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Systems
Lecture Notes for
KJM597
Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering, UiTM Shah Alam
2
KJM597 Control Systems
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
UiTM Shah Alam
CHAPTER 1.0 MATHEMATICAL REVIEW
1.1 COMPLEX VARIABLES AND COMPLEX FUNCTION
This chapter will outline an overview of basic mathematical formulation in solving control
systems problem that you will encounter throughout the course.
1.1.1 Complex Variables Concept
A complex variable denoted by s consists of two components: a real component x and an
imaginary axis component y. Graphically, the real component of s is represented by a xaxis in
the horizontal direction, and the imaginary component is measured along the vertical jyaxis.
Figure 1.0 illustrates the complex splane.
Figure 1.0: Complex splane
(source: http://mathworld.wolfram.com)
Using notation = −1, all numbers in engineering calculations can be rewritten as
= +
Where z is called a complex number. Note that j is the only imaginary quantity in the expression.
The magnitude, z and angle, of z can be obtained mathematically,
Magnitude of z=z=
2
+
2
, angle of z= = tan
−1
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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
UiTM Shah Alam
A complex number can be written in rectangular form or in polar form as follows:
i. Rectangular forms
= +
= (cos + sin)
ii. Polar forms
= ∠
= 
In converting complex numbers to polar form from rectangular, we use
=
2
+
2
, = tan
−1
To convert complex number to rectangular form from polar, we employ
=  cos , =  sin
(source: Ogata)
Notes:
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UiTM Shah Alam
Notes:
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KJM597 Control Systems
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
UiTM Shah Alam
1.1.2 Complex Function Concept
a) Complex Function
A complex function F(s,) a function of s, has a real component and imaginary component, or
=
+
where
and
are real quantities. The magnitude of ()is
2
+
2
, and the angle of ()
is tan
−1
. The angle is measured counterclockwise from the positive real axis.
b) Singlevalued Function
In complex function analysis, we are interested in SingleValued Function that can uniquely
determine the value of s. For instance, given the function
=
1
( +1)
= ∞ is mapped onto two points, s=0 and s=1, in the splane
c) Poles and zeros of a Function
Poles are the value of s that will make the function F(s) become infinity. In other words, poles
are the roots of the denominator of F(s). If the denominator of F(s) involves kmultiple factors
( +)
, then = − is called a multiple poles and of order or repeated pole of order . If
= 1, the pole is called a simple pole.
Zeros are the value of s that will make the function F(s) become zero. In other words, zeros are
the numerator of F(s).
As an illustrative example, consider the following complex function
=
+2( +10)
+1 +5( +15)
2
G(s) has zeros at = −2 and = −10, simple poles at = 0, = −1 and = −5, and a
double pole (multiple pole of order 2) at = −15. Note that G(s) becomes zero at = ∞.
G(s) is therefore has 2 zeros and 5 poles.
d) Singularities of a Function
The singularities of a function are the points in the splane at which the function or its
derivatives do not exist. A pole is the most common of singularities and plays a very important
role in studies of classical control theory. (source: ogata)
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KJM597 Control Systems
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
UiTM Shah Alam
1.2 REVIEW OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, LINEAR SYSTEMS, IMPULSE RESPONSE AND LAPLACE
TRANSFORMATIONS. DEFINITION OF STABILITY. INTRODUCTION TO STATE EQUATIONS AND
TRANSFER FUNCTIONS.
1.2.1 Review of Differential Equations
Differential equations generally involve derivatives and integrals of the dependant variables
with respect to the independent variable. For instance, a shock absorber system of a car as in
figure 1.2 can be represented by the differential equation,
í
= + + ) ( ) (
1 ) (
) ( t v dt t i
C dt
t di
L t Ri
Figure 1.2: RLC Circuit
where R is the resistance, L the inductance, C the capacitance, i(t) the current and v(t) the
applied voltage. The dependent variable i(t) is determined by solving the equation.
In general, a differential equation of nthorder is written as
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
0 1
1
1
1
t f t y a
dt
t dy
a
dt
t y d
a
dt
t y d
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + +
÷
÷
÷
Which is also known as a linear ordinary differential equation if the coefficients a
0
, a
1
, … ,a
n1
are
not a function of y(t).
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1.2.2 Laplace Transforms
a) Laplace Transform
Laplace transform is used to convert from time domain to sdomain. Working with differential
equation is rather complicated. In analyzing and designing a control system it is easier to work in
sdomain. Laplace transform is defined as;
ℒ = =
−
∞
0
Where = +, a complex variable.
Example 2.1: Let f(t) be a unitstep function that is defined as
¹
´
¦
<
>
=
0 , 0
0 , 1
) (
t
t
t u
The Laplace transform of f(t) is obtained as
s
e
s
dt e t u s F
st st
1 1
) ( ) (
0
0
= ÷ = =
í
·
·
÷ ÷
Example 2.2: Consider the exponential function
0 , ) ( > =
÷
t e t f
t o
where α is real constant. The Laplace transform of f(t) is written as
í
·
·
+ ÷
÷ ÷
+
=
+
= =
0
0
) (
1
) (
o o
o
o
s s
e
dt e e s F
t s
st t
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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
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Table 2.1: Laplace Transform table for input responses
Notes:
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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
UiTM Shah Alam
b) Laplace Transform Theorems
The laplace transform has a set of theorems to solve a complex mathematical equations.
Table 2.2 summarizes the Laplace Transform theorems
Table 2.2: Laplace Transform Theorems
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UiTM Shah Alam
c) Inverse Laplace Transformation Using Partial Fraction Method
Given the Laplace transform F(s), the operation of obtaining f(t) is termed the inverse
Laplace Transformation and is denoted by:
= ℒ
−1
[]
Inverse Laplace Transform is used when we want to convert from sdomain to time domain.
The inverse Laplace transform of rational functions are normally carried out using partial
fraction expansion and the Laplace transform table.
Consider a rational function
=
()
()
where Q(s) and P(s) are polynomials of s. It is assume that the order of P(s) in s is greater
than of Q(s). The polynomial P(s) may be written as
0 1
1
1
) ( a s a s a s s P
n
n
n
+ + + + =
÷
÷
where a
0
, a
1
, … ,a
n1
are real coefficients. This method will be emphasized for the cases of
simple poles, multipleorder poles and complex poles.
Case 1: Simple poles
If all the poles of G(s) are simple and real, then G(s) can be written as
=
()
()
=
()
+
1
+
2
…( +
)
,
1
≠
2
≠ ⋯
Applying partialfraction expansion, the equation can be written as
=
−
1
+
1
+
−
2
+
2
+⋯+
−
+
Where
i
s s
s P
s Q
s s K
i si
÷ =
+ =
÷
) (
) (
) (
The numerator of each fraction is called the residue.
−
is called the residue of G(s)
for the pole = −
.
The inverse transform is the written as
t s
s
t s
s
t s
s
n
n
e K e K e K t g
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
+ + + =
2
2
1
1
) (
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Example 2.3:
Consider the function
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
3 5
) (
+ + +
+
=
s s s
s
s G
which is written in the partialfraction expanded form:
3 2 1
) (
3 2 1
+
+
+
+
+
=
÷ ÷ ÷
s
K
s
K
s
K
s G
The coefficients
−1
,
−2
,
−3
are determined as follows:
 
 
  6
) 2 3 )( 1 3 (
3 ) 3 ( 5
3
) ( ) 3 (
7
) 3 2 )( 1 2 (
3 ) 2 ( 5
2
) ( ) 2 (
1
) 3 1 )( 2 1 (
3 ) 1 ( 5
1
) ( ) 1 (
3
2
1
÷ =
+ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷
=
÷ =
+ =
=
+ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷
=
÷ =
+ =
÷ =
+ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷
=
÷ =
+ =
÷
÷
÷
s
s G s K
s
s G s K
s
s G s K
Thus,
3
6
2
7
1
1
) (
+
÷
+
+
+
+
÷
=
s s s
s G
The inverse transform or time function is
t t t
e e t g
3 2
6 7 ) (
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ + ÷ =
Case 2: Multipleorder poles
If r of the n poles is identical, G(s) is written as
=
()
()
=
()
+
1
+
2
… +
−
( +
)
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Then G(s) can be expanded as
poles repeated of r terms
) ( ) (
poles simple of r terms  n
) (
2
2 1
2 1
) (
2 1
r
i
r
i i r n
s
s s
s s
A
s s
A
s s
A
s s
K
s s
K
s s
K
s G
r n
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
=
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
The (nr) coefficients Ks1, Ks2, … , Ks(n−r) which correspond to simple poles may be
evaluated as explained before. The coefficients A
1 …
A
r
are evaluated as follows:
 
 
 
 
i
s s
s G s s
ds
d
r
A
i
s s
s G s s
ds
d
A
i
s s
s G s s
ds
d
A
i
s s
s G s s A
r
i
r
r
r
i r
r
i r
r
i r
÷ =
+
÷
=
÷ =
+ =
÷ =
+ =
÷ =
+ =
÷
÷
÷
÷
) ( ) (
)! 1 (
1
) ( ) (
! 2
1
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
Example 2.4:
Consider the function
2
) 2 )( 1 (
2
) (
+ +
=
s s
s G
G(s) can be written as
2
2 1 1
) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
) (
+
+
+
+
+
=
÷
s
A
s
A
s
K
s G
The coefficient corresponding to the simple pole is
2
1
) 2 (
2
2 1
=
÷ =
+
=
÷
s
s
K
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UiTM Shah Alam
and those of second orderpole are
2
2
) 1 (
2
2
) 1 (
2
2
2
) 1 (
2
2
1
2
÷ =
÷ =
+
÷
=
÷ =
+
=
÷ =
÷ =
+
=
s
s
s
s ds
d
A
s
s
A
The completed partialfraction expansion is
2
) 2 (
2
2
2
1
2
) (
+
÷
+
÷
+
=
s s s
s G
The time function is
t t t
te e e t g
2 2
2 2 2 ) (
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ =
Case 3: Simple complexconjugate poles
Suppose that G(s) contains a pair of complex poles:
e o e o j   s and = + ÷ = j s
The corresponding coefficients of these poles are
e o
e o
e o
j s
s G j s K
j
+ ÷ =
÷ + =
+ ÷
) ( ) (
e o
e o
e o
j s
s G j s K
j
÷ ÷ =
+ + =
÷ ÷
) ( ) (
Example 2.5:
Considering transfer function G(s)
2 1 2 1
) 2 1 )( 2 1 (
3
) 5 2 (
3
) (
2 1 2 1
0
2
j s
K
j s
K
s
K
j s j s s s s s
s G
j j
÷ +
+
+ +
+ =
÷ + + +
=
+ +
=
+ ÷ ÷ ÷
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5
3
0
5 2
3
2
0
=
=
+ +
=
s
s s
K


.

\

÷ +
÷
+
+ +
+
÷ =
÷
÷
=
+ ÷ =
+ +
=
+
÷
=
÷ ÷ =
÷ +
=
+ ÷
÷ ÷
2 1
1 2
2 1
1 2
20
3
5
3
) (
) 1 2 (
20
3
2 1
) 2 1 (
3
) 1 2 (
20
3
2 1
) 2 1 (
3
2 1
2 1
j s
j
j s
j
s
s G
j
j s
j s s
K
j
j s
j s s
K
j
j
and the time function is given as
 
 

.

\

+ ÷ =
÷
+
+
÷ =
÷ + + ÷ =
÷ + + ÷ =
÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
+ ÷ ÷ ÷
t t e
j
e e e e
e
e e j e e e
e j e j t g
t
t j t j t j t j
t
t j t j t j t j t
t j t j
2 sin
2
1
2 cos
5
3
5
3
2
2
2
4
20
3
5
3
) ( ) 2 2 (
20
3
5
3
) 1 2 ( ) 1 2 (
20
3
5
3
) (
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
) 2 1 ( ) 2 1 (
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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
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TUTORIAL 1: MATHEMATICAL REVIEW
1. Derive equations for a unit step, ramp, impulse and sinusoidal response in time domain.
2. In a unit step response graph, what is the relationship between final value theorem and steady
state error?
3. Find the Laplace transform of time function = 5 +3
−2
.
4. Verify question (3) above by using MATLAB application.
MATLAB hint
>>syms s t; % Command to run MATLAB in s and t domains
>>f=5+3*exp(2*t) % Entering the function
>>F=laplace(f,t,s) % Executing Laplace Transform command
5. Find the inverse Laplace Transform of a rational function and
=
5
2
+3 +2
6. Find the inverse Laplace transform of a rational function
=
2
+1( +2)
2
7. Verify the result in question (6) above using MATLAB application.
MATLAB hint
>> syms st;
>>F=2/((s+1)*(s+2)^2)
>>f=ilaplace(F,s,t)
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KJM597 Control Systems
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
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CHAPTER 2.0 INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEMS
Control systems can be placed into three broad functional groups:
 Monitoring systems, such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, which
provide information about the process state to the operator;
 Sequencing systems, used where some process must follow a predefined sequence of discrete
events;
 Closedloop systems, which is widely taught in engineering course, are typically implemented to
give some process a set of desired performance characteristics
The history of feedback control system begun as early as in 1769 when James Watt’s steam engine and
governor are developed. The Watt stem engine often used to mark the beginning of the Industrial
Revolution in England. The revolution of automatic control system continues in which the first ever
autonomous rover vehicle, known as Sojourner was invented in 1997.
In summary below is the history of feedback control system
1769  James Watt’s flyball governer
Figure 2.0: James Watt’s flyball governer
1868  J. C. Maxwell’s model of governer
1927  H. W. Bode’s feedback amplifiers
1932  H. Nyquist’s stability theory
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1954  George Devol’s robot design
1970  Statevariable models and optimal control theory
1980  Robust control system design
1997  First ever autonomous rover vehicle “Sojourner”
Figure 2.1: Sojourner
But before we go into further details, we have to know control systems’ terms and concepts. The
frequently used terms and concepts are as follow:
Automation  The control of a process by automatic means
Control system  An interconnection of components forming a system
configuration that will provide a desired response
Controlled
variable
 Quantity or condition that is measured and controller.
Normally it is the output of the system
Manipulated
variable
 Quantity or condition that is varied by the controller so
as to affect the value of the controlled variable
Plant  A plant is a piece of equipment, perhaps just a set of
machine parts functioning together, the purpose of
which to perform a particular operation. Any physical
object to be controller (such as heating furnace, a
chemical reactor etc) is called a plant
Processes  A process can be defined as a natural, progressively
continuing operation or development marked by a
Info: The mobile Sojourner had a mass
of 10.5kg and 0.25 square meter solar
array
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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
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series of gradual changes that succeed one another in a
relatively fixed way and lead towards a particular result
or end
Disturbances  A disturbance is a signal which tends to adversely affect
the value of the output of the system. If a disturbance is
generated within the system, it is called internal; which
an external disturbance is generated outside the
system.
Feedback
control
 Feedback control is an operation which in the presence
of disturbances, tends to reduce the difference
between the output of a system and the reference
input and which does so on the basis of the difference.
Feedforward  Feedforward has a reference signal which is act as an
additional input.
Source: AAMI, Fac of Mech Eng., UiTM
Figure 2.2: Inputoutput configuration of control system (souce: AAMI)
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Figure 2.3: Inputoutput configuration of a closedloop control system (source: AAMI)
2.1 OPEN LOOP AND CLOSEDLOOP SYSTEMS
2.1.1 Open Loop Control System
A system is said to be an open loop system when the system’s output has no effect on the control
action. In open loop system, the output is neither measured nor fed back for comparison with the input.
Figure 2.4: Open loop control system
An open loop control system utilizes an actuating device (or controller) to control the process directly
without using feedback as shown in Figure 2.4.
The advantages and the disadvantages of an openloop control system is tabulated in table 2.1 below
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Simple and ease of maintenance Disturbances and changes in calibration
cause errors Less expensive
Stability is not a problem Output may be different from what is
desired Convenient when output is hard to
measure
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2.1.2 Closedloop control system
A system that maintains a prescribed relationship between the output and the reference input is called a
closedloop system or a feedback control system. The system uses a measurement of the output and
feedback of the signal to compare it with the desired output.
Figure 2.5: Closed loop control system
In a closedloop control system, the actuating error signal, which is the difference between the input
signal and the feedback signal, is fed to the controller so as to reduce the error and bring the output of
the system to a desired value.
2.1.3 Comparison between open loop and closedloop control system.
The table below shows the comparison between the two systems:
OPEN LOOP CLOSED LOOP
System stability is not a major problem,
therefore easier to build
The use of feedback makes the system
response relatively insensitive to external
disturbances and internal variations in
system parameters
Use open loop only when the inputs are
known ahead of time and there is no
disturbances
System stability is a major problem
because the system tends to overcorrect
errors that can cause oscillations or
changing amplitude.
2.2 TRANSFER FUNCTION
The transfer function of a linear system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output
variable to the Laplace transform of the input variable, with all initial conditions assumed to be zero. The
Transfer function of a system (or element) represents the relationship describing the dynamics of the
system under consideration. A transfer function may be defined only for a linear, stationary (constant
parameter) system. A nonstationary system often called a timevarying system, has one or more time
varying parameters, and the Laplace transformation may not be utilized. Furthermore, a transfer
function is an inputoutput description of the behavior of a system. Thus the transfer function
description does not include any information concerning the internal structure of the system and its
behavior.
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2.2.1 The Transfer function of linear systems
The transfer function of a LTI system is defined as the Laplace transform of the impulse response, with
all the initial conditions set to zero.
)] ( [ ) ( t g L s G =
The transfer function is related to the Laplace transform of the input and the output through the
following relation:
) (
) (
) (
s R
s Y
s G =
where all the initial conditions set to zero, and ) (s Y and ) (s R are the Laplace transform of ) (t y and
) (t r respectively.
Although the transfer function of a linear system is defined in terms of the impulse response, in practice,
the inputoutput relation of a linear timeinvariant system with continuous–data input is often described
by the differential equation, so it is more convenient to derive the transfer function directly from the
differential equation.
Let us consider that the inputoutput relation of a linear timeinvariant system is described by the
following nthorder differential equation with constant real coefficients:
) (
) (
.....
) ( ) (
) (
) (
......
) ( ) (
0 1 1
1
1 0 1 1
1
1
t r b
dt
t dr
b
dt
t r d
b
dt
t r d
b t y a
dt
t dy
a
dt
t y d
a
dt
t y d
m
m
m m
m
m n
n
n n
n
+ + + + = + + + +
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
To obtain the transfer function of the linear system that is represented by Eq. (2.3), we simply take the
Laplace transform on both sides of the equation and assume zero initial conditions. The result is
( ) ( )R(s) b s b s b s b Y(s) a s a s a s
m
m
m
m
n
n
n
0 1
1
1 0 1
1
1
+ + + + = + + + +
÷
÷
÷
÷
The transfer function between ) (t r and ) (t y is given by:
0 1
1
1
0 1
......
.... ..........
) (
) (
) (
a s a s a s
b s b s b
s R
s Y
s G
n
n
n
m
m
+ + + +
+ + +
= =
÷
÷
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The transfer function is said to be strictly proper if n m< . If n m = then the transfer function is proper.
It is improper if n m > .
 Characteristic Equation: The characteristic equation of a LTI system is defined as the equation
obtained by setting the denominator polynomial of the transfer function to zero. Thus, the
characteristic equation of the system described by the Eq. (2.4) is
0 a
0 1
1
1
= + + + +
÷
÷
a s s a s
n
n
n
Later, we shall show that the stability of a linear singleinput singleoutput system is governed
completely by the roots of the characteristic equation.
2.2.2 Transfer function of multivariable system
The definition of a transfer function is easily extended to a system with multiple inputs and outputs. A
system of this type is often referred to as a multivariable system. Figure 2.6 shows a control system with
two inputs and two outputs.
Figure 2.6: General block representation of a twoinput, twooutput system
Since the principle of superposition is valid for linear systems, the total effect on any output due to all
the inputs acting simultaneously is obtained by adding up the outputs due to each input acting alone.
Thus, using transfer function relations we can write the simultaneous equations for the output variables
as
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 22 1 21 2
2 12 1 11 1
s R s G s R s G s Y
s R s G s R s G s Y
+ =
+ =
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where ) (s G
ij
is the transfer function relating the i
th
output to the j
th
input variable. Thus
) (
) (
s R
s Y
G
j
i
ij
=
In general, for j inputs and i outputs, we can write the simultaneous equations for the output variables
as
=
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
) (
2
1
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
2
1
s R
s R
s R
s G s G s G
s G s G s G
s G s G s G
s Y
s Y
s Y
j ij i i
j
j
i
It is convenient to express Eq. (2.7) in a matrixvector form
G(s)R(s) Y(s) =
where
=
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
1
s Y
s Y
s Y
s Y
i
is the i × 1 transformed output vector; whereas
=
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
1
s R
s R
s R
s R
j
is the j × 1 transformed input vector; and
=
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
s G s G s G
s G s G s G
s G s G s G
s G
ij i i
j
j
is the i × j transferfunction matrix.
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2.3 DEFINITION OF STABILTY
A stable system is defined as a system which gives a bounded output in response to a bounded input.
The concept of stability can be illustrated by considering a circular cone placed on a horizontal surface,
as shown in Fig. 2.7 and Fig. 2.8.
Figure 2.7: The stability of a cone.

