arctic hunting peoples. It is a one of the best known studies in ethnoarchae-
French transliteration of an Algonquin word ology, which represents a relatively new
meanin 'raw flesh eaters'. Inuit, a native development in archaeology generally.
Eskimo word meaning simply 'the people', is
the term currently favoured to describe the Etowah. A large MISSISSIPPIAN site located on
same group. the north bank of the Etowah River in
northern Georgia, USA, which appears to
have functioned as a CEREMONIAL CENTRE
Essenes. See DEAD SEA SCROLLS. rather than a centre for population. Its major
features are three truncated pyramid mounds,
Este. The ancient name of this town standing surrounded by a ditch and palisade. The
in antiquity on the River Adige in northeast largest mound contains over 125,000 cubic
Italy was A teste, which is now used to denote metres of earth; in North America only
the striking Iron Age culture of the area from Monk's Mound at CAHOKIA contains a greater
the 9th century BC. Profiting from its position, volume. The artefact inventory includes
its maritime trade connections and its contacts Lamar pottery (an elaborately stamped or
with Greek and Etruscan cultures, the town incised utilitarian ware), under life-size stone
became the leading centre of the area. Its statues of humans usually in a sitting or
craftsmen produced a variety of pottery types, kneeling position, and large quantities of the
including red and black cordoned wares made paraphernalia of the SOUTHERN CuLT. The
on a wheel (from the 6th century BC), and site's florescence is strongly linked to that of
much fine sheet bronze work. The most the Cult and dates to c1200-1700 AD.
impressive products of the bronzesmiths are
the sheet bronze SITULAE, some plain, but Etruscan. An important culture, dominant in
others decorated in repousse with zones of west central Italy (approximately the area of
figures in scenes of feasting, sporting and present-day Tuscany) from about the 8th to
warfare; the scenes indicate a mixture of local 5th centuries BC, with decisive influence upon
and Greek elements. Situlae and other its direct successor, Rome. Literary sources
decorated bronze objects were traded to the give a picture of a loosely structured but
other side of the Adriatic, to the BoLOGNA powerful confederacy of city-states (such as
area and over the Alps into the eastern part of TARQUINIA, CAERE, VEn, Clusium [CHIUSI],
the HALLSTATT Iron Age area. Populonia) combining to push their dominion
The florescence of the culture was from the north into the Po Valley, and south into
6th century to the mid-4th century, when Campania. Roman sources are generally
northern Italy was invaded by CELTS, but it hostile, and rehearse the standard cliches of
continued until the area was annexed by Rome extreme luxury, moral decadence and sexual
in 184 BC. It is likely that the Atestine culture is licence. Recent thinking suggests some kind of
the archaeological manifestation of the continuity with Iron Age VILLANOVAN
eustatic 16 7

culture, with no clear breaks in settlement with a high preponderance of imports, espe-
patterns. The striking, especially oriental, cially metalwork and Greek painted pottery.
developments in art, pottery, metalwork, The market for such products encouraged
tomb and temple architecture are then local copies, and the growth of a home
accounted for as bought-in acquisitions or industry. Typical products are the ubiquitous
expertise, purchased by a rising elite out of decorated bronze mirror, BuccHERO pottery,
commercial success and vigorously expansive and sophisticated filigree jewellery. Inhuma-
trade. Alternatively, an add-on intrusive tion tends to replace cremation, and character-
aristocracy is suggested. istic are the stone sarcophagi with reclining
Antiquity, on the other hand, particularly figures, chamber tombs (with or without
antiquarians such as Varro and the emperor decoration) and the rounded tumuli often
Claudius (a considerable Etruscologist whose heaped over them (e.g. CAERE, CHIUSI, TAR-
work, including a treatise on language, is QUINIA).
