Systems
Lecture Notes for
KJM597
Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering, UiTM Shah Alam
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This chapter will outline an overview of basic mathematical formulation in solving control
systems problem that you will encounter throughout the course.
𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑗𝑦
Where z is called a complex number. Note that j is the only imaginary quantity in the expression.
𝑦
Magnitude of z=z= 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 , angle of z=𝜃 = tan−1 𝑥
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𝑦
𝑧 = 𝑥2 + 𝑦2, 𝜃 = tan−1 𝑥
To convert complex number to rectangular form from polar, we employ
(source: Ogata)
Notes:
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Notes:
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A complex function F(s,) a function of s, has a real component and imaginary component, or
𝐹 𝑠 = 𝐹𝑥 + 𝐹𝑦
where 𝐹𝑥 and 𝐹𝑦 are real quantities. The magnitude of 𝐹(𝑠)is 𝐹𝑥2 + 𝐹𝑦2 , and the angle 𝜃 of 𝐹(𝑠)
𝐹𝑦
is tan−1 𝐹 . The angle is measured counterclockwise from the positive real axis.
𝑥
b) Singlevalued Function
In complex function analysis, we are interested in SingleValued Function that can uniquely
determine the value of s. For instance, given the function
1
𝐹 𝑠 =
𝑠(𝑠 + 1)
Poles are the value of s that will make the function F(s) become infinity. In other words, poles
are the roots of the denominator of F(s). If the denominator of F(s) involves kmultiple factors
(𝑠 + 𝑝)𝑘 , then 𝑠 = −𝑝 is called a multiple poles and of order 𝑘or repeated pole of order 𝑘. If
𝑘 = 1, the pole is called a simple pole.
Zeros are the value of s that will make the function F(s) become zero. In other words, zeros are
the numerator of F(s).
𝑠 + 2 (𝑠 + 10)
𝐺 𝑠 =
𝑠 𝑠 + 1 𝑠 + 5 (𝑠 + 15)2
G(s) has zeros at 𝑠 = −2 and 𝑠 = −10, simple poles at 𝑠 = 0, 𝑠 = −1 and 𝑠 = −5, and a
double pole (multiple pole of order 2) at 𝑠 = −15. Note that G(s) becomes zero at 𝑠 = ∞.
G(s) is therefore has 2 zeros and 5 poles.
d) Singularities of a Function
The singularities of a function are the points in the splane at which the function or its
derivatives do not exist. A pole is the most common of singularities and plays a very important
role in studies of classical control theory. (source: ogata)
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1.2 REVIEW OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, LINEAR SYSTEMS, IMPULSE RESPONSE AND LAPLACE
TRANSFORMATIONS. DEFINITION OF STABILITY. INTRODUCTION TO STATE EQUATIONS AND
TRANSFER FUNCTIONS.
Differential equations generally involve derivatives and integrals of the dependant variables
with respect to the independent variable. For instance, a shock absorber system of a car as in
figure 1.2 can be represented by the differential equation,
di(t ) 1
Ri (t ) L i(t )dt v(t )
dt C
Laplace transform is used to convert from time domain to sdomain. Working with differential
equation is rather complicated. In analyzing and designing a control system it is easier to work in
sdomain. Laplace transform is defined as;
∞
ℒ𝑓 𝑡 =𝐹 𝑠 = 𝑓 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0
Where 𝑠 = 𝑥 + 𝑗𝑦, a complex variable.
1, t 0
u (t )
0, t 0
The Laplace transform of f(t) is obtained as
1 1
F ( s) u (t )e st dt e st
0
s 0 s
Notes:
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The laplace transform has a set of theorems to solve a complex mathematical equations.
Table 2.2 summarizes the Laplace Transform theorems
Given the Laplace transform F(s), the operation of obtaining f(t) is termed the inverse
Laplace Transformation and is denoted by:
𝑓 𝑡 = ℒ −1 [𝐹 𝑠 ]
Inverse Laplace Transform is used when we want to convert from sdomain to time domain.
The inverse Laplace transform of rational functions are normally carried out using partial
fraction expansion and the Laplace transform table.
𝑄(𝑠)
𝐺 𝑠 =
𝑃(𝑠)
where Q(s) and P(s) are polynomials of s. It is assume that the order of P(s) in s is greater
than of Q(s). The polynomial P(s) may be written as
where a0, a1, … ,an1 are real coefficients. This method will be emphasized for the cases of
simple poles, multipleorder poles and complex poles.
If all the poles of G(s) are simple and real, then G(s) can be written as
𝑄(𝑠) 𝑄(𝑠)
𝐺 𝑠 = = , 𝑤𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑠1 ≠ 𝑠2 ≠ ⋯ 𝑠𝑛
𝑃(𝑠) 𝑠 + 𝑠1 𝑠 + 𝑠2 … (𝑠 + 𝑠𝑛 )
The numerator of each fraction is called the residue. 𝐾−𝑠𝑖 is called the residue of G(s)
for the pole 𝑠 = −𝑠𝑖 .
Example 2.3:
K 1 K 2 K
G(s) 3
s 1 s 2 s 3
5(1) 3
K 1 ( s 1)G ( s ) 1
s 1(1 2)(1 3)
5(2) 3
K 2 ( s 2)G ( s) 7
s 2 (2 1)(2 3)
5(3) 3
K 3 ( s 3)G ( s) 6
s 3 (3 1)(3 2)
Thus,
1 7 6
G(s)
s 1 s 2 s 3
𝑄(𝑠) 𝑄(𝑠)
𝐺 𝑠 = =
𝑃(𝑠) 𝑠 + 𝑠1 𝑠 + 𝑠2 … 𝑠 + 𝑠𝑛−𝑟 (𝑠 + 𝑠𝑖 )𝑟
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K s1 K s2 K s( n r ) A A2 Ar
G(s) 1
s s s s2 s s n r s si ( s si ) 2
(s s ) r
1 i
n  r terms of simple poles r terms of repeated poles
The (nr) coefficients Ks1, Ks2, … , Ks(n−r) which correspond to simple poles may be
evaluated as explained before. The coefficients A1 … Ar are evaluated as follows:
Ar ( s si ) r G ( s ) s s
i
Ar 1
d
ds
( s si ) r G ( s )s s
i
Ar 2
1 d2
2 ! ds 2
( s si ) r G ( s )
s s
i
A1
1 d r 1
(r 1)! ds r 1
( s si ) r G ( s )
s s
i
Example 2.4:
s j and s   j
K j ( s j )G(s)
s j
K j ( s j )G( s)
s j
Example 2.5:
3 3
G ( s)
s ( s 2s 5) s( s 1 j 2)( s 1 j 2)
2
K K 1 j 2 K 1 j 2
0
s s 1 j2 s 1 j2
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3 3
K0 2
s 2s 5 s 0 5
3 3
K 1 j 2 (2 j1)
s ( s 1 j 2) s 1 j 2 20
3 3
K 1 j 2 (2 j1)
s ( s 1 j 2) s 1 j 2 20
3
3 2 j1 2 j1
G ( s ) 5
s 20 s 1 j 2 s 1 j 2
3 3
g (t )
5 20
(2 j1)e ( 1 j 2 )t (2 j1)e ( 1 j 2 )t
3 3
e t (2e j 2t 2e j 2t ) j (e j 2t e j 2t )
5 20
3 3 e j 2t e j 2t e j 2t e j 2t
e t 4 2
5 20 2 j2
3 3 t 1
e cos 2t sin 2t
5 5 2
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1. Derive equations for a unit step, ramp, impulse and sinusoidal response in time domain.
2. In a unit step response graph, what is the relationship between final value theorem and steady
state error?
5
𝐹 𝑠 =
𝑠2 + 3𝑠 + 2
2
𝐹 𝑠 =
𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 2)2
Monitoring systems, such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, which
provide information about the process state to the operator;
Sequencing systems, used where some process must follow a predefined sequence of discrete
events;
Closedloop systems, which is widely taught in engineering course, are typically implemented to
give some process a set of desired performance characteristics
The history of feedback control system begun as early as in 1769 when James Watt’s steam engine and
governor are developed. The Watt stem engine often used to mark the beginning of the Industrial
Revolution in England. The revolution of automatic control system continues in which the first ever
autonomous rover vehicle, known as Sojourner was invented in 1997.
But before we go into further details, we have to know control systems’ terms and concepts. The
frequently used terms and concepts are as follow:
A system is said to be an open loop system when the system’s output has no effect on the control
action. In open loop system, the output is neither measured nor fed back for comparison with the input.
An open loop control system utilizes an actuating device (or controller) to control the process directly
without using feedback as shown in Figure 2.4.
The advantages and the disadvantages of an openloop control system is tabulated in table 2.1 below
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Simple and ease of maintenance Disturbances and changes in calibration
Less expensive cause errors
Stability is not a problem Output may be different from what is
Convenient when output is hard to desired
measure
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A system that maintains a prescribed relationship between the output and the reference input is called a
closedloop system or a feedback control system. The system uses a measurement of the output and
feedback of the signal to compare it with the desired output.
In a closedloop control system, the actuating error signal, which is the difference between the input
signal and the feedback signal, is fed to the controller so as to reduce the error and bring the output of
the system to a desired value.
The table below shows the comparison between the two systems:
The transfer function of a linear system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output
variable to the Laplace transform of the input variable, with all initial conditions assumed to be zero. The
Transfer function of a system (or element) represents the relationship describing the dynamics of the
system under consideration. A transfer function may be defined only for a linear, stationary (constant
parameter) system. A nonstationary system often called a timevarying system, has one or more time
varying parameters, and the Laplace transformation may not be utilized. Furthermore, a transfer
function is an inputoutput description of the behavior of a system. Thus the transfer function
description does not include any information concerning the internal structure of the system and its
behavior.
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The transfer function of a LTI system is defined as the Laplace transform of the impulse response, with
all the initial conditions set to zero.
G(s) L[ g (t )]
The transfer function is related to the Laplace transform of the input and the output through the
following relation:
Y ( s)
G( s)
R( s )
where all the initial conditions set to zero, and Y (s) and R(s) are the Laplace transform of y (t ) and
r (t ) respectively.
Although the transfer function of a linear system is defined in terms of the impulse response, in practice,
the inputoutput relation of a linear timeinvariant system with continuous–data input is often described
by the differential equation, so it is more convenient to derive the transfer function directly from the
differential equation.
Let us consider that the inputoutput relation of a linear timeinvariant system is described by the
following nthorder differential equation with constant real coefficients:
To obtain the transfer function of the linear system that is represented by Eq. (2.3), we simply take the
Laplace transform on both sides of the equation and assume zero initial conditions. The result is
s n
an1s n1 a1s a0 Y(s) bm s m bm1s m1 b1s b0 R(s)
Y ( s) b s m .............. b1 s b0
G( s) nm
R( s) s an1 s n1 ...... a1 s a0
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The transfer function is said to be strictly proper if m n . If m n then the transfer function is proper.
It is improper if m n .
Characteristic Equation: The characteristic equation of a LTI system is defined as the equation
obtained by setting the denominator polynomial of the transfer function to zero. Thus, the
characteristic equation of the system described by the Eq. (2.4) is
Later, we shall show that the stability of a linear singleinput singleoutput system is governed
completely by the roots of the characteristic equation.
The definition of a transfer function is easily extended to a system with multiple inputs and outputs. A
system of this type is often referred to as a multivariable system. Figure 2.6 shows a control system with
two inputs and two outputs.
Since the principle of superposition is valid for linear systems, the total effect on any output due to all
the inputs acting simultaneously is obtained by adding up the outputs due to each input acting alone.
Thus, using transfer function relations we can write the simultaneous equations for the output variables
as
Y1 ( s) G11( s) R1 ( s) G12 ( s) R2 ( s)
Y2 ( s) G21( s) R1 ( s) G22 ( s) R2 ( s)
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where G ij (s) is the transfer function relating the ith output to the jth input variable. Thus
Yi ( s)
Gij
R j ( s)
In general, for j inputs and i outputs, we can write the simultaneous equations for the output variables
as
Y(s) G(s)R(s)
where
Y1 ( s )
Y ( s )
Y (s) 2
Yi ( s )
R1 ( s )
R ( s)
R( s)
2
R j ( s )
is the j 1 transformed input vector; and
G11( s ) G12 ( s ) G1 j ( s )
G ( s ) G ( s ) G ( s )
G( s)
21 22 2j
Gi1 ( s ) G i 2 ( s) Gij ( s)
is the i j transferfunction matrix.
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A stable system is defined as a system which gives a bounded output in response to a bounded input.
The concept of stability can be illustrated by considering a circular cone placed on a horizontal surface,
as shown in Fig. 2.7 and Fig. 2.8.

The stability of a dynamic system is defined in a similar manner. Let u(t), y(t), and g(t) be the input,
output, and impulse response of a linear timeinvariant system, respectively. The output of the system is
given by the convolution between the input and the system's impulse response. Then
y(t ) u (t ) g ( )d
0
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This response is bounded (stable system) if and only if the absolute value of the impulse response, g(t),
integrated over an infinite range, is finite. That is
0
g ( ) d
Mathematically, Eq. (4.24) is satisfied when the roots of the characteristic equation, or the poles of G(s),
are all located in the lefthalf of the splane.
A system is said to be unstable if any of the characteristic equation roots is located in the righthalf of
the splane. When the characteristic equation has simple roots on the jaxis and none in the righthalf
plane, we refer to the system as marginally stable.
The following table illustrates the stability conditions of a linear continuous system with reference to the
locations of the roots of the characteristic equation.