Figure 2.8: Stability in the splane.
The stability of a dynamic system is defined in a similar manner. Let u(t), y(t), and g(t) be the input,
output, and impulse response of a linear timeinvariant system, respectively. The output of the system is
given by the convolution between the input and the system's impulse response. Then
í
·
÷ =
0
) ( ) ( ) ( t t t d g t u t y
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This response is bounded (stable system) if and only if the absolute value of the impulse response, g(t),
integrated over an infinite range, is finite. That is
í
·
· <
0
) ( t t d g
Mathematically, Eq. (4.24) is satisfied when the roots of the characteristic equation, or the poles of G(s),
are all located in the lefthalf of the splane.
A system is said to be unstable if any of the characteristic equation roots is located in the righthalf of
the splane. When the characteristic equation has simple roots on the jeaxis and none in the righthalf
plane, we refer to the system as marginally stable.
The following table illustrates the stability conditions of a linear continuous system with reference to the
locations of the roots of the characteristic equation.
STABILITY CONDITION LOCATION OF THE ROOTS
Stable All the roots are in the lefthalf splane
Marginally stable of marginally unstable At least one simple root and no multiple
roots on the jeaxis; and no roots in the
righthalf splane.
Unstable At least one simple root in the righthalf s
plane or at least one multipleorder root
on the jeaxis.
The following examples illustrate the stability conditions of systems with reference to the poles of the
closedloop transfer function M(s).
( )( )( ) 3 2 1
20
) (
+ + +
=
s s s
s M
Stable
) 2 2 )( 1 (
) 1 ( 20
) (
2
+ + ÷
+
=
s s s
s
s M
Unstable due to the pole at s = 1
) 4 )( 2 (
) 1 ( 20
) (
2
+ +
÷
=
s s
s
s M
Marginally stable or marginally unstable due to s =
±j2.
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) 10 ( ) 4 (
10
) (
2 2
+ +
=
s s
s M
Unstable due to the multipleorder pole at s = ±j2.
2.3.1 Open loop and Closed loop stability
A system is openloop stable if the poles of the loop transfer function G(s)H(s) are all in the left hand
side of splane.
Figure 2.9: A typical closedloop system
A system is closed0loop stable (or simply stable) if the poles of the closedloop transfer function (or
zeros of 1+G(s)H(s) are all in the left hand side of splane
2.4 BASIC CONTROL ACTIONS
The following six basic control actions are very common among industrial automatic controllers:
1. Twoposition or onoff controller
2. Proportional controller
3. Integral controller
4. Proportionalplusintegral controller
5. Proportionalplusderivative controller
6. Proportionalplusderivativeplusintegral controller
2.4.1 Twoposition of onoff control action
In a twoposition control system, the actuating element has only two fixed positions which are, in many
cases, simply on and off. Twoposition or onoff control is relatively simple and inexpensive and, for this
reason, is very widely used in both industrial and domestic control systems.
Let the output signal from the controller be m(t) and the actuating error signal be e(t). In two position
control, the signal m(t) remains at either a maximum or minimum value, depending on whether the
actuating error signal is positive or negative, so that
=
1
() > 0
=
2
() < 0
E
+

e(s)
y
y
sp H(s)
Plant Controller
G(s)
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Where
1
and
2
, are constants. The minimum value
2
, is usually either zero or −
1
. Twoposition
controllers are generally electrical devices, and an electric, solenoidoperated valve is widely used in
such controller. Pneumatic proportional controller with very high gain act as twoposition controller and
are sometimes called pneumatic twoposition controller.
Figure 2.10 show the block diagrams for twoposition controller. The range through which the actuating
error signal must move before the switching occurs is called the differential gap.
Figure 2.10: Twoposition controller
2.4.2 Proportional controller
For a controller with proportional control action, the relationship between the output of the controller
m(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is
=
()
or, in Laplace Transform
()
()
=
Where
, is termed the proportional sensitivity or the gain.
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Whatever the actual mechanism may be and whatever the form of the operating power, the
proportional controller is essentially an amplifier with and adjustable gain.
The proportional action has the following two properties:
1. Reduce rise time
2. Does not eliminate steady state error
Example 2.1:
Given a system consist of massspring and damper
a) The second order PDE is:
b) Taking the LT
c) The TF is therefore:
d) Let M=1kg, b=10N.s/m, k=20 N/m & F(s)=1, therefore X(s) / F(s):
e) From the Transfer Function, the DC gain is:
f) Corresponding to the steady state error of:
g) The settling time is:
b
M
x
F
k
Open Loop Response
Ti me (sec)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.045
0.05
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P control (K) reduces the rise time, increases the overshoot and reduces the steady state error.
h) The closedloop transfer function of the system with P controller is X(s)/F(s)=G/(1+G):
i) Let the P gain (K) equal 300
Rise time and ss error reduced, slightly reduced settling time but increased overshoot.
2.4.3 Integral controller
In a controller with integral control action, the value of the controller output m(t) is changed at a rate
proportional to, the actuating error signal e(t). That is
()
=
()
Therefore; =
0
Where
is an adjustable constant. The transfer function of the integral controller is
()
()
=
If the value of e(t) is doubled, then the value of m(t) varies twice as fast. For zero actuating error, the
value of m(t) remains stationary.
Cl osed Loop Step : K = 300
Ti me (sec)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
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The integral controller has the following properties:
1. Proportional controllers often give a steadystate error. Integral controller arose from trying to
add a “reset” term to the control signal to eliminate steady state error. In other words, the
integral controller “resets” the bias error from the P controller.
2. Gives large gain at low frequencies resulting in “beating down” load disturbances.
3. May make the transient response worse.
4. Controller phase starts out at 90° and increases to 0° at the break frequency. This phase lag can
be compensated by derivative action.
The integral controller act as “automatic reset” as shown in figure 2.11
Figure 2.11: Automatic reset action
Almost always used in conjunction with P control.
Figure 2.12: PI control
The integral term may be expressed in (i)
and (ii)
The integral term
is known as the integral time constant.
= ∞ corresponds to pure (proportional)
gain.
The integral term
is known as integral gain (e.g: in MATLAB)
The relationship between
and
is as follows:
=
E
+

y
sp
y
plant
K
load disturbance
1
sT
i
u
E
e
E
+

y
sp
y
plant
K
load disturbance
1
sT
i
u
E
e
K
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Example 2.2:
a) I control reduces the rise time, increases both settling time and overshoot, and eliminates the
steadystate error
b) The closedloop transfer function of the system with a PI controller is: X(s)/F(s) =
______________ .
c) Let k = 30 and k
i
= 70. P gain (k) was reduced because the I controller also reduces the rise time
and increases the overshoot as does the P controller (double effect).
2.4.4 Derivative controller
Introducing a derivative controller will add damping and in doing so:
1. increases system stability (add phase lead)
2. reduces overshoot
3. generally improves transient response
A derivative controller may able to provide anticipative action but derivative action can make the system
become noisy.
Almost always used in conjunction with P control.
Figure 2.12: PD control
The integral term may be expressed in (i)
and (ii)
The integral term
is known as the derivative time constant.
Cl osed Loop Step : K = 30, Ki = 70
Ti me (sec)
D
i s
p
l a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
E
+

y
sp
y
plant c
E
load disturbance
KT
d
s
sT
d
/N 1+
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The integral term
is known as derivative gain (e.g: in MATLAB)
The relationship between
and
is as follows:
=
Example 2.3:
a) D control reduces both settling time and overshoot.
b) The closedloop transfer function of the system with a PD controller is:
X(s)/F(s)=______________
c) Let k = 300 and k
d
= 10.
d) Reduced overshoot and settling time, small effect on rise time and ss error
Cl osed Loop Step : K = 300, Kd = 10
Ti me (sec)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
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2.4.5 PID controller
In some system the commonly implemented controller consist of the P, I and D control action. We call
this type of controller as PID controller.
Figure 2.13: PID control
The standard form of PID controller according to ISA (Instrument Society of America) is as follows:
= (1 +
1
+
)
Or = +
+
Cl osed Loop Step : K = 350, Ki = 300, Kd = 50
Ti me (sec)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
K
1/( ) Ts
i
y
sp
T s
d
G s ( )
u
E E