unfortunately lost) tended to see an enigmatic Rome is indebted to the Etruscans not only
opposition between two traditional literary for its early kings, such as the notorious
viewpoints, represented by Herodotus - who Tarquin, but virtually for the total infra-
derived the Etruscans from Lydia in Asia structure of its civilization. The debt is such
Minor(modern Turkey) - and Dionysius of that maybe the inverse picture is the true one,
Halicarnassus, who claimed that they were Roman culture being essentially the continua-
indigenous. tion of Etruscan under another name and
For the ancients, the mystery was com- language. Among areas of continuity too
pounded by the Etruscan language, whose numerous and complex to list, notable are
affinity is still undecided. The letters of the religion (e.g. Etruscan haruspex and Roman
script may be read easily enough, since the augury), political and social organization,
Etruscans used a Western Greek alphabet strategic arts, architecture, art, drama, theatre
(which, through Etruscan, is the precursor of and civil engineering (notably hydraulics, such
all subsequent Western forms ofthe alphabet). as aqueducts and drainage systems).
Clear too is the context of the vast majority of
the inscriptions, which is funerary. There is no Euesperides. See BENGHAZI.
real doubt that a parallel can be sought with
Oscan, Umbrian and Latin inscriptions of a eustatic. Eustatic sea level changes are long-
similar period giving, for example, name and term fluctuations in the absolute volume of sea
family of deceased, offices and honours, and water held in the oceans of the earth. Such
age at death. Difficulties, however, immedi- fluctuations have occurred throughout the
ately multiply with the few longer texts, once QUATERNARY, due to changes in the extent of
any effort is made at an unambiguous ident- ice-sheets and thus in the volume of water
ification of vocabulary items or, worse, aspects locked up as ice. The larger the ice-sheets, the
of syntax and morphology. Just how severe the less water available to the sea, and so sea level
complexities remain may be judged from the is lower during GLACIALS than during INTER-
failure to establish any exact correspondences GLACIALS. Evidence exists for a whole series
in the Pyrgi so-called bilingual - a temple of eustatic sea level fluctuations, but the most
dedication with three parallel texts, one in widespread is the 'high stand' on c120,000 BP,
Punic and two (different) ones in Etruscan. just before the start of the last cold stage (DE-
The 'colourful and mysterious' image VENSIAN, WEICHSELIAN, WISCONSIN), when
commonly ascribed to Etruscan civilization sea levels were between two and ten metres
also needs to be handled with some caution. higher than at the present day. During the
The 'goody-hunting' approach of 19th- maximum extent of the ice-sheets of the last
century antiquarians and some 20th-century cold stage, eustatic sea level was much lower
archaeologists has produced a body of evid- than that of today. Large areas of continental
ence that is almost entirely derived from shelf were exposed, some being occupied by
cemeteries and grave goods. Apart from the the ice-sheets themselves. Recovery of sea
exception of MARZABOTTO (a 'colonial' town level at the end of the last cold stage is relative-
site near Bologna), there has been little ly well known from deposits in the Nether-
excavation or study of occupation sites. This lands, Scandinavia and Scotland, but is com-
weighted evidence shows a surge in wealth, plicated by isostatic changes. The North Sea
168 Evans, Sir Arthur

and English Channel flooded, separating Bri- new knowledge of genetics, and especially of
tain from the Continent, by about 7000 bp. mutation and re-combination of genes. The
Ireland became a separate island at about the newer view is often called Neo-Darwinism.