Marginally stable of marginally unstable At least one simple root and no multiple
roots on the jaxis; and no roots in the
righthalf splane.
Unstable At least one simple root in the righthalf s
plane or at least one multipleorder root
on the jaxis.
The following examples illustrate the stability conditions of systems with reference to the poles of the
closedloop transfer function M(s).
20 Stable
M ( s)
s 1s 2s 3
20( s 1) Unstable due to the pole at s = 1
M ( s)
( s 1)( s 2 2s 2)
A system is openloop stable if the poles of the loop transfer function G(s)H(s) are all in the left hand
side of splane.
Controller Plant
ysp
+ e(s)
H(s) G(s) y

A system is closed0loop stable (or simply stable) if the poles of the closedloop transfer function (or
zeros of 1+G(s)H(s) are all in the left hand side of splane
The following six basic control actions are very common among industrial automatic controllers:
In a twoposition control system, the actuating element has only two fixed positions which are, in many
cases, simply on and off. Twoposition or onoff control is relatively simple and inexpensive and, for this
reason, is very widely used in both industrial and domestic control systems.
Let the output signal from the controller be m(t) and the actuating error signal be e(t). In two position
control, the signal m(t) remains at either a maximum or minimum value, depending on whether the
actuating error signal is positive or negative, so that
Where 𝑀1 and 𝑀2 , are constants. The minimum value 𝑀2 , is usually either zero or −𝑀1 . Twoposition
controllers are generally electrical devices, and an electric, solenoidoperated valve is widely used in
such controller. Pneumatic proportional controller with very high gain act as twoposition controller and
are sometimes called pneumatic twoposition controller.
Figure 2.10 show the block diagrams for twoposition controller. The range through which the actuating
error signal must move before the switching occurs is called the differential gap.
For a controller with proportional control action, the relationship between the output of the controller
m(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is
𝑚 𝑡 = 𝐾𝑝 𝑒(𝑡)
or, in Laplace Transform
𝑀(𝑠)
= 𝐾𝑝
𝐸(𝑠)
Where 𝐾𝑝 , is termed the proportional sensitivity or the gain.
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Whatever the actual mechanism may be and whatever the form of the operating power, the
proportional controller is essentially an amplifier with and adjustable gain.
Example 2.1:
x
k
M F
b
a) The second order PDE is:
b) Taking the LT
c) The TF is therefore:
d) Let M=1kg, b=10N.s/m, k=20 N/m & F(s)=1, therefore X(s) / F(s):
e) From the Transfer Function, the DC gain is:
f) Corresponding to the steady state error of:
g) The settling time is:
0.045
0.04
0.035
0.03
Displacement (m)
0.025
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
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P control (K) reduces the rise time, increases the overshoot and reduces the steady state error.
1.2
1
Displacement (m)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
Rise time and ss error reduced, slightly reduced settling time but increased overshoot.
In a controller with integral control action, the value of the controller output m(t) is changed at a rate
proportional to, the actuating error signal e(t). That is
𝑑𝑚(𝑡)
= 𝐾𝑖 𝑒(𝑡)
𝑑𝑡
𝑡
Therefore; 𝑚 𝑡 = 𝐾𝑖 0 𝑒 𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑀(𝑠) 𝐾𝑖
=
𝐸(𝑠) 𝑠
If the value of e(t) is doubled, then the value of m(t) varies twice as fast. For zero actuating error, the
value of m(t) remains stationary.
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load disturbance
ysp 1 y
+
e K u
sTi plant

Figure 2.11: Automatic reset action
K
load disturbance
ysp 1 y
e K u
sTi plant
+

Figure 2.12: PI control
The integral term may be expressed in (i) 𝑇𝑖 and (ii) 𝑘𝑖
The integral term 𝑇𝑖 is known as the integral time constant. 𝑇𝑖 = ∞ corresponds to pure (proportional)
gain.
𝑘𝑖 𝐾
=
𝑠 𝑇𝑖 𝑠
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Example 2.2:
a) I control reduces the rise time, increases both settling time and overshoot, and eliminates the
steadystate error
b) The closedloop transfer function of the system with a PI controller is: X(s)/F(s) =
______________ .
c) Let k = 30 and ki = 70. P gain (k) was reduced because the I controller also reduces the rise time
and increases the overshoot as does the P controller (double effect).
1.2
1
Displacement (m)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
A derivative controller may able to provide anticipative action but derivative action can make the system
become noisy.
ysp KTd s y
c
+ 1+sTd /N plant

Figure 2.12: PD control
The integral term may be expressed in (i) 𝑇𝑑 and (ii) 𝑘𝑑
𝑘𝑑 𝑠 = 𝐾𝑇𝑑 𝑠
Example 2.3:
1.2
1
Displacement (m)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
d) Reduced overshoot and settling time, small effect on rise time and ss error
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1.2
Displacement (m)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
In some system the commonly implemented controller consist of the P, I and D control action. We call
this type of controller as PID controller.
Tds
1/(Tis)
ysp + e u y
K G(s)

1
𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾(1 + + 𝑇𝑑 𝑠)
𝑠𝑇𝑖
𝑘𝑖
Or 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾 + 𝑠
+ 𝑘𝑑 𝑠
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Example 2.4:
a) The closedloop transfer function of the system with a PID controller is:
X(s)/F(s) = (kd s2 +ks+ki )/(s3 + (10+kd)s2 + (20+k)s + ki )
b) Let k = 350, ki = 300 and kd = 50.
Closed Loop Step : K = 350, Ki = 300, Kd = 50
1.2
1
Displacement (m)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
Introducing the P, I and D controller has certainly proven to contribute some effect to our system’s
response. These effects are summarized as in table below.
When you are designing a PID controller for a given system, follow the steps shown below to obtain a
desired response.
1. Obtain an openloop response and determine what needs to be improved
2. Add a proportional control to improve the rise time
3. Add a derivative control to improve the overshoot
4. Add an integral control to eliminate the steadystate error
5. Adjust each of K, Ki, and Kd until you obtain a desired overall response referring to the table
shown previously to find out which controller controls what characteristics.
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6. It is not necessary to implement all three controllers (P, I & D) into a single system. For example,
if a PI controller gives a good enough response, then you don't need to add D control to the
system. Simple is better.
A block diagram is used to describe the composition and interconnection of a system, or it can be used
together with the transfer functions to describe the causeandeffect relationships throughout the
system. For instance, Figure 2.14 (a) shows a dc motor wiring diagram, (b) sketch, and (c) shows the
block diagram with transfer function.
We shall now define the block diagram elements used frequently in linear control systems and the
related algebra. All component parts of a block diagram for linear timeinvariant systems are shown in
Figure 2.15.
The characteristic of the summing junction as shown in Figure 2.15 (c) is that the output signal, C (s) , is
the algebraic sum of the input signals. The figure shows three inputs, but any number can be presented.
A pickoff point, as shown in Figure 2.15 (d), distributes the input signal, R(s) , undiminished, to several
output points.
Figure 2.16 shows the block diagram of a linear feedback control system. The following terminology is
defined with reference to the diagram.
M (s) C (s) R(s) or Y (s) R(s) = closedloop transfer function or system transfer function.
M (s) can be expressed as a function of G(s) and H (s) . From Figure 2.16, we write
Y ( s) G( s) E ( s)
B( s) H ( s)Y ( s)
Thus,
Y ( s ) G ( s) R( s) G ( s ) B( s)
Y ( s) G( s)
M ( s)
R( s ) 1 G ( s) H ( s)
The block diagram representation of a given system often can be reduced by block diagram reduction
techniques to a simplified block diagram with fewer blocks than the original diagram. Table below shows
some of the block diagram reduction techniques.
The block diagram reduction technique is based on the utilization of rule 6 in which eliminates feedback
loops. Therefore, the other transformations are used to transform the diagram to a form ready for
eliminating feedback loops.
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For parallel subsystems as shown below in (a), the reduction technique is shown in (b).
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A block diagram of a multipleloop feedback control system is shown in Figure 25. It is interesting to
note that the feedback signal H1(s)Y(s) is a positive feedback signal, and the loop G3(s)G4(s)H1(s) is called
a positive feedback loop. First, to eliminate the loop G3G4H1, we move H2 behind block G4 by using rule
4, and therefore obtain Figure 26 (a).
Eliminating the loop G3G4H1 by using rule 6, we obtain Figure 26 (b). Then, eliminating the inner loop
containing H2/G4, we obtain Figure 26 (c). Finally, by reducing the loop containing H3, we obtain the
closedloop system transfer function as shown in Figure 26 (d).
The block diagram representation of feedback control systems is a valuable and widely used approach.
The block diagram provides the analyst with a graphical representation of the interrelationships of
controlled and input variables. Furthermore, the designer can readily visualize the possibilities for
adding blocks to the existing system block diagram to alter and improve the system performance. The
transition from the block diagram method to a method utilizing a line path representation instead of a
block representation is readily accomplished and is presented in the following section.
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Block diagrams are adequate for the representation of the interrelationships of controlled and input
variables. However, for a system with reasonably complex interrelationships, the block diagram
reduction technique is cumbersome and often quite difficult to complete. An alternative method for
determining the relationship between system variables has been developed by Mason and is based on a
representation of the linear system by line segments called SignalFlow Graph (SFG).
The advantage of the SFG method is the availability of a flow graph gain formula, which provides the
relation between system variables without requiring any reduction procedure or manipulation of the
flow graph.
When constructing a SFG, junction points or nodes are used to represent variables. The nodes are
connected by line segments, called branches. A signal can transmit through a branch only in the
direction of the arrow.
For instance, consider that a linear system is represented by a simple algebraic equation
y2 a12 y1
where y1 is the input, y2 the output, and a12 the gain between two variables. The SFG is shown in Figure
29.
a12
Y1 Y2
y2 a12 y1 a32 y3
y3 a23 y2 a43 y4
y4 a24 y 2 a34 y3 a44 y4
y5 a25 y2 a45 y4
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2. Nodes are used to represent variables. Normally, the nodes are arranged from left to right,
from input to output.
3. Signals travel along branches only in the direction described by the arrows of the branches.
Figure 2.18 (a & b): Modification of SFG so that y2 become output node
Based on the properties of the SFG, we can outline the following manipulation rules and algebra of SFG.
1. The value of the variable represented by a node is equal to the sum of all the signals
entering the node. For the SFG of Figure 2.20 (a),
2. The value of the variable represented by a node is transmitted through all branches
leaving the node. In Figure 2.20 (a), we have
y6 a16 y1
y7 a17 y1
y8 a18 y1
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Figure 2.20
3. Parallel branches in the same direction connecting two nodes can be replaced by a
single branch with the gain equal to the sum of gains of the parallel branches. Example:
Figure 2.20 (b).
4. A series connection of unidirectional branches can be replaced by one branch with gain
equal to the product of branch gains.
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The overall gain between the input node yin and output node yout of a SFG with N forward paths and L
loops is given by
y P k k
M out k
, k 1,2, N
yin
where
1. Identify the no. of forward paths and determine the forwardpath gains.
3. Identify the nontouching loops taken two at a time, three at a time and so on. Determine the
product of the nontouching loop gains.
y P k k
M out k
, k 1,2, N
yin
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Care must be taken when applying the gain formula to ensure that it is applied between an input node
and an output node.
Example 2.8: Consider the SFG of a closed loop control system as given in Figure below. By using the
1. There is only one forward path between R(s) and Y (s) , and the forwardpath gain is
P1 = G(s) .
4. = 1  L1 = 1 G( s) H ( s) and 1 = 1.
5. Thus,
Y ( s) P11 G( s)
R( s ) 1 G( s) H ( s)
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Example 2.9: For the system shown in Figure below, determine the gain between y1 and y5.
Loop 4: y4 – y4 L4 = a44
= 1 – (a23 a32 + a34 a43 + a24 a43 a32 + a44) + a23 a32 a44
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All the loops are in touch with forward path P1, thus 1 = 1.
All the loops are in touch with forward path P2, thus 2 = 1.
Two loops (y3 – y4 – y3 and y4 – y4) are not touching with forward path P3.
5. Thus,
y 5 P1 1 P2 2 P3 3
M
y1
(a12 a 23a34 a 45 ) (a12 a 24 a 45 ) (a12 a 25 )(1 a34 a 43 a 44 )
1 (a 23a32 a34 a 43 a 24 a32 a 43 a 44 ) a 23a32 a 44
Example 2.10: Consider the SFG as shown in the figure. The following inputoutput relation is obtained
by use of the gain formula:
where
1 G1 H1 G3 H 2 G1G2G3 H 3 H 4 G1G3 H1 H 2
G1 H1 H 4 G3 H 2 H 4 G1G2G3 H 3 H 4 G1G3 H1 H 2 H 4
An equivalent SFG for a block diagram can be drawn by performing the following steps:
1. Identify the input/output signals, summing junctions & pickoff points → they are replaced with
nodes.
2. Interconnect the nodes & indicate the directions of signal flow by using arrows.
3. Identify the blocks  they are replaced with branches.
For each negative sum, a negative sign is included with the branch.
Example 2.11: Convert the block diagram in the figure to a signal flow graph and determine the transfer
function using Mason’s gain formula.
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P1 = G1G2G3
P2 = G1G4
L1 = −G1G2H1
L2 = −G2G3H2
L3 = −G1G2G3
L4 = −G1G4
L5 = −G4H2
4. ∆ = 1 – (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 + L5)
All the loops are in touch with forward path P1, thus 1 = 1.