+
e y
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Example 2.4:
a) The closedloop transfer function of the system with a PID controller is:
X(s)/F(s) = (k
d
s
2
+ks+k
i
)/(s
3
+ (10+k
d
)s
2
+ (20+k)s + k
i
)
b) Let k = 350, k
i
= 300 and k
d
= 50.
c) No overshoot, fast rise and settling time and no steadystate error
2.4.6 PID tuning
Introducing the P, I and D controller has certainly proven to contribute some effect to our system’s
response. These effects are summarized as in table below.
CLOSED LOOP
RESPONSE
RISE TIME OVERSHOOT SETTLING
TIME
SS ERROR
K Decrease Increase Small change Decrease
=
Decrease Increase Increase Eliminate
=
Small change Decrease Decrease Small change
When you are designing a PID controller for a given system, follow the steps shown below to obtain a
desired response.
1. Obtain an openloop response and determine what needs to be improved
2. Add a proportional control to improve the rise time
3. Add a derivative control to improve the overshoot
4. Add an integral control to eliminate the steadystate error
5. Adjust each of K, K
i
, and K
d
until you obtain a desired overall response referring to the table
shown previously to find out which controller controls what characteristics.
Cl osed Loop Step : K = 350, Ki = 300, Kd = 50
Ti me (sec)
D
i s
p
l a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
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6. It is not necessary to implement all three controllers (P, I & D) into a single system. For example,
if a PI controller gives a good enough response, then you don't need to add D control to the
system. Simple is better.
2.5 BLOCK DIAGRAM & REDUCTION METHODS
A block diagram is used to describe the composition and interconnection of a system, or it can be used
together with the transfer functions to describe the causeandeffect relationships throughout the
system. For instance, Figure 2.14 (a) shows a dc motor wiring diagram, (b) sketch, and (c) shows the
block diagram with transfer function.
Figure 2.14: A dc motor: (a) wiring diagram (b) sketch
Figure 2.14 (c): A dc motor: Block diagram with transfer functions
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2.5.1 Block diagram reduction method
We shall now define the block diagram elements used frequently in linear control systems and the
related algebra. All component parts of a block diagram for linear timeinvariant systems are shown in
Figure 2.15.
The characteristic of the summing junction as shown in Figure 2.15 (c) is that the output signal, ) (s C , is
the algebraic sum of the input signals. The figure shows three inputs, but any number can be presented.
A pickoff point, as shown in Figure 2.15 (d), distributes the input signal, ) (s R , undiminished, to several
output points.
Figure 2.15: Components of a block diagram for LTI systems
Figure 2.16 shows the block diagram of a linear feedback control system. The following terminology is
defined with reference to the diagram.
Figure 2.16: Feedback control system
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) ( ), ( t r s R = reference input (command)
) ( ), ( t c s C or ) ( ), ( t y s Y = output (controlled variable)
) ( ), ( t b s B = feedback signal
) ( ), ( t e s E = actuating signal = error signal
) (s H = feedback transfer function
) ( ) ( s H s G = ) (s L = loop transfer function
) (s G = forwardpath transfer function
) ( ) ( ) ( s R s C s M = or ) ( ) ( s R s Y = closedloop transfer function or system transfer function.
) (s M can be expressed as a function of ) (s G and ) (s H . From Figure 2.16, we write
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
s Y s H s B
s E s G s Y
=
=
The actuating signal is written as
) ( ) ( ) ( s B s R s E ÷ =
Thus,
) ( ) ( 1
) (
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
s H s G
s G
s R
s Y
s M
s B s G s R s G s Y
+
= =
÷ =
The block diagram representation of a given system often can be reduced by block diagram reduction
techniques to a simplified block diagram with fewer blocks than the original diagram. Table below shows
some of the block diagram reduction techniques.
The block diagram reduction technique is based on the utilization of rule 6 in which eliminates feedback
loops. Therefore, the other transformations are used to transform the diagram to a form ready for
eliminating feedback loops.
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For parallel subsystems as shown below in (a), the reduction technique is shown in (b).
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Example 2.5: Block Diagram Reduction.
A block diagram of a multipleloop feedback control system is shown in Figure 25. It is interesting to
note that the feedback signal H
1
(s)Y(s) is a positive feedback signal, and the loop G
3
(s)G
4
(s)H
1
(s) is called
a positive feedback loop. First, to eliminate the loop G
3
G
4
H
1
, we move H
2
behind block G
4
by using rule
4, and therefore obtain Figure 26 (a).
Multipleloop feedback control system
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Eliminating the loop G
3
G
4
H
1
by using rule 6, we obtain Figure 26 (b). Then, eliminating the inner loop
containing H
2
/G
4
, we obtain Figure 26 (c). Finally, by reducing the loop containing H
3
, we obtain the
closedloop system transfer function as shown in Figure 26 (d).
Block diagram reduction of the system
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Example 2.6: Reduce the system shown to a single transfer function.
Block diagram for Example 2.6
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Steps in the block diagram reduction for Example 2.6
The block diagram representation of feedback control systems is a valuable and widely used approach.
The block diagram provides the analyst with a graphical representation of the interrelationships of
controlled and input variables. Furthermore, the designer can readily visualize the possibilities for
adding blocks to the existing system block diagram to alter and improve the system performance. The
transition from the block diagram method to a method utilizing a line path representation instead of a
block representation is readily accomplished and is presented in the following section.
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2.6 SIGNAL FLOW DIAGRAM & REDUCTION METHODS
Block diagrams are adequate for the representation of the interrelationships of controlled and input
variables. However, for a system with reasonably complex interrelationships, the block diagram
reduction technique is cumbersome and often quite difficult to complete. An alternative method for
determining the relationship between system variables has been developed by Mason and is based on a
representation of the linear system by line segments called SignalFlow Graph (SFG).
The advantage of the SFG method is the availability of a flow graph gain formula, which provides the
relation between system variables without requiring any reduction procedure or manipulation of the
flow graph.
2.6.1 Basic elements of SFG
When constructing a SFG, junction points or nodes are used to represent variables. The nodes are
connected by line segments, called branches. A signal can transmit through a branch only in the
direction of the arrow.
For instance, consider that a linear system is represented by a simple algebraic equation
1 12 2
y a y =
where y
1
is the input, y
2
the output, and a
12
the gain between two variables. The SFG is shown in Figure
29.
Figure 2.17: Signalflow graph of
1 12 2
y a y =
Example 2.7: Consider the following set of algebraic equations:
4 45 2 25 5
4 44 3 34 2 24 4
4 43 2 23 3
3 32 1 12 2
y a y a y
y a y a y a y
y a y a y
y a y a y
+ =
+ + =
+ =
+ =
Y
1
Y
2
a
12
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The SFG for these equations is constructed, step by step, as shown:
Stepbystep construction of the SFG of Example 2.7
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2.6.2 Summary of the basic properties of SFG
The important properties of the SGF are summarized as follows:
1. SFG applies only to linear systems.
2. Nodes are used to represent variables. Normally, the nodes are arranged from left to right,
from input to output.
3. Signals travel along branches only in the direction described by the arrows of the branches.
2.6.3 Definitions of the SFG terms
Input Node
(source)
 An input node is a node that has only outgoing
branches.
Output Node
(sink)
 An output node is a node that has only incoming
branches. In general, we can make any non input node
an output node, simply by connecting a branch with
unity gain from the existing node to a new node with
the same name (Example: node y
2
in Figure 2.18(b)). If
we attempt to convert y
2
into input node, by using the
same unity gain branch (Figure 2.18 (c)), then y
2
output
will differ from the original (y
2
= y
2
+ a
12
y
1
+ a
32
y
3
).
Path  A path is any collection of a continuous succession of
branches traversed in the same direction.
Forward Path  A forward path is a path that starts at an input node
and ends at an output node, and along which no node is
traversed more than once.
Loop  A loop is a path that originates and terminates on the
same node and along which no other node is
encountered more than once. For example, there are
four loops in the SFG of Example 2.7. These are shown
in Figure 2.19
Path Gain  The product of the branch gains encountered in
traversing a path is called the path gain
Loop Gain  The loop gain is the path gain of a loop
Nontouching
Loops
 Two parts of a SFG are nontouching if they do not
share a common node. For example, the loop y
2
y
3
y
2
and y
4
y
4
of the SFG in Figure (d) of Example 2.7 are
nontouching loops.
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Figure 2.18 (a & b): Modification of SFG so that y
2
become output node
(c): Erroneous way to make node y
2
an input node
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Figure 2.19: Four loops in the signalflow graph of Example 2.7
2.6.4 SFG Algebra
Based on the properties of the SFG, we can outline the following manipulation rules and algebra of SFG.
1. The value of the variable represented by a node is equal to the sum of all the signals
entering the node. For the SFG of Figure 2.20 (a),
5 51 4 41 3 31 2 21 1
y a y a y a y a y + + + =
2. The value of the variable represented by a node is transmitted through all branches
leaving the node. In Figure 2.20 (a), we have
1 18 8
1 7 1 7
1 16 6
y a y
y a y
y a y
=
=
=
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Figure 2.20
3. Parallel branches in the same direction connecting two nodes can be replaced by a
single branch with the gain equal to the sum of gains of the parallel branches. Example:
Figure 2.20 (b).
4. A series connection of unidirectional branches can be replaced by one branch with gain
equal to the product of branch gains.
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2.6.5 Gain formula for SFG (Mason’s Rule)
The overall gain between the input node y
in
and output node y
out
of a SFG with N forward paths and L
loops is given by
N k
P
y
y
M
k
k k
in
out
, 2 , 1 , =
A
A
= =
¯
where
y
in
= inputnode variable
y
out
= outputnode variable
M = gain between y
in
and y
out
N = total number of forward paths between y
in
and y
out
P
k
= k
th
forwardpath gain
A = 1 – (sum of all individual loop gains)
+ (sum of all gain products of two nontouching loops)
– (sum of all gain products of three nontouching loops) + …
A
k
= A, which is evaluated by eliminating all loops that touch k
th
forwardpath
Procedures to solve SFG by using Mason’s rule:
1. Identify the no. of forward paths and determine the forwardpath gains.
2. Identify the no. of loops and determine the loop gains.
3. Identify the nontouching loops taken two at a time, three at a time and so on. Determine the
product of the nontouching loop gains.
4. Determine A and A
k
.
5. Substitute all of the above information into the gain formula:
N k
P
y
y
M
k
k k
in
out
, 2 , 1 , =
A
A
= =
¯
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Care must be taken when applying the gain formula to ensure that it is applied between an input node
and an output node.
Example 2.8: Consider the SFG of a closed loop control system as given in Figure below. By using the
gain formula, find the transfer function ) ( ) ( s R s Y .
SFG of a feedback control system
1. There is only one forward path between ) (s R and ) (s Y , and the forwardpath gain is
P
1
= ) (s G .
2. There is only one loop; the loop gain is L
1
= ) ( ) ( s H s G ÷ .
3. There are no nontouching loops.
4. A = 1  L
1
= ) ( ) ( 1 s H s G + and A
1
= 1.
5. Thus,
) ( ) ( 1
) (
) (
) (
1 1
s H s G
s G P
s R
s Y
+
=
A
A
=
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Example 2.9: For the system shown in Figure below, determine the gain between y
1
and y
5
.
SFG for Example 2.9
1. There are three forward paths
Path 1: y
1
– y
2
– y
3
– y
4
– y
5
P
1
= a
12
a
23
a
34
a
45
Path 2: y
1
– y
2
– y
4
– y
5
P
2
= a
12
a
24
a
45
Path 3: y
1
– y
2
– y
5
P
3
= a
12
a
25
2. There are four loops
Loop 1: y
2
– y
3
– y
2
L
1
= a
23
a
32
Loop 2: y
3
– y
4
– y
3
L
2
= a
34
a
43
Loop 3: y
2
– y
4
– y
3
– y
2
L
3
= a
24
a
43
a
32
Loop 4: y
4
– y
4
L
4
= a
44
3. Nontouching loops: y
2
– y
3
– y
2
and y
4
– y
4
Thus the product of the gains of the two nontouching loops:
L
1
L
4
= a
23
a
32
a
44
4. A = 1 – (L
1
+ L
2
+ L
3
+ L
4
) + L
1
L
4
= 1 – (a
23
a
32
+
a
34
a
43
+ a
24
a
43
a
32
+ a
44
) + a
23
a
32
a
44
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All the loops are in touch with forward path P
1
, thus A
1
= 1.
All the loops are in touch with forward path P
2
, thus A
2
= 1.
Two loops (y
3
– y
4
– y
3
and y
4
– y
4
) are not touching with forward path P
3
.
Thus, A
3
= 1  a
34
a
43
– a
44
.
5. Thus,
44 32 23 44 43 32 24 43 34 32 23
44 43 34 25 12 45 24 12 45 34 23 12
3 3 2 2 1 1
1
5
) ( 1
) 1 )( ( ) ( ) (
a a a a a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a a a a
P P P
y
y
M
+ + + + ÷
÷ ÷ + +
=
A
A + A + A
= =
Example 2.10: Consider the SFG as shown in the figure. The following inputoutput relation is obtained
by use of the gain formula:
A
+ +
=
A
A + A
=
) 1 (
2 3 5 1 4 3 2 1 2 2 1 1
1
7
H G G G G G G G P P
y
y
where
4 2 1 3 1 4 3 3 2 1 4 2 3 4 1 1
2 1 3 1 4 3 3 2 1 2 3 1 1
1
H H H G G H H G G G H H G H H G
H H G G H H G G G H G H G
+ + + +
+ + + + + = A
SFG for Example 2.10
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2.7 CONVERSION FROM BLOCK DIAGRAMS TO SFG
An equivalent SFG for a block diagram can be drawn by performing the following steps:
1. Identify the input/output signals, summing junctions & pickoff points → they are replaced with
nodes.
2. Interconnect the nodes & indicate the directions of signal flow by using arrows.
3. Identify the blocks  they are replaced with branches.
For each negative sum, a negative sign is included with the branch.
4. Add unity branches as needed for clarity or to make connections.
5. Simplify the SFG → eliminate redundant nodes/branches (only if the node is connected to branches
of a single flow in & a single flow out with unity gain).
6. Label the input/output signals and the branches accordingly.
Example 2.11: Convert the block diagram in the figure to a signal flow graph and determine the transfer
function using Mason’s gain formula.
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The equivalent SFG:
1. There are two forward paths; the forwardpath gains are:
P1 = G1G2G3
P2 = G1G4
2. There are five individual loops; the loop gains are:
L1 = −G1G2H1
L2 = −G2G3H2
L3 = −G1G2G3
L4 = −G1G4
L5 = −G4H2
3. There are no nontouching loops.
4. ∆ = 1 – (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 + L5)
= 1 + G1G2H1 + G2G3H2 + G1G2G3 + G1G4 + G4H2
All the loops are in touch with forward path P1, thus A1 = 1.
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All the loops are in touch with forward path P2, thus A2 = 1
5. Thus,
2 4 4 1 3 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 1
4 1 3 2 1
2 2 1 1
1 H G G G G G G H G G H G G
G G G G G
P P
R
Y
+ + + + +
+
=
A
A + A
=
2.8 STATE SPACE EQUATIONS
State space approach is an alternative method for representing physical system. In order to use this
approach, we have to limit our approach to linear, timeinvariant systems or system that can be
linearized by the methods we have covered previously.
In state space method, the models are constructed in the time domain. This means we can work directly
with the governing differential equations to model, analyze and design a wide range of system. In
contrast, classical control design practices looking at the frequency domain output to interpret system’s
physical dynamics. With the arrival of space exploration, requirements for control systems increased in
scope. Hence the use of classical control design seems inadequate.
Many systems do not have just a single input. Multipleinput, multipleoutput systems can be compactly
represented in state space with a model similar in form and complexity to that used for singleinput,
singleoutput systems. To address the multiple input and output system a convenient matrix based is
used in representing the state space. In addition, the state space approach is also attractive because of
the availability of numerous statespace software packages for the personal computer
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The table below outlines the advantages and disadvantages of state space models
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Multiple input / output models are now
possible
Difficult to examine robustness (stability
margins)
Possible to minimize “error critera”
(optimal control)
More work than classical control for
“simple” problems
Possible to examine stability in more
depth
“optimal” systems require “optimal” error
criteria Ideally suited to computerbased design
and analysis
2.8.1 Definition of state space terms
State of a
system
 A set of quantities which completely determine the
evolution of the response of a system (in the absence of
external inputs)
State Variables  Set of variables that define the state. These variables
are not unique. For example x1, x2,….
State Vector  The (column) vector of the nth state variables:
= [
1
2
…
]
Note: system is of order n (i.e it is described by an nth
order D.E.
State Space  The ndimensional space in which the components of
the state vector are the coordinate axes.
State trajectory  The path in state space produced by the state vector as
it changes with time.
Note: The selection of state variables is not unique. In the first instance, it is often reasonable to
choose something with “physical meaning”, often something associated with system “energy”
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2.8.2 State space model
We begin our state space equation with a state equation. A state equation consist of the state equation
and output equation as follows:
= + State Equation
= + Output Equation
Now A, B, C and D are all matrices involved in a state space equation
A = (n x n) state matrix that describes “internal (homogenous) motion
B = (n x r) input matrix that describes how r inputs affect n states
C = (m x n) output matrix that describes how n states contribute to m outputs
D = (m x r) direct transmission matrix that describes how r inputs are fed through to m outputs.
LECTURER’S NOTES:
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LECTURER’S NOTES:
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CHAPTER 3.0 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
The ability to adjust the transient and steadystate response of a control system is a beneficial outcome
of the design of feedback systems. Since time is used as an independent variable in most of control
systems, it is usually of interest to evaluate the state and output responses with respect to time, or
simply the time response.
In the analysis problem, we will use selected input signals to test the response of control systems. This
response will be characterized by a selected set of response measures. In this chapter, we will strive to
delineate a set of quantitative performance measures that adequately represent the performance of the
control systems.
3.1 Time Response and Test Signals
The time response of a control system is usually divided into two parts: the transient response and the
steadystate response. Let y(t) denote the time response of a continuousdata system; then, in general,
it can be written as
y(t) = y
t
(t) + y
ss
(t) (3.1)
where y
t
(t) denotes the transient response and y
ss
(t) denotes the steadystate response.
In control systems, the transient response is defined as the part of the time response that goes to zero
as time becomes very large. Thus y
t
(t) has the property
0 ) ( lim =
· ÷
t y
t
t
(3.2)
The steadystate response is simply the part of the total response that remains after the transient has
died out. All real stable systems exhibit transient phenomena to some extent before the steady state is
reached.
In the design problem, specifications are usually given in terms of the transient and steadystate
performance, and controllers are designed so that the specifications are all met by the design system.
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Since it is difficult to design a control system that will perform satisfactorily for all possible forms of
input signals, it is necessary, for the purpose of analysis and design, to assume some basic types of test
signals properly for the prediction of the system's performance to other more complex inputs.
3.1.2 StepInput Function
The stepfunction input represents an instantaneous change in the reference input. The mathematical
representation of a step function of magnitude A is
¹
´
¦
<
>
=
0 0
0
) (
t
t A
t r
Mathematically, r(t) = Au
s
(t), where u
s
(t) is the unitstep function. The step function is shown in Fig.
3.1(a).
3.1.3 RampInput Function
The ramp function is a signal that changes constantly with time. Mathematically, a ramp function is
represented by
) ( ) ( t Atu t r
s
=
where A is a real constant. The ramp function is shown in Fig. 3.1(b).
3.1.4 ParabolicInput Function
The parabolic function represents a signal that is one order faster than the ramp function.
Mathematically, it is represented by
) (
2
) (
2
t u
At
t r
s
=
The parabolic function is shown in Fig. 3.1(c).
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Fig. 3.1 shows the three timedomain test signals.
Figure 3.1: Test input signals: (a) Step, (b) Ramp, (c) Parabolic.
3.2 First & Second Order System: Transient & Steady State Response
For linear control systems, the time response is characterized by using the unitstep input. The response
of the control system to the unitstep input is called the unitstep response. Fig. 3.2 illustrates a typical
unitstep response of a linear control system. With reference to the unitstep response, the following
performance criteria (parameters) are defined:
1. Maximum overshoot: Let y
max
denotes the maximum value of y(t) and y
ss
be the steadystate value of
y(t) and y
max
> y
ss
. The maximum overshoot of y(t) is defined as,
Maximum overshoot = y
max
− y
ss
% 100
overshoot maximum
overshoot maximum of Percentage × =
ss
y
(3.3)
2. Delay time: The delay time, t
d
is defined as, the time required for the step response to reach 50% of
its final value.
3. Rise time: The rise time, t
r
is defined as, the time required for the step response to rise from 10 to 90
percent of its final value.
4. Settling time: The settling time, t
s
is defined as, the time required for the step response to reach and
stay within a specified percentage (5%) of its final value.
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Figure 3.2: Step response of a control system.
Analytically, these quantities are difficult to establish, except for simple systems that are lower than the
third order.
3.2.1 Transient Response of a Prototype of SecondOrder Systems
Although it is true that secondorder control systems are rare in practice, their analysis generally helps
to form a basis for the understanding of analysis and design of higherorder systems, especially the ones
that can be approximated by secondorder systems.
Consider that a secondorder control system with unity feedback is represented by the block diagram
shown in Fig. 3.3. The openloop transfer function of the system is
( )
n
n
s s
s G
.e
e
2
) (
2
+
= (3.5)
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where ζ and e
n
are real constants. The closedloop transfer function of the system is
2 2
2
2 ) (
) (
n n
n
s s s R
s Y
e .e
e
+ +
= (3.6)
The characteristic equation of the prototype of the secondorder system is obtained by setting the
denominator of Eq. (3.6) to zero
0 2 ) (
2 2
= + + = A
n n
s s s e .e (3.7)
The system is stable (Bounded output for bounded input) if the roots of the characteristic equation is
located on the left half of splane, and marginally stable (Oscillation for a bounded input) if the
characteristic equation has simple roots on the imaginary axis with all other roots on the left half of s
plane. For an unstable (Unbounded output for any bounded input) system, the characteristic equation
has at least one root on the right half of the splane or it has a repeated je roots.
Figure 3.3: A prototype of a secondorder control system.
For a unitstep input, R(s) = 1/s, the output response is given as
) 2 (
) (
2 2
2
n n
n
s s s
s Y
e .e
e
+ +
= (3.8)
By taking inverse Laplace transform, we obtain the unit step response of the control system
( ) 0 cos 1 sin
1
1 ) (
1 2
2
> + ÷
÷
÷ =
÷
÷
t t
e
t y
n
t
n
. . e
.
.e
(3.9)
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Fig. 3.4 shows the unitstep response of the secondorder system for various values of .. It may be
noted that the response becomes more oscillatory with larger overshoot as . decreases.