same time. Scandinavia had a complicated
series of different seas and lakes, until a sea experimental archaeology. A term used to
similar to today's Baltic became established describe experiments carried out to test hypo-
around 7000 bp. theses about practical aspects of past societies,
such as how tools were made and used, how
buildings and other structures were con-
Evans, Sir Arthur (1851-1941 ). British structed and how long the construction would
archaeologist, son of Sir John EVANS. His have taken, how ancient crops were planted,
main contribution was in the field of Cretan harvested and stored, or how boats were made
studies, through his excavations at KNossos and used. The journey ofthe KON TIKI in 1947
for than 30 years from 1899. He was largely is one of the best-known of all archaeological
responsible for demonstrating the existence of experiments. One of the most important
a pre-MYCENAEAN Aegean civilization, for projects still in progress is the experimental
naming it MINOAN (after the legendary King farm at Butser Hill in Hampshire, southern
Minos of Crete) and for revealing most of its England, where hypotheses about Iron Age
characteristics. Not surprisingly, some aspects farming practices are tested. Another type of
of his work have been criticized in the years experiment is aimed at discovering informa-
since his death, but in the main his conclusions tion about how structures, artefacts and
have stood the test of time and remain the basis materials decay over time; two experimental
of Minoan studies today. earthworks in southern England (Overton
Down in Wiltshire and Wareham in Dorset)
Evans, Sir John (1823-1908). British scholar, are being excavated at intervals to monitor
collector and antiquary. He published three processes of collapse and silting of the struc-
major works on British prehistoric artefacts: tures, and the movement and decay of various
on coinage (pre-Roman), stone implements buried materials.
and bronze implements. He was keenly
interested in the archaeological issues of the Eye Temple. See BRAK, TELL
day and played an important role in support of
those scholars who were arguing for the great Eynan. See AIN MALLAHA.
antiquity of man (see BOUCHER DE PERTHES).
Ezero. Denotes the Dipsis TELL near Nova
Zagora, the eponymous site of the Early
evolution. The idea that the animals and plants Bronze Age culture in south Bulgaria.
of today originated from ancestors of a dif- Excavated by G. Georgiev and N. Merpert,
ferent kind goes back at least to early Greek the site comprises a 9-metre stratigraphy with
philosophers, but it was Charles DARWIN who four main building phases. These include at
provided the first satisfactory account of a least two building levels of the VESELINOVO
mechanism which would cause this to happen. culture (KARANOVO III), dated c4320 be; a
The Origin of Species was published in 1859, single level with Karanovo IV pottery; eight
the year after Darwin and Alfred Wallace had building levels of the Copper Age (Karanovo
briefly presented the theory of evolution by V-VII) dated c3630 be, and four metres
Natural Selection, and it had an immediate comprising nine building levels of the Early
impact on prehistory and the question of the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age levels have
antiquity of man (see HUMAN EVOLUTION). radiocarbon dates of c2500-2200 be, the
The Darwinian idea - of species generally pottery has affinities in the Early Bronze Age
over-reproducing themselves and only the of TROY and there is a very rich bone, antler
better-fitted surviving to pass on their superior and stone industry. The subsistence strategies
adaptation to the next generation - has been favoured were the cultivation of emmer wheat
modified and amplified in the 20th century by and six-row barley, and cattle husbandry.
F
fabric. The material of which POTIERY is fact a dummy and the real chambers open not
composed. from the end but the side of the mound.
fang ding [fang-tingj. See RITUAL VESSELS
fabricator. A piece of stone or bone used for
detaching FLAKES from a CORE or tool. (CHINA).
Fabricators are usually heavily worn at one fang yi [fang-!]. See RITUAL VESSELS (CHINA).
end.
Fara. See SHURUPPAK.
Fafos. An early VINCA settlement with two
horizontally distinct settlement foci, located in Far'ah, Tell el [Fara] (1 ). Site on the Wadi
~~~~~~fs~~t~~r~~~s~~g~;!~~~~ ~~~~~;t:!~ Ghazzeh in southern Palestine, excavated by
Flinders PETRIE in 1928-30. Occupation
levels with pits and post-holes, covering 2.5 levels and tombs dating from the Middle
hectares, while Fafos II is smaller, less prolific Bronze Age to the Iron Age were excavated.
in artefacts and shorter-lived. The site is char- The most impressive material came from five
acterized by particularly rich ritual equipment, rich PHILISTINE tombs containing character-
chiefly fired clay figurine~ in the local Ko_sov? istic Philistine decorated pottery, native Late
style. Powdering of azunte and malachite IS Bronze Age undecorated wares, bronze
also known. bowls, daggers and spears; an iron dagger and
an iron knife were also found, among the
faience. Properly a type of medieval pottery earliest finds of this metal in Palestine.