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All the loops are in touch with forward path P2, thus 2 = 1
5. Thus,
Y P1 1 P2 2
R
G1G2 G3 G1G4
1 G1G2 H 1 G2 G3 H 2 G1G2 G3 G1G4 G4 H 2
State space approach is an alternative method for representing physical system. In order to use this
approach, we have to limit our approach to linear, timeinvariant systems or system that can be
linearized by the methods we have covered previously.
In state space method, the models are constructed in the time domain. This means we can work directly
with the governing differential equations to model, analyze and design a wide range of system. In
contrast, classical control design practices looking at the frequency domain output to interpret system’s
physical dynamics. With the arrival of space exploration, requirements for control systems increased in
scope. Hence the use of classical control design seems inadequate.
Many systems do not have just a single input. Multipleinput, multipleoutput systems can be compactly
represented in state space with a model similar in form and complexity to that used for singleinput,
singleoutput systems. To address the multiple input and output system a convenient matrix based is
used in representing the state space. In addition, the state space approach is also attractive because of
the availability of numerous statespace software packages for the personal computer
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The table below outlines the advantages and disadvantages of state space models
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Multiple input / output models are now Difficult to examine robustness (stability
possible margins)
Possible to minimize “error critera” More work than classical control for
(optimal control) “simple” problems
Possible to examine stability in more
depth “optimal” systems require “optimal” error
Ideally suited to computerbased design criteria
and analysis
Note: The selection of state variables is not unique. In the first instance, it is often reasonable to
choose something with “physical meaning”, often something associated with system “energy”
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We begin our state space equation with a state equation. A state equation consist of the state equation
and output equation as follows:
𝑥 = 𝐴𝑥 + 𝐵𝑢 State Equation
𝑦 = 𝐶𝑥 + 𝐷𝑢 Output Equation
D = (m x r) direct transmission matrix that describes how r inputs are fed through to m outputs.
LECTURER’S NOTES:
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LECTURER’S NOTES:
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The ability to adjust the transient and steadystate response of a control system is a beneficial outcome
of the design of feedback systems. Since time is used as an independent variable in most of control
systems, it is usually of interest to evaluate the state and output responses with respect to time, or
simply the time response.
In the analysis problem, we will use selected input signals to test the response of control systems. This
response will be characterized by a selected set of response measures. In this chapter, we will strive to
delineate a set of quantitative performance measures that adequately represent the performance of the
control systems.
The time response of a control system is usually divided into two parts: the transient response and the
steadystate response. Let y(t) denote the time response of a continuousdata system; then, in general,
it can be written as
where yt(t) denotes the transient response and yss(t) denotes the steadystate response.
In control systems, the transient response is defined as the part of the time response that goes to zero
as time becomes very large. Thus yt(t) has the property
lim yt (t ) 0 (3.2)
t
The steadystate response is simply the part of the total response that remains after the transient has
died out. All real stable systems exhibit transient phenomena to some extent before the steady state is
reached.
In the design problem, specifications are usually given in terms of the transient and steadystate
performance, and controllers are designed so that the specifications are all met by the design system.
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Since it is difficult to design a control system that will perform satisfactorily for all possible forms of
input signals, it is necessary, for the purpose of analysis and design, to assume some basic types of test
signals properly for the prediction of the system's performance to other more complex inputs.
The stepfunction input represents an instantaneous change in the reference input. The mathematical
representation of a step function of magnitude A is
A t0
r (t )
0 t0
Mathematically, r(t) = Aus(t), where us(t) is the unitstep function. The step function is shown in Fig.
3.1(a).
The ramp function is a signal that changes constantly with time. Mathematically, a ramp function is
represented by
r (t ) Atu s (t )
The parabolic function represents a signal that is one order faster than the ramp function.
Mathematically, it is represented by
At 2
r (t ) u s (t )
2
The parabolic function is shown in Fig. 3.1(c).
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Figure 3.1: Test input signals: (a) Step, (b) Ramp, (c) Parabolic.
3.2 First & Second Order System: Transient & Steady State Response
For linear control systems, the time response is characterized by using the unitstep input. The response
of the control system to the unitstep input is called the unitstep response. Fig. 3.2 illustrates a typical
unitstep response of a linear control system. With reference to the unitstep response, the following
performance criteria (parameters) are defined:
1. Maximum overshoot: Let ymax denotes the maximum value of y(t) and yss be the steadystate value of
y(t) and ymax yss. The maximum overshoot of y(t) is defined as,
maximum overshoot
Percentage of maximum overshoot 100% (3.3)
y ss
2. Delay time: The delay time, td is defined as, the time required for the step response to reach 50% of
its final value.
3. Rise time: The rise time, tr is defined as, the time required for the step response to rise from 10 to 90
percent of its final value.
4. Settling time: The settling time, ts is defined as, the time required for the step response to reach and
stay within a specified percentage (5%) of its final value.
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Analytically, these quantities are difficult to establish, except for simple systems that are lower than the
third order.
Although it is true that secondorder control systems are rare in practice, their analysis generally helps
to form a basis for the understanding of analysis and design of higherorder systems, especially the ones
that can be approximated by secondorder systems.
Consider that a secondorder control system with unity feedback is represented by the block diagram
shown in Fig. 3.3. The openloop transfer function of the system is
n2
G( s) (3.5)
ss 2 n
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where ζ and n are real constants. The closedloop transfer function of the system is
Y ( s) n2
(3.6)
R( s) s 2 2 n s n2
The characteristic equation of the prototype of the secondorder system is obtained by setting the
denominator of Eq. (3.6) to zero
The system is stable (Bounded output for bounded input) if the roots of the characteristic equation is
located on the left half of splane, and marginally stable (Oscillation for a bounded input) if the
characteristic equation has simple roots on the imaginary axis with all other roots on the left half of s
plane. For an unstable (Unbounded output for any bounded input) system, the characteristic equation
has at least one root on the right half of the splane or it has a repeated j roots.
n 2
Y ( s) (3.8)
s( s 2 2 n s n )
2
By taking inverse Laplace transform, we obtain the unit step response of the control system
y (t ) 1
e nt
1 2
sin n 1 2 t cos 1 t0 (3.9)
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Fig. 3.4 shows the unitstep response of the secondorder system for various values of . It may be
noted that the response becomes more oscillatory with larger overshoot as decreases.
The effects of the system parameters ζ and n on the step response y(t) can be studied by referring to
the roots of the characteristic equation in Eq. (4.7). The roots can be expressed as
s1 , s2 n jn 1 2
(3.10)
j
where
= ζn (3.11)
and
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n 1 2 (3.12)
The physical significance of ζ and is now investigated. As seen from Eq. (4.9), the factor = n
appears as a constant multiplied by t in the exponential term of the response y(t). Therefore, controls
the rate of rise or decay of the unitstep response y(t). In other words, controls the "damping" of the
system and is called the damping factor.
The inverse of , 1/ is proportional to the time constant of the system. When = 1, the oscillations
disappear and the system is said to be critically damped. Under this condition, = n. Thus, we can
regard as
When < 1, the system is underdamped and when > 1, the system is overdamped.
The parameter n is defined as the natural undamped frequency. As seen from Eq. (3.10), when = 0,
the roots of the characteristic equation are imaginary. Thus, the unitstep response of the system
becomes purely oscillatory with angular frequency of n. For 0 < < 1, the imaginary parts of the roots
have the magnitude of the actual (damped) frequency of oscillation. Thus
n 1 2
Fig. 3.5 illustrates the relationships between the location of the roots of the characteristic equation and
, ζ, and n.
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Figure 3.5: The relationships between the location of the roots of the characteristic equation and , ζ,
and n.
The effect of the roots of the characteristic equation on the damping of the secondorder system is
illustrated in Fig. 3.6.
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Figure 3.6: Stepresponse comparison for various locations of the roots of the characteristic equation in
the splane.
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By taking the derivative of Eq. (3.9) with respect to time t and setting the result to zero, we get
dy (t ) n
e nt sin n . 1 2 . t (3.14)
dt 1 2
n 1 2 t n n 0,1,2,...
n
t n 0,1,2,... (3.15)
n 1 2
For the unitstep responses shown in Fig. 3.4, the first overshoot is the maximum overshoot. This
corresponds to n = 1 in Eq. (4.15). Thus, the time at which the maximum overshoot occurs is
tmax (3.16)
n 1 2
With reference to Fig. 3.4, the overshoots occur at odd values of n, that is, n =1, 3, 5, …, and
undershoots occur at even values of n.
The magnitude of the overshoots and undershoots can be determined by subistituting Eq. (3.14) into Eq.
(3.9). This results in y(t)max or min . Therefore
The relationship between the percent maximum overshoot and the damping ratio, as given in Eq. (3.18),
is plotted in Fig. 3.7.
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Figure 3.7: The relationship between the percent maximum overshoot and the damping ratio.
It is more difficult to determine the exact analytical expressions of the delay time td, rise time tr, and
settling time ts. However, we can utilize the linear approximation
1 0.7
td 0 1.0 (3.19)
n
The plot of ntr versus ζ is shown in Fig. 3.8. This relation can be approximated by a straight line over a
limited range of ζ.
0.60 2.16
tr 0 1 (3.20)
n
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Figure 3.8: Normalized rise time versus ζ for the prototype secondorder system.
2. Increasing (decreasing) the natural undamped frequency n will reduce (increase) tr and td.
3
ts (3.21)
n
We can summarize the relationships between ts and the system parameters as follows:
1. For ζ < 0.69, the settling time is inversely proportional to ζ and n. A practical way of reducing
the settling time is to increase n while holding ζ constant.
2. For ζ > 0.69, the settling time is proportional to ζ and inversely proportional to n. Again, ts can
be reduced by increasing n.
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The discussions in the preceding sections lead to the conclusion that the stability of a linear time
invariant system can be determined by checking on the location of the roots of the characteristic
equation. When the system parameters are all known, the roots of the characteristic equation can be
solved by means of a rootfinding computer program.
For design purposes, there will be unknown or variable parameter embedded in the characteristic
equation, and it will be feasible to use the rootfinding programs. The method outlined below is well
known for the determination of stability of a LTI system without involving root solving.
The RouthHurwitz criterion represents a method of determining the location of zeros of a polynomial
with constant real coefficients with respect to the left and right half of the splane, without actually
solving for the zeros.
Consider that the characteristic equation of a linear timeinvariant SISO system is of the form
where all the coefficients are real. In order that Eq. (3.25) does not have roots in the right half of s
plane, it is necessary and insufficient that the following conditions hold:
However, these conditions are not sufficient, for it is quite possible that an equation with all its
coefficients nonzero and of the same sign still will not have all the roots in the left half of the splane.
The first step in the RouthHurwitz criterion is to arrange the coefficients of the Eq. (3.25) as follows:
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sn an an2 an4
n 1
s an1 a n 3 a n 5
sn an an 2 an 4
n 1
s an 1 an 3 an 5
s n2 bn 1 bn 3 bn 5
s n 3 cn 1 cn 3 cn 5
s0 hn 1
where
1 an an2
bn1
an1 an1 a n 3
1 an an 4
bn3
an1 an1 a n 5
1 an1 a n 3
cn1
bn1 bn1 bn3
and so on.
Once the Routh's tabulation has been completed, we investigate the signs of the coefficients in the first
column of the tabulation. The roots of the equation are all in the left half of the splane if all the
elements of the first column of the Routh's tabulation are of the same sign. The number of changes of
signs in the elements of the first column equal the number of roots with positive real parts or in the right
half splane.
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s 2s 1s 3 s3 4s 2 s 6 0
This equation has one negative coefficient. Thus, we know without applying Routh's test that not all the
roots of the equation are in the lefthalf splane. In fact, from the factored form of the equation, we
know that there are two roots in the righthalf splane, at s = 2 and s = 3. For the purpose of illustrating,
the Routh's tabulation is made as follows:
s3 1 1
s2 4 6
s1 2 .5 0
s0 6 0
Since there are two sign changes in the first column of the tabulation, the equation has two roots
located in the righthalf splane.
2s 4 s 3 3s 2 5s 10 0
Since this equation has no missing terms and the coefficients are all of the same sign, it satisfies the
necessary conditions for not having roots in the right half or on the imaginary axis of the splane.
However, since these conditions are necessary but not sufficient, we have to check the Routh's
tabulation.
s4 2 3 10
s3 1 5 0
s2 7 10 0
s1 6.43 0 0
s0 10 0 0
Since there are two changes in the first column of the tabulation, the equation has two roots in the right
half of the splane.
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Depending on the coefficients of the equation, the following difficulties may occur that prevent the
Routh's tabulation from completing properly:
1. The first element in any one row of Routh's tabulation is zero, but the others are not.
In the first case, we replace the zero element in the first column by an arbitrary small positive number ,
and then proceed with Routh's tabulation. This is illustrated by the following example:
s 4 s 3 2s 2 2s 3 0
Since all the coefficients are nonzero and of the same sign, we need to apply the RouthHurwitz
criterion. Routh's tabulation is carried out as follows:
s4 1 2 3
s3 1 2 0
s2 0 3
Since the first element of the s2 row is zero, the element in the s1 row would all be infinite. To overcome
this difficulty, we replace the zero in the s2 row by a small positive number and then proceed with the
tabulation.
s2 3
3
s 1
0
s0 3 0
Since there are two sign changes in the first column of Routh's tabulation, the equation has two roots in
the righthalf splane.
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In the second special case, when all the elements in one row of Routh's tabulation are zeros before the
tabulation is properly terminated, it indicates that one or more of the following conditions may exist.
1. The equation has at least one pair of real roots with equal magnitude but opposite signs.
3. The equation has pairs of complexconjugate roots forming symmetry about the origin of the s
plane (e.g. s = 1 j1, s = 1 j1).