Figure 3.4: Unitstep response of a secondorder system with various ζ values.
3.2.2 Damping Ratio and Damping Factor
The effects of the system parameters ζ and e
n
on the step response y(t) can be studied by referring to
the roots of the characteristic equation in Eq. (4.7). The roots can be expressed as
e o
. e .e
j
j s s
n n
+ ÷ =
÷ ± ÷ =
1 ,
2
2 1
(3.10)
where
o = ζe
n
(3.11)
and
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2
1 . e e ÷ =
n
(3.12)
The physical significance of ζ and o is now investigated. As seen from Eq. (4.9), the factor o = .e
n
appears as a constant multiplied by t in the exponential term of the response y(t). Therefore, o controls
the rate of rise or decay of the unitstep response y(t). In other words, o controls the "damping" of the
system and is called the damping factor.
The inverse of o, 1/o is proportional to the time constant of the system. When . = 1, the oscillations
disappear and the system is said to be critically damped. Under this condition, o = e
n
. Thus, we can
regard . as
damping critical the at factor damping
factor damping actual
n
= =
e
o
. ratio, Damping (3.13)
When . < 1, the system is underdamped and when . > 1, the system is overdamped.
3.2.3 Natural Undamped Frequency
The parameter e
n
is defined as the natural undamped frequency. As seen from Eq. (3.10), when . = 0,
the roots of the characteristic equation are imaginary. Thus, the unitstep response of the system
becomes purely oscillatory with angular frequency of e
n
. For 0 < . < 1, the imaginary parts of the roots
have the magnitude of the actual (damped) frequency of oscillation. Thus
2
1 . e e ÷ =
n
Fig. 3.5 illustrates the relationships between the location of the roots of the characteristic equation and
o, ζ, and e
n
.
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Figure 3.5: The relationships between the location of the roots of the characteristic equation and o, ζ,
and e
n
.
The effect of the roots of the characteristic equation on the damping of the secondorder system is
illustrated in Fig. 3.6.
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Figure 3.6: Stepresponse comparison for various locations of the roots of the characteristic equation in
the splane.
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3.2.4 Analytical Expression for Maximum Overshoot
By taking the derivative of Eq. (3.9) with respect to time t and setting the result to zero, we get
t e
dt
t dy
n
t n n
. 1 . sin
1
) (
2
2
. e
.
e
.e
÷
÷
=
÷
(3.14)
,... 2 , 1 , 0 1
2
= = ÷ n n t
n
t . e
From which we get
,... 2 , 1 , 0
1
2
=
÷
= n
n
t
n
. e
t
(3.15)
For the unitstep responses shown in Fig. 3.4, the first overshoot is the maximum overshoot. This
corresponds to n = 1 in Eq. (4.15). Thus, the time at which the maximum overshoot occurs is
2
max
1 . e
t
÷
=
n
t (3.16)
With reference to Fig. 3.4, the overshoots occur at odd values of n, that is, n =1, 3, 5, …, and
undershoots occur at even values of n.
The magnitude of the overshoots and undershoots can be determined by subistituting Eq. (3.14) into Eq.
(3.9). This results in y(t)
max or min
. Therefore
2
1 /
max
1 overshoot maximum
. t. ÷ ÷
= ÷ = e y (3.17)
and the percentage of maximum overshoot is
2
 1 / 
100e overshoot maximum of percentage
. t.
= (3.18)
The relationship between the percent maximum overshoot and the damping ratio, as given in Eq. (3.18),
is plotted in Fig. 3.7.
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Figure 3.7: The relationship between the percent maximum overshoot and the damping ratio.
3.2.5 Delay Time and Rise Time
It is more difficult to determine the exact analytical expressions of the delay time t
d
, rise time t
r
, and
settling time t
s
. However, we can utilize the linear approximation
1.0 0
7 . 0 1
< <
+
~ .
e
.
n
d
t (3.19)
The plot of e
n
t
r
versus ζ is shown in Fig. 3.8. This relation can be approximated by a straight line over a
limited range of ζ.
1 0
16 . 2 60 . 0
< <
+
= .
e
.
n
r
t (3.20)
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Figure 3.8: Normalized rise time versus ζ for the prototype secondorder system.
From this discussion, the following conclusions can be made:
1. t
r
and t
d
are proportional to ζ and inversely proportional to e
n
.
2. Increasing (decreasing) the natural undamped frequency e
n
will reduce (increase) t
r
and t
d
.
The settling time t
s
can be approximated as
n
s
t
.e
3
= (3.21)
We can summarize the relationships between t
s
and the system parameters as follows:
1. For ζ < 0.69, the settling time is inversely proportional to ζ and e
n
. A practical way of reducing
the settling time is to increase e
n
while holding ζ constant.
2. For ζ > 0.69, the settling time is proportional to ζ and inversely proportional to e
n
. Again, t
s
can
be reduced by increasing e
n
.
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3.3 STABILITY & PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS – ROUTHHURWITZ STABILITY TEST
The discussions in the preceding sections lead to the conclusion that the stability of a linear time
invariant system can be determined by checking on the location of the roots of the characteristic
equation. When the system parameters are all known, the roots of the characteristic equation can be
solved by means of a rootfinding computer program.
For design purposes, there will be unknown or variable parameter embedded in the characteristic
equation, and it will be feasible to use the rootfinding programs. The method outlined below is well
known for the determination of stability of a LTI system without involving root solving.
3.3.1 RouthHurwitz Criterion
The RouthHurwitz criterion represents a method of determining the location of zeros of a polynomial
with constant real coefficients with respect to the left and right half of the splane, without actually
solving for the zeros.
Consider that the characteristic equation of a linear timeinvariant SISO system is of the form
0 ) (
0 1
1
1
= + + + + =
÷
÷
a s a s a s a s F
n
n
n
n
(3.25)
where all the coefficients are real. In order that Eq. (3.25) does not have roots in the right half of s
plane, it is necessary and insufficient that the following conditions hold:
1. All the coefficients of the equation have the same sign
2. None of the coefficients vanishes
However, these conditions are not sufficient, for it is quite possible that an equation with all its
coefficients nonzero and of the same sign still will not have all the roots in the left half of the splane.
The first step in the RouthHurwitz criterion is to arrange the coefficients of the Eq. (3.25) as follows:
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5 3 1
4 2
1
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
n n n
n n n
n
n
a a a
a a a
s
s
Further rows of the schedule are then completed as follows:
1
5 3 1
5 3 1
5 3 1
4 2
0
3
2
1
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
n
n n n
n n n
n n n
n n n
n
n
n
n
h
c c c
b b b
a a a
a a a
s
s
s
s
s
where
3 1
3 1
1
1
5 1
4
1
3
3 1
2
1
1
1
1
1
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
n n
n n
n
n
n n
n n
n
n
n n
n n
n
n
b b
a a
b
c
a a
a a
a
b
a a
a a
a
b
and so on.
Once the Routh's tabulation has been completed, we investigate the signs of the coefficients in the first
column of the tabulation. The roots of the equation are all in the left half of the splane if all the
elements of the first column of the Routh's tabulation are of the same sign. The number of changes of
signs in the elements of the first column equal the number of roots with positive real parts or in the right
half splane.
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Example 3.1: Consider the equation
( )( )( ) 0 6 4 3 1 2
2 3
= + + ÷ = ÷ + ÷ s s s s s s
This equation has one negative coefficient. Thus, we know without applying Routh's test that not all the
roots of the equation are in the lefthalf splane. In fact, from the factored form of the equation, we
know that there are two roots in the righthalf splane, at s = 2 and s = 3. For the purpose of illustrating,
the Routh's tabulation is made as follows:
0 6
0 5 . 2
6 4
1 1
0
1
2
3
s
s
s
s
÷
Since there are two sign changes in the first column of the tabulation, the equation has two roots
located in the righthalf splane.
Example 3.2: Consider the equation
0 10 5 3 2
2 3 4
= + + + + s s s s
Since this equation has no missing terms and the coefficients are all of the same sign, it satisfies the
necessary conditions for not having roots in the right half or on the imaginary axis of the splane.
However, since these conditions are necessary but not sufficient, we have to check the Routh's
tabulation.
0 0 10
0 0 43 . 6
0 10 7
0 5 1
10 3 2
0
1
2
3
4
s
s
s
s
s
÷
Since there are two changes in the first column of the tabulation, the equation has two roots in the right
half of the splane.
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 Special Cases When Routh's Tabulation Terminates Prematurely
Depending on the coefficients of the equation, the following difficulties may occur that prevent the
Routh's tabulation from completing properly:
1. The first element in any one row of Routh's tabulation is zero, but the others are not.
2. The elements in one row of Routh's tabulation are all zero.
In the first case, we replace the zero element in the first column by an arbitrary small positive number c,
and then proceed with Routh's tabulation. This is illustrated by the following example:
Example 3.3: Consider the characteristic equation of a linear system:
0 3 2 2
2 3 4
= + + + + s s s s
Since all the coefficients are nonzero and of the same sign, we need to apply the RouthHurwitz
criterion. Routh's tabulation is carried out as follows:
3 0
0 2 1
3 2 1
2
3
4
s
s
s
Since the first element of the s
2
row is zero, the element in the s
1
row would all be infinite. To overcome
this difficulty, we replace the zero in the s
2
row by a small positive number c and then proceed with the
tabulation.
0 3
0
3
3
0
1
2
s
s
s
c
c
÷ ~
Since there are two sign changes in the first column of Routh's tabulation, the equation has two roots in
the righthalf splane.
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In the second special case, when all the elements in one row of Routh's tabulation are zeros before the
tabulation is properly terminated, it indicates that one or more of the following conditions may exist.
1. The equation has at least one pair of real roots with equal magnitude but opposite signs.
2. The equation has one or more pairs of imaginary roots.
3. The equation has pairs of complexconjugate roots forming symmetry about the origin of the s
plane (e.g. s = 1 ± j1, s = 1 ± j1).
The situation with the entire row of zeros can be remedied by using the auxiliary equation A(s) = 0,
which is formed from the coefficients of the row just above the row of zeros in Routh's tabulation. The
roots of the auxiliary equation also satisfy the original equation. To continue with Routh's tabulation
when a row of zeros appears, we conduct the following steps:
1. Form the auxiliary equation A(s) = 0 by use of the coefficients from the row just preceding the
row of zeros.
2. Take the derivative of the auxiliary equation with respect to s; this gives dA(s)/ds = 0.
3. Replace the row of zeros with the coefficients of dA(s)/ds = 0.
4. Continue with Routh's tabulation in the usual manner.
Example 3.4: Consider the following characteristic equation of a linear control system:
0 4 7 8 8 4
2 3 4 5
= + + + + + s s s s s
The Routh's tabulation is
0 0
4 4
0 6 6
4 8 4
7 8 1
1
2
3
4
5
s
s
s
s
s
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A(s) = 4s
2
+ 4 = 0
The derivative of A(s) with respect to s is
dA(s)/ds = 8s = 0
From which the remaining portion of the Routh's tabulation is
4
0 8
0
1
s
s
Since there are no sign changes in the first column, the system is stable. Solving the auxiliary equation
A(s) = 0, we get the two roots at s = j and s = j, which are also two of the roots of the characteristic
equation. Thus, the equation has two roots on the jeaxis, and the system is marginally stable. These
imaginary roots caused the tabulation to have an entire row of zeros in the s
1
row.
Example 3.5: Consider that a thirdorder control system has the characteristic equation
0 10 5 . 1 10 1204 3 . 3408
7 3 2 3
= × + × + + k s s s
Determine the crucial value of k for stability.
7 0
3 7
1
7 2
3 3
10 5 . 1
0
3408
10 1204 3408 10 5 . 1
10 5 . 1 3 . 3408
10 1204 1
×
× × ÷ ×
÷
×
×
s
k
s
k s
s
For the system to be stable, all the coefficients in the first column must have the same sign. This lead to
the following conditions:
0
3408
10 36 . 410 10 5 . 1
7 7
>
× ÷ ×
÷
k
Therefore, the condition of k for the system to be stable is
57 . 273 0 < < k
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If we let k = 273.57, the characteristic equation will have two roots on the jeaxis. To find these roots,
we substitute k = 273.57 in the auxiliary equation, as follows:
0 10 1036 . 4 3 . 3408 ) (
9 2
= × + = s s A
which has roots at s = j1097.27 and s = j1097.27.
Thus if the system operate with k = 273.57, the system response will be an undamped sinusoid with a
frequency of 1097.27 rad/sec.
3.4 STEADY STATE RESPONSE – STEADY STATE ERROR
One of the objectives of most control systems is that the system output response follows a specific
reference signal accurately in the steady state. Steadystate error is the difference between the output
and the reference in the steady state. Steadystate errors in control systems are almost unavoidable and
generally derive from the imperfections, frictions, and the natural composition of the system. In the
design problem, one of the objectives is to keep the steadystate error below a certain tolerable value.
3.4.1 Definition of the SteadyState Error with respect to System Configuration
Let us refer to the closedloop system shown in Fig. 3.11, where r(t) is the input, e(t) the actuating signal,
and y(t) is the output. The error of the system may be defined as:
Figure 3.11: ClosedLoop Control System.
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) ( signal reference ) ( t y t e ÷ = (3.26)
where the reference signal is the signal that the output is to track. When the system has unity feedback
(i.e. H(s) = 1), the error is simply
) ( ) ( ) ( t y t r t e ÷ =
The steadystate error is defined as
) ( 1
) (
lim
) ( lim ) ( lim
0 s
0
s G
s sR
s sE t e e
s t
ss
+
=
= =
÷
÷ · ÷
(3.27)
Clearly, e
ss
depends on the characteristics of G(s). More specifically, e
ss
depends on the number of poles
that G(s) has at s = 0. This number is known as the system type. Fig. 3.12 shows steady state errors for
different input functions.
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Figure 3.12: Steadystate errors (a) step input, (b) ramp input
Now let us investigate the effects of the types of inputs on the steadystate error.
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3.4.2 SteadyState Error of System with a StepInput Function
When the input r(t) to a control system with unityfeedback is a step function with magnitude A, then
R(s) = A/s and the steadystate error is written from Eq. (4.27),
) ( lim 1 ) ( 1
lim
) ( 1
) (
lim
0
0 0
s G
A
s G
A
s G
s sR
e
s
s s
ss
÷
÷ ÷
+
=
+
=
+
= (3.28)
For convenience, we define
) ( lim
0
s G k
s
p
÷
=
as the steperror constant. Then Eq. (4.28) becomes
p
ss
k
A
e
+
=
1
(3.29)
We can summarize the steadystate error due to a stepfunction input as follows:
 Type 0 system:
p
ss
k
A
e
+
=
1
= constant
 Type 1 or higher system: e
ss
= 0
3.4.3 SteadyState Error of System with a RampInput Function
When the input to the unityfeedback control system is a ramp function with amplitude A,
) ( ) ( t Atu t r
s
=
where A is a real constant, the Laplace transform of r(t) is
2
) (
s
A
s R =
The steadystate error is written using Eq. (4.27) as follows:
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) ( lim ) (
lim
0
0
s sG
A
s sG s
A
e
s
s
ss
÷
÷
=
+
= (3.30)
We define the ramperror constant as
) ( lim
0
s sG k
s
v
÷
=
Then Eq. (3.30) becomes
v
ss
k
A
e = (3.31)
The following conclusions may be stated with regard to the steadystate error of a system with ramp
input:
 Type 0 system: e
ss
= ·
 Type 1 system: e
ss
=
A/k
v
= constant
 Type 2 or higher system: e
ss
= 0
3.4.4 SteadyState Error of System with a Parabolic Input
When the input is described by the standard parabolic form
) (
2
) (
2
t u
At
t r
s
=
The Laplace transform of r(t) is
3
) (
s
A
s R =
The steadystate error of the system is
) ( lim
2
0
s G s
A
e
s
ss
÷
= (3.32)
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Defining the parabolicerror constant as
) ( lim
2
0
s G s k
s
a
÷
= (3.33)
the steadystate error becomes
a
ss
k
A
e = (3.34)
The following conclusions are made with regard to the steadystate error of a system with parabolic
input:
 Type 0 system: e
ss
= ·
 Type 1 system: e
ss
= ·
 Type 2 system: e
ss
= A/k
a
= constant
 Type 3 or higher system: e
ss
= 0
Example 3.5: Find the steady state errors of the following system
1
) 5 . 0 )( 5 . 1 (
) 15 . 3 (
) ( H(s)
s s s
s k
s G =
+ +
+
=
It is clear that this system is a type 1 system. The steadystate errors are:
Step input Steperror constant, k
p
= · e
ss
= A/1+k
p
= 0
Ramp input Ramperror constant, k
v
= 4.2k e
ss
= A/k
v
= A/(4.2k)
Parabolic input Parabolicerror constant, k
a
= 0 e
ss
= A/k
a
= ·
3.4.5 SteadyState Error for Nonunity Feedback System
For nonunity feedback control, we usually find the equivalent unityfeedback system, as shown in Fig.
3.13.
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Figure 3.13: Forming an equivalent unity feedback for nonunity feedback system.
We have to take into consideration, that the above steps require that input and output of the same
units. The following example summarizes the concepts of steadystate error, system type, and the
steady state errors.
Example 3.6: For the system shown in Fig. 4.14, find the system type and the steady state error for the
unit step function. Assume input and output units are the same.
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Figure 3.14: Nonunity feedback control system for Example 3.6.
The first step in solving the problem is to convert the system of Fig. 3.14 into an equivalent unity
feedback system. Using the equivalent forward transfer function of Fig. 3.13(e) along with
) 10 (
100
) (
+
=
s s
s G
and
5
1
) (
+
=
s
s H
we find
400 50 15
) 5 ( 100
) ( ) ( ) ( 1
) (
) (
2 3
÷ ÷ +
+
=
÷ +
=
s s s
s
s G s H s G
s G
s G
e
Thus, the system is type 0, and
4
5
400
5 100
) ( lim
0
÷ =
÷
×
= =
÷
s G k
e
s
p
The steadystate error is
4
1
1
÷ =
+
=
p
ss
k
e
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3.5 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS
In practice, the performance of a control system is measured more realistically by its timedomain
characteristics. The reason is that the performance of most control systems is judged based on the time
response due to certain test signals.
In design problems, there are no unified methods of arriving at a designated system that meets time
domain performance specifications. On the other hand, in frequency domain, a wealth of graphical and
other techniques are available that are useful for system analysis and design, irrespective of the order of
the system.
It is important to realize that there are correlating relations between the frequency and timedomain
performances in linear system so that timedomain properties of the system can be predicted based on
the frequency–domain characteristics. With these in mind, we shall study the frequency response
analysis of control systems.
3.5.1 Frequency Response of a System
It is well known from linear system theory that, when the input to a linear time invariant system is
sinusoidal with amplitude R and frequency e
o
, i.e.,
t ω R r(t)
o
sin =
the steadystate output of the system, y(t), will be a sinusoid with the same frequency e
o
, but possibly
with different amplitude and phase; i.e.
φ) t (ω Y y(t)
o
+ = sin
where Y is the amplitude of the output sine wave and o is the phase shift.
Let the transfer function of a SISO system be M(s); the output Y(s) and the input R(s) are related through
M(s)R(s) Y(s) =
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For sinusoidal steadystate analysis, we replace s by je, and equation (6.3) becomes
( ( = ) ) e e e j R j Μ ) Y(j
By writing Y(je) and M(je) as (similar expression for ) e j R( also):
) ( ) ( ) ( e e e j Y j Y j Y Z =
) ( ) ( ) ( e e e j M j M j M Z =
) ( ) ( ) ( e e e j R j M j Y =
and the phase relation:
) ( ) ( ) ( e e e j R j M j Y Z + Z = Z
Thus, for the input and output signals described by equations (6.1) and (6.2),
R j M Y
o
) ( e =
) (
o
j M e o Z =
Thus, by knowing the transfer function M(s), the frequency response of the system can be obtained.
The frequency response of the loop transfer function G(s)H(s) [G(s) if H(s) is unity] can be plotted in
several ways. The two commonly used representations are:
a. Bode diagram, or Logarithmic plot.
b. Polar plot, or Nyquist plot.
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3.5.2 Frequency Response – Bode Diagram
A Bode diagram consists of two graphs. One is a plot of the logarithm of the magnitude of a sinusoidal
transfer function; the other is a plot of the phase angle; both are plotted against the frequency on a
logarithmic scale.
The standard representation of the logarithmic magnitude of G(je) is 20 log G(je), where the base of
the logarithm is 10. The unit used in this representation is the decibel (dB). The curves are drawn on a
semilog paper, using the log scale for frequency and linear scale for either magnitude (in dB) or phase
angle (degrees).
The main advantage of Bode diagrams is that the multiplication of magnitudes can be converted into
addition. Furthermore, a simple asymptotic method is available for sketching the approximate curve.
Should the exact curve be desired, corrections could be made easily to these basic asymptotic plots.
In Bode diagrams, the frequency ratios are expressed in terms of octaves or decades. An octave is a
frequency band from e
1
to 2e
1
, where e
1
is any frequency. A decade is a frequency band from e
1
to
10e
1
, where e
1
is any frequency.
Basic Factors of G(je)H(je):
The basic factors that very frequently occur in an arbitrary openloop transfer function G(je)H(je) are:
a. Constant gain, K.
b. Zeros and poles at the origin, ( )
n
j
±
e .
c. Simple zeros and poles, ( )
1
1
±
+ T je .
d. Quadratic factors, ( ) ( )  
1
2
/ / 2 1
±
+ +
n n
j j e e e e c .
a. Real Constant: G(s)H(s) = K
G(jω)H(jω) = K
Magnitude: G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = 20 log
10
K (dB).
Phase angle: ZG(jω)H(jω) = 0°.
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The Bode plot for any value of K is shown in Fig. 6.1.
Figure 6.1: Bode plot for gain K.
b. Poles and zeros at the origin: G(s)H(s) = s
±n
For s
n
:
G(jω)H(jω)=(jω)
n
Magnitude: G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = 20n log
10
jω (dB) = 20n log
10
ω (dB) (6.11)
Phase angle: ZG(jω)H(jω) = 90n° (a constant).
For s
n
:
G(jω)H(jω)=(jω)
n
Magnitude: G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = −20n log
10
jω (dB) = −20n log
10
ω (dB) (6.12)
Phase angle: ZG(jω)H(jω) = −90n° (a constant).
The Bode magnitude plots are a straight line in semi log coordinate. The slope of the line is ±20n
dB/decade i.e. the magnitude change by ±20n dB for the frequency change of 10 times. The straight line
passes through 0 dB at e = 1. The phase angle (o) of ±je is constant and equal to ±90
0
.The Bode plots
are shown in Fig. 6.2.
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Figure 6.2: Bode diagrams for (a)G(je) = 1/je (b)G(je) = je.
c. Simple zeros and poles: G(s)H(s) = (1+sT)
±1
G(jω)H(jω)= (1+ jωT)
±1
Magnitude:
G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = ±20 log
10
1 + jωT (dB)
= ±20 log
10
√*1 + ω
2
T
2
] (dB) (6.11)
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To obtain asymptotic approximation we consider both very large and very small values of e. For low
frequencies, such that eT << 1, the log magnitude may be approximated by
dB T 0 1 log 20 1 log 20
2 2
= ± ~ + ± e
For high frequencies, such that eT >> 1,
dB T T log 20 1 log 20
2 2
e e ± ~ + ±
At e=1/T, log magnitude = 0 dB while at e=10/T, log magnitude = ±20 dB. Thus, the value of
T e log 20 ± increases/decreases with 20 dB/decade. Hence, the magnitude plot can be approximated
by two straightline asymptotes, one a straight line at 0 dB for the frequency range 0 < e < 1/T and the
other a straight line with slope ±20 dB/decade for the frequency range 1/T < e < ·. The frequency,
e=1/T, at which the two asymptotes meet is called the corner frequency or break frequency.
Phase angle: ZG(jω)H(jω) = T e
1
tan
÷
± .
At corner frequency, ZG(jω)H(jω) = ±45°. The phase plot can be approximated by a straight line passing
through 0° at one decade below corner frequency and ±90° at one decade above corner frequency. The
Bode plots are shown in Fig. 6.3 and Fig. 6.4.
An advantage of the Bode diagram is that for reciprocal factors, for example the factor 1/(1+jeT), the
logmagnitude and phase angle curves need only be changed in sign, since
T j
T j
e
e
+ ÷ =
+
1 log 20
1
1
log 20 and phase angle of 1/(1+jeT) = T e
1
tan
÷
÷ = ÷ (phase angle of
(1+jeT).
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Figure 6.3: Bode plot for (1+jeT).
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Figure 6.4: Logmagnitude curve (with asymptotes) for 1/(1+jeT).
d. Quadratic factors: ( ) ( )  
1
2
/ / 2 1 ) ( ) (
±
+ + =
n n
s s s H s G e e .
( ) ( )  
1
2
/ / 2 1 ) ( ) (
±
+ + =
n n
j j j H j G e e e e . e e
Magnitude:
G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = ±20 log
10
1 + 2ζ(jω/ω
n
)+ (jω/ω
n
)
2
 (dB)
= ±20 log
10
2 2
2
2
2 1


.