manufactured at Faenza in northern Italy. The
term is, however, more widely used to describe Far'ah, Tell el [Fara] (2). Site in central Pales-
the turquoise-blue or greenish glazed material tine near the head of the Wadi Far' ah. The site
used to make small objects such as beads and was occupied from the Chalcolithic (5th
seals. This material appeared first in Meso- millennium BC) to c600 BC, with a major gap in
potamia in the 3rd millennium BC and then, the later 3rd and early 2nd millennium BC. In
almost as early, in Egypt; it is sometimes called the 9th century the site is identified as TIRZAH,
Egyptian faience. It is made with a core of the capital of Omri before he moved to SAM-
quartz, or quartz and soda-lime, fired so that ARIA.
the surface fuses into a glassy coating; the Faras. A former capital of the Nubian king-
characteristic colour is achieved by the dom of Nobatia on the west bank of the Nile
addition of copper salts. It was widely pro- near Wadi Haifa, Faras is best known for the
duced and traded throughout the Near East in
magnificent cathedral which was erected there
the 2nd millennium BC. Examples occur also in in the 7th century and flourished until the 12th
Bronze Age contexts in Europe, including the century. Fine mural paintings were recovered
WESSEX CULTURE and opinion is divided as to during excavation, together with inscriptions
whether these represent items traded from the
of major historical value; the study of super-
east Mediterranean or whether there were impositions has enabled a detailed record of
independent centres of manufacture in several
stylistic development to be established.
parts of Europe.
Faria. One of the richest Benedictine mon-
false entrance. Term for a phenomenon most asteries in Italy in the early Middle Ages,
commonly found in MEGALITHIC tombs in the situated northeast of Rome. The scriptorium
British Isles, where an apparent entrance to a was famous and the Farfa Chronicle was
chamber often leading from a forecourt, is in widely imitated. Founded c680-700, Farfa
' 169
170 Fatimid

came under the protection of the Lombard the Nile Delta region, dating from c5000 be. In
duke of Spoleto in 705 and, with the Carol- contrast to their counterparts at Helwan and
ingian conquest of 77 4, passed into the hands MERIMDE, the Fayum Neolithic sites appear to
of CHARLEMAGNE. An ambitious programme have been only briefly occupied. The fine
of building took place under Abbot Siccard workmanship of the chipped stone industry,
(830-42). The monastery was burnt during the including many bifacial implements, contrasts
Moslem incursion of 897, but restored by later markedly with the crude undecorated pottery.
abbots, notably Ratfred (in 933) and Hugo Artefacts of special note include a threshing
(998-1039). Very little of the medieval flail and a wooden sickle set with flint teeth.
complex survives above ground, but a series of The grain so processed was stored in mat-lined
excavations has revealed remains of the pits. Barley, emmer wheat and flax were the
principal church (perhaps of the 8th century, principal crops, the latter being used for the
with transepts and a crypt added by Siccard); production of linen cloth. Cattle, sheep, goats
one of the five minor churches mentioned in and pigs were herded, while hunting and
medieval descriptions at Farfa; the cemetery fishing continued to be practised.
and other structures including a concentric
ambulatory outside the crypt. This last feature feature. On archaeological excavations the
recalls the early 9th-century arrangement at term is used for any recorded remain that is not
Fulda in Germany, and suggests that the classified as a structure, a layer or a small find.
abbots of Farfa were as aware of the latest For instance, pits and post-holes are features,
architectural developments north of the Alps as is anything of uncertain nature or function.
as of those in Rome.
Feddersen Wierde. The most thoroughly
Fatimid. An Islamic dynasty that seized power excavated and best-preserved of the TERP
from the earlier Abbasid dynasty in Tunisia in settlements on the North Sea German littoral.
909.