The situation with the entire row of zeros can be remedied by using the auxiliary equation A(s) = 0,
which is formed from the coefficients of the row just above the row of zeros in Routh's tabulation. The
roots of the auxiliary equation also satisfy the original equation. To continue with Routh's tabulation
when a row of zeros appears, we conduct the following steps:
1. Form the auxiliary equation A(s) = 0 by use of the coefficients from the row just preceding the
row of zeros.
2. Take the derivative of the auxiliary equation with respect to s; this gives dA(s)/ds = 0.
Example 3.4: Consider the following characteristic equation of a linear control system:
s 5 4s 4 8s 3 8s 2 7s 4 0
s5 1 8 7
s4 4 8 4
s3 6 6 0
s2 4 4
s1 0 0
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A(s) = 4s2 + 4 = 0
dA(s)/ds = 8s = 0
s1 8 0
s0 4
Since there are no sign changes in the first column, the system is stable. Solving the auxiliary equation
A(s) = 0, we get the two roots at s = j and s = j, which are also two of the roots of the characteristic
equation. Thus, the equation has two roots on the jaxis, and the system is marginally stable. These
imaginary roots caused the tabulation to have an entire row of zeros in the s1 row.
Example 3.5: Consider that a thirdorder control system has the characteristic equation
s3 1 1204 10 3
s2 3408.3 1.5 10 7 k
1.5 10 7 k 3408 1204 10 3
s1 0
3408
s0 1.5 10 7
For the system to be stable, all the coefficients in the first column must have the same sign. This lead to
the following conditions:
0 k 273.57
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If we let k = 273.57, the characteristic equation will have two roots on the jaxis. To find these roots,
we substitute k = 273.57 in the auxiliary equation, as follows:
Thus if the system operate with k = 273.57, the system response will be an undamped sinusoid with a
frequency of 1097.27 rad/sec.
One of the objectives of most control systems is that the system output response follows a specific
reference signal accurately in the steady state. Steadystate error is the difference between the output
and the reference in the steady state. Steadystate errors in control systems are almost unavoidable and
generally derive from the imperfections, frictions, and the natural composition of the system. In the
design problem, one of the objectives is to keep the steadystate error below a certain tolerable value.
Let us refer to the closedloop system shown in Fig. 3.11, where r(t) is the input, e(t) the actuating signal,
and y(t) is the output. The error of the system may be defined as:
where the reference signal is the signal that the output is to track. When the system has unity feedback
(i.e. H(s) = 1), the error is simply
e(t ) r (t ) y(t )
sR( s) (3.27)
lim
s 0 1 G ( s )
Clearly, ess depends on the characteristics of G(s). More specifically, ess depends on the number of poles
that G(s) has at s = 0. This number is known as the system type. Fig. 3.12 shows steady state errors for
different input functions.
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Figure 3.12: Steadystate errors (a) step input, (b) ramp input
Now let us investigate the effects of the types of inputs on the steadystate error.
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When the input r(t) to a control system with unityfeedback is a step function with magnitude A, then
R(s) = A/s and the steadystate error is written from Eq. (4.27),
sR( s) A A
ess lim lim (3.28)
s 0 1 G(s) s 0 1 G( s) 1 lim G( s)
s 0
k p lim G(s)
s 0
A
ess (3.29)
1 k p
A
Type 0 system: ess = constant
1 k p
When the input to the unityfeedback control system is a ramp function with amplitude A,
r (t ) Atu s (t )
A
R( s)
s2
A A
ess lim (3.30)
s 0 s sG( s ) lim sG( s)
s 0
kv lim sG( s)
s0
A
ess (3.31)
kv
The following conclusions may be stated with regard to the steadystate error of a system with ramp
input:
At 2
r (t ) u s (t )
2
The Laplace transform of r(t) is
A
R( s )
s3
The steadystate error of the system is
A
ess (3.32)
lim s 2 G ( s)
s 0
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A
ess (3.34)
ka
The following conclusions are made with regard to the steadystate error of a system with parabolic
input:
Example 3.5: Find the steady state errors of the following system
k ( s 3.15)
G( s) H(s) 1
s( s 1.5)(s 0.5)
It is clear that this system is a type 1 system. The steadystate errors are:
For nonunity feedback control, we usually find the equivalent unityfeedback system, as shown in Fig.
3.13.
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Figure 3.13: Forming an equivalent unity feedback for nonunity feedback system.
We have to take into consideration, that the above steps require that input and output of the same
units. The following example summarizes the concepts of steadystate error, system type, and the
steady state errors.
Example 3.6: For the system shown in Fig. 4.14, find the system type and the steady state error for the
unit step function. Assume input and output units are the same.
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The first step in solving the problem is to convert the system of Fig. 3.14 into an equivalent unity
feedback system. Using the equivalent forward transfer function of Fig. 3.13(e) along with
100
G( s)
s( s 10)
and
1
H ( s)
s5
we find
G( s) 100( s 5)
Ge ( s) 3
1 G( s) H ( s) G( s) s 15s 2 50s 400
100 5 5
k p lim Ge ( s)
s 0 400 4
1
ess 4
1 kp
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In practice, the performance of a control system is measured more realistically by its timedomain
characteristics. The reason is that the performance of most control systems is judged based on the time
response due to certain test signals.
In design problems, there are no unified methods of arriving at a designated system that meets time
domain performance specifications. On the other hand, in frequency domain, a wealth of graphical and
other techniques are available that are useful for system analysis and design, irrespective of the order of
the system.
It is important to realize that there are correlating relations between the frequency and timedomain
performances in linear system so that timedomain properties of the system can be predicted based on
the frequency–domain characteristics. With these in mind, we shall study the frequency response
analysis of control systems.
It is well known from linear system theory that, when the input to a linear time invariant system is
sinusoidal with amplitude R and frequency o, i.e.,
the steadystate output of the system, y(t), will be a sinusoid with the same frequency o, but possibly
with different amplitude and phase; i.e.
where Y is the amplitude of the output sine wave and is the phase shift.
Let the transfer function of a SISO system be M(s); the output Y(s) and the input R(s) are related through
Y(s) M(s)R(s)
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For sinusoidal steadystate analysis, we replace s by j, and equation (6.3) becomes
Y ( j ) Y ( j ) Y ( j )
M ( j ) M ( j ) M ( j )
Y ( j ) M ( j ) R( j )
Thus, for the input and output signals described by equations (6.1) and (6.2),
Y M ( jo ) R
M ( jo )
Thus, by knowing the transfer function M(s), the frequency response of the system can be obtained.
The frequency response of the loop transfer function G(s)H(s) [G(s) if H(s) is unity] can be plotted in
several ways. The two commonly used representations are:
a. Bode diagram, or Logarithmic plot.
b. Polar plot, or Nyquist plot.
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A Bode diagram consists of two graphs. One is a plot of the logarithm of the magnitude of a sinusoidal
transfer function; the other is a plot of the phase angle; both are plotted against the frequency on a
logarithmic scale.
The standard representation of the logarithmic magnitude of G(j) is 20 log G(j), where the base of
the logarithm is 10. The unit used in this representation is the decibel (dB). The curves are drawn on a
semilog paper, using the log scale for frequency and linear scale for either magnitude (in dB) or phase
angle (degrees).
The main advantage of Bode diagrams is that the multiplication of magnitudes can be converted into
addition. Furthermore, a simple asymptotic method is available for sketching the approximate curve.
Should the exact curve be desired, corrections could be made easily to these basic asymptotic plots.
In Bode diagrams, the frequency ratios are expressed in terms of octaves or decades. An octave is a
frequency band from 1 to 21, where 1 is any frequency. A decade is a frequency band from 1 to
101, where 1 is any frequency.
d. Quadratic factors, 1 2 j / n j / n
2 1
.
G(jω)H(jω) = K
Magnitude: G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = 20 log10 K (dB).
Phase angle: G(jω)H(jω) = 0°.
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For sn:
G(jω)H(jω)=(jω)n
Magnitude: G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = 20n log10 jω (dB) = 20n log10 ω (dB) (6.11)
Phase angle: G(jω)H(jω) = 90n° (a constant).
For sn:
G(jω)H(jω)=(jω)n
Magnitude: G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = −20n log10 jω (dB) = −20n log10 ω (dB) (6.12)
The Bode magnitude plots are a straight line in semi log coordinate. The slope of the line is ±20n
dB/decade i.e. the magnitude change by ±20n dB for the frequency change of 10 times. The straight line
passes through 0 dB at = 1. The phase angle () of ±j is constant and equal to ±900.The Bode plots
are shown in Fig. 6.2.
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Magnitude:
G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = ±20 log10 1 + jωT (dB)
= ±20 log10 √*1 + ω2T2] (dB) (6.11)
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To obtain asymptotic approximation we consider both very large and very small values of . For low
frequencies, such that T << 1, the log magnitude may be approximated by
At =1/T, log magnitude = 0 dB while at =10/T, log magnitude = ±20 dB. Thus, the value of
20 log T increases/decreases with 20 dB/decade. Hence, the magnitude plot can be approximated
by two straightline asymptotes, one a straight line at 0 dB for the frequency range 0 < < 1/T and the
other a straight line with slope ±20 dB/decade for the frequency range 1/T < < . The frequency,
=1/T, at which the two asymptotes meet is called the corner frequency or break frequency.
At corner frequency, G(jω)H(jω) = ±45. The phase plot can be approximated by a straight line passing
through 0 at one decade below corner frequency and ±90 at one decade above corner frequency. The
Bode plots are shown in Fig. 6.3 and Fig. 6.4.
An advantage of the Bode diagram is that for reciprocal factors, for example the factor 1/(1+jT), the
logmagnitude and phase angle curves need only be changed in sign, since
1
20 log 20 log 1 jT and phase angle of 1/(1+jT) = tan 1 T = (phase angle of
1 jT
(1+jT).
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d. Quadratic factors: G( s) H ( s) 1 2 s / n s / n
2 1
G( j ) H ( j ) 1 2 j / n j / n
2 1
Magnitude:
G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = ±20 log10 1 + 2ζ(jω/ωn)+ (jω/ωn)2 (dB)
2 2
2
= ±20 log10 1 2 2 (dB) (6.12)
n n
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If ζ > 1, this quadratic factor can be expressed as a product of two firstorder factors with real
zeros/poles. If 0 < ζ < 1, this quadratic factor is the product of two complexconjugate zeros/poles. The
asymptotic frequency response curves can be obtained as follows.
For low frequencies such that /n << 1, the log magnitude becomes ±20 log 1 = 0 dB. The low
frequency asymptote is thus a horizontal line at 0 dB. For high frequencies such that /n >> 1, the log
2
magnitude becomes 20 log 40 log dB. The equation for the high frequency asymptote is a
n
2
n
straight line with a slope of ±40 dB/decade.
The frequency n is the corner frequency. The two asymptotes just derived are independent of the value
of ζ. Fig. 6.5 shows exact curves with the straightline asymptotes and the exact phase angle curves.
2
n
tan 1 2
(6.13)
1
n
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1
Example 6.1: Sketch the Bode plot for the following function: G ( s)
s2
1 1 1 1
Solution: G ( s) , G ( j )
s2 j 2 2 j
1
2
2
1
Magnitude: 20 log G ( j ) 20 log  20log 1
2 2
G( j ) tan1
2
5
10
Phase (deg); Magnitude (dB)
15
20
25
20
To: Y(1)
40
60
80
1 0 1
10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)
The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G(j) is a plot of the magnitude of G(j) versus the phase
angle of G(j) on polar coordinates as is varied from zero to infinity. Note that, in polar plots, a
positive (negative) phase angle is measured counterclockwise (clockwise) from the positive real axis. The
polar plot is very often called the Nyquist plot in control system engineering. An example of such a plot
is shown in Fig. 6.7. Each point on the polar plot of G(j) represents the terminal point of a vector at a
particular value of . In the polar plot, it is important to show the frequency graduation of the locus.
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G( j ) H ( j ) j
1
The polar plot of G(j)H(j) = 1/j is the negative imaginary axis since
G j H ( j )
1 j 1
90 0 (6.14)
j
The polar plot of G(j)H(j) = j is the positive imaginary axis.
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G( j ) H ( j ) 1 jT
1
G j H ( j )
1 1
tan 1 T (6.15)
1 jT 1 T
2 2
1 1 1
G j 0H ( j 0) 100 and G j H j 450
T T 2
If approaches infinity, the magnitude approaches 0 and the phase angle approaches –900. The polar
plot of this transfer function is a semicircle as the frequency is varied from 0 to . It is shown in Fig. 6.8.
The center is located at 0.5 in the real axis and the radius is equal to 0.5. The lower semicircle
corresponds to 0 , and the upper semicircle corresponds to 0 .
Figure 6.8: (a) Polar plot of 1/(1+jT) ; (b)Same plot in XY plane.
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The polar plot of the transfer function 1+jT is simply the upper half of the straight line passing through
the point (1, 0) in the complex plane and parallel to the imaginary axis as shown in Fig. 6.7.
c. Quadratic factors: G(s) H (s) 1 2 s / n s / n
2 1
G( j ) H ( j ) 1 2 j / n j / n
2 1
The low and high frequency portions of the polar plot of the following transfer function
G j H ( j )
1
1 2 j / n j / n
2
Thus, the high frequency portion is tangent to the negative real axis. The polar plots are shown in Fig.
6.8.
2
n
tan 1 2
1
n
1
Figure 6.8: Polar plots of for ζ > 0.