\

+


.

\

÷
n n
e
e
.
e
e
(dB) (6.12)
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If ζ > 1, this quadratic factor can be expressed as a product of two firstorder factors with real
zeros/poles. If 0 < ζ < 1, this quadratic factor is the product of two complexconjugate zeros/poles. The
asymptotic frequency response curves can be obtained as follows.
For low frequencies such that e/e
n
<< 1, the log magnitude becomes ±20 log 1 = 0 dB. The low
frequency asymptote is thus a horizontal line at 0 dB. For high frequencies such that e/e
n
>> 1, the log
magnitude becomes
n n
e
e
e
e
log 40 log 20
2
2
± = ± dB. The equation for the high frequency asymptote is a
straight line with a slope of ±40 dB/decade.
The frequency e
n
is the corner frequency. The two asymptotes just derived are independent of the value
of ζ. Fig. 6.5 shows exact curves with the straightline asymptotes and the exact phase angle curves.
Phase angle of the quadratic factor is:


.

\

÷
± =
÷
2
1
1
2
tan
n
n
e
e
e
e
.
o (6.13)
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Figure 6.5: Bode plot for Eqn. (6.12) and (6.13).
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Example 6.1: Sketch the Bode plot for the following function:
2
1
) (
+
=
s
s G
Solution:
2
1
) (
+
=
s
s G ,




.

\

+
=
+
=
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
) (
e
e
e
j
j
j G
Magnitude:
2
1 20log 
2
1
log 20 ) ( log 20
2

.

\

+ 
.

\

=
e
e j G
2
tan ) (
1
e
e
÷
÷ = Z j G
Figure 6.6: Bode plots for the system in Example 6.1.
Frequency (rad/sec)
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
;
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
25
20
15
10
5
10
1
10
0
10
1
80
60
40
20
0
T
o
:
Y
(
1
)
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General Procedure for Plotting the Bode Diagrams:
 Rewrite the sinusoidal transfer function as a product of the basic factors discussed above.
 Identify the corner frequencies associated with these basic factors.
 Draw the asymptotic logmagnitude curves with proper slopes between the corner frequencies
considering all the basic factors together. The exact curve, which lies very close to the
asymptotic curve, can be obtained by adding contributions from all the factors and proper
corrections.
 Phaseangle curve can be drawn by adding the phaseangle curves of individual factors.
3.5.3 Polar Plot (Nyquist Plot)
The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G(je) is a plot of the magnitude of G(je) versus the phase
angle of G(je) on polar coordinates as e is varied from zero to infinity. Note that, in polar plots, a
positive (negative) phase angle is measured counterclockwise (clockwise) from the positive real axis. The
polar plot is very often called the Nyquist plot in control system engineering. An example of such a plot
is shown in Fig. 6.7. Each point on the polar plot of G(je) represents the terminal point of a vector at a
particular value of e. In the polar plot, it is important to show the frequency graduation of the locus.
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Example of a Polar Plot.
a. Poles and zeros at the origin: G(s)H(s) = s
±n
( )
1
) ( ) (
±
= e e e j j H j G
The polar plot of G(je)H(je) = 1/je is the negative imaginary axis since
( )
0
90
1 1
) ( ÷ Z = ÷ = =
e e e
e e
j
j
j H j G (6.14)
The polar plot of G(je)H(je) = je is the positive imaginary axis.
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b. Simple zeros and poles: G(s)H(s) = (1+sT)
±1
( )
1
1 ) ( ) (
±
+ = T j j H j G e e e
For the sinusoidal transfer function
( ) T
T
T j
j H j G e
e
e
e e
1
2 2
tan
1
1
1
1
) (
÷
÷ Z
+
=
+
= (6.15)
the values of G(je)H(je) at e = 0 and at e = 1/T are, respectively,
( )
0
0 1 ) 0 ( 0 Z = j H j G and
0
45
2
1 1 1
÷ Z =

.

\


.

\

T
j H
T
j G
If e approaches infinity, the magnitude approaches 0 and the phase angle approaches –90
0
. The polar
plot of this transfer function is a semicircle as the frequency is varied from 0 to ·. It is shown in Fig. 6.8.
The center is located at 0.5 in the real axis and the radius is equal to 0.5. The lower semicircle
corresponds to · s se 0 , and the upper semicircle corresponds to 0 s s · ÷ e .
Figure 6.8: (a) Polar plot of 1/(1+jeT) ; (b)Same plot in XY plane.
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The polar plot of the transfer function 1+jeT is simply the upper half of the straight line passing through
the point (1, 0) in the complex plane and parallel to the imaginary axis as shown in Fig. 6.7.
Figure 6.7: Polar plot of 1+jeT.
c. Quadratic factors: ( ) ( )  
1
2
/ / 2 1 ) ( ) (
±
+ + =
n n
s s s H s G e e .
( ) ( )  
1
2
/ / 2 1 ) ( ) (
±
+ + =
n n
j j j H j G e e e e . e e
The low and high frequency portions of the polar plot of the following transfer function
( )
( ) ( )
2
/ / 2 1
1
) (
n n
j j
j H j G
e e e e .
e e
+ +
=
are given, respectively, by
( )
0
0
0 1 ) ( lim Z =
÷
e e
e
j H j G and ( )
0
180 0 ) ( lim ÷ Z =
· ÷
e e
e
j H j G
Thus, the high frequency portion is tangent to the negative real axis. The polar plots are shown in Fig.
6.8.
*Phase angle of the quadratic factor is the same as Eqn. (6.13):
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.

\

÷
± =
÷
2
1
1
2
tan
n
n
e
e
e
e
.
o
Figure 6.8: Polar plots of
( ) ( )
2
/ / 2 1
1
n n
j j e e e e . + +
for ζ > 0.
Next, consider the following transfer function:
( ) ( ) ( )


.

\

+


.

\

÷ =
+ + =
n n
n n
j
j j j H j G
e
.e
e
e
e e e e . e e
2
1
/ / 2 1 ) (
2
2
2
The lowfrequency portion of the curve is:
( )
0
0
0 1 ) ( lim Z =
÷
e e
e
j H j G
and the highfrequency portion of the curve is:
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( )
0
180 ) ( lim ·Z =
· ÷
e e
e
j H j G
The general shape of the polar plot is shown in Fig. 6.9.
Figure 6.9: Polar plot of ( ) ( )
2
/ / 2 1
n n
j j e e e e . + + for ζ > 0.
Example 6.2: Draw polar plot of
2
1
) (
+
=
s
s G
Solution: First substitute s = je in G(s).
2
1
) (
+
=
e
e
j
j G
2
tan ) (
4
1
) (
1
2
e
e
e
e
÷
= Z
+
= j G j G
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Figure 6.10: Polar plot of G(s) in Example 6.2.
Example 6.3: Draw polar plot for the system with
) 2 )( 1 (
10
) (
+ +
=
s s s
s G
Solution:
) 2 )( 1 (
10
) (
+ +
=
e e e
e
j j j
j G
) 2 ( ) 1 (
10
) (
2 2
+ +
=
e e e
e j G
e
e
e
1 1
tan
2
tan 90 ) (
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ = Z
j G
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The plot is shown in Fig. 6.11.
Figure 6.11: Polar plot for the system in Example 6.3.
NYQUIST STABILITY TEST – THE CAUCHY CRITERION
The Cauchy criterion (from complex analysis) states that when taking a closed contour in the complex
plane, and mapping it through a complex function G(s), the number of times, N, that the plot of G(s)
encircles the origin is equal to the number of zeros, Z, of G(s) enclosed by the frequency contour minus
the number of poles, P, of G(s) enclosed by the frequency contour.
N = Z – P
Encirclements of the origin are counted as positive if they are in the same direction as the original closed
contour or negative if they are in the opposite direction.
When studying feedback control, we are not as interested in G(s)H(s) as in the closedloop transfer
function G(s)H(s)/[1+G(s)H(s)]
If 1+G(s)H(s) encircles the origin, then G(s)H(s) will enclose the point 1. Since we are interested in the
closedloop stability, we want to know if there are any closedloop poles (zeros of 1+G(s)H(s)) in the
righthalf plane.
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The Nyquist Stability Criterion usually written as Z = P + N, where
> Z is the number of right hand plane poles for the closed loop system (or zeros of
1+G(s)H(s))
> P is the number of openloop poles (in the RH side of the splane) of G(s)H(s) (or poles of
1+G(s)H(s)), and
> N is the number of clockwise encirclements of (1,0)
“A feedback control system is stable if and only if the number of counterclockwise encirclements of the
critical point (1,0) by the GH polar plot is equal to the number of poles of GH with positive real parts.”
(Nyquist Stability Criterion Definition)
Example:
• Consider the unity feedback applied to the following system
G(s)=K/[s(s+3)(s+5)]
• The loop transfer function is
G(je)H(je)=K/[s(s+3)(s+5)]
K=1,s= je
• The number of openloop poles in the RH side of the splane, P = __
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• For stability Z = 0, therefore N must also be __
• From Nyquist diagram it can be seen that K can be increased by ____________ before the
Nyquist diagram encircles 1.
• For marginal stability, K = _____
RELATIVE STABILITY – GAIN AND PHASE MARGIN
• K is a variable (constant) gain
• G(s) is the plant under consideration
Gain margin is defined as the change in open loop gain required to make the system unstable. Systems
with greater gain margins can withstand greater changes in system parameters before becoming
unstable in closed loop. Phase margin is defined as the change in open loop phase shift required to
make a closed loop system unstable.
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Stability Analysis with Bode Plot
Bode plot is a very useful graphical tool for the analysis and design of linear control systems.
Advantages of the Bode Plot over Nyquist plot:
1. Gain crossover, phase crossover, gain margin, and phase margin are more easily determined on the
Bode plot.
2. For design purposes, the effects of adding controllers and their parameters are more easily visualized
on the Bode plot.
Identifying Marginal Values from Bode Plot
The gain margin is the difference between the magnitude curve and 0dB at the point corresponding to
the frequency that gives us a phase of −180° (the phase cross over frequency, ω
p
).
The phase margin is the difference in phase between the phase curve and −180° at the point
corresponding to the frequency that gives us a gain of 0dB (the gain cross over frequency, ω
g
).
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Figure 6.12: Determination of GM and PM from the Bode plot.
Example 6.4: Consider the loop transfer function given as
) 50 )( 5 (
2500
) (
+ +
=
s s s
s L
From the provided Bode diagram, find the GM and PM and corresponding frequencies.
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Solution:
Figure 6.13: Bode diagram for Example 6.4.
Fig. 6.14 illustrates PM and GM of a stable and unstable system in Bode diagrams.
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Figure 6.14: Phase and Gain margins for stable and unstable systems.
Stability Analysis with Nyquist Plot
OPEN LOOP CLOSED LOOP
Gain Margin, G
M
The change in openloop gain, expressed in
dB, required at 180° to make the closed
loop system unstable. A good range is
2<GM<5 (equivalent to 6dB < GM < 14dB).
Phase Margin, u
M
The change in the openloop phase shift
required at unity gain to make the closed
loop unstable. Good range 30 < PM < 60
degrees.
Gain margin and phase margin
quantitative measures of stability.
systems with large gain and phase margins
can withstand greater changes in system
parameter before becoming unstable.
related to root locus, in that systems with
poles farther from the imaginary axis have
a greater degree of stability.
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A gain of a will move the system response to the critical point
If a phase shift of o degrees occurs, then the system will become unstable
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CHAPTER 4.0 PID CONTROLLER
There are three broad categories of PID tuning techniques:
i) Featurebased techniques
ii) Techniques that require an analytical model
iii) Optimisation (minimisation of an error criterion)
But before looking at PID tuning, we need to look at modeling of simple process dynamics. There are
two common approaches:
transient response methods, which look at the time domain characteristics of the system
response to a step or impulse
frequency response methods, which look at the response to an impulse, white noise or one
or more sinusoids
Stick to transient response models and very simple frequency response for the moment.
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4.1 Transient Response Method of Modelling
Step response modeling probably the most common approach.
Step Response
i) Peak Overshoot
 (peak  final value)/final value*100%
 Measure of maximum value of response
 Indication of the largest error between input and output
 Increases as damping decreased
 Well designed systems generally have overshoot less than 30%
ii) Rise Time
 Measure of the speed of response
 Time necessary for the response to rise from 10% to 90% of its final steady state
error
iii) Time Delay
 Time for system to show any response
Time
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
Settling Time
Peak Overshoot
Unit
Step
Input
Time Delay
1.05
0.95
0.9
0.1
Rise Time
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iv) Delay Time
 Time necessary for the step response to reach some value (often 50%) of the steady
state value. Not to be confused with Dead time = Time Delay
v) Settling Time
 The time taken for the step response to decrease and stay within a specified range
of the final value.
 Often 1%, 2% or 5%
vi) Decay Ratio
 Defined as the ratio between two consecutive maxima of the error for a step change
in the setpoint
 The value d=1/4, which is called quarter amplitude damping, is used traditionally
but is often too high
 For a second order system given by
The decay ration is given by
2
2 2
2
) / ( / 2 1
1
2
) ( 1
) (
) (
n n
n n
n
s s
s s
s G
s G
s CL
e e .
e .e
e
+ +
=
+ +
=
+
=
2
1 / 2 . t. ÷ ÷
= e d
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4.1.1 Step Response Model 1 – 2 parameter model
Model of Integrator with time delay (first order response)
 Response rises linearly over time
 characterised by two parameters
 L  essentially the “dead time”
 a  where a/L is the slope.
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
step response for
1
e
2s
s
a
L
time
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
G(s) = e
sL
a
Ls
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4.1.2 Step Response Model 2 – 3 parameter model (first order)
Response rises smoothly and is stable:
 characterised by three parameters, gain k, time constant T and time delay L.
 Most common model for PID tuning
Problem:
 Tangent to step response must be drawn at the location of the largest slope
 Need some alternatives that are more robust
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
time
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
step response for e
2s
2
1+s
L
T
k
G(s) = e
sL
k
1+sT
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4.1.3 Step Response Model 3 – Alternative 3 parameter model (first order)
 Response is 63% of final value at t = T
 63% =1e
1
 Still some sensitivity to high frequency noise
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
time
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
step response for e
2s
2
1+s
L
T
k
G(s) = e
sL
k
1+sT
.63k
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4.1.4 Step Response Model 4 – Another alternative 3 parameter model (first order)
3 Parameter Model Alternative:
 Effective at removing noise
 Let (L+T) = A
1
/k
 Can show that T = (A
2
/k)e
1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
time
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
L
L+T
k
G(s) = e
sL
k
1+sT
A
1
A
2
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4.1.5 Step Response Model 5 – Second order response
Second order response generally has the following features:
 Oscillatory
 3 parameters  need k, w, z
Time delay can be added to this model and determined as done previously in the tutorial.
time
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
k
T
p
d = e or = .
2
(1 )
.t
.
2 1/2 1
(1
+
(2 /
log
d) ) t
2 1/2
G(s) =
k
2
s
2
+
2 s
+
2
e
.e e
Tp = or = e
2
(1 )
t
e
.
2 1/2
2
Tp(1 )
t
.
2 1/2
d = e /
2
e
1
e e =o(1d)
1 2
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4.2 Frequency Response Modelling
Some tuning formulas are based upon the frequency response of the plant
Parameters of interest are the ultimate gain K
u
and the ultimate period T
u
Find these by first closing the loop and then disabling the integral and derivative parts of the controller
(T
d
=0, T
i
=very large), and increasing the proportional gain until the system begins to oscillate. Gain at
this point = K
u
and period of oscillation = T
u
Problems with looking for ultimate gain in this way
 Often time consuming in practice, requiring several trials
 Process can be detrimental to plant equipment and product quality
 Can easily mistake other responses for the ultimate gain
a. small amplitude “limit cycles” due to valve friction or hysteresis
b. large amplitude oscillations due to actuator saturation
Alternative method for finding ultimate gain and period:
 for the closedloop system, find controller gain that produces a 1/4 decay ratio
(overshoot of one peak is 25% of the peak before it). Let this be K
25%
 K
u
= 2 K
25%
 Period of oscillation, T
25%
, will be approximately T
u
(a little longer in practice, but close
enough)
E
+

e(s)
y
y
sp G(s) K
Plant Controller
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4.2.1 Nyquist Plot Frequency Reponse Modelling
On a Nyquist plot:
 Look at openloop response
 static gain K
p
= point on plot where w=0
 K
u
= 1 divided by ultimate point
 T
u
= 2p divided by w at ultimate point
1
+
e=0
ultimate point
Im G(j ) e
Re G(j ) e
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4.3 Simple Tuning Law
There are several tuning law can be implemented in order to obtain the desired response. These
tuning law are as follows:
i) Ziegler – Nichols
 Step Response
 Ultimate Gain method
 Generalised ZN
ii) Chien, Hrones and Reswick Method
iii) Cohen Coon Method
4.3.1 Ziegler – Nichols Method
ZieglerNichols rule was first presented in 1942. This tuning law was developed empirically
based on large number of cases. It can be said as a standard starting point.
There are some drawbacks of using this rule mainly because it needs additional manual tuning
and not particularly robust.
Now we will employ this method for both step response and frequency response modeling.
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4.3.1.1 ZN method for Step Response modeling
Uses 2 parameter model “a” and “L”
CONTROLLER
TYPE
K Ti Td Tp
P 1/a 4L
PI 0.9/a 3L 5.7L
PID 1.2/a 2L L/2 3.4L
Tp is the estimate of the period of the closed loop system
Example:
Consider the plant G(s) = (s+1)
3
From step response
a = _____
L = _____
PID controller
a= 0.218
L= 0.806
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K = ____, T
i
= ____ and T
d
= ____
Overshoot in setpoint response is too large
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4.3.1.2 ZN Method for Frequency Response Modelling
PID settings based upon ultimate gain, K
u
, and ultimate period, T
u
Aims to achieve effective disturbance rejection, and acceptable set point following
CONTROLLER
TYPE
K Ti Td Tp
P 0.5Ku Tu
PI 0.4Ku 0.8Tu 1.4Tu
PID 0.6Ku 0.5Tu 0.125Tu 0.85Tu
Example:
Consider the plant G(s) = (s+1)
3
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From the Nyquist diagram
Ultimate Gain, K
u
= _____
Ultimate Period, T
u
= _____ = _____
PID controller
K = ____ T
i
= ____ and T
d
= ____
4.3.2 The Chien, Hrones and Reswick Method – Improved ZN step response modeling
The CHN method is a modified ZN step response rules which can gives better damped closed
loop response.
The tuning method gives you two options depending on the desired response and they can be
either:
 quickest response without overshoot, or
 quickest response with 20% overshoot
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CONTROLLER
TYPE
K Ti Td
P 0.3/a
PI 0.6/a 4L
PID 0.95/a 2.4L 0.42L
Option for 0% overshoot
CONTROLLER
TYPE
K Ti Td
P 0.7/a
PI 0.7/a 2.3L
PID 1.2/a 2L 0.42L
Option for 20% overshoot
4.3.3 CohenCoon Method
Based on plant model
Attempts to position dominant poles that give quarter amplitude decay ratio by employing:
 Method same as the ZN rules
 This minimises the SS error due to load disturbances.
For PID control, 3 poles are assigned, two complex conjugate poles and the third real pole is
positioned at the same distance from the origin as the other 2 poles.
CONTROLLER
TYPE
K Ti Td
P
(1/a)*[1+0.35t/(1t)]
PI (0.9/a)*[1+0.92t/(1t)] [(3.33t)/(1+1.2t)]*L
PD (1.24/a)*[1+0.13t/(1t)] [(0.270.36t) / (1
0.87t)]*L
PID (1.35/a)*[1+0.18t/(1t)] [(2.52t)/(10.39t)]*L [(0.370.37t)/(1
0.81t)]*L
Where a = K
0
L/T and t = L / (L+T) and K
0
is the Open Loop DC Gain.
sL
e
sT
K
s G
÷
+
=
1
) (
0
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4.4 PID Tuning Rule of Thumb
PARAMETER SPEED STABILITY
K increases
Increases
Decreases
Ti increases Decreases Increases
Td increases Does not really change
to much (Increase)
Increases
4.5 PID Tuning – A Summary
CONTROLLER
TYPE
ZN Step ZN Nyquist
P
K=1/a
0.5Ku
PI K=0.9/a Ti=3L K=0.4Ku Ti=0.8Pu
PID K=1.2/a Ti=2L Td=L/2 K=0.6ku Ti=0.5Pu Td=0.125Pu
a
L
time
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
open loop step
response
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4.5.1 Interpretation of ZN Ultimate Gain Approach
The ZN ultimate gain approach can be interpreted as shifting a point in the Nyquist curve. The
technique is based around finding the “ultimate point”, where the Nyquist curve intercepts the real axis.
 P moves in direction of G(jw), or radially out.
 I moves in direction of G(jw)/jw, or at 90 degrees to P
 D moves in direction of jwG(jw), or at 90 degrees to P
time
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
step response with
closed loop proportional
control with gain K
u
P
u
1
+
e=0
ultimate point
= 1/K
u
Im G(j ) e
Re G(j ) e
D
I
P
A point on the Nyquist curve can
be moved to an arbitrary position
using PI, PD or PID control.
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CHAPTER 5.0 ANALYSIS OF CONTROL SYSTEM STATE SPACE
The introduction of the state space representation has been discussed earlier in chapter 2.0. Please
refer to the chapter for basic overview of state space representation.
In this chapter, we will cover InsyaAllah the extension of state space representation for example the
conversion between the transfer function and state space equation. Also in this chapter we will gonna
look at how to solve the time invariant state equation, controllability and observability.
5.1 State Space Representation Extended
The transfer function of any system can be converted to state space equation and vice versa. Consider a
transfer function given by:
()
()
= ()
This system may also be represented in state space as:
= +
= +
Where x is the state vector, u is the input and y is the output. The Laplace Transform of the equations:
−0 = +()
= +()
Assuming the initial conditions are zero
− = ()
Or
− = ()
By premultiplying ( −)
−1
to both sides of this equation, we obtain
= −
−1
()
Substitute into output equation;
= −
−1
+()
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Comparing with the above equation, we see that
= ( −)
−1
+
5.1.1 Transfer Matrix
For MIMO system that the r inputs
1
,
2
, ……. ,
and m outputs
1
,
2
, ……. ,
define as:
=
1
2
.
.
=
1
2
.
.
The transfer matrix G(s) relates the output Y(s) to the input U(s), or
= ()
Since the input vector u is r dimensional and the ouput vector y is m dimensional, the transfer matrix is
an m x r matrix.
5.2 Converting State Space to transfer function
A modern complex system may have many inputs and outputs. Let say we have a state space
representations of the following:
+
1
−1
+⋯+
−1
+
=
0
+
1
−1
+⋯+
−1
+
Controllable canonical form
1
2
.
.
−1
=
0 1 0 … 0
0 0 1 … 0
. . . … .
. . . … .
0 0 0 … 1
−
−
−1
−
−2
… −
1
1
2
.
.
−1
+
0
0
.
.
0
1
=
−
1
0
−1
−
−1
0
… .
1
−
1
0
1
2
.
.
−1
+
0
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Observable canonical form
1
2
.
.
−1
=
0 0 … 0 −
1 0 … 0 −
−1
. . … . −
−2
. . … . .
0 0 … 0 .
0 0 … 1 −
1
1
2
.
.
−1
+
−
1
0
−1
−
−1
0
.
.
.
1
−
1
0
= 0 0 … 0 1
1
2
.
.
−1
+
0
Diagonal Canonical Form
Consider the transfer function system defined by equation below. In this case the denominator
polynomial involves only distinct roots only.
()
()
=
0
+
1
−1
+⋯+
−1
+
+
1
+
2
…( +
)
=
0
+
1
+
1
+
2
+
2
+⋯+
+
1
2
.
.
−1
=
−
1
0 … 0 0
0 −
2
… 0 0
. . … . .
. . … . .
0 0 … 0 .
0 0 … 0 −
1
2
.
.
−1
+
1
1
.
.
.
1
=
1
2
…
−1
1
2
.
.
−1
+
0
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Jordan Canonical Form
Consider the case where the denominator polynomial involves multiple roots.
()
()
=
0
+
1
−1
+⋯+
−1
+
+
1
3
+
4
+
5
…( +
)
The partial fraction expansion becomes
()
()
=
0
+
1
( +
1
)
3
+
2
( +
1
)
2
+
3
( +
1
)
+
4
( +
4
)
+⋯+
( +
)
A state space representation of this system in the Jordan canonical form is given by:
1
2
3
4
.
.
.
=
−
1
1 0 0 … 0
0 −
1
1 0 … 0
0 0 −
1
0 … 0
0 0 0 −
4
… 0
. . .
. . .
. . .
0 0 0 0 … −
1
2
3
4
.
.
.
+
0
0
1
1
.
.
.
1
=
1
2
…
−1
1
2
⋮
−1
+
0
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LECTURER’S NOTE
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5.3 Controllability and Observability
5.3.1 Controllability
Controllability is a test of the ability of the actuators. A system is controllable if it is possible to transfer
any state with any set of initial conditions to any final state in some finite time period. Alternatively, a
system is only controllable if every mode (or state) is connected to the control input.
A system is referred to as “stabilizable” so long as we can state control all unstable modes. This might
mean that there are some stable uncontrollable states. Strictly speaking the dynamical system described
by the pair (A;B) is said to be (statefeedback) stabilizable if there exists a state feedback u=Kx such that
A+BK is stable.
In order to test the controllability of a LTI system, the “Controllability Matrix” must be of full rank. The
Controllability matrix,
=
…
−
i.e the controllability matrix must be invertible. Note
the difference between rank and determinant. Often in uncontrollable systems, part of the system is
unconnected from input.
Additional tests are to show that the controllability Gramian P is positive definite, where P may be found
by the solution to the Lyapunov equation: +
= −
.
Alternatively;
≡
∞
0
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Example 1:
Investigate the controllability of: =
−1 0
1 −2
, =
1
2
Finding the Controllability Matrix,
0=
0=
1 −1
2 −3
Look at the determinant,
= −1 ≠ 0
The rank of this matrix is 2, hence the system is controllable.
Example 2:
Investigate the controllability of: =
−1 0
0 −1
, =
1
3
Example 3:
Investigate the controllability of:
()
()
= =
1
3
+
2
2
+
1
+
0
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5.3.2 Observability
Observability is a test of the ability of the sensors. A system is observable if every initial state x(0) can be
determined by observing the system output over some finite time period. A system is referred to as
“detectable” if all unstable modes are state observable. This may mean the system has unobservable
states which are stable. Strictly speaking the pair (C;A) is said to be detectable if there exists a matrix L
such that A+LC is stable.
In order to test the observability of an LTI system, the “Observability Matrix” must be of full rank. The
observability matrix,
=
⋮
−
i.e the observability matrix must be invertible.
Additional tests are to show that the controllability Gramian Q is positive definite, where Q may be
found by the solution to the Lyapunov equation:
+ = −
.
Alternatively;
≡
∞
0
Example 1:
Investigate the observability of: =
−1 0
1 −2
, = 1 0 and = 0 1
Finding the observability matrix,
= 1 0
= −1 0
=
1 0
−1 0
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Look at the determinant,
= 0
The rank of this matrix is 1, hence the system is non observable.
What about the other case?
Example 2:
Investigate the observability of: =
−1 0
1 −1
, = 1 3
Example 3:
Investigate the observability of:
()
()
= =
1
3
+
2
2
+
1
+
0
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5.4 Solving the time invariant State equation
The homogeneous State Equations is = which gives:
=
(0)
Matrix
is a matrix exponential. This matrix is also known as the state transition matrix. It is
sometimes labeled as =
.
The state transition matrix is difficult to calculate. Hence there are two common ways of expressing it:
1. Expansion:
=
= + +
2
2
2!
+⋯+
!
2. Inversion:
=
−1
Φ =
−1
−
−1
The forced response (inhomogeneous solution) is given by (assuming
0
= 0):
=
0 +
−
0
The output is therefore given by:
= +()
Example 1:
Obtain the state transition matrix Φ() of the following system.
1
2
=
0 1
−2 −3
1
2
Obtain also the inverse of the state transition matrix, Φ
−1
For this sytem
=
0 1
−2 −3
The state transition matrix is given by
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Φ =
=
−1
[ −
−1
]
Since − =
0
0
−
0 1
−2 −3
=
−1
−2 +3
(sI −A)
−1
=
1
s +1(s +2)
s +3 −1
−2 s
+3
+1( +2)
1
+1( +2)
−2
+1( +2)
+1( +2)
Hence Φ =
=
−1
−
−1
=
2
−
−
−2
−
−
−2
−2
−
+2
−2
−
−
+2
−2
Noting that Φ
−1
= Φ()
Φ
−1
=
−
=
2
−
−
−2
−
−
−2
−2
−
+2
−2
−
−
+2
−2
Example 2: EM/APR 2008/KJM597/MEC522
a) An electrohydraulic car suspension system can be modeled by the following state matrix
equation
1
2
=
−1
−1
0 −
1
1
2
+
1
2
=
1
2
1
2
Where
1
and
2
are suspension displacements, u is an electrical actuating signal and k is the
suspension stiffness.
i. Determine the condition for the system to be controllable
ii. If y is a single output displacement, (given as
1
2
where
1
and
2
are constants),
establish the conditions which must be avoided if the system is to remain observable.
b) If the values of k=2N/m,
1
=1 and
2
=0, determine
i. The eigenvalue of the system
ii. The state transition matrix
iii. The variation of x(t) response to a step change in u(t) at time t=0 from u=0 to u=1N for
initial conditions
1
() and
2
() equal to zero.
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CHAPTER 6.0 CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
We have discussed so far the importance of the closedloop system poles on the dynamic performance
of the system. The transientresponse specifications can be translated into desired locations for
dominant closedloop poles. The roots of the characteristic equation, which are the poles of the closed
loop system, determine the absolute and relative stability of the system. Therefore, an important study
in linear control systems is the investigation of the trajectories of the roots of the characteristic
equation, or simply, the root loci when a certain system parameter varies. The basic properties and
construction of root loci are first due to W.R. Evans (1948).
In this chapter, we will discuss the construction of root loci using simple rules. For plotting the root loci
accurately, one can always use standard computer program packages like MATLAB. The basics of root
loci should be thoroughly understood so that the engineers may be able to interpret the data provided
by root loci for system analysis and design.
6.1 Root locus technique
Consider the secondorder system shown in Fig. 6.1, which represents a typical position control system.
The plant consists of a servomotor and load, driven by power amplifier with gain K. The openloop
transfer function of the system is
) 2 (
) (
+
=
s s
K
s G (6.1)
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Figure 6.1: A position control system
Figure 6.2: Root locus for Eq. (6.3)
The openloop poles, marked × in Fig. 5.2, are at s = 0 and s = 2. The closedloop transfer function of the
system is
K s s
K
s G
s G
s R
s Y
+ +
=
+
=
2 ) ( 1
) (
) (
) (
2
(6.2)
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The characteristic equation is
0 2 ) (
2
= + + = A K s s s (6.3)
This second order system is always stable for positive values of K. The relative stability of the system
depends upon the location of the closedloop poles
K s ÷ ± ÷ = 1 1
2 , 1
(6.4)
and hence on the choice of the parameter K.
As K is varied from zero to infinity, the closedloop poles move in the splane as shown in Fig. 6.2. At K =
0, the root s
1
is equal to the openloop pole at s = 0, and root s
2
is equal to the openloop pole at s = −2.
As K increases, the roots move toward each other. The two roots meet at s = −1 for K = 1. As K is
increased further, the roots breakaway from the real axis, become complex conjugate, and since the real
part of both roots remains fixed at s = −1, the roots move along the line o = −1.
A root locus of a system is a plot of the roots of the system characteristic equation (poles of the closed
loop transfer function) as some parameters of the system are varied.
The two branches ACE and BCD of the plot of Fig. 6.2 are thus two root loci of the system of Fig. 6.1.
Each root locus starts at an openloop pole with K = 0 and terminates at infinity as K ÷ ·. Each root
locus gives one characteristic root (closedloop pole) for a specific value of K.
The root locus plot gives us considerable information about the transient behavior of the system as gain
K is varied. From Fig. 6.2:
 For 0 < K < 1, the roots are real and distinct and the system is overdamped.
 For K = 1, the roots are real and repeated. Thus, the system is critically damped.
 For K > 1, the roots are complex conjugate and the system is underdamped with the value of .
decreasing as K increases.
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Thus, by choosing appropriate value of K, we can cause a characteristic root at any point on root locus.
For example, the dashed lines in Fig. 5.2 correspond to . = 0.707. The points where the root loci cross
the dashed lines have been marked . These points corresponds to the closed loop poles for K = 2.
6.1.1 Basic properties of root loci
Figure 6.3: Typical control system
Consider the control system shown in Fig. 6.3. The closedloop transfer function is
) ( ) ( 1
) (
) (
) (
s H s KG
s KG
s R
s Y
+
= (6.5)
Let K be a positive quantity. The roots of the characteristics equation must satisfy the expression
1 + KG(s)H(s) = 0 (6.6)
or, G(s)H(s) = 1/K (6.7)
KG(s)
KG(S)
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Thus, any point s is a closedloop pole or a root of the characteristic equation, if it satisfies the following
conditions (K > 0):
Magnitude condition: G(s)H(s) = 1/K (6.8)
Angle condition: ZG(s)H(s) = (2q+1)t = (2q+1) 180
o
where q = 0, ±1, ±2, … (6.9)
 The angle condition is used to determine the trajectory of the loci in the splane.
 Once the root loci are drawn, the values of K on the loci are determined by using the magnitude
condition.
Graphical Interpretation
Let
) ( ) )( (
) ( ) )( (
) ( ) (
2 1
2 1
n
m
p s p s p s
z s z s z s K
s H s KG
+ + +
+ + +
=
(6.10)
The magnitude condition becomes
( )
( )
K
p s
z s
s H s G
n
j
j
m
i
i
1
) ( ) (
1
1
=
+
+
=
I
I
=
=
(6.11)
The angle condition becomes
o
j
n
j
i
m
i
q p s z s s H s G 180 ) 1 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1
+ ± = + Z ÷ + Z = Z
¯ ¯
= =
where q = 0, 1, 2, … (6.12)
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Figure 6.4: Zero (z
1
) and pole (p
1
) on a complex plane
In Fig 6.4, let us assume a complex pole and real zero: s+p
1
and s+z
1
represent the respective vectors in
the complex plane. A and B are magnitudes of vectors (s+z
1
) and (s+p
1
) and u
2
and u
1
are angles of (s+z
1
)
and (s+p
1
), respectively.
The graphical interpretation is:
The difference between the sums of the angles of the vectors drawn from the zeros and those from
the poles of G(s)H(s) to s is an odd multiple of 180°.
Once the root loci are constructed, the values of K along the loci can be determined. Thus, the
construction of root loci involves:
1. A search for all the points in the splane.
2. Find the magnitude of K on the root loci.
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6.1.2 Properties and construction of root loci
The purpose of root locus is to show in graphical form the general trend of the roots of the characteristic
equation
A(s) = 1+KG(s)H(s) = 1+F(s) = 0 (6.13)
where
( )
( )
n m
p s
z s
s H s G
n
j
j
m
i
i
s
+
+
=
I
I
=
=
; ) ( ) (
1
1
(6.14)
as the parameter K is varied from zero to infinity. Every point s = o + je in the complex plane that
satisfies the angle criterion
o
j
n
j
i
m
i
q p s z s s H s G 180 ) 1 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1
+ ± = + Z ÷ + Z = Z
¯ ¯
= =
; q = 0, 1, 2, ….
is on the root locus. The value of the parameter K corresponding to a point on the root locus can be
obtained from the magnitude criterion
( )
( )
K
p s
z s
s H s G
n
j
j
m
i
i
1
) ( ) (
1
1
=
+
+
=
I
I
=
=
In principle, the root locus for a given F(s) can be sketched by measuring ZF(s) at all the points of the
complex plane and marking down those places where we find ZF(s) equal to an odd multiple of 180
0
.
However, this trialanderror method would be a very tedious task. Therefore, certain rules have been
developed for making a quick approximate sketch of the root locus. This approximate sketch provides a
guide for the selection of trial points such that a more accurate root locus can be obtained by a few
trials. Further, the approximate root locus sketch is very useful in visualizing the effects of variation of
the parameter K, the effects of shifting of polezero locations and of bringing a new set of poles and
zeros.
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Rules for Construction of Root Loci
The root locus for a given F(s) is to be sketched. F(s) has m zeros at s = z
i
and n poles at s = p
j
(refer to
Eq. (6.14)) where m s n. These m zeros and n poles of F(s) are referred to as openloop zeros and open
loop poles, respectively.
Rule 1: Number of Root Loci (Branches)
The root locus plot consists of n root loci (branches) as K varies from 0 to ·. The loci are symmetric with
respect to the real axis.
The characteristic equation can be written as:
0 ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1
= + + + = A
I I
= =
m
i
i
n
j
j
z s K p s s (6.15)
This equation has degree n. Thus, for each real K, there are n roots. As the roots are continuous function
of the coefficients of equation, the n roots form n continuous loci as K varies from 0 to ·. Since the
complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs, the root loci must be symmetrical about the real axis.
Rule 2: Starting and Ending Points of Root Loci
As K increases from 0 to ·, each root locus starts from an openloop pole with K = 0 and ends on an
openloop zero or on · with K = ·. The number of root loci ending at · equals the number of openloop
poles minus zeros.
Refer to Eq. (6.15). When K = 0, the equation has roots at p
j
(j = 1,., n), which are openloop poles.
Thus, the root loci start at openloop poles.
Eq. (6.15) can be rearranged as
0 ) ( ) (
1
1 1
= + + +
I I
= =
m
i
i
n
j
j
z s p s
K
When K = ·, the equation has roots at –z
i
(i = 1, ., m), which are openloop zeros. Therefore, m root
loci end on the openloop zeros.
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In case m < n, the openloop transfer function has (n  m) zeros at infinity. From the magnitude criterion,
( )
( )
K
p s
z s
n
j
j
m
i
i
1
1
1
=
+
+
I
I
=
=
, we find that this is satisfied by s ÷ ·e
jm
as
K ÷ ·. Thus, (n  m) root loci end on infinity.
Rule 3: Asymptotes to Root Loci (Behavior at Infinity)
The (n − m) root loci which tend to · do so along straight line asymptotes radiating out from a single
point s= −o
a
on the real axis (called the centroid) where
m n
zeros loop open of part real poles loop open of part real
a
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
¯ ¯
) ( ) (
o
These (n − m) asymptotes have angles
) 1 ( , , 1 , 0 ;
180 ) 1 2 (
0
÷ ÷ =
÷
+
= m n q
m n
q
a
o
This rule will be justified by referring to a polezero patterns shown in Fig. 6.5. For a point far away from
the origin, the poles and zeros can be considered to cluster at the same point, say −o
a
, as shown in Fig.
6.5. Thus, Eq. (6.15) can be approximated as
( )
( )
0
) (
1 1
1
1
=
+
+ ~
+
+
+
÷
=
=
I
I
m n
a
n
j
j
m
i
i
s
K
p s
z s K
o
(6.16)
This means that all m zeros are cancelled by poles, and only (n  m) poles are left at o
a
.
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Figure 6.5: Asymptotes to root loci
From Eq. (6.16),
( )
( )
m n
a
m
i
i
n
j
j
s
z s
p s
÷
=
=
+ ~
+
+
I
I
) (
1
1
o (6.17)
By simplifying this, we get,
( ) + ÷ + = +


.

\

÷ +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= =
÷
¯ ¯
1 1
1 1
m n
a
m n m n
m
i
i
n
j
j
m n
s m n s s z p s o
Thus, by comparison of coefficients, we get
m n
z p
n
j
m
i
i j
a
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
¯ ¯
= = 1 1
) ( ) (
o (6.18)
Moreover, for the point s
0
to be on the root locus,
, 1 , 0 ; 180 ) 1 2 ( ) (
0
= + ÷ = ÷ ÷ q q m n o
Thus, ) 1 ( , , 1 , 0 ;
180 ) 1 2 (
0
÷ ÷ =
÷
+
= m n q
m n
q
a
o
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The (n  m) angles given by the above equation divide 360
0
equally and are symmetric with respect to
real axis. The (n  m) root loci tend to · along (n  m) asymptotes radiating out from s = o
a
at angles o
a
.
Example 6.1: The polezero map of Fig. 6.5 corresponds to
) )(s )(s j )(s j (s
) K(s
F(s)
4 3 4 1 4 1
2
+ + ÷ + + +
+
= (6.19)
The root loci has four branches, each starting from an openloop pole with K = 0. One root locus will
terminate on openloop zero with K = ·. The other three loci will terminate on · as K ÷ · along the
asymptotes radiating out from s = o
a
where
3
7
1 4
) 2 ( 4 3 1 1
÷ =
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
a
o
at angles 60
0
, 180
0
, and 300
0
, respectively. Fig. 6.6 shows the asymptotes.
Figure 6.6: Asymptotes for Eq. (5.19)
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Rule 4: OnLocus Segments on the Real Axis
A point on the real axis lies on the locus if the number of openloop poles plus zeros on the real axis to
the right of this point is odd.
For the system of Eq. (6.19), the openloop polezeros are shown in Fig. 6.7(a). Take a point s
0
on the
real axis. Join this point to all the openloop poles and zeros. It is seen that (i) poles and zeros on the real
axis to the right of this point contribute an angle of 180
0
each, (ii) poles and zeros to the left of this point
contribute angle of 0
0
each, and (iii) the net angle contribution of a complex conjugate pole or zero pair
is always zero.
Thus, ZF(s)=(m
r
– n
r
)180
0
= ±(2q+1) 180
0
, q = 0, 1, 2, …
where m
r
= number of openloop zeros on the real axis to the right of s
0
and n
r
= number of openloop
poles on the real axis to the right of s
0
. Thus, the angle criterion is satisfied if (n
r
– m
r
) or (n
r
+ m
r
) is odd
and hence the rule. Thus, the real axis can be divided into segments onlocus and notonlocus; the
dividing points being the real openloop poles and zeros. The onlocus segments of the real axis
alternate as shown in Fig. 6.7(b).
Figure 6.7: Onlocus segments of the real axis
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Rule 5: OnLocus Points of the Imaginary Axis
The intersections (if any) of root loci with the imaginary axis can be determined by use of the Routh
criterion.
Segments of root loci can exist in the right half of splane. This signifies instability. The points at which
the root loci cross the imaginary axis define the stability limits. The Routh Table determines the gains at
the stability limit. By using this gain in the auxiliary equation, the value s = je
0
at the stability limit is
computed.
Example 6.2: The characteristic equation of system in Eq. (5.19) is
0 2 204 ) 143 ( 43 9
2 3 4
= + + + + + + K s K s s s (6.20)
The corresponding Routh Table is shown below.
s
4
1 43 204+2K
s
3
9 143+K
s
2
(244 – K)/9 204+2K
s
1
(18368 – 61K – K
2
)/(244 – K)
s
0
204+2K
For stability, 244 – K > 0, 18368 – 61K – K
2
> 0, and 204 + 2K > 0. It can be seen that these conditions are
satisfied if K < 108.4. For K = 108.4, all the coefficients in s
1
row are zero. Thus, the auxiliary equation is
formed from the coefficients of s
2
row and is given by
0 ) 2 204 (
9
244
2
= + +
÷
K s
K
For K = 108.4, the roots of the above equation lie on the je axis and are given by s = ±j5.28. Thus, the
root loci intersect the imaginary axis at s = ±j5.28 and the corresponding value of K is 108.4.
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Rule 6: Angle of Departure from Complex Poles
The angle of departure, o
p
, of a locus from a complex openloop pole is given by o
p
= 180
0
+o where o is
the net angle contribution at this pole of all other openloop poles and zeros.
Example 6.3: For the system of Eq. (6.19), the characteristic equation is
0
4 3 4 1 4 1
2
1 1 =
+ + ÷ + + +
+
+ = +
) )(s )(s j )(s j (s
) K(s
F(s) (6.21)
The pole zeromap is shown in Fig. 6.8.
Figure 6.8: Angle of departure from complex poles
Let s
0
be an arbitrary point on the root locus starting from s = 1+j4. The phase from this pole to s
0
is o
p
.
The net angle contribution of all other openloop poles and zeros at s
0
is
) (
4 3 1 2
u u u u o + + ÷ =
Thus, the total phase of F(s) at s
0
is o  o
p
. For s
0
to be on the root locus, the total phase must be ±180
0
.
So, o
p
= 180
0
+o. This is the angle of departure from the complex openloop pole.
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If s
0
is very close to the pole 1+j4, then the vectors drawn from all other poles and zeros to s
0
can be
approximated by the vector drawn to the pole at 1+j4, i.e., we consider s
0
to be 1+j4 for measurement
of angles u
1
, u
2
, u
3
, and u
4
. With this approximation, for this example, u
1
= 90
0
, u
2
= 76
0
, u
3
= 63
0
, and u
4
=
53
0
. So,
0
4 3 1 2
130 ) ( ÷ = + + ÷ = u u u u o and o
p
= 180
0
+ o = 50
0
. A rough sketch of the root locus for this
system is shown in Fig. 5.9.
Figure 6.9: Root locus plot for Eq. (6.21)
There are four openloop poles, so there are four loci. One locus departs from real pole at –3 and ends
on the zero at –2 along the real axis. The second locus departs from real pole at –4 and moves along the
asymptote on the negative real axis. The third locus departs from the complex pole at –1+j4 with a
departure angle of o
p
= 50
0
and moves toward the asymptote radiating from the centroid at –7/3 at an
angle of +60
0
; it crosses the imaginary axis at j5.28. Using the symmetry property, the fourth locus is
obtained immediately by reflection about the real axis.
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Rule 7: Angle of Arrival at Complex Zeros
The angle of arrival, o
z
, of a locus at a complex zero is given by o
z
= 180
0
– o , where o is the net angle
contribution at this zero of all other openloop poles and zeros.
Example 6.4: Let us consider the characteristic equation
0
) 2 (
) 1 (
1 ) ( 1
2
=
+
+
+ = +
s s
s K
s F (6.22)
The polezero map of this F(s) is shown in Fig. 6.10. Open loop poles: s = 0, –2. Openloop zeros: s = ±j1.
Let s
0
be an arbitrary point on the root locus terminating on the zero at s = j1. Let the phase from this
zero to s
0
= o
z
. If the point s
0
is very close to the zero at j1, then the vectors drawn from the other zero at
–j1 and poles at 0 and –2 to s
0
can be approximated by vectors to the zero at j1. Under this
approximation, the net angle contribution at s
0
is given by
o = 90
0
– 90
0
– 26.5
0
= – 26.5
0
.
For s
0
to be on the root locus, the total phase must be ±180
0
. Thus, o
z
= 180
0
– o = 206.5
0
. The complete
root locus plot is shown in Fig. 6.10.
Figure 6.10: Angle of arrival at complex zero
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Rule 8: Location of Multiple Roots
Points at which multiple roots of the characteristic equation occur (breakaway points of root loci) are the
solutions of
0 =
ds
dK
(6.23)
where
( )
( )
I
I
=
=
+
+
÷ =
m
i
i
n
j
j
z s
p s
K
1
1
(6.24)
Let us assume that the characteristic equation has a multiple root at s = s
0
of multiplicity r. Then,
) ( ) ( ) ( 1
0
s M s s s F
r
÷ = + , r > 2 (6.25)
where M(s) does not contain the factor (s  s
0
). Thus, by differentiating Eq. (6.25), we have
  ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
'
0
1
0
s M s s s rM s s
ds
dF
r
÷ + ÷ =
÷
(5.26)
At s = s
0
, the RHS of Eq. (6.26) is zero. Thus, at s = s
0
,
0 =
ds
dF
In polezero form, the characteristic equation is:
( )
( )
0
) (
) (
1 1 ) ( 1
1
1
= + =
+
+
+ = +
I
I
=
=
s A
s KB
p s
z s K
s F
n
j
j
m
i
i
(6.27)
Thus,
 
0
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
=
' ÷ '
=
s A
s B s A s B s A
K
ds
dF
(6.28)
Therefore, the breakaway points are the roots of
0 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
' '
= ÷ s B s A s B s A (6.29)
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This equation can be equivalently represented as
0 =
ds
dK
, where
( )
( )
I
I
=
=
+
+
÷ = ÷ =
m
i
i
n
j
j
z s
p s
B(s)
A(s)
K
1
1
(6.30)
Example 6.5: Consider the characteristic equation
0
) (
) (
1
) 1 (
) 3 )( 2 (
1 = + =
+
+ +
+
s A
s KB
s s
s s K
(6.31)
Fig. 6.11 shows the openloop poles and zeros on the complex plane. Root loci segments exist on the
negative real axis between 0 and –1 and between –2 and –3. At K = 0, the roots are at s = 0 and s = –1.
As K increases, the two roots move away from poles at 0 and –1 toward each other inside the segment [
1,0]. At some K, the two real roots will become repeated real roots and then break away from the real
axis into two complex conjugate roots. Such a point is called a breakaway point.
Figure 6.11: Root locus plot for Eq. (6.31)
Similarly as K approaches ·, one root will approach zero at s = –2 along the negative real axis and
another will approach zero at s = –3. As the root loci are continuous, the two complex conjugate roots
will approach the real axis somewhere inside the segment [–3, –2] and then depart in opposite
directions along the real axis. This point is also another breakaway point. Sometimes, such a point is also
called as breakin point.
Applying Eq. (6.30) to this case, we get the solutions of dK/ds = 0 as s = –0.634 and s = –2.366. Thus, the
root locus has two breakaway points.
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It is important to note that the condition for the breakaway point (as derived above) is necessary but
not sufficient. In other words, all breakaway points on root locus must satisfy Eq. (6.30), but not all
points that satisfy Eq. (6.30) are breakaway points.
SUMMARY OF RULES FOR ROOT LOCUS PLOTTING
The characteristic equation of the system is
( )
( )
0 ; ;
0 1 ) ( 1 ) ( ) ( 1
1
1
> s
=
+
+
+ = + = +
I
I
=
=
K n m
p s
z s K
s F s H s KG
n
j
j
m
i
i
1. The root locus plot consists of n root loci (branches) as K varies from 0 to ·. The loci are symmetric
with respect to real axis.
2. As K increases from 0 to ·, each root locus starts from an openloop pole with K = 0 and ends on an
openloop zero or on · with K = ·. The number of root loci ending at · equals the number of open
loop poles minus zeros.
3. The (n  m) root loci which tend to · do so along straight line asymptotes radiating out from a single
point s= o
a
on the real axis (called the centroid) where
m n
zeros loop open of part real poles loop open of part real
a
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
¯ ¯
) ( ) (
o
These (n  m) asymptotes have angles
) 1 ( , , 1 , 0 ;
180 ) 1 2 (
0
÷ ÷ =
÷
+
= m n q
m n
q
a
o
4. A point on the real axis lies on the locus if the number of openloop poles plus zeros on the real axis
to the right of this point is odd. By use of this fact, the real axis can be divided into segments on
locus and notonlocus; the dividing points being the real openloop poles and zeros.
5. The intersections (if any) of root loci with the imaginary axis can be determined by use of Routh
criterion.
6. The angle of departure o
p
of a locus from a complex openloop pole is given by o
p
= 180
0
+ o, where
o is the net angle contribution at this pole of all other openloop poles and zeros.
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7. The angle of arrival o
z
of a locus at a complex zero is given by o
z
= 180
0
 o , where o is the net angle
contribution at this zero of all other openloop poles and zeros.
8. Points at which multiple roots of the characteristic equation occur (breakaway points of root loci)
are the solutions of 0 =
ds
dK
where
( )
( )
I
I
=
=
+
+
÷ =
m
i
i
n
j
j
z s
p s
K
1
1
6.1.3 A complete example
Question: Consider a feedback system with the characteristic equation
0 ; 0
) 2 )( 1 (
1 > =
+ +
+ K
s s s
K
(6.32)
Plot the root locus for this system.
Solution:
The openloop poles are located at s = 0, −1, −2. There are no finite openloop zeros. The polezero
configuration is shown in Fig. 5.12.
Rule 1 tells that the root locus plot consists of three root loci as K varies from 0 to ·.
Rule 2 tells that the three root loci originate from the three open loop poles with K = 0 and terminate on
· with K = ·.
Rule 3 tells that the three root loci tend to · along asymptotes radiating out from
1
0 3
1 2
) ( ) (
÷ =
÷
÷ ÷
=
÷
÷
= ÷ =
¯ ¯
zeros of number poles of number
zeros of parts real poles of parts real
s
a
o
with angles
0 0 0
0
0
300 , 180 , 60
2 , 1 , 0 ;
3
180 ) 1 2 (
, 2 , 1 , 0 ;
180 ) 1 2 (
=
=
+
=
=
÷
+
=
q
q
q
zeros of number poles of number
q
a
o
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The asymptotes are shown by dotted lines.
Figure 6.12: Root locus plot for Eq. (6.32)
Rule 4 tells that the segments of real axis between 0 and –1, and between –2 and · lie on the root
locus. Onlocus segments are shown by thick lines in the Figure.
From Fig. 6.12, it is seen that out of the three loci, one is a realroot locus originating from s = −2 and
terminating on −·. The other two loci originate from s = 0 and s = −1, and move on the real axis towards
each other as K increases. Their meeting point corresponds to a double root. As K increases further, the
root loci breakaway from the real axis to give complex conjugate pair of roots.
Rule 5 is used to calculate the intersection points on the imaginary axis by Routh Table. The
characteristic equation can be written as
0 2 3
2 3
= + + + K s s s
The Routh Table is given below.
s
3
1 2
s
2
3 K
s
1
(6K)/3
s
0
K
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For all roots to lie on the left half of the splane, the following conditions must be satisfied.
K > 0, and (6 − K)/3 > 0
Therefore, the critical value of K, which corresponds to the roots on the imaginary axis, is 6. K = 6 makes
all the coefficients on s
1
row to be zero. The auxiliary equation is formed from the coefficients of the s
2
row as:
0 6 3 3
2 2
= + = + s K s
The roots of this equation lie on the je axis and are given by 2 j s ± = which are also the points where
the two root loci intersect the imaginary axis and the intersection points correspond to K = 6.
Rule 6 and Rule 7 are not necessary in this case since there are no openloop complex poles or zeros.
Rule 8 is used to determine the breakaway points. From the characteristic equation of the system,
K = −(s
3
+ 3s
2
+ 2s).
Thus, by differentiating K and equate it to zero,
0 ) 2 6 3 (
2
= + + ÷ = s s
ds
dK
The solutions of this equation are:
s = −0.4226 and s = −1.5774
Thus, s = −0.4226 is the breakaway point and, since the other point s = −1.5774 is not on the root locus,
it is not a breakaway point.
If two loci breakaway from a breakaway point, their tangents will be 180
0
apart. In general, if r loci
breakaway from a breakaway point, then their tangents will be 360
0
/r apart, i.e., the tangents will
equally divide 360
0
.
The complete root loci are shown in Fig. 6.12. For K > 6, the system has two closedloop poles in the
right half splane.
A closedloop pole with . = 0.5 lies on a line passing through the origin and making an angle cos
1
. = 60
0
with the negative real axis. From Fig. 6.12, the points of intersection are s = −0.33 ± j0.58 which are the
dominant closedloop poles. From the magnitude criterion, the corresponding K can be found.
{ } 04 . 1 2 1
58 . 0 33 . 0
= + + =
+ ÷ = j s
s s s K
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Additional Example
Question: Sketch the root lo
cus of a unity feedback system with forward path transfer function G(s) given as follows:
) s s(s
K
G(s)
5 4
2
+ +
=
Solution:
The openloop poles are located at s = 0, −2+j, −2−j. There are no finite openloop zeros.
Rule 1 tells that the root locus plot consists of three root loci as K varies from 0 to ·.
Rule 2 tells that the three root loci originate from the three open loop poles with K = 0 and terminate on
· with K = ·.
Rule 3 tells that the three root loci tend to · along asymptotes radiating out from
3 / 4
0 3
2 2
) ( ) (
÷ =
÷
÷ ÷
=
÷
÷
= ÷ =
¯ ¯
zeros of number poles of number
zeros of parts real poles of parts real
s
a
o
with angles
0 0 0
0
0
300 , 180 , 60
2 , 1 , 0 ;
3
180 ) 1 2 (
, 2 , 1 , 0 ;
180 ) 1 2 (
=
=
+
=
=
÷
+
=
q
q
q
zeros of number poles of number
q
a
o
Rule 4 tells that the segments of real axis between 0 and –· lie on the root locus.
Rule 5 is used to calculate the intersection points on the imaginary axis by Routh Table. The
characteristic equation can be written as
0 5 4
2 3
= + + + K s s s
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The Routh Table is given below.
s
3
1 5
s
2
4 K
s
1
(20K)/4
s
0
K
For all roots to lie on the left half of the splane, the following conditions must be satisfied.
K > 0, and (20−K)/4 > 0
Therefore, the critical value of K, which corresponds to the roots on the imaginary axis, is 20. K = 20
makes all the coefficients on s
1
row to be zero. The auxiliary equation is formed from the coefficients of
the s
2
row as:
0 20 4 4
2 2
= + = + s K s
The roots of this equation lie on the je axis and are given by 5 j s ± = which are also the points where
the two root loci intersect the imaginary axis and the intersection points correspond to K = 20.
Rule 6 tells the angle of departure for complex poles.
For pole −2+j,
90 43 153 ÷ ÷ = . φ and o
p
= 180
0
+ o = 63.43
0
For pole −2−j,
o
p
= 63.43
0
Rule 8 is used to determine the breakaway points. From the characteristic equation of the system, K =
−(s
3
+ 4s
2
+ 5s).
Thus, by differentiating K and equate it to zero,
0 5 8 3
2
= + + ÷ = ) s s (
ds
dK
The solutions of this equation are:
s = −1 and s = −1.667
Since the complete negative real axis is on the root loci, both are valid breakaway or breakin points.
2
1
=
÷ = s
K , 852 1
667 1
. K
. s
=
÷ =
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6.1.4 Effects of addition of poles and zeros to G(s)H(s)
The controller design in control systems may be treated as an investigation of the effects to root loci
when poles and zeros are added to the loop transfer function KG(s)H(s).
Addition of Poles to G(s)H(s)
Adding a pole to G(s)H(s) has the effect of pushing the root loci toward the righthalf splane.
Example 6.6: Consider the loop transfer function
) 2 (
) ( ) (
+
=
s s
K
s H s KG
The root loci are shown in Fig. 6.13(a). It is noted that the system is stable for all K. Let us introduce a
pole at s = −b (b > 2). The loop transfer function G(s)H(s) becomes, with b = 3,
) 3 )( 2 ( ) )( 2 (
) ( ) (
+ +
=
+ +
=
s s s
K
b s s s
K
s H s KG
The root loci are shown in Fig. 6.13(b) where the root loci bend towards the righthalf splane. The
asymptote angles and centroid are changed from ±90° to ±60° and –1 to –(2+b)/3, respectively. The
addition of a pole may make the system unstable if K exceeds the stability limit.
Figure 6.13(a): Root loci for
) 2 ( + s s
K
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Figure 6.13(b): Root loci for
) 3 )( 2 ( + + s s s
K
Addition of Zeros to G(s)H(s)
Adding lefthalf plane zeros to the function G(s)H(s) generally has the effect of moving and bending the
root loci toward the lefthalf splane.
Fig. 6.14 shows the root loci of G(s)H(s) with a zero added at s = −3. The complex conjugate parts of root
loci of the original system are bent towards the left and form a circle. Thus, the relative stability is
improved by the addition of the zero.
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Figure 6.14: Root locus for
) 2 (
) 3 (
+
+
s s
s K
.
6.1.5 Compensator design via root locus
The preceding chapters have shown that it is often possible to adjust the system parameters in order to
provide the desired system response. However, we often find that it is not sufficient to reconsider the
structure of the system and redesign the system in order to obtain a suitable one. That is, we must
examine the scheme or plan of the system and obtain a new design or plan that results in a suitable
system. Thus the design of a control system is concerned with the arrangement, or the plan, of the
system structure and the selection of suitable components performance is called compensation.
Compensation is the adjustment of a system in order to make up for deficiencies or inadequacies. In
redesigning a control system to alter the system response, an additional component is inserted within
the structure of the feedback system. It is this additional component or device that equalizes or
compensates for the performance deficiency.
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The compensating device may be electric, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, or some other type of
device or network and is often called a compensator. Commonly an electric circuit serves as a
compensator in many control systems. A compensator is an additional component or circuit that is
inserted into a control system to compensate for a deficient performance. The transfer function of a
compensator is designated as
=
0
()/
(), and the compensator can be placed in a suitable
location within the structure of the system. Several types of compensation are shown in Figure 6.15 for
a simple, singleloop feedback control system. The compensator placed in the feedforward path is called
a cascade, or series, compensator (6.15a)
Figure 6.15: Types of compensation (a) Cascaded compensation. (b) Feedback compensation. (c) Output,
or load compensation. (d) Input compensation
The objectives of introducing compensator can be categorized as follows:
i. Use PI and phaselag compensators to improve steadystate error.
ii. Use PD and phaselead compensators to improve transient response.
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Ideal PI compensator design
The PI compensator’s transfer function is given by:
=
1
+
2
=
1
( +
2
1
)
The ideal PI compensator’s transfer function is given by;
=
+
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Example 6.7:
Given a uncompensated system operating with a damping ration of 0.174. Find out the steady state
error for a unit step input. Design an ideal PI compensator to reduce the steadystate error to zero
without appreciably affecting transient response.
If the original OLTF is =
1
+1+2(+10)
operating with a damping ratio of 0.174, then design a PI
compensator to reduce the steadystate error to zero for a step input without appreciably affecting
transient response. The compensator has a zero at 0.1, close to the compensator pole.
To achieve these requirements, the compensated system should have a dominant closedloop pole at
1
= −0.694 +3.926, = 164.6
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Thus, the steadystate error is
,
=
1
1 +
=
1
1 +164.6/20
= 0.108
The dominant pole of the compensated system and the gain are approximately the same as for the
uncompensated system
,
=
1
1 +
=
1
1 +lim
→0
()
= 0
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General firstorder compensators
Consider the firstorder compensator with the transfer function
=
( −
0
)
−
0
When 
0
<
0
, the compensator is called a phaselead compensator, because this results in a
contribution to the angle criterion of the root locus that is always positive.
∠
= ∠ −
0
−∠ −
0
=
−
> 0
When 
0
>
0
, the compensator is called a phaselag compensator, because this results in a
contribution to the angle criterion of the root locus that is always positive.
∠
= ∠ −
0
−∠ −
0
=
−
< 0
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Phaselead compensator design
The compensator transfer function is given by:
=
( −
0
)
−
0
and it can be rewritten in a form as:
=
1
+
0
1
+1
Where,
=
1
1
,
0
= −
0
1
,
0
= −
1
1
The compensator DC gain is
= lim
→0
=
0
Assume that the parameter
0
is either known or can be determined. The design problem is to find
1
and
1
such that the compensated system will have a closedloop pole at =
1
.
First we express
1
and G(s)H(s) as
1
=
1
1
1
=
1
(
1
)
From the characteristics equation, we get 1 +
1
+
0
1
+1
= 0
Equating magnitudes and angles, we can rewrite as
1
1
+
0
1
1
+1
1
(
1
) = 1
∠
1
1
+
0
1
1
+1
+
∠
1
(
1
)
= 180°
Where
1
=
sin +
0
1
(
1
) sin( −)
1
1
(
1
) sin
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1
=
sin( +) +
0
1
(
1
) sin
−
1
sin
Example 6.8:
Design a phaselead compensator such that the closedloop compensated system has a settling time
around 4 sec. and a percent overshoot around 4.32%. The compensator has a DC gain as 0.15.
To achieve these requirements, the compensated system should have a dominant closedloop pole at
1=
−1 +. Because the DC gain for
() is 0.15, so we have
0
=0.15.
At
1=
−1 +, we have
21
+1(+3)
1=
−1+
= −2.1 +6.3 = 6.64∠108.43°
Also, we have
1=
−1 + = 2∠135°
1
=
sin +
0
1
(
1
) sin( −)
1
1
(
1
) sin
= 0.1924
1
=
sin( +) +
0
1
(
1
) sin
−
1
sin
= 0.1417
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Phaselag compensator design
The negative angle contributed by the phaselag compensator will tend to shift the root locus to the
right in the splane, i.e., towards the unstable region. Thus, in general, the angle contribution of the
phaselag compensator must be small, which is assured by placing the pole and the zero of the
compensator very close to each other.
For convenience in the design, we assume that the compensator has a unit DC gain, i.e.,
()
=0
=
0
0
= 1
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=
0
0
< 1
Suppose that the root locus of the point of the uncompensated system passes through the point
1
for
0
.
1 +
0
1
1
= 0
0
=
−1
1
((
1
)
As we choose the value of
0
and
0
to be approximately equal, and the magnitudes of
0
and
0
to be
small compared to
1
, so
1
=
(
1
−
0
)
1
−
0
≈
Now the gain required to place a root of the locus at approximately
1
for the uncompensated system is
given by
=
−1
1
(
1
)
=
−1
1
1
=
0
Since
< 1, so >
0
. The compensator has been chosen to have a unity DC gain; thus the openloop
DC gain has been increased, but the transient response appears to remain unaffected.
The steadystate error
, when H(s)=1, is
= lim
→∞
= lim
→0
= lim
→0
()
1 +()
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The sreadystate error
has been improved, and this is the principal use of the phaselag
compensator.
Example 6.9: Phaselag compensator design
Design a radar tracking system of the uncompensated OLTF given by =
(+2)
. Suppose that
the design requirements are such that a time constant of 1 second and damping coefficient of 0.707 are
satisfactory and the compensator has a DC gain as 1.
So
1
= −1 +
0
= 2 , is acceptable. Suppose that the system is required to track aircraft that
have essentially constant velocity, which will appear to the control system as a ramp input, i.e. the
antenna must rotate at a constant velocity to remain pointed directly at the aircraft. Also, it is required
that the
of 0.2° with a unit ramp input.
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Ideal PD compensator
The PD compensator’s transfer function is given by:
=
1
+
2
=
2
( +
1
2
)
The ideal PD compensator’s transfer function is given by;
= +
If the original openloop transfer function is
=
1
+1 +2( +5)
Then design the PD compensator zero at 2.
= +2
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Example 6.9
Given the system below, design an ideal derivative compensator such that the closedloop compensated
system has a threefold reduction in settling time and a 16% percent overshoot.
To achieve these requirements, the compensated system should have a dominant closedloop pole at
1
= −1.205 +2.064 = 43.45. Thus, the uncompensated system’s settling time is
=
4
=
4
1.205
= 3.302.
The desired real part of the closedloop pole is
=
4
=
4
1.107
= 3.613. The desired imaginary part of
the closedloop pole is
= 3.613tan180 −120.26 = 6.193.
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6.2 State Space Applications
An alternative method yet powerful tools of control system design by using a State Space
representation. The concept of using state space is by placing a pole at a desired location. We call this as
pole placement method.
Similar in concept to classical control system design where we have to firstly formulate desired pole
locations to satisfy some performance criteria, then formulate control gains to make this happen.
In designing the control system by using state space application, we have to assume that all states can
be measured and used in control implementation; this is called full state feedback.
6.2.1 Controller Pole Placement Method
The controller pole placement method mainly concerns with the controllability matrix. It takes
measurement and/or estimates of the state variables, multiplies them by the control gains, and produce
the control signal. This can be designed by pole placement or optimal control.
Let say we have a control input, u in the form of,
u = kx
where k = vector (or matrix) of proportional control gains applied to each state given by:
k = [
…
]
Essentially, we are trying to modify the underlying differential equations.
Now, consider the state equation:
= + = − = −
Taking the Laplace,
− + = 0
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Poles defined by:
det − + = 0
Suppose we have some desired pole locations:
1
,
2
,
3
, ….
Then the desired characteristics equation is:
−
1
−
2
… −
= 0
This can be expanded to (desired characteristics equation):
+
1
−1
+⋯+
−1
+
= 0
Now suppose that the state space equations are in control canonical form:
=
0 1 0 … 0
0 0 1 … 0
. . . … .
. . . … .
0 0 0 … 1
−
−
−1
−
−2
… −
1
=
0
0
.
.
0
1
=
−
1
0
−1
−
−1
0
… .
1
−
1
0
The poles of the feedback system are defined by the expression:
det − + = 0
Poles are therefore given by
det − + =
+(
1
+
1
)
−1
+⋯+(
2
+
2
)
−2
+
+
= 0
Compare this to the “desired” characteristics equation:
+
1
−1
+
2
−2
…+
−1
+
= 0
The conclusion is that when the system is in control canonical form, then control gains can be calculated
by simple comparison of coefficients:
=
−
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Example 6.10
Consider an undamped oscillator with frequency
and a SS model given by
1
2
=
0 1
−
2
0
1
2
+
0
1
Find the controller that places the both CL poles of the system at −2
. In other words, you want to
double the natural frequency and increase the damping ratio from 0 to 1.
Solution:
Assumption: Must be a full state feedback. We need to prove the system has a full state feedback by
assessing its controllability matrix.
We have an open loop poles, =
and closed loop poles, = −2
.
The open loop characteristics equation is: +
+
=
2
+
2
And the desired characteristics equation:
( +2
)
2
=
2
+4
+4
2
Now we have to determine the poles of closedloop system;
det − + = 0
det
0
0
−
0 1
−
2
0
+
0
1
1
2
2
+
2
+
2
+
1
= 0
Comparing with the desired characteristics equation gives:
2
= 4
1
+
2
= 4
2
We have now,
1
= 3
2
2
= 4
Hence,
=
1
2
= 3
2
4
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Generalised Strategy
Step 1: Transform state equations into control canonical form.
′
=
−
(
′
= transformed state vector)
′
=
−
,
′
=
−
(A’=transformed state matrix)
Where T is the transformation matrix: =
= controllability matrix =
…
−
= the following Toeplitz matrix:
1 0 … 0
⋮
−2
−1
⋱ ⋮ ⋮
0 1 0
…
1
1
Where
1
,
2
, … are from the characteristics equation of the uncontrolled system:
+
1
−1
+
2
−2
…+
−1
+
= 0
Step 2: Calculate control gains by comparison with the desired characteristics equation
Step 3: Transform back to original state
Transform has the form:
=
−
Controller Pole Placement using Ackermann’s Formula
For SISO systems the control gains using Ackermann’s Formula are
= 0 0 … 0 1
0
−1
()
Where
0
=controllability matrix (note inversion again), and
=
+
1
−1
+
2
−2
+⋯+
A = state matrix,
Where
1
,
2
, … = coefficient of the desired characteristics equation.
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Example 6.11:
Consider an undamped oscillator with frequency
and a SS model given by
1
2
=
0 1
−
2
0
1
2
+
0
1
Find the controller that places the both CL poles of the system at −2
. In other words, you want to
double the natural frequency and increase the damping ratio from 0 to 1.
Solution:
Our objective is to get the vector k. According to Ackermann’s Formula:
= 0 0 … 0 1
0
−1
()
The SS model must be controllable before we can proceed. Checking the controllability matrix,
=
0 1
1 0
Where
=
+
1
−1
+
2
−2
+⋯+
From the desired characteristics equation we have,
( +2
)
2
=
2
+4
+4
2
So we have,
=
2
+4
+4
2
Matrices
2
, 4
and 4
2
are given by,
2
=
−
2
0
0 −
2
4
=
0 4
−4
3
0
4
2
=
4
2
0
0 4
2
Therefore matrix is given by,
=
3
2
4
−4
3
3
2
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Hence,
= 0 1
0 1
1 0
3
2
4
−4
3
3
2
= 3
2
4
Example 6.12:
Consider the SS system
1
2
=
−1 0
1 −2
1
2
+
1
2
Design a control system to move the system poles to = −1 ±
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6.2.2 Observer Pole Placement Method
The observer pole placement mainly concerns with Observability matrix. The objective of designing the
observer is to estimate some or all of the states of the system. This can be achieved by linear observers
(pole placement) or optimal observers (Kalman filters).
Let’s say a system is described by:
= +, =
Assume that we know , , , .
We need to extract by constructing a second linear system (a model of the target system), using the
known parameters (, , , ) of the target system, which predicts the (measurable) target system
output. If the predicted output is acceptably close to the actual output, then we can use the estimated
states in place of the actual states.
In other words, we want to minimize the difference between the actual and predicted states. This
difference or error in estimate of state is given by,
= −
Which converges to zero if is stable.
The open loop dynamics is then:
= −
= + − −
− =
And the characteristics equation,
det − = 0
The observer (model) system response is now:
= + +( −)
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where L = vector (or matrix) of estimator (observer) gains applied to each state given by:
=
ℓ
1
ℓ
2
⋮
ℓ
The dynamics of the error become:
=
−
Therefore, the characteristics equation = det −( −) = 0 i.e we can change convergence speed
by adding feedback.
Suppose we have some desired pole locations:
1
,
2
,
3
, ….
Then the desired characteristics equation is:
−
1
−
2
… −
= 0
This can be expanded to (desired characteristics equation):
+
1
−1
+⋯+
−1
+
= 0
Now suppose that the state space equations are in observer canonical form:
=
0 0 … 0 −
1 0 … 0 −
−1
. . … . −
−2
. . … . .
0 0 … 0 .
0 0 … 1 −
1
=
−
1
0
−1
−
−1
0
.
.
.
1
−
1
0
= 0 0 … 0 1
With the observer feedback, the poles are defined by the expression: det −( −) = 0
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− − =
0 … 0
+ℓ
−1 … 0
−1
+ℓ
−1
. . … . .
. . … . .
0 0 …
2
+ℓ
2
0 0 … −1 +
1
+ℓ
1
Poles are therefore given by
det − + =
+(
1
+ℓ
1
)
−1
+(
2
+ℓ
2
)
−2
+⋯+
+ℓ
= 0
Compare this to the “desired” characteristics equation:
+
1
−1
+
2
−2
…+
−1
+
= 0
The conclusion is that when the system is in control canonical form, then control gains can be calculated
by simple comparison of coefficients:
ℓ
=
−
Example 6.13:
Compute the estimator (observer) gain matrix which will place both estimator poles at −10
, given
1
2
=
0 1
−
2
0
1
2
+
0
1
= 1 0
1
2
Solution:
The desired characteristics equation is given by;
( +10
)
2
=
2
+20
+100
2
Now we have to determine the poles of closedloop system;
det − + = 0
det
0
0
−
0 1
−
2
0
+
ℓ
1
0
ℓ
2
0
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det
+ℓ
1
−1
2
+ℓ
2
det
2
+ℓ
1
+
2
+ℓ
2
= 0
Comparing with the desired characteristics equation gives:
ℓ
1
= 20
ℓ
2
+
2
= 100
2
We have now,
ℓ
1
= 20
ℓ
2
= 99
2
Hence,
=
ℓ
1
ℓ
2
=
20
99
2
Generalised Strategy
Step 1: Transform state equations into control canonical form.
′
=
−
(
′
= transformed state vector)
′
=
−
,
′
=
−
(A’=transformed state matrix)
Where T is the transformation matrix: = (
)
−
and
= observability matrix =
⋮
−
= the following Toeplitz matrix:
1 0 … 0
⋮
−2
−1
⋱ ⋮ ⋮
0 1 0
…
1
1
Where
1
,
2
, … are from the characteristics equation of the uncontrolled system:
+
1
−1
+
2
−2
…+
−1
+
= 0
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Step 2: Calculate control gains by comparison with the desired characteristics equation
Step 3: Transform back to original state
Transform has the form:
= ∗
Observer Pole Placement using Ackermann’s Formula
For SISO systems the observer gains using Ackermann’s Formula are
= ()
b
−1
0 0 … 0 1
T
Where
0
=controllability matrix (note inversion again), and
=
+
1
−1
+
2
−2
+⋯+
A = state matrix,
Where
1
,
2
, … = coefficient of the desired characteristics equation.
Example 6.14:
Compute the estimator (observer) gain matrix which will place both estimator poles at −10
, given
1
2
=
0 1
−
2
0
1
2
+
0
1
= 1 0
1
2
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam CHAPTER 1.0 1.1 MATHEMATICAL REVIEW
2
COMPLEX VARIABLES AND COMPLEX FUNCTION This chapter will outline an overview of basic mathematical formulation in solving control systems problem that you will encounter throughout the course.
1.1.1
Complex Variables Concept A complex variable denoted by s consists of two components: a real component x and an imaginary axis component y. Graphically, the real component of s is represented by a xaxis in the horizontal direction, and the imaginary component is measured along the vertical jyaxis. Figure 1.0 illustrates the complex splane.
Figure 1.0: Complex splane (source: http://mathworld.wolfram.com) Using notation 𝑗 = −1, all numbers in engineering calculations can be rewritten as 𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑗𝑦 Where z is called a complex number. Note that j is the only imaginary quantity in the expression. The magnitude, z and angle, 𝜃 of z can be obtained mathematically, Magnitude of z=z= 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 , angle of z=𝜃 = tan−1 𝑥 𝑦
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam A complex number can be written in rectangular form or in polar form as follows: i. Rectangular forms 𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑗𝑦 𝑧 = 𝑧 (cos 𝜃 + 𝑗 sin 𝜃) ii. Polar forms 𝑧 = 𝑧∠𝜃 𝑧 = 𝑧𝑒 𝑗𝜃 In converting complex numbers to polar form from rectangular, we use 𝑧 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 , 𝜃 = tan−1 𝑥 𝑦
3
To convert complex number to rectangular form from polar, we employ 𝑥 = 𝑧 cos 𝜃, 𝑦 = 𝑧 sin 𝜃 (source: Ogata) Notes:
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Notes: 4 .
𝑠 = −1 and 𝑠 = −5. has a real component and imaginary component. the pole is called a simple pole. As an illustrative example. simple poles at 𝑠 = 0. given the function 𝐹 𝑠 = 1 𝑠(𝑠 + 1) 𝐹 𝑠 = ∞ is mapped onto two points. If the denominator of F(s) involves kmultiple factors (𝑠 + 𝑝)𝑘 . d) Singularities of a Function The singularities of a function are the points in the splane at which the function or its derivatives do not exist. poles are the roots of the denominator of F(s). (source: ogata) . Zeros are the value of s that will make the function F(s) become zero. zeros are the numerator of F(s). in the splane c) Poles and zeros of a Function Poles are the value of s that will make the function F(s) become infinity. If 𝑘 = 1. For instance. Note that G(s) becomes zero at 𝑠 = ∞. 𝑥 5 𝐹𝑦 b) Singlevalued Function In complex function analysis.1. and the angle 𝜃 of 𝐹(𝑠) is tan−1 𝐹 .2 Complex Function Concept a) Complex Function A complex function F(s. In other words. consider the following complex function 𝐺 𝑠 = 𝑠 + 2 (𝑠 + 10) 𝑠 𝑠 + 1 𝑠 + 5 (𝑠 + 15)2 G(s) has zeros at 𝑠 = −2 and 𝑠 = −10. A pole is the most common of singularities and plays a very important role in studies of classical control theory. then 𝑠 = −𝑝 is called a multiple poles and of order 𝑘or repeated pole of order 𝑘. and a double pole (multiple pole of order 2) at 𝑠 = −15. In other words.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 1. s=0 and s=1. or 𝐹 𝑠 = 𝐹𝑥 + 𝐹𝑦 where 𝐹𝑥 and 𝐹𝑦 are real quantities. The angle is measured counterclockwise from the positive real axis. we are interested in SingleValued Function that can uniquely determine the value of s. The magnitude of 𝐹(𝑠)is 𝐹𝑥2 + 𝐹𝑦2 .) a function of s. G(s) is therefore has 2 zeros and 5 poles.
2. IMPULSE RESPONSE AND LAPLACE TRANSFORMATIONS. . a1. Review of Differential Equations Differential equations generally involve derivatives and integrals of the dependant variables with respect to the independent variable. L the inductance.2 can be represented by the differential equation. a differential equation of nthorder is written as d n y(t ) d n1 y(t ) dy (t ) a n1 a1 a0 y(t ) f (t ) n n 1 dt dt dt Which is also known as a linear ordinary differential equation if the coefficients a0. In general. The dependent variable i(t) is determined by solving the equation.1 Ri (t ) L di(t ) 1 i(t )dt v(t ) dt C Figure 1.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 1. … . C the capacitance. LINEAR SYSTEMS.an1 are not a function of y(t). INTRODUCTION TO STATE EQUATIONS AND TRANSFER FUNCTIONS.2 REVIEW OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.2: RLC Circuit where R is the resistance. DEFINITION OF STABILITY. i(t) the current and v(t) the applied voltage. 6 1. a shock absorber system of a car as in figure 1. For instance.
2: Consider the exponential function f (t ) et . t 0 where α is real constant. ∞ 7 ℒ 𝑓 𝑡 Where 𝑠 = 𝑥 + 𝑗𝑦. Working with differential equation is rather complicated.1: Let f(t) be a unitstep function that is defined as 1.2 Laplace Transforms a) Laplace Transform Laplace transform is used to convert from time domain to sdomain. t 0 The Laplace transform of f(t) is obtained as 1 1 F ( s) u (t )e st dt e st s s 0 0 Example 2.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 1. Laplace transform is defined as. In analyzing and designing a control system it is easier to work in sdomain.2. a complex variable. The Laplace transform of f(t) is written as F ( s) e t e st dt 0 e ( s )t s 0 1 s . t 0 u (t ) 0. = 𝐹 𝑠 = 0 𝑓 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑡 Example 2.
1: Laplace Transform table for input responses Notes: .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 8 Table 2.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam b) Laplace Transform Theorems The laplace transform has a set of theorems to solve a complex mathematical equations.2: Laplace Transform Theorems . Table 2.2 summarizes the Laplace Transform theorems 9 Table 2.
then G(s) can be written as 𝐺 𝑠 = 𝑄(𝑠) 𝑄(𝑠) = . The inverse transform is the written as g (t ) K s1 e s1t K s2 e s2t K sn e snt . This method will be emphasized for the cases of simple poles. a1. The inverse Laplace transform of rational functions are normally carried out using partialfraction expansion and the Laplace transform table. 𝑤𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑠1 ≠ 𝑠2 ≠ ⋯ 𝑠𝑛 𝑃(𝑠) 𝑠 + 𝑠1 𝑠 + 𝑠2 … (𝑠 + 𝑠𝑛 ) Applying partialfraction expansion.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam c) Inverse Laplace Transformation Using Partial Fraction Method Given the Laplace transform F(s). multipleorder poles and complex poles.an1 are real coefficients. 𝐾−𝑠𝑖 is called the residue of G(s) for the pole 𝑠 = −𝑠𝑖 . … . the operation of obtaining f(t) is termed the inverse Laplace Transformation and is denoted by: 𝑓 𝑡 = ℒ −1 [𝐹 𝑠 ] Inverse Laplace Transform is used when we want to convert from sdomain to time domain. Consider a rational function 𝐺 𝑠 = 𝑄(𝑠) 𝑃(𝑠) 10 where Q(s) and P(s) are polynomials of s. the equation can be written as 𝐺 𝑠 = 𝐾−𝑠𝑛 𝐾−𝑠1 𝐾−𝑠2 + + ⋯+ 𝑠 + 𝑠1 𝑠 + 𝑠2 𝑠 + 𝑠𝑛 Where K si ( s si ) Q( s ) P( s ) s si The numerator of each fraction is called the residue. It is assume that the order of P(s) in s is greater than of Q(s). Case 1: Simple poles If all the poles of G(s) are simple and real. The polynomial P(s) may be written as P(s) s n an1s n1 a1s a0 where a0.
𝐾−2 .3: Consider the function 11 G(s) 5s 3 ( s 1)(s 2)(s 3) which is written in the partialfraction expanded form: G(s) K K 1 K 2 3 s 1 s 2 s 3 The coefficients 𝐾−1 . 𝐾−3 are determined as follows: 5(1) 3 1 (1 2)(1 3) 5(2) 3 K 2 ( s 2)G ( s) 7 s 2 (2 1)(2 3) 5(3) 3 K 3 ( s 3)G ( s) 6 s 3 (3 1)(3 2) K 1 ( s 1)G ( s ) s 1 Thus. G(s) is written as 𝐺 𝑠 = 𝑄(𝑠) 𝑄(𝑠) = 𝑃(𝑠) 𝑠 + 𝑠1 𝑠 + 𝑠2 … 𝑠 + 𝑠𝑛−𝑟 (𝑠 + 𝑠𝑖 )𝑟 . G(s) 1 7 6 s 1 s 2 s 3 The inverse transform or time function is g (t ) et 7e2t 63t Case 2: Multipleorder poles If r of the n poles is identical.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 2.
r terms of simple poles r terms of repeated poles K s1 The (nr) coefficients Ks1.4: Consider the function G(s) G(s) can be written as 2 ( s 1)(s 2) 2 G(s) K 1 A1 A2 ( s 1) ( s 2) ( s 2) 2 The coefficient corresponding to the simple pole is 2 K 1 2 2 ( s 2) s 1 . Ks2. Ks(n−r) which correspond to simple poles may be evaluated as explained before.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Then G(s) can be expanded as 12 G(s) K s( n r ) K s2 A A2 Ar 1 2 ss ss s sn s s ( s si ) ( s si ) r 1 2 r i n . The coefficients A1 … Ar are evaluated as follows: Ar ( s si ) r G ( s ) Ar 1 Ar 2 A1 s s i d ( s si ) r G ( s ) s s ds i 1 d2 ( s si ) r G ( s ) 2 s s 2 ! ds i 1 d r 1 ( s si ) r G ( s ) r 1 s s (r 1)! ds i Example 2. … .
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam and those of second orderpole are 13 2 A2 2 ( s 1) s 2 A1 d 2 ds ( s 1) 2 2 2 ( s 1) s 2 s 2 2 2 2 s 1 s 2 ( s 2) 2 The completed partialfraction expansion is G( s) The time function is g (t ) 2e t 2e 2t 2te 2t Case 3: Simple complexconjugate poles Suppose that G(s) contains a pair of complex poles: s j and s  .5: Considering transfer function G(s) s j G ( s) 3 3 s ( s 2s 5) s( s 1 j 2)( s 1 j 2) K 1 j 2 K 1 j 2 K 0 s s 1 j2 s 1 j2 2 .j The corresponding coefficients of these poles are K j ( s j )G(s) s j K j ( s j )G( s) Example 2.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 14 3 3 K0 2 s 2s 5 s 0 5 3 3 K 1 j 2 (2 j1) s ( s 1 j 2) s 1 j 2 20 3 3 K 1 j 2 (2 j1) s ( s 1 j 2) s 1 j 2 20 3 3 2 j1 2 j1 G (s) 5 s 1 j2 s 1 j2 s 20 and the time function is given as g (t ) 3 3 (2 j1)e ( 1 j 2 )t (2 j1)e ( 1 j 2 )t 5 20 3 3 e t (2e j 2t 2e j 2t ) j (e j 2t e j 2t ) 5 20 e j 2t e j 2t 3 3 e j 2t e j 2t e t 4 2 5 20 2 j2 3 3 t 1 e cos 2t sin 2t 5 5 2 .
Find the inverse Laplace Transform of a rational function and 𝐹 𝑠 = 5 + 3𝑠 + 2 𝑠 2 6. 2. MATLAB hint >> syms st. ramp. In a unit step response graph. Find the Laplace transform of time function 𝑓 𝑡 = 5 + 3𝑒 −2𝑡 .s) % Executing Laplace Transform command 5. what is the relationship between final value theorem and steady state error? 3.t. Derive equations for a unit step. % Command to run MATLAB in s and t domains >>f=5+3*exp(2*t) % Entering the function >>F=laplace(f. Verify the result in question (6) above using MATLAB application. 4.t) .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 15 TUTORIAL 1: MATHEMATICAL REVIEW 1. >>F=2/((s+1)*(s+2)^2) >>f=ilaplace(F. Verify question (3) above by using MATLAB application. Find the inverse Laplace transform of a rational function 𝐹 𝑠 = 2 𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 2)2 7.s. impulse and sinusoidal response in time domain. MATLAB hint >>syms s t.
Sequencing systems. W. which provide information about the process state to the operator. Nyquist’s stability theory .0: James Watt’s flyball governer 1868 1927 1932 J.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam CHAPTER 2.0 INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEMS 16 Control systems can be placed into three broad functional groups: Monitoring systems. The Watt stem engine often used to mark the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in England. known as Sojourner was invented in 1997. used where some process must follow a predefined sequence of discrete events. Closedloop systems. are typically implemented to give some process a set of desired performance characteristics The history of feedback control system begun as early as in 1769 when James Watt’s steam engine and governor are developed. Maxwell’s model of governer H. The revolution of automatic control system continues in which the first ever autonomous rover vehicle. which is widely taught in engineering course. Bode’s feedback amplifiers H. In summary below is the history of feedback control system 1769 James Watt’s flyball governer Figure 2. C. such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems.
progressively continuing operation or development marked by a Processes  . perhaps just a set of machine parts functioning together. we have to know control systems’ terms and concepts. Normally it is the output of the system Quantity or condition that is varied by the controller so as to affect the value of the controlled variable A plant is a piece of equipment.25 square meter solar array Figure 2.5kg and 0. The frequently used terms and concepts are as follow: Automation Control system Controlled variable Manipulated variable Plant The control of a process by automatic means An interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired response Quantity or condition that is measured and controller. the purpose of which to perform a particular operation. Any physical object to be controller (such as heating furnace.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 1954 1970 1980 1997 George Devol’s robot design Statevariable models and optimal control theory Robust control system design First ever autonomous rover vehicle “Sojourner” 17 Info: The mobile Sojourner had a mass of 10.1: Sojourner But before we go into further details. a chemical reactor etc) is called a plant A process can be defined as a natural.
Feedback control is an operation which in the presence of disturbances. tends to reduce the difference between the output of a system and the reference input and which does so on the basis of the difference.2: Inputoutput configuration of control system (souce: AAMI) . Source: AAMI. If a disturbance is generated within the system. Feedforward has a reference signal which is act as an additional input. Fac of Mech Eng. UiTM 18 Disturbances  Feedback control  Feedforward  Figure 2.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam series of gradual changes that succeed one another in a relatively fixed way and lead towards a particular result or end A disturbance is a signal which tends to adversely affect the value of the output of the system. it is called internal. which an external disturbance is generated outside the system..
1. the output is neither measured nor fed back for comparison with the input.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 19 Figure 2. The advantages and the disadvantages of an openloop control system is tabulated in table 2.1 OPEN LOOP AND CLOSEDLOOP SYSTEMS Open Loop Control System A system is said to be an open loop system when the system’s output has no effect on the control action.4.4: Open loop control system An open loop control system utilizes an actuating device (or controller) to control the process directly without using feedback as shown in Figure 2.3: Inputoutput configuration of a closedloop control system (source: AAMI) 2. In open loop system.1 2.1 below ADVANTAGES Simple and ease of maintenance Less expensive Stability is not a problem Convenient when output is hard to measure DISADVANTAGES Disturbances and changes in calibration cause errors Output may be different from what is desired . Figure 2.
2 TRANSFER FUNCTION The transfer function of a linear system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output variable to the Laplace transform of the input variable.1. The Transfer function of a system (or element) represents the relationship describing the dynamics of the system under consideration.2 Closedloop control system 20 A system that maintains a prescribed relationship between the output and the reference input is called a closedloop system or a feedback control system.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 2. which is the difference between the input signal and the feedback signal. Use open loop only when the inputs are known ahead of time and there is no disturbances 2.3 Comparison between open loop and closedloop control system. 2. A nonstationary system often called a timevarying system. The system uses a measurement of the output and feedback of the signal to compare it with the desired output. Thus the transfer function description does not include any information concerning the internal structure of the system and its behavior. A transfer function may be defined only for a linear. the actuating error signal. and the Laplace transformation may not be utilized. stationary (constant parameter) system. with all initial conditions assumed to be zero. therefore easier to build CLOSED LOOP The use of feedback makes the system response relatively insensitive to external disturbances and internal variations in system parameters System stability is a major problem because the system tends to overcorrect errors that can cause oscillations or changing amplitude.1. Furthermore. is fed to the controller so as to reduce the error and bring the output of the system to a desired value. a transfer function is an inputoutput description of the behavior of a system. . Figure 2. The table below shows the comparison between the two systems: OPEN LOOP System stability is not a major problem.5: Closed loop control system In a closedloop control system. has one or more timevarying parameters.
so it is more convenient to derive the transfer function directly from the differential equation. a1 s a0 .... Let us consider that the inputoutput relation of a linear timeinvariant system is described by the following nthorder differential equation with constant real coefficients: d n y(t ) d n1 y(t ) dy(t ) d m r (t ) d m1r (t ) dr (t ) an1 .. b1 s b0 Y ( s) nm R( s) s an1 s n1 .. b1 b0 r (t ) n n 1 m m 1 dt dt dt dt dt dt To obtain the transfer function of the linear system that is represented by Eq. we simply take the Laplace transform on both sides of the equation and assume zero initial conditions. with all the initial conditions set to zero.... Although the transfer function of a linear system is defined in terms of the impulse response... in practice.......1 The Transfer function of linear systems 21 The transfer function of a LTI system is defined as the Laplace transform of the impulse response..2. and Y (s) and R(s) are the Laplace transform of y (t ) and r (t ) respectively.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 2. G(s) L[ g (t )] The transfer function is related to the Laplace transform of the input and the output through the following relation: G( s) Y ( s) R( s ) where all the initial conditions set to zero.3)... The result is s n an1s n1 a1s a0 Y(s) bm s m bm1s m1 b1s b0 R(s) The transfer function between r (t ) and y (t ) is given by: G( s) b s m .... the inputoutput relation of a linear timeinvariant system with continuous–data input is often described by the differential equation.... (2... a1 a0 y(t ) bm bm1 .
6: General block representation of a twoinput.2 Transfer function of multivariable system The definition of a transfer function is easily extended to a system with multiple inputs and outputs. twooutput system Since the principle of superposition is valid for linear systems. (2.2. Figure 2. It is improper if m n . 22 Characteristic Equation: The characteristic equation of a LTI system is defined as the equation obtained by setting the denominator polynomial of the transfer function to zero. the total effect on any output due to all the inputs acting simultaneously is obtained by adding up the outputs due to each input acting alone. If m n then the transfer function is proper. Thus.6 shows a control system with two inputs and two outputs. we shall show that the stability of a linear singleinput singleoutput system is governed completely by the roots of the characteristic equation. A system of this type is often referred to as a multivariable system. the characteristic equation of the system described by the Eq.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The transfer function is said to be strictly proper if m n . Figure 2. using transfer function relations we can write the simultaneous equations for the output variables as Y1 ( s) G11( s) R1 ( s) G12 ( s) R2 ( s) Y2 ( s) G21( s) R1 ( s) G22 ( s) R2 ( s) . Thus.4) is s n an1s n1 a1s a0 0 Later. 2.
. and G11( s ) G12 ( s ) G1 j ( s ) G ( s ) G ( s ) G ( s ) 21 22 2j G( s) Gi1 ( s ) G i 2 ( s) Gij ( s) is the i j transferfunction matrix.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam where G ij (s) is the transfer function relating the ith output to the jth input variable. Thus 23 Gij Yi ( s) R j ( s) In general. (2. whereas R1 ( s ) R ( s) 2 R( s) R j ( s) is the j 1 transformed input vector. for j inputs and i outputs. we can write the simultaneous equations for the output variables as Y1 ( s) G11( s ) G12 ( s) G1 j ( s ) R1 ( s ) Y ( s) G ( s) G ( s) G ( s ) R ( s ) 22 2j 2 2 21 Yi ( s ) Gi1 ( s ) G i 2 ( s ) Gij ( s ) R j ( s) It is convenient to express Eq.7) in a matrixvector form Y(s) G(s)R(s) where Y1 ( s ) Y ( s ) Y (s) 2 Yi ( s ) is the i 1 transformed output vector.
Figure 2. Let u(t). The stability of a dynamic system is defined in a similar manner. The concept of stability can be illustrated by considering a circular cone placed on a horizontal surface.3 DEFINITION OF STABILTY 24 A stable system is defined as a system which gives a bounded output in response to a bounded input.  Figure 2.8.8: Stability in the splane. as shown in Fig. 2.7: The stability of a cone.7 and Fig. and g(t) be the input. output. The output of the system is given by the convolution between the input and the system's impulse response. 2.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 2. respectively. y(t). and impulse response of a linear timeinvariant system. Then y(t ) u (t ) g ( )d 0 .
and no roots in the righthalf splane. Eq. integrated over an infinite range. (4. or the poles of G(s).24) is satisfied when the roots of the characteristic equation. is finite. The following table illustrates the stability conditions of a linear continuous system with reference to the locations of the roots of the characteristic equation. we refer to the system as marginally stable. When the characteristic equation has simple roots on the jaxis and none in the righthalf plane. STABILITY CONDITION Stable Marginally stable of marginally unstable LOCATION OF THE ROOTS All the roots are in the lefthalf splane At least one simple root and no multiple roots on the jaxis. M ( s) 20 s 1s 2s 3 20( s 1) ( s 1)( s 2 2s 2) 20( s 1) ( s 2)( s 2 4) Stable M ( s) Unstable due to the pole at s = 1 M ( s) Marginally stable or marginally unstable due to s = j2. . That is 25 are all located in the lefthalf of the splane. At least one simple root in the righthalf splane or at least one multipleorder root on the jaxis. 0 g ( ) d Mathematically. Unstable The following examples illustrate the stability conditions of systems with reference to the poles of the closedloop transfer function M(s).KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam This response is bounded (stable system) if and only if the absolute value of the impulse response. g(t). A system is said to be unstable if any of the characteristic equation roots is located in the righthalf of the splane.
6. Twoposition or onoff control is relatively simple and inexpensive and. in many cases.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 26 M ( s) 2. Let the output signal from the controller be m(t) and the actuating error signal be e(t). 5. 2. the signal m(t) remains at either a maximum or minimum value. so that 𝑚 𝑡 = 𝑀1 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑒(𝑡) > 0 = 𝑀2 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑒(𝑡) < 0 .3.1 Twoposition or onoff controller Proportional controller Integral controller Proportionalplusintegral controller Proportionalplusderivative controller Proportionalplusderivativeplusintegral controller Twoposition of onoff control action In a twoposition control system. simply on and off. In two position control. is very widely used in both industrial and domestic control systems. 2. depending on whether the actuating error signal is positive or negative. Controller ysp + Plant G(s) y  H(s) e(s) Figure 2. for this reason.9: A typical closedloop system A system is closed0loop stable (or simply stable) if the poles of the closedloop transfer function (or zeros of 1+G(s)H(s) are all in the left hand side of splane 2.4.1 10 ( s 4) 2 ( s 10) 2 Unstable due to the multipleorder pole at s = j2. 4. 3. the actuating element has only two fixed positions which are. Open loop and Closed loop stability A system is openloop stable if the poles of the loop transfer function G(s)H(s) are all in the left hand side of splane.4 BASIC CONTROL ACTIONS The following six basic control actions are very common among industrial automatic controllers: 1.
10 show the block diagrams for twoposition controller. the relationship between the output of the controller m(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is 𝑚 𝑡 = 𝐾𝑝 𝑒(𝑡) or. is usually either zero or −𝑀1 . The range through which the actuating error signal must move before the switching occurs is called the differential gap. Figure 2. in Laplace Transform 𝑀(𝑠) = 𝐾𝑝 𝐸(𝑠) Where 𝐾𝑝 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Where 𝑀1 and 𝑀2 . .4. The minimum value 𝑀2 .2 Proportional controller For a controller with proportional control action. solenoidoperated valve is widely used in such controller. Pneumatic proportional controller with very high gain act as twoposition controller and are sometimes called pneumatic twoposition controller. is termed the proportional sensitivity or the gain. 27 Figure 2. are constants. Twoposition controllers are generally electrical devices.10: Twoposition controller 2. and an electric.
The proportional action has the following two properties: 1. Does not eliminate steady state error Example 2. the DC gain is: Corresponding to the steady state error of: The settling time is: Open Loop Response 0.045 0.1: Given a system consist of massspring and damper 28 k b a) b) c) d) e) f) g) x M F The second order PDE is: Taking the LT The TF is therefore: Let M=1kg. Reduce rise time 2. therefore X(s) / F(s): From the Transfer Function.01 0. k=20 N/m & F(s)=1.015 0.8 2 .2 0. b=10N.4 0.05 0.s/m.035 Displacement (m) 0.8 1 Time (sec) 1.025 0.03 0.4 1.04 0.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Whatever the actual mechanism may be and whatever the form of the operating power. the proportional controller is essentially an amplifier with and adjustable gain.6 1.02 0.2 1.6 0.005 0 0 0.
the value of the controller output m(t) is changed at a rate proportional to.2 1.8 0.2 0 0 0. the value of m(t) remains stationary.4 1. For zero actuating error.2 0.4 0. 2. h) The closedloop transfer function of the system with P controller is X(s)/F(s)=G/(1+G): i) Let the P gain (K) equal 300 Closed Loop Step : K = 300 1.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam P control (K) reduces the rise time.6 0.8 1 Time (sec) 1. then the value of m(t) varies twice as fast.6 1.4. Where 𝐾𝑖 is an adjustable constant.3 Integral controller In a controller with integral control action.8 2 Rise time and ss error reduced. . That is 𝑑𝑚(𝑡) = 𝐾𝑖 𝑒(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 𝑡 𝑚 𝑡 = 𝐾𝑖 0 𝑒 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 Therefore. the actuating error signal e(t). The transfer function of the integral controller is 𝑀(𝑠) 𝐾𝑖 = 𝐸(𝑠) 𝑠 If the value of e(t) is doubled. slightly reduced settling time but increased overshoot. increases the overshoot and reduces the steady state error.2 1 Displacement (m) 0.4 0.6 0.4 29 1.
4.11: Automatic reset action Almost always used in conjunction with P control. In other words. Proportional controllers often give a steadystate error.11 30 load disturbance ysp + e K 1 sTi u plant y Figure 2. 2.12: PI control The integral term may be expressed in (i) 𝑇𝑖 and (ii) 𝑘𝑖 The integral term 𝑇𝑖 is known as the integral time constant. This phase lag can be compensated by derivative action. The integral term 𝑘𝑖 is known as integral gain (e. 𝑇𝑖 = ∞ corresponds to pure (proportional) gain.g: in MATLAB) The relationship between 𝑇𝑖 and 𝑘𝑖 is as follows: 𝑘𝑖 𝐾 = 𝑠 𝑇𝑖 𝑠 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The integral controller has the following properties: 1. K load disturbance ysp +  e K 1 sTi u plant y Figure 2. the integral controller “resets” the bias error from the P controller. Gives large gain at low frequencies resulting in “beating down” load disturbances. May make the transient response worse. 3. The integral controller act as “automatic reset” as shown in figure 2. Controller phase starts out at 90° and increases to 0° at the break frequency. Integral controller arose from trying to add a “reset” term to the control signal to eliminate steady state error.
4 31 1.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 2.2: a) I control reduces the rise time.2 1 Displacement (m) 0.12: PD control The integral term may be expressed in (i) 𝑇𝑑 and (ii) 𝑘𝑑 The integral term 𝑇𝑑 is known as the derivative time constant. generally improves transient response A derivative controller may able to provide anticipative action but derivative action can make the system become noisy. Ki = 70 1.6 1. and eliminates the steadystate error b) The closedloop transfer function of the system with a PI controller is: X(s)/F(s) = ______________ .4 0.2 0. load disturbance ysp c + KTd s 1+sTd /N plant y Figure 2. Almost always used in conjunction with P control. P gain (k) was reduced because the I controller also reduces the rise time and increases the overshoot as does the P controller (double effect). increases both settling time and overshoot. c) Let k = 30 and ki = 70.6 0.2 0 0 0.4 Derivative controller Introducing a derivative controller will add damping and in doing so: 1.4.4 1.8 0.4 0.8 1 Time (sec) 1. reduces overshoot 3. .8 2 2. Closed Loop Step : K = 30. increases system stability (add phase lead) 2.2 1.6 0.
g: in MATLAB) The relationship between 𝑇𝑑 and 𝑘𝑑 is as follows: 𝑘𝑑 𝑠 = 𝐾𝑇𝑑 𝑠 Example 2.2 1.6 0. b) The closedloop transfer function of the system with a PD controller is: X(s)/F(s)=______________ c) Let k = 300 and kd = 10.4 0. Kd = 10 1.4 0.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 32 The integral term 𝑘𝑑 is known as derivative gain (e.8 0.8 2 d) Reduced overshoot and settling time. Closed Loop Step : K = 300.2 1 Displacement (m) 0. small effect on rise time and ss error .6 1.4 1.2 0 0 0.4 1.6 0.2 0.3: a) D control reduces both settling time and overshoot.8 1 Time (sec) 1.
Tds 1/(Tis) ysp + e u y K Figure 2.13: PID control G(s) The standard form of PID controller according to ISA (Instrument Society of America) is as follows: 1 + 𝑇𝑑 𝑠) 𝑠𝑇𝑖 + 𝑘𝑑 𝑠 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾(1 + Or 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾 + 𝑘 𝑖 𝑠 .8 2 2.8 1 Time (sec) 1.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 33 Closed Loop Step : K = 350.6 0.2 1. I and D control action.2 0.4 0.4. Ki = 300.4 0.8 0.2 0 0 0.6 1.5 PID controller In some system the commonly implemented controller consist of the P.2 1 Displacement (m) 0.6 0. We call this type of controller as PID controller. Kd = 50 1.4 1.
2 0.2 0 0 0.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 2.8 1 Time (sec) 1. fast rise and settling time and no steadystate error 2. Obtain an openloop response and determine what needs to be improved 2.6 1.6 0.6 0.2 1. and Kd until you obtain a desired overall response referring to the table shown previously to find out which controller controls what characteristics.2 1 Displacement (m) 0. Ki = 300. Ki.4 1.8 2 c) No overshoot.6 PID tuning Introducing the P. Kd = 50 34 1. Add an integral control to eliminate the steadystate error 5.4: a) The closedloop transfer function of the system with a PID controller is: X(s)/F(s) = (kd s2 +ks+ki )/(s3 + (10+kd)s2 + (20+k)s + ki ) b) Let k = 350. These effects are summarized as in table below.4 0. CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE K 𝐾 𝑇𝑖 𝑘𝑑 = 𝐾𝑇𝑑 𝑘𝑖 = RISE TIME Decrease Decrease Small change OVERSHOOT Increase Increase Decrease SETTLING TIME Small change Increase Decrease SS ERROR Decrease Eliminate Small change When you are designing a PID controller for a given system. Add a proportional control to improve the rise time 3. ki = 300 and kd = 50. follow the steps shown below to obtain a desired response.8 0. Add a derivative control to improve the overshoot 4.4 0. 1. Adjust each of K. I and D controller has certainly proven to contribute some effect to our system’s response. . Closed Loop Step : K = 350.4.
14: A dc motor: (a) wiring diagram (b) sketch Figure 2. 2.14 (a) shows a dc motor wiring diagram.14 (c): A dc motor: Block diagram with transfer functions . I & D) into a single system. or it can be used together with the transfer functions to describe the causeandeffect relationships throughout the system. It is not necessary to implement all three controllers (P. and (c) shows the block diagram with transfer function.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 6. then you don't need to add D control to the system. if a PI controller gives a good enough response. Figure 2. For instance. (b) sketch. Simple is better. Figure 2.5 BLOCK DIAGRAM & REDUCTION METHODS 35 A block diagram is used to describe the composition and interconnection of a system. For example.
15: Components of a block diagram for LTI systems Figure 2. C (s) . as shown in Figure 2. The following terminology is defined with reference to the diagram.1 Block diagram reduction method 36 We shall now define the block diagram elements used frequently in linear control systems and the related algebra. distributes the input signal. undiminished. Figure 2.5. is the algebraic sum of the input signals.15. All component parts of a block diagram for linear timeinvariant systems are shown in Figure 2.16 shows the block diagram of a linear feedback control system. to several output points. The figure shows three inputs. but any number can be presented. The characteristic of the summing junction as shown in Figure 2. R(s) . A pickoff point.16: Feedback control system .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 2.15 (c) is that the output signal.15 (d). Figure 2.
Therefore.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 37 R(s). r (t ) = reference input (command) C (s). M (s) can be expressed as a function of G(s) and H (s) . . From Figure 2. e(t ) = actuating signal = error signal H (s) = feedback transfer function G(s) H (s) = L(s) = loop transfer function G(s) = forwardpath transfer function M (s) C (s) R(s) or Y (s) R(s) = closedloop transfer function or system transfer function. b(t ) = feedback signal E (s). Y ( s ) G ( s) R( s) G ( s ) B( s) Y ( s) G( s) M ( s) R( s ) 1 G ( s) H ( s) The block diagram representation of a given system often can be reduced by block diagram reduction techniques to a simplified block diagram with fewer blocks than the original diagram. c(t ) or Y (s). Table below shows some of the block diagram reduction techniques.16. y(t ) = output (controlled variable) B(s). we write Y ( s) G( s) E ( s) B( s) H ( s)Y ( s) The actuating signal is written as E(s) R(s) B(s) Thus. the other transformations are used to transform the diagram to a form ready for eliminating feedback loops. The block diagram reduction technique is based on the utilization of rule 6 in which eliminates feedback loops.
the reduction technique is shown in (b).KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 38 For parallel subsystems as shown below in (a). .
Multipleloop feedback control system . and the loop G3(s)G4(s)H1(s) is called a positive feedback loop. and therefore obtain Figure 26 (a).KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 39 Example 2. A block diagram of a multipleloop feedback control system is shown in Figure 25. we move H2 behind block G4 by using rule 4. First. It is interesting to note that the feedback signal H1(s)Y(s) is a positive feedback signal.5: Block Diagram Reduction. to eliminate the loop G3G4H1.
eliminating the inner loop containing H2/G4.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Eliminating the loop G3G4H1 by using rule 6. we obtain Figure 26 (b). we obtain Figure 26 (c). 40 Block diagram reduction of the system . Then. Finally. we obtain the closedloop system transfer function as shown in Figure 26 (d). by reducing the loop containing H3.
6 . 41 Block diagram for Example 2.6: Reduce the system shown to a single transfer function.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 2.
the designer can readily visualize the possibilities for adding blocks to the existing system block diagram to alter and improve the system performance. The transition from the block diagram method to a method utilizing a line path representation instead of a block representation is readily accomplished and is presented in the following section. Furthermore.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 42 Steps in the block diagram reduction for Example 2. The block diagram provides the analyst with a graphical representation of the interrelationships of controlled and input variables. .6 The block diagram representation of feedback control systems is a valuable and widely used approach.
The nodes are connected by line segments.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 2. which provides the relation between system variables without requiring any reduction procedure or manipulation of the flow graph. a12 Y1 Y2 Figure 2. y2 the output. A signal can transmit through a branch only in the direction of the arrow. 2. the block diagram reduction technique is cumbersome and often quite difficult to complete. The SFG is shown in Figure 29. consider that a linear system is represented by a simple algebraic equation y2 a12 y1 where y1 is the input.6.6 SIGNAL FLOW DIAGRAM & REDUCTION METHODS 43 Block diagrams are adequate for the representation of the interrelationships of controlled and input variables.7: Consider the following set of algebraic equations: y2 a12 y1 a32 y3 y3 a23 y2 a43 y4 y4 a24 y 2 a34 y3 a44 y4 y5 a25 y2 a45 y4 .17: Signalflow graph of y2 a12 y1 Example 2. For instance.1 Basic elements of SFG When constructing a SFG. and a12 the gain between two variables. called branches. junction points or nodes are used to represent variables. for a system with reasonably complex interrelationships. The advantage of the SFG method is the availability of a flow graph gain formula. An alternative method for determining the relationship between system variables has been developed by Mason and is based on a representation of the linear system by line segments called SignalFlow Graph (SFG). However.
step by step. as shown: 44 Stepbystep construction of the SFG of Example 2.7 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The SFG for these equations is constructed.
6. For example. Path Forward Path  Loop  Path Gain Loop Gain Nontouching Loops  . Nodes are used to represent variables.2 Summary of the basic properties of SFG 45 The important properties of the SGF are summarized as follows: 1. An output node is a node that has only incoming branches.6.18(b)). A loop is a path that originates and terminates on the same node and along which no other node is encountered more than once. SFG applies only to linear systems. Normally. the nodes are arranged from left to right. we can make any non input node an output node. simply by connecting a branch with unity gain from the existing node to a new node with the same name (Example: node y2 in Figure 2. For example.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 2. If we attempt to convert y2 into input node. Signals travel along branches only in the direction described by the arrows of the branches. 2. These are shown in Figure 2. by using the same unity gain branch (Figure 2.18 (c)). from input to output. 2. and along which no node is traversed more than once. there are four loops in the SFG of Example 2.3 Definitions of the SFG terms Input Node (source) Output Node (sink) An input node is a node that has only outgoing branches.7 are nontouching loops. 3. the loop y2y3y2 and y4y4 of the SFG in Figure (d) of Example 2. A path is any collection of a continuous succession of branches traversed in the same direction. In general. A forward path is a path that starts at an input node and ends at an output node. then y2 output will differ from the original (y2 = y2 + a12y1 + a32y3).7.19 The product of the branch gains encountered in traversing a path is called the path gain The loop gain is the path gain of a loop Two parts of a SFG are nontouching if they do not share a common node.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 46 Figure 2.18 (a & b): Modification of SFG so that y2 become output node (c): Erroneous way to make node y2 an input node .
20 (a).19: Four loops in the signalflow graph of Example 2.6. y1 a21 y2 a31 y3 a41 y4 a51 y5 2. we have y6 a16 y1 y7 a17 y1 y8 a18 y1 . In Figure 2.4 SFG Algebra Based on the properties of the SFG. For the SFG of Figure 2. The value of the variable represented by a node is transmitted through all branches leaving the node.7 2. we can outline the following manipulation rules and algebra of SFG. The value of the variable represented by a node is equal to the sum of all the signals entering the node. 1.20 (a).KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 47 Figure 2.
A series connection of unidirectional branches can be replaced by one branch with gain equal to the product of branch gains.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 48 Figure 2. 4. .20 (b). Parallel branches in the same direction connecting two nodes can be replaced by a single branch with the gain equal to the sum of gains of the parallel branches.20 3. Example: Figure 2.
of forward paths and determine the forwardpath gains.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 2. 4. which is evaluated by eliminating all loops that touch kth forwardpath Procedures to solve SFG by using Mason’s rule: 1. N where yin = inputnode variable yout = outputnode variable M = gain between yin and yout N = total number of forward paths between yin and yout Pk = kth forwardpath gain = 1 – (sum of all individual loop gains) + (sum of all gain products of two nontouching loops) – (sum of all gain products of three nontouching loops) + … k = . k 1.6. Identify the nontouching loops taken two at a time. of loops and determine the loop gains. k 1.2. 2.5 Gain formula for SFG (Mason’s Rule) 49 The overall gain between the input node yin and output node yout of a SFG with N forward paths and L loops is given by y M out yin P k k k . Identify the no. Determine and k. Determine the product of the nontouching loop gains. 3. Identify the no. three at a time and so on. N . 5. Substitute all of the above information into the gain formula: y M out yin P k k k .2.
5. There is only one loop. Y ( s) P11 G( s) R( s ) 1 G( s) H ( s) . Thus. = 1 . SFG of a feedback control system 1. There is only one forward path between R(s) and Y (s) . 3. find the transfer function Y ( s) R( s) .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 50 Care must be taken when applying the gain formula to ensure that it is applied between an input node and an output node. 2. By using the gain formula.8: Consider the SFG of a closed loop control system as given in Figure below. 4. There are no nontouching loops. and the forwardpath gain is P1 = G(s) . the loop gain is L1 = G( s) H ( s) .L1 = 1 G( s) H ( s) and 1 = 1. Example 2.
9: For the system shown in Figure below. There are four loops Loop 1: y2 – y3 – y2 Loop 2: y3 – y4 – y3 Loop 3: y2 – y4 – y3 – y2 Loop 4: y4 – y4 L1 = a23 a32 L2 = a34 a43 L3 = a24 a43 a32 L4 = a44 3. = 1 – (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4) + L1L4 = 1 – (a23 a32 + a34 a43 + a24 a43 a32 + a44) + a23 a32 a44 . 51 SFG for Example 2. determine the gain between y1 and y5. There are three forward paths Path 1: y1 – y2 – y3 – y4 – y5 Path 2: y1 – y2 – y4 – y5 Path 3: y1 – y2 – y5 P1 = a12 a23 a34 a45 P2 = a12 a24 a45 P3 = a12 a25 2.9 1.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 2. Nontouching loops: y2 – y3 – y2 and y4 – y4 Thus the product of the gains of the two nontouching loops: L1L4 = a23 a32 a44 4.
10: Consider the SFG as shown in the figure. All the loops are in touch with forward path P2. Thus. Thus. thus 2 = 1.10 . Two loops (y3 – y4 – y3 and y4 – y4) are not touching with forward path P3. 3 = 1 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 52 All the loops are in touch with forward path P1. thus 1 = 1. The following inputoutput relation is obtained by use of the gain formula: y 7 P11 P2 2 G1G2 G3G4 G1G5 (1 G3 H 2 ) y1 where 1 G1 H1 G3 H 2 G1G2G3 H 3 H 4 G1G3 H1 H 2 G1 H1 H 4 G3 H 2 H 4 G1G2G3 H 3 H 4 G1G3 H1 H 2 H 4 SFG for Example 2.a34a43 – a44. 5. M y 5 P1 1 P2 2 P3 3 y1 (a12 a 23a34 a 45 ) (a12 a 24 a 45 ) (a12 a 25 )(1 a34 a 43 a 44 ) 1 (a 23a32 a34 a 43 a 24 a32 a 43 a 44 ) a 23a32 a 44 Example 2.
3. Identify the blocks .7 CONVERSION FROM BLOCK DIAGRAMS TO SFG 53 An equivalent SFG for a block diagram can be drawn by performing the following steps: 1. Simplify the SFG → eliminate