1 2 j / n j / n
2
G j H ( j ) 1 2 j / n j / n
2
2 2
1 2 j
n n
The lowfrequency portion of the curve is:
lim G j H ( j ) 100
0
lim G j H ( j ) 1800
1
Example 6.2: Draw polar plot of G ( s)
s2
1
G( j )
j 2
1
G( j ) G( j ) tan 1
2 4 2
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10
Example 6.3: Draw polar plot for the system with G ( s)
s( s 1)( s 2)
10
Solution: G( j )
j ( j 1)( j 2)
10
G( j )
( 1) ( 2 2)
2
G( j ) 90 tan1 tan1
2
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The Cauchy criterion (from complex analysis) states that when taking a closed contour in the complex
plane, and mapping it through a complex function G(s), the number of times, N, that the plot of G(s)
encircles the origin is equal to the number of zeros, Z, of G(s) enclosed by the frequency contour minus
the number of poles, P, of G(s) enclosed by the frequency contour.
N=Z–P
Encirclements of the origin are counted as positive if they are in the same direction as the original closed
contour or negative if they are in the opposite direction.
When studying feedback control, we are not as interested in G(s)H(s) as in the closedloop transfer
function G(s)H(s)/[1+G(s)H(s)]
If 1+G(s)H(s) encircles the origin, then G(s)H(s) will enclose the point 1. Since we are interested in the
closedloop stability, we want to know if there are any closedloop poles (zeros of 1+G(s)H(s)) in the
righthalf plane.
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“A feedback control system is stable if and only if the number of counterclockwise encirclements of the
critical point (1,0) by the GH polar plot is equal to the number of poles of GH with positive real parts.”
(Nyquist Stability Criterion Definition)
Example:
• Consider the unity feedback applied to the following system
G(s)=K/[s(s+3)(s+5)]
• The loop transfer function is
G(j)H(j)=K/[s(s+3)(s+5)]K=1,s= j
• The number of openloop poles in the RH side of the splane, P = __
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Gain margin is defined as the change in open loop gain required to make the system unstable. Systems
with greater gain margins can withstand greater changes in system parameters before becoming
unstable in closed loop. Phase margin is defined as the change in open loop phase shift required to
make a closed loop system unstable.
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Bode plot is a very useful graphical tool for the analysis and design of linear control systems.
1. Gain crossover, phase crossover, gain margin, and phase margin are more easily determined on the
Bode plot.
2. For design purposes, the effects of adding controllers and their parameters are more easily visualized
on the Bode plot.
The gain margin is the difference between the magnitude curve and 0dB at the point corresponding to
the frequency that gives us a phase of −180° (the phase cross over frequency, ωp).
The phase margin is the difference in phase between the phase curve and −180° at the point
corresponding to the frequency that gives us a gain of 0dB (the gain cross over frequency, ωg).
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2500
L( s )
s( s 5)( s 50)
From the provided Bode diagram, find the GM and PM and corresponding frequencies.
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Solution:
Fig. 6.14 illustrates PM and GM of a stable and unstable system in Bode diagrams.
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Figure 6.14: Phase and Gain margins for stable and unstable systems.
If a phase shift of degrees occurs, then the system will become unstable
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i) Featurebased techniques
But before looking at PID tuning, we need to look at modeling of simple process dynamics. There are
two common approaches:
transient response methods, which look at the time domain characteristics of the system
response to a step or impulse
frequency response methods, which look at the response to an impulse, white noise or one
or more sinusoids
Stick to transient response models and very simple frequency response for the moment.
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1.5
Unit
Amplitude
1.05
1 Step
0.95 Input
0.9
0.5
Rise Time
0.1
0
0 Time Delay Settling Time
Time
Step Response
i) Peak Overshoot
Time necessary for the response to rise from 10% to 90% of its final steady state
error
Time necessary for the step response to reach some value (often 50%) of the steady
state value. Not to be confused with Dead time = Time Delay
v) Settling Time
The time taken for the step response to decrease and stay within a specified range
of the final value.
Often 1%, 2% or 5%
Defined as the ratio between two consecutive maxima of the error for a step change
in the setpoint
The value d=1/4, which is called quarter amplitude damping, is used traditionally
but is often too high
G( s)
CL( s )
1 G ( s)
n2
s 2 2 n s n2
1
1 2s / n ( s / n ) 2
2 / 1 2
d e
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16 a sL
G(s) = e
Ls
14
amplitude 12
10
4
1
2 step response for e2s
s
a 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
L time
k
2
1.5 k sL
G(s) = e
1+sT
amplitude
0.5
2 2s
step response for e
1+s
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
time
L
Response rises smoothly and is stable:
Problem:
Tangent to step response must be drawn at the location of the largest slope
k
2
1.5 k sL
G(s) = e
1+sT
.63k
amplitude
0.5
2 2s
step response for e
1+s
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
time
L
Response is 63% of final value at t = T
63% =1e1
4.1.4 Step Response Model 4 – Another alternative 3 parameter model (first order)
L+T
k
2
1.5 k sL
G(s) = e
1+sT
A1
amplitude
0.5
A2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
time
L
3 Parameter Model Alternative:
Oscillatory
3 parameters  need k, w, z
Tp
3.5
e1e2=o(1d) d = e2 / e1
3
2.5
k
amplitude
1.5
k2
G(s) =
1 s2 + 2s + 2
0.5
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
time
2
1
d = e (1 )
2 1/2
or = 2 1/2
(1 + (2/ log d) )
2 2
Tp = or =
(12)1/2 Tp(12)1/2
Time delay can be added to this model and determined as done previously in the tutorial.
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Some tuning formulas are based upon the frequency response of the plant
Parameters of interest are the ultimate gain Ku and the ultimate period Tu
Find these by first closing the loop and then disabling the integral and derivative parts of the controller
(Td=0, Ti=very large), and increasing the proportional gain until the system begins to oscillate. Gain at
this point = Ku and period of oscillation = Tu
Controller Plant
ysp
+ e(s)
K G(s) y

for the closedloop system, find controller gain that produces a 1/4 decay ratio
(overshoot of one peak is 25% of the peak before it). Let this be K25%
Ku = 2 K25%
Period of oscillation, T25%, will be approximately Tu (a little longer in practice, but close
enough)
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On a Nyquist plot:
Im G(j)
ultimate point
1 =0
+
Re G(j)
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There are several tuning law can be implemented in order to obtain the desired response. These
tuning law are as follows:
i) Ziegler – Nichols
Step Response
Generalised ZN
ZieglerNichols rule was first presented in 1942. This tuning law was developed empirically
based on large number of cases. It can be said as a standard starting point.
There are some drawbacks of using this rule mainly because it needs additional manual tuning
and not particularly robust.
Now we will employ this method for both step response and frequency response modeling.
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CONTROLLER K Ti Td Tp
TYPE
P 1/a 4L
PI 0.9/a 3L 5.7L
PID 1.2/a 2L L/2 3.4L
Example:
a= 0.218
L= 0.806
a = _____
L = _____
PID controller
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PID settings based upon ultimate gain, Ku, and ultimate period, Tu
Aims to achieve effective disturbance rejection, and acceptable set point following
CONTROLLER K Ti Td Tp
TYPE
P 0.5Ku Tu
PI 0.4Ku 0.8Tu 1.4Tu
PID 0.6Ku 0.5Tu 0.125Tu 0.85Tu
Example:
PID controller
4.3.2 The Chien, Hrones and Reswick Method – Improved ZN step response modeling
The CHN method is a modified ZN step response rules which can gives better damped closed
loop response.
The tuning method gives you two options depending on the desired response and they can be
either:
CONTROLLER K Ti Td
TYPE
P 0.3/a
PI 0.6/a 4L
PID 0.95/a 2.4L 0.42L
Option for 0% overshoot
CONTROLLER K Ti Td
TYPE
P 0.7/a
PI 0.7/a 2.3L
PID 1.2/a 2L 0.42L
Option for 20% overshoot
K 0 sL
G( s) e
1 sT
Attempts to position dominant poles that give quarter amplitude decay ratio by employing:
For PID control, 3 poles are assigned, two complex conjugate poles and the third real pole is
positioned at the same distance from the origin as the other 2 poles.
CONTROLLER K Ti Td
TYPE
P (1/a)*[1+0.35/(1)]
PI (0.9/a)*[1+0.92/(1)] [(3.33)/(1+1.2)]*L
a time
L
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amplitude
time
4.5.1 Interpretation of ZN Ultimate Gain Approach
The ZN ultimate gain approach can be interpreted as shifting a point in the Nyquist curve. The
technique is based around finding the “ultimate point”, where the Nyquist curve intercepts the real axis.
Im G(j)
ultimate point
= 1/Ku
1 =0
+
Re G(j)
I
P
D
A point on the Nyquist curve can
be moved to an arbitrary position
using PI, PD or PID control.
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The introduction of the state space representation has been discussed earlier in chapter 2.0. Please
refer to the chapter for basic overview of state space representation.
In this chapter, we will cover InsyaAllah the extension of state space representation for example the
conversion between the transfer function and state space equation. Also in this chapter we will gonna
look at how to solve the time invariant state equation, controllability and observability.
The transfer function of any system can be converted to state space equation and vice versa. Consider a
transfer function given by:
𝑌(𝑠)
= 𝐺(𝑠)
𝑈(𝑠)
𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝑢
𝑦 = 𝐂𝐱 + 𝐷𝑢
Where x is the state vector, u is the input and y is the output. The Laplace Transform of the equations:
𝑠𝐗 𝑠 − 𝐱 0 = 𝐀𝐗 𝑠 + 𝐁𝑈(𝑠)
𝑌 𝑠 = 𝐂𝐗 𝑠 + 𝐷𝑈(𝑠)
𝑠𝐗 𝑠 − 𝐀𝐗 𝑠 = 𝐁𝑈(𝑠)
Or
𝑆𝐈 − 𝐀 𝐗 𝑠 = 𝐁𝑈(𝑠)
𝐺 𝑠 = 𝐂(𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀)−1 𝐁 + 𝐷
For MIMO system that the r inputs 𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , … … . , 𝑢𝑟 and m outputs 𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , … … . , 𝑦𝑚 define as:
𝑦1 𝑢1
𝑦2 𝑢2
𝑦= . 𝑢= .
. .
𝑦𝑚 𝑢𝑟
The transfer matrix G(s) relates the output Y(s) to the input U(s), or
𝐘 𝑠 = 𝐆 𝑠 𝐔(𝑠)
Since the input vector u is r dimensional and the ouput vector y is m dimensional, the transfer matrix is
an m x r matrix.
A modern complex system may have many inputs and outputs. Let say we have a state space
representations of the following:
Consider the transfer function system defined by equation below. In this case the denominator
polynomial involves only distinct roots only.
𝑥1 −𝑝1 0 … 0 0 𝑥1 1
𝑥2 0 −𝑝2 … 0 0 𝑥2 1
. . . … . . . .
= . + . 𝑢
. . . … . .
𝑥𝑛−1 0 0 … 0 . 𝑥𝑛−1 .
𝑥𝑛 0 0 … 0 −𝑝𝑛 𝑥𝑛 1
𝑥1
𝑥2
.
𝑦 = 𝑐1 𝑐2 … 𝑐𝑛−1 𝑐𝑛
. + 𝑏0 𝑢
𝑥𝑛−1
𝑥𝑛
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Consider the case where the denominator polynomial involves multiple roots.
A state space representation of this system in the Jordan canonical form is given by:
𝑥1 −𝑝1 1 0 0 … 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥2 0 −𝑝1 1 0 … 0 𝑥2 0
𝑥3 0 0 −𝑝1 0 … 0 𝑥3 1
𝑥4 0 0 0 −𝑝4 … 0 𝑥4 1
= . + . 𝑢
. . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
𝑥𝑛 0 0 0 0 … −𝑝𝑛 𝑥𝑛 1
𝑥1
𝑥2
𝑦 = 𝑐1 𝑐2 … 𝑐𝑛−1 𝑐𝑛 ⋮ +𝑏0 𝑢
𝑥𝑛−1
𝑥𝑛
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LECTURER’S NOTE
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5.3.1 Controllability
Controllability is a test of the ability of the actuators. A system is controllable if it is possible to transfer
any state with any set of initial conditions to any final state in some finite time period. Alternatively, a
system is only controllable if every mode (or state) is connected to the control input.
A system is referred to as “stabilizable” so long as we can state control all unstable modes. This might
mean that there are some stable uncontrollable states. Strictly speaking the dynamical system described
by the pair (A;B) is said to be (statefeedback) stabilizable if there exists a state feedback u=Kx such that
A+BK is stable.
In order to test the controllability of a LTI system, the “Controllability Matrix” must be of full rank. The
Controllability matrix, 𝐂𝐨 = 𝐁 𝐀𝐁 𝐀𝟐 𝐁 … 𝐀𝐧−𝟏 𝐁 i.e the controllability matrix must be invertible. Note
the difference between rank and determinant. Often in uncontrollable systems, part of the system is
unconnected from input.
Additional tests are to show that the controllability Gramian P is positive definite, where P may be found
by the solution to the Lyapunov equation: 𝐀𝐏 + 𝐏𝐀𝐓 = −𝐁𝐁𝐓 .
Alternatively;
∞
𝑇
𝐏≡ 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 𝐁𝐁𝑇 𝑒 𝐀 𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0
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Example 1:
−1 0 1
Investigate the controllability of: 𝐀 = ,𝐁=
1 −2 2
𝐂0= 𝐁 𝐀𝐁
1 −1
𝐂0=
2 −3
Look at the determinant,
𝐂𝟎 = −1 ≠ 0
Example 2:
−1 0 1
Investigate the controllability of: 𝐀 = ,𝐁=
0 −1 3
Example 3:
5.3.2 Observability
Observability is a test of the ability of the sensors. A system is observable if every initial state x(0) can be
determined by observing the system output over some finite time period. A system is referred to as
“detectable” if all unstable modes are state observable. This may mean the system has unobservable
states which are stable. Strictly speaking the pair (C;A) is said to be detectable if there exists a matrix L
such that A+LC is stable.
In order to test the observability of an LTI system, the “Observability Matrix” must be of full rank. The
𝐂
𝐂𝐀
observability matrix, 𝐎𝐛 = 𝐂𝐀𝟐 i.e the observability matrix must be invertible.
⋮
𝐂𝐀𝐧−𝟏
Additional tests are to show that the controllability Gramian Q is positive definite, where Q may be
found by the solution to the Lyapunov equation: 𝐀𝐓 𝐐 + 𝐐𝐀 = −𝐂 𝐓 𝐂.
Alternatively;
∞
𝑇
𝐐≡ 𝑒 𝐀 𝑡 𝐂 𝑇 𝐂𝑒 𝐀𝑡 𝑑𝑡
0
Example 1:
−1 0
Investigate the observability of: 𝐀 = , 𝐂 = 1 0 and 𝐂 = 0 1
1 −2
𝐂= 1 0
𝐂𝐀 = −1 0
1 0
𝐎𝐛 =
−1 0
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𝐂𝟎 = 0
Example 2:
−1 0
Investigate the observability of: 𝐀 = ,𝐂= 1 3
1 −1
Example 3:
𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 𝑥(0)
Matrix 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 is a matrix exponential. This matrix is also known as the state transition matrix. It is
sometimes labeled as 𝜙 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 .
The state transition matrix is difficult to calculate. Hence there are two common ways of expressing it:
1. Expansion:
𝐴2 𝑡 2 𝐴𝑘 𝑡 𝑘
𝜙 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐴𝑡 = 𝐼 + 𝐴𝑡 + + ⋯+
2! 𝑘!
2. Inversion:
𝜙 𝑡 = 𝐿−1 Φ 𝑠 = 𝐿−1 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 −1
𝒙 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 𝐱 0 + 𝑒 𝐀 𝑡−𝜏 𝐁𝐮 𝜏 𝑑𝜏
0
𝐲 𝑡 = 𝐂𝐱 𝑡 + 𝐃𝐮(𝑡)
Example 1:
Φ 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 = 𝐿−1 [ 𝐬𝐼 − 𝐀 −1
]
𝑠 0 0 1 𝑠 −1
Since 𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 = − =
0 𝑠 −2 −3 −2 𝑠 + 3
1 s+3 −1
(sI − A)−1 =
s + 1 (s + 2) −2 s
𝑠+3 1
𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 2) 𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 2)
−2 𝑠
𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 2) 𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 2)
Hence Φ 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 = 𝐋−1 𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 −1
= 2𝑒 −𝑡 − 𝑒 −2𝑡 𝑒 −𝑡 − 𝑒 −2𝑡
−2𝑒 −𝑡 + 2𝑒 −2𝑡 −𝑒 −𝑡 + 2𝑒 −2𝑡
Noting that Φ−1 𝑡 = Φ(𝑡)
a) An electrohydraulic car suspension system can be modeled by the following state matrix
equation
𝑘−1
𝑥1 −1 𝑥1 𝑥
= 𝑘 + 1 𝑢
𝑥2 1 𝑥2 𝑥2
0 −
𝑘
𝑥1
𝑦 = 𝑐1 𝑐2 𝑥
2
Where 𝑥1 and 𝑥2 are suspension displacements, u is an electrical actuating signal and k is the
suspension stiffness.
i. Determine the condition for the system to be controllable
ii. If y is a single output displacement, (given as 𝑐1 𝑐2 where 𝑐1 and 𝑐2 are constants),
establish the conditions which must be avoided if the system is to remain observable.
We have discussed so far the importance of the closedloop system poles on the dynamic performance
of the system. The transientresponse specifications can be translated into desired locations for
dominant closedloop poles. The roots of the characteristic equation, which are the poles of the closed
loop system, determine the absolute and relative stability of the system. Therefore, an important study
in linear control systems is the investigation of the trajectories of the roots of the characteristic
equation, or simply, the root loci when a certain system parameter varies. The basic properties and
construction of root loci are first due to W.R. Evans (1948).
In this chapter, we will discuss the construction of root loci using simple rules. For plotting the root loci
accurately, one can always use standard computer program packages like MATLAB. The basics of root
loci should be thoroughly understood so that the engineers may be able to interpret the data provided
by root loci for system analysis and design.
Consider the secondorder system shown in Fig. 6.1, which represents a typical position control system.
The plant consists of a servomotor and load, driven by power amplifier with gain K. The openloop
transfer function of the system is
K
G( s) (6.1)
s( s 2)
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The openloop poles, marked in Fig. 5.2, are at s = 0 and s = 2. The closedloop transfer function of the
system is
Y ( s) G( s) K
2 (6.2)
R( s ) 1 G ( s ) s 2 s K
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( s ) s 2 2 s K 0 (6.3)
This second order system is always stable for positive values of K. The relative stability of the system
depends upon the location of the closedloop poles
s1, 2 1 1 K (6.4)
As K is varied from zero to infinity, the closedloop poles move in the splane as shown in Fig. 6.2. At K =
0, the root s1 is equal to the openloop pole at s = 0, and root s2 is equal to the openloop pole at s = −2.
As K increases, the roots move toward each other. The two roots meet at s = −1 for K = 1. As K is
increased further, the roots breakaway from the real axis, become complex conjugate, and since the real
part of both roots remains fixed at s = −1, the roots move along the line = −1.
A root locus of a system is a plot of the roots of the system characteristic equation (poles of the closed
loop transfer function) as some parameters of the system are varied.
The two branches ACE and BCD of the plot of Fig. 6.2 are thus two root loci of the system of Fig. 6.1.
Each root locus starts at an openloop pole with K = 0 and terminates at infinity as K . Each root
locus gives one characteristic root (closedloop pole) for a specific value of K.
The root locus plot gives us considerable information about the transient behavior of the system as gain
K is varied. From Fig. 6.2:
For 0 < K < 1, the roots are real and distinct and the system is overdamped.
For K = 1, the roots are real and repeated. Thus, the system is critically damped.
For K > 1, the roots are complex conjugate and the system is underdamped with the value of
decreasing as K increases.
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Thus, by choosing appropriate value of K, we can cause a characteristic root at any point on root locus.
For example, the dashed lines in Fig. 5.2 correspond to = 0.707. The points where the root loci cross
the dashed lines have been marked . These points corresponds to the closed loop poles for K = 2.
KG(s)
Consider the control system shown in Fig. 6.3. The closedloop transfer function is
Y ( s) KG ( s)
(6.5)
R( s) 1 KG ( s) H ( s)
Let K be a positive quantity. The roots of the characteristics equation must satisfy the expression
1 + KG(s)H(s) = 0 (6.6)
Thus, any point s is a closedloop pole or a root of the characteristic equation, if it satisfies the following
conditions (K > 0):
The angle condition is used to determine the trajectory of the loci in the splane.
Once the root loci are drawn, the values of K on the loci are determined by using the magnitude
condition.
Graphical Interpretation
K ( s z1 )(s z2 ) ( s zm )
Let KG ( s) H ( s) (6.10)
( s p1 )(s p2 ) ( s pn )
The magnitude condition becomes
m
s z
i
1
G(s) H (s) i 1
(6.11)
s p
n
K
j
j 1
In Fig 6.4, let us assume a complex pole and real zero: s+p1 and s+z1 represent the respective vectors in
the complex plane. A and B are magnitudes of vectors (s+z1) and (s+p1) and 2 and 1 are angles of (s+z1)
and (s+p1), respectively.
The difference between the sums of the angles of the vectors drawn from the zeros and those from
the poles of G(s)H(s) to s is an odd multiple of 180.
Once the root loci are constructed, the values of K along the loci can be determined. Thus, the
construction of root loci involves:
The purpose of root locus is to show in graphical form the general trend of the roots of the characteristic
equation
(s) = 1+KG(s)H(s) = 1+F(s) = 0 (6.13)
m
s z i
where G ( s) H ( s) i 1
; mn (6.14)
s p
n
j
j 1
as the parameter K is varied from zero to infinity. Every point s = + j in the complex plane that
satisfies the angle criterion
m n
G( s) H ( s) ( s zi ) ( s p j ) (2q 1)180o ; q = 0, 1, 2, ….
i 1 j 1
is on the root locus. The value of the parameter K corresponding to a point on the root locus can be
obtained from the magnitude criterion
m
s z i
1
G( s) H ( s) i 1
s p
n
K
j
j 1
In principle, the root locus for a given F(s) can be sketched by measuring F(s) at all the points of the
complex plane and marking down those places where we find F(s) equal to an odd multiple of 1800.
However, this trialanderror method would be a very tedious task. Therefore, certain rules have been
developed for making a quick approximate sketch of the root locus. This approximate sketch provides a
guide for the selection of trial points such that a more accurate root locus can be obtained by a few
trials. Further, the approximate root locus sketch is very useful in visualizing the effects of variation of
the parameter K, the effects of shifting of polezero locations and of bringing a new set of poles and
zeros.
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The root locus for a given F(s) is to be sketched. F(s) has m zeros at s = zi and n poles at s = pj (refer to
Eq. (6.14)) where m n. These m zeros and n poles of F(s) are referred to as openloop zeros and open
loop poles, respectively.
This equation has degree n. Thus, for each real K, there are n roots. As the roots are continuous function
of the coefficients of equation, the n roots form n continuous loci as K varies from 0 to . Since the
complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs, the root loci must be symmetrical about the real axis.
Refer to Eq. (6.15). When K = 0, the equation has roots at pj (j = 1,, n), which are openloop poles.
Thus, the root loci start at openloop poles.
Eq. (6.15) can be rearranged as
1 n m
K j 1
( s p j )
i 1
( s zi ) 0
When K = , the equation has roots at –zi (i = 1, , m), which are openloop zeros. Therefore, m root
loci end on the openloop zeros.
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In case m < n, the openloop transfer function has (n  m) zeros at infinity. From the magnitude criterion,
m
s z i
1
i 1
, we find that this is satisfied by s ej as
s p
n
K
j
j 1
a
(real part of open loop poles ) (real part of open loop zeros)
nm
(2q 1)1800
a ; q 0,1,, (n m 1)
nm
This rule will be justified by referring to a polezero patterns shown in Fig. 6.5. For a point far away from
the origin, the poles and zeros can be considered to cluster at the same point, say −a, as shown in Fig.
6.5. Thus, Eq. (6.15) can be approximated as
m
K s zi
K
1 i 1
1 0 (6.16)
(s a ) nm
s p
n
j
j 1
This means that all m zeros are cancelled by poles, and only (n  m) poles are left at a.
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s p
n
j
j 1
m
(s a ) nm (6.17)
s z
i 1
i
n m
s nm p j zi s nm1 s nm n m a s nm1
j 1 i 1
( p j ) ( zi )
j 1 i 1
a (6.18)
nm
Moreover, for the point s0 to be on the root locus,
(2q 1)1800
Thus, a ; q 0,1,, (n m 1)
nm
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The (n  m) angles given by the above equation divide 3600 equally and are symmetric with respect to
real axis. The (n  m) root loci tend to along (n  m) asymptotes radiating out from s = a at angles a.
For the system of Eq. (6.19), the openloop polezeros are shown in Fig. 6.7(a). Take a point s0 on the
real axis. Join this point to all the openloop poles and zeros. It is seen that (i) poles and zeros on the real
axis to the right of this point contribute an angle of 1800 each, (ii) poles and zeros to the left of this point
contribute angle of 00 each, and (iii) the net angle contribution of a complex conjugate pole or zero pair
is always zero.
Thus, F(s)=(mr – nr)1800 = (2q+1) 1800 , q = 0, 1, 2, …
where mr = number of openloop zeros on the real axis to the right of s0 and nr = number of openloop
poles on the real axis to the right of s0. Thus, the angle criterion is satisfied if (nr – mr) or (nr + mr) is odd
and hence the rule. Thus, the real axis can be divided into segments onlocus and notonlocus; the
dividing points being the real openloop poles and zeros. The onlocus segments of the real axis
alternate as shown in Fig. 6.7(b).
Segments of root loci can exist in the right half of splane. This signifies instability. The points at which
the root loci cross the imaginary axis define the stability limits. The Routh Table determines the gains at
the stability limit. By using this gain in the auxiliary equation, the value s = j0 at the stability limit is
computed.
s4 1 43 204+2K
s3 9 143+K
s2 (244 – K)/9 204+2K
s1 (18368 – 61K – K2)/(244 – K)
s0 204+2K
For stability, 244 – K > 0, 18368 – 61K – K2 > 0, and 204 + 2K > 0. It can be seen that these conditions are
satisfied if K < 108.4. For K = 108.4, all the coefficients in s1 row are zero. Thus, the auxiliary equation is
formed from the coefficients of s2 row and is given by
244 K 2
s (204 2 K ) 0
9
For K = 108.4, the roots of the above equation lie on the j axis and are given by s = j5.28. Thus, the
root loci intersect the imaginary axis at s = j5.28 and the corresponding value of K is 108.4.
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Example 6.3: For the system of Eq. (6.19), the characteristic equation is
K(s 2 )
1 F(s) 1 0 (6.21)
(s 1 j 4 )(s 1 j 4 )(s 3 )(s 4 )
Let s0 be an arbitrary point on the root locus starting from s = 1+j4. The phase from this pole to s0 is p.
The net angle contribution of all other openloop poles and zeros at s0 is
2 (1 3 4 )
Thus, the total phase of F(s) at s0 is  p. For s0 to be on the root locus, the total phase must be 1800.
So, p = 1800 +. This is the angle of departure from the complex openloop pole.
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If s0 is very close to the pole 1+j4, then the vectors drawn from all other poles and zeros to s0 can be
approximated by the vector drawn to the pole at 1+j4, i.e., we consider s0 to be 1+j4 for measurement
of angles 1, 2, 3, and 4. With this approximation, for this example, 1 = 900, 2 = 760, 3 = 630, and 4 =
530. So, 2 (1 3 4 ) 1300 and p = 1800 + = 500. A rough sketch of the root locus for this
There are four openloop poles, so there are four loci. One locus departs from real pole at –3 and ends
on the zero at –2 along the real axis. The second locus departs from real pole at –4 and moves along the
asymptote on the negative real axis. The third locus departs from the complex pole at –1+j4 with a
departure angle of p = 500 and moves toward the asymptote radiating from the centroid at –7/3 at an
angle of +600; it crosses the imaginary axis at j5.28. Using the symmetry property, the fourth locus is
obtained immediately by reflection about the real axis.
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K ( s 2 1)
1 F ( s) 1 0 (6.22)
s( s 2)
The polezero map of this F(s) is shown in Fig. 6.10. Open loop poles: s = 0, –2. Openloop zeros: s = j1.
Let s0 be an arbitrary point on the root locus terminating on the zero at s = j1. Let the phase from this
zero to s0 = z. If the point s0 is very close to the zero at j1, then the vectors drawn from the other zero at
–j1 and poles at 0 and –2 to s0 can be approximated by vectors to the zero at j1. Under this
approximation, the net angle contribution at s0 is given by
= 900 – 900 – 26.50 = – 26.50.
For s0 to be on the root locus, the total phase must be 1800. Thus, z = 1800 – = 206.50. The complete
root locus plot is shown in Fig. 6.10.
s p
n
j
j 1
K m
(6.24)
s z
i 1
i
Let us assume that the characteristic equation has a multiple root at s = s0 of multiplicity r. Then,
where M(s) does not contain the factor (s  s0). Thus, by differentiating Eq. (6.25), we have
dF
ds
( s s0 )r 1 rM ( s) ( s s0 ) M ' ( s) (5.26)
dF A( s) B( s) A( s) B( s)
Thus, K 0 (6.28)
ds A(s)2
s p
n
j
dK A(s) j 1
0 , where K m
(6.30)
s z
ds B(s)
i
i 1
Similarly as K approaches , one root will approach zero at s = –2 along the negative real axis and
another will approach zero at s = –3. As the root loci are continuous, the two complex conjugate roots
will approach the real axis somewhere inside the segment [–3, –2] and then depart in opposite
directions along the real axis. This point is also another breakaway point. Sometimes, such a point is also
called as breakin point.
Applying Eq. (6.30) to this case, we get the solutions of dK/ds = 0 as s = –0.634 and s = –2.366. Thus, the
root locus has two breakaway points.
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It is important to note that the condition for the breakaway point (as derived above) is necessary but
not sufficient. In other words, all breakaway points on root locus must satisfy Eq. (6.30), but not all
points that satisfy Eq. (6.30) are breakaway points.
j
j 1
; mn ; K 0
1. The root locus plot consists of n root loci (branches) as K varies from 0 to . The loci are symmetric
with respect to real axis.
2. As K increases from 0 to , each root locus starts from an openloop pole with K = 0 and ends on an
openloop zero or on with K = . The number of root loci ending at equals the number of open
loop poles minus zeros.
3. The (n  m) root loci which tend to do so along straight line asymptotes radiating out from a single
point s= a on the real axis (called the centroid) where
a (real part of open loop poles ) (real part of open loop zeros)
nm
These (n  m) asymptotes have angles
(2q 1)1800
a ; q 0,1,, (n m 1)
nm
4. A point on the real axis lies on the locus if the number of openloop poles plus zeros on the real axis
to the right of this point is odd. By use of this fact, the real axis can be divided into segments on
locus and notonlocus; the dividing points being the real openloop poles and zeros.
5. The intersections (if any) of root loci with the imaginary axis can be determined by use of Routh
criterion.
6. The angle of departure p of a locus from a complex openloop pole is given by p = 1800 + , where
is the net angle contribution at this pole of all other openloop poles and zeros.
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7. The angle of arrival z of a locus at a complex zero is given by z = 1800  , where is the net angle
contribution at this zero of all other openloop poles and zeros.
8. Points at which multiple roots of the characteristic equation occur (breakaway points of root loci)
s p
n
j
dK j 1
are the solutions of 0 where K m
s z
ds
i
i 1
Solution:
The openloop poles are located at s = 0, −1, −2. There are no finite openloop zeros. The polezero
configuration is shown in Fig. 5.12.
Rule 1 tells that the root locus plot consists of three root loci as K varies from 0 to .
Rule 2 tells that the three root loci originate from the three open loop poles with K = 0 and terminate on
with K = .
Rule 3 tells that the three root loci tend to along asymptotes radiating out from
(2q 1)1800
a ; q 0,1,2,
number of poles number of zeros
(2q 1)1800
; q 0,1,2
3
600 ,1800 , 3000
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Rule 4 tells that the segments of real axis between 0 and –1, and between –2 and  lie on the root
locus. Onlocus segments are shown by thick lines in the Figure.
From Fig. 6.12, it is seen that out of the three loci, one is a realroot locus originating from s = −2 and
terminating on −. The other two loci originate from s = 0 and s = −1, and move on the real axis towards
each other as K increases. Their meeting point corresponds to a double root. As K increases further, the
root loci breakaway from the real axis to give complex conjugate pair of roots.
Rule 5 is used to calculate the intersection points on the imaginary axis by Routh Table. The
characteristic equation can be written as
s3 3s 2 2s K 0
The Routh Table is given below.
s3 1 2
s2 3 K
1
s (6K)/3
s0 K
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For all roots to lie on the left half of the splane, the following conditions must be satisfied.
K > 0, and (6 − K)/3 > 0
Therefore, the critical value of K, which corresponds to the roots on the imaginary axis, is 6. K = 6 makes
all the coefficients on s1 row to be zero. The auxiliary equation is formed from the coefficients of the s2
row as:
3s 2 K 3s 2 6 0
The roots of this equation lie on the j axis and are given by s j 2 which are also the points where
the two root loci intersect the imaginary axis and the intersection points correspond to K = 6.
Rule 6 and Rule 7 are not necessary in this case since there are no openloop complex poles or zeros.
Rule 8 is used to determine the breakaway points. From the characteristic equation of the system,
K = −(s3 + 3s2 + 2s).
Thus, by differentiating K and equate it to zero,
dK
(3s 2 6s 2) 0
ds
The solutions of this equation are:
s = −0.4226 and s = −1.5774
Thus, s = −0.4226 is the breakaway point and, since the other point s = −1.5774 is not on the root locus,
it is not a breakaway point.
If two loci breakaway from a breakaway point, their tangents will be 1800 apart. In general, if r loci
breakaway from a breakaway point, then their tangents will be 3600/r apart, i.e., the tangents will
equally divide 3600.
The complete root loci are shown in Fig. 6.12. For K > 6, the system has two closedloop poles in the
right half splane.
A closedloop pole with = 0.5 lies on a line passing through the origin and making an angle cos1 = 600
with the negative real axis. From Fig. 6.12, the points of intersection are s = −0.33 j0.58 which are the
dominant closedloop poles. From the magnitude criterion, the corresponding K can be found.
Additional Example
Solution:
The openloop poles are located at s = 0, −2+j, −2−j. There are no finite openloop zeros.
Rule 1 tells that the root locus plot consists of three root loci as K varies from 0 to .
Rule 2 tells that the three root loci originate from the three open loop poles with K = 0 and terminate on
with K = .
Rule 3 tells that the three root loci tend to along asymptotes radiating out from
s a
(real parts of poles ) (real parts of zeros)
number of poles number of zeros
22
4 / 3
30
with angles
(2q 1)1800
a ; q 0,1,2,
number of poles number of zeros
(2q 1)1800
; q 0,1,2
3
600 ,1800 , 3000
Rule 4 tells that the segments of real axis between 0 and – lie on the root locus.
Rule 5 is used to calculate the intersection points on the imaginary axis by Routh Table. The
characteristic equation can be written as
s 3 4s 2 5s K 0
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For all roots to lie on the left half of the splane, the following conditions must be satisfied.
K > 0, and (20−K)/4 > 0
Therefore, the critical value of K, which corresponds to the roots on the imaginary axis, is 20. K = 20
makes all the coefficients on s1 row to be zero. The auxiliary equation is formed from the coefficients of
the s2 row as:
4s 2 K 4s 2 20 0
The roots of this equation lie on the j axis and are given by s j 5 which are also the points where
the two root loci intersect the imaginary axis and the intersection points correspond to K = 20.
Rule 6 tells the angle of departure for complex poles.
For pole −2+j,
φ 153.43 90 and p = 1800 + = 63.430
For pole −2−j,
p = 63.430
Rule 8 is used to determine the breakaway points. From the characteristic equation of the system, K =
−(s3 + 4s2 + 5s).
Thus, by differentiating K and equate it to zero,
dK
( 3s 2 8s 5 ) 0
ds
The solutions of this equation are:
s = −1 and s = −1.667
Since the complete negative real axis is on the root loci, both are valid breakaway or breakin points.
K s 1 2 , K s 1.667 1.852
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The controller design in control systems may be treated as an investigation of the effects to root loci
when poles and zeros are added to the loop transfer function KG(s)H(s).
Adding a pole to G(s)H(s) has the effect of pushing the root loci toward the righthalf splane.
K
Example 6.6: Consider the loop transfer function KG ( s) H ( s)
s( s 2)
The root loci are shown in Fig. 6.13(a). It is noted that the system is stable for all K. Let us introduce a
pole at s = −b (b > 2). The loop transfer function G(s)H(s) becomes, with b = 3,
K K
KG ( s) H ( s)
s( s 2)(s b) s( s 2)(s 3)
The root loci are shown in Fig. 6.13(b) where the root loci bend towards the righthalf splane. The
asymptote angles and centroid are changed from 90 to 60 and –1 to –(2+b)/3, respectively. The
addition of a pole may make the system unstable if K exceeds the stability limit.
K
Figure 6.13(a): Root loci for
s ( s 2)
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K
Figure 6.13(b): Root loci for
s( s 2)( s 3)
Adding lefthalf plane zeros to the function G(s)H(s) generally has the effect of moving and bending the
root loci toward the lefthalf splane.
Fig. 6.14 shows the root loci of G(s)H(s) with a zero added at s = −3. The complex conjugate parts of root
loci of the original system are bent towards the left and form a circle. Thus, the relative stability is
improved by the addition of the zero.
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K ( s 3)
Figure 6.14: Root locus for .
s ( s 2)
The preceding chapters have shown that it is often possible to adjust the system parameters in order to
provide the desired system response. However, we often find that it is not sufficient to reconsider the
structure of the system and redesign the system in order to obtain a suitable one. That is, we must
examine the scheme or plan of the system and obtain a new design or plan that results in a suitable
system. Thus the design of a control system is concerned with the arrangement, or the plan, of the
system structure and the selection of suitable components performance is called compensation.
The compensating device may be electric, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, or some other type of
device or network and is often called a compensator. Commonly an electric circuit serves as a
compensator in many control systems. A compensator is an additional component or circuit that is
inserted into a control system to compensate for a deficient performance. The transfer function of a
compensator is designated as 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐸0 (𝑠)/𝐸𝑖𝑛 (𝑠), and the compensator can be placed in a suitable
location within the structure of the system. Several types of compensation are shown in Figure 6.15 for
a simple, singleloop feedback control system. The compensator placed in the feedforward path is called
a cascade, or series, compensator (6.15a)
Figure 6.15: Types of compensation (a) Cascaded compensation. (b) Feedback compensation. (c) Output,
or load compensation. (d) Input compensation
𝐾2
𝐾2 𝐾1 (𝑠 + 𝐾1 )
𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾1 + =
𝑠 𝑠
The ideal PI compensator’s transfer function is given by;
𝑠+𝑎
𝐺𝑐 𝑠 =
𝑠
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Example 6.7:
Given a uncompensated system operating with a damping ration of 0.174. Find out the steady state
error for a unit step input. Design an ideal PI compensator to reduce the steadystate error to zero
without appreciably affecting transient response.
1
If the original OLTF is 𝐺 𝑠 = operating with a damping ratio of 0.174, then design a PI
𝑠+1 𝑠+2 (𝑠+10)
compensator to reduce the steadystate error to zero for a step input without appreciably affecting
transient response. The compensator has a zero at 0.1, close to the compensator pole.
To achieve these requirements, the compensated system should have a dominant closedloop pole at
𝑠1 = −0.694 + 𝑗3.926, 𝐾 = 164.6
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The dominant pole of the compensated system and the gain are approximately the same as for the
uncompensated system
1 1
𝑒𝑠𝑠,𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑝 = = =0
1 + 𝐾𝑝 1 + lim 𝐺𝑐 𝐺(𝑠)
𝑠→0
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When 𝑧0 <𝑝0 , the compensator is called a phaselead compensator, because this results in a
contribution to the angle criterion of the root locus that is always positive.
∠𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = ∠𝑠 − 𝑧0 − ∠𝑠 − 𝑝0 = 𝜃𝑧 − 𝜃𝑝 > 0
When 𝑧0 >𝑝0 , the compensator is called a phaselag compensator, because this results in a
contribution to the angle criterion of the root locus that is always positive.
∠𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = ∠𝑠 − 𝑧0 − ∠𝑠 − 𝑝0 = 𝜃𝑧 − 𝜃𝑝 < 0
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Where,
𝑎1 𝑎0 1
𝐾𝑐 = , 𝑧0 = − , 𝑝0 = −
𝑏1 𝑎1 𝑏1
Assume that the parameter 𝑎0 is either known or can be determined. The design problem is to find
𝑎1 and 𝑏1 such that the compensated system will have a closedloop pole at 𝑠 = 𝑠1 .
𝑠1 = 𝑠1 𝑒 𝑗𝛽 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻 𝑠1 = 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻(𝑠1 ) 𝑒 𝑗𝜓
𝑎 1 𝑠+𝑎 0
From the characteristics equation, we get 1 + 𝑏1 𝑠+1
𝐺 𝑠 𝐻 𝑠 =0
Where
Example 6.8:
Design a phaselead compensator such that the closedloop compensated system has a settling time
around 4 sec. and a percent overshoot around 4.32%. The compensator has a DC gain as 0.15.
To achieve these requirements, the compensated system should have a dominant closedloop pole at
𝑠1= − 1 + 𝑖. Because the DC gain for 𝐺𝑐 (𝑠) is 0.15, so we have 𝑎0 =0.15.
21
At 𝑠1= − 1 + 𝑖, we have 𝑠 𝑠+1 (𝑠+3) 𝑠 −1+𝑖
= −2.1 + 6.3𝑗 = 6.64∠108.43°
1=
The negative angle contributed by the phaselag compensator will tend to shift the root locus to the
right in the splane, i.e., towards the unstable region. Thus, in general, the angle contribution of the
phaselag compensator must be small, which is assured by placing the pole and the zero of the
compensator very close to each other.
For convenience in the design, we assume that the compensator has a unit DC gain, i.e.,
𝐾𝑐 𝑧0
𝐺𝑐 (𝑠) 𝑠=0 = =1
𝑝0
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𝑃0
𝐾𝑐 = <1
𝑧0
Suppose that the root locus of the point of the uncompensated system passes through the point 𝑠1 for
𝐾0 .
1 + 𝐾0 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻 𝑠1 = 0
−1
𝐾0 =
𝐺 𝑠1 (𝐻(𝑠1 )
As we choose the value of 𝑧0 and 𝑝0 to be approximately equal, and the magnitudes of 𝑧0 and 𝑝0 to be
small compared to 𝑠1 , so
𝐾𝑐 (𝑠1 − 𝑧0 )
𝐺𝑐 𝑠1 = ≈ 𝐾𝑐
𝑠1 − 𝑝0
Now the gain required to place a root of the locus at approximately 𝑠1 for the uncompensated system is
given by
−1 −1 𝐾0
𝐾= = =
𝐺𝑐 𝑠1 𝐺(𝑠1 ) 𝐾𝑐 𝐺𝑐 𝑠1 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐾𝑐
Since 𝐾𝑐 < 1, so 𝐾 > 𝐾0 . The compensator has been chosen to have a unity DC gain; thus the openloop
DC gain has been increased, but the transient response appears to remain unaffected.
The sreadystate error 𝑒𝑠𝑠 has been improved, and this is the principal use of the phaselag
compensator.
the design requirements are such that a time constant of 1 second and damping coefficient of 0.707 are
satisfactory and the compensator has a DC gain as 1.
So 𝑠1 = −1 + 𝑗 𝑤𝑒𝑛 𝐾0 = 2 , is acceptable. Suppose that the system is required to track aircraft that
have essentially constant velocity, which will appear to the control system as a ramp input, i.e. the
antenna must rotate at a constant velocity to remain pointed directly at the aircraft. Also, it is required
that the 𝑒𝑠𝑠 of 0.2° with a unit ramp input.
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Ideal PD compensator
𝐾1
𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾1 + 𝐾2 = 𝐾2 (𝑠 + )
𝐾2
𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝑠 + 𝑧𝑐
𝐺𝑠 𝑠 = 𝑠 + 2
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Example 6.9
Given the system below, design an ideal derivative compensator such that the closedloop compensated
system has a threefold reduction in settling time and a 16% percent overshoot.
To achieve these requirements, the compensated system should have a dominant closedloop pole at
4
𝑠1 = −1.205 + 𝑗2.064𝐾 = 43.45. Thus, the uncompensated system’s settling time is 𝑇𝑠 = =
𝜁𝜔 𝑛
4
= 3.302.
1.205
4 4
The desired real part of the closedloop pole is 𝜁𝜔𝑛 = 𝑇 = 1.107 = 3.613. The desired imaginary part of
𝑠
An alternative method yet powerful tools of control system design by using a State Space
representation. The concept of using state space is by placing a pole at a desired location. We call this as
pole placement method.
Similar in concept to classical control system design where we have to firstly formulate desired pole
locations to satisfy some performance criteria, then formulate control gains to make this happen.
In designing the control system by using state space application, we have to assume that all states can
be measured and used in control implementation; this is called full state feedback.
The controller pole placement method mainly concerns with the controllability matrix. It takes
measurement and/or estimates of the state variables, multiplies them by the control gains, and produce
the control signal. This can be designed by pole placement or optimal control.
u = kx
where k = vector (or matrix) of proportional control gains applied to each state given by:
k = [𝒌𝟏 𝒌𝟐 … 𝒌𝒏 ]
𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝐮 = 𝐀𝐱 − 𝐁𝐤𝐱 = 𝐀 − 𝐁𝐤 𝐱
𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐁𝐤 𝐱 𝐬 = 0
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det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐁𝐤 = 0
𝑝1 , 𝑝2 , 𝑝3 , ….
𝑠 − 𝑝1 𝑠 − 𝑝2 … 𝑠 − 𝑝𝑛 = 0
𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝑠 + 𝛼𝑛 = 0
Now suppose that the state space equations are in control canonical form:
0 1 0 … 0
0 0 1 … 0
. . . … .
𝐀=
. . . … .
0 0 0 … 1
−𝑎𝑛 −𝑎𝑛−1 −𝑎𝑛−2 … −𝑎1
0
0
.
𝐁=
.
0
1
𝐂 = 𝑏𝑛 − 𝑎1 𝑏0 𝑏𝑛−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑏0 … . 𝑏1 − 𝑎1 𝑏0
det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐁𝐤 = 0
The conclusion is that when the system is in control canonical form, then control gains can be calculated
by simple comparison of coefficients:
𝑘𝑖 = 𝛼𝑖 − 𝑎𝑖
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Example 6.10
Solution:
Assumption: Must be a full state feedback. We need to prove the system has a full state feedback by
assessing its controllability matrix.
We have an open loop poles, 𝑠 = 𝑗𝜔𝑛 and closed loop poles, 𝑠 = −2𝜔𝑛 .
det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐁𝐤 = 0
𝑠 0 0 1 0 𝑘
det − + 𝑘2
0 𝑠 −𝜔𝑛2 0 1 1
𝑠 2 + 𝑘2 𝑠 + 𝜔𝑛2 + 𝑘1 = 0
𝑘2 = 4𝜔𝑛
𝑘1 + 𝜔𝑛2 = 4𝜔𝑛2
We have now,
𝑘1 = 3𝜔𝑛2
𝑘2 = 4𝜔𝑛
Hence,
𝐤 = 𝑘1 𝑘2
𝐤 = 3𝜔𝑛2 4𝜔𝑛
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Generalised Strategy
Step 2: Calculate control gains by comparison with the desired characteristics equation
For SISO systems the control gains using Ackermann’s Formula are
𝐤= 0 0 … 0 1 𝐂0−1 𝛾(𝐀)
Where 𝐂0 =controllability matrix (note inversion again), and
𝛾 𝐀 = 𝐀𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝐀𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝐀𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝐈
A = state matrix,
Example 6.11:
Solution:
𝐤= 0 0 … 0 1 𝐂0−1 𝛾(𝐀)
The SS model must be controllable before we can proceed. Checking the controllability matrix,
0 1
𝐂𝟎 =
1 0
Where
𝛾 𝐀 = 𝐀𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝐀𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝐀𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝐈
So we have,
𝛾 𝐀 = 𝐀2 + 4𝜔𝑛 𝐀 + 4𝜔𝑛2 𝐈
−𝜔𝑛2 0
𝐀2 =
0 −𝜔𝑛2
0 4𝜔𝑛
4𝜔𝑛 𝐀 =
−4𝜔𝑛3 0
4𝜔𝑛2 0
4𝜔𝑛2 𝐈 =
0 4𝜔𝑛2
3𝜔𝑛2 4𝜔𝑛
𝛾 𝐀 =
−4𝜔𝑛3 3𝜔𝑛2
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Hence,
0 1 3𝜔𝑛2 4𝜔𝑛
𝐤= 0 1
1 0 −4𝜔𝑛3 3𝜔𝑛2
𝐤 = 3𝜔𝑛2 4𝜔𝑛
Example 6.12:
The observer pole placement mainly concerns with Observability matrix. The objective of designing the
observer is to estimate some or all of the states of the system. This can be achieved by linear observers
(pole placement) or optimal observers (Kalman filters).
𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝐮, 𝐲 = 𝐂𝐱
We need to extract 𝐱 by constructing a second linear system (a model of the target system), using the
known parameters (𝐀, 𝐁, 𝐂, 𝐮) of the target system, which predicts the (measurable) target system
output. If the predicted output is acceptably close to the actual output, then we can use the estimated
states in place of the actual states.
In other words, we want to minimize the difference between the actual and predicted states. This
difference or error in estimate of state is given by,
𝐱𝑒 = 𝐱 − 𝐱
𝐱 𝑒 = 𝐱 − 𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝐮 − 𝐀 𝐱 − 𝐱𝑒 − 𝐁𝐮 = 𝐀𝐱𝑒
det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 = 0
𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝐮 + 𝐋𝐂(𝐱 − 𝐱)
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where L = vector (or matrix) of estimator (observer) gains applied to each state given by:
ℓ1
ℓ2
𝑳=
⋮
ℓ𝑛
𝐱𝑒 = 𝐀𝐱𝑒 − 𝐋𝐂𝐱 𝑒
Therefore, the characteristics equation = det 𝑠𝐈 − (𝐀 − 𝐋𝐂) = 0 i.e we can change convergence speed
by adding feedback.
𝑝1 , 𝑝2 , 𝑝3 , ….
𝑠 − 𝑝1 𝑠 − 𝑝2 … 𝑠 − 𝑝𝑛 = 0
𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝑠 + 𝛼𝑛 = 0
Now suppose that the state space equations are in observer canonical form:
0 0 … 0 −𝑎𝑛
1 0 … 0 −𝑎𝑛−1
. . … . −𝑎𝑛−2
𝐴=
. . … . .
0 0 … 0 .
0 0 … 1 −𝑎1
𝑏𝑛 − 𝑎1 𝑏0
𝑏𝑛−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑏0
.
𝐵=
.
.
𝑏1 − 𝑎1 𝑏0
𝐶= 0 0 … 0 1
With the observer feedback, the poles are defined by the expression: det 𝑠𝐈 − (𝐀 − 𝐋𝐂) = 0
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𝑠 0 … 0 𝑎𝑛 + ℓ𝑛
−1 𝑠 … 0 𝑎𝑛−1 + ℓ𝑛−1
. . … . .
𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 − 𝐋𝐂 =
. . … . .
0 0 … 𝑠 𝑎2 + ℓ2
0 0 … −1 𝑠 + 𝑎1 + ℓ1
The conclusion is that when the system is in control canonical form, then control gains can be calculated
by simple comparison of coefficients:
ℓ𝑖 = 𝛼𝑖 − 𝑎𝑖
Example 6.13:
Compute the estimator (observer) gain matrix which will place both estimator poles at −10𝜔𝑛 , given
𝑥1 0 1 𝑥1 0
= +
𝑥2 −𝜔𝑛2 0 𝑥2 1
𝑥1
𝑦= 1 0 𝑥
2
Solution:
det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐋𝐂 = 0
𝑠 0 0 1 ℓ 0
det − + 1
0 𝑠 −𝜔𝑛2 0 ℓ2 0
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𝑠 + ℓ1 −1
det
𝜔𝑛2 +ℓ2 𝑠
det 𝑠 2 + ℓ1 𝑠 + 𝜔𝑛2 + ℓ2 = 0
ℓ1 = 20𝜔𝑛
ℓ2 + 𝜔𝑛2 = 100𝜔𝑛2
We have now,
ℓ1 = 20𝜔𝑛
ℓ2 = 99𝜔𝑛2
Hence,
ℓ1
𝐤=
ℓ2
20𝜔𝑛
𝐤=
99𝜔𝑛2
Generalised Strategy
Step 2: Calculate control gains by comparison with the desired characteristics equation
For SISO systems the observer gains using Ackermann’s Formula are
𝐋 = 𝛾(𝐀)𝐎−1
b 0 0 … 0 1 T
𝛾 𝐀 = 𝐀𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝐀𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝐀𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝐈
A = state matrix,
Example 6.14:
Compute the estimator (observer) gain matrix which will place both estimator poles at −10𝜔𝑛 , given
𝑥1 0 1 𝑥1 0
= +
𝑥2 −𝜔𝑛2 0 𝑥2 1
𝑥1
𝑦= 1 0 𝑥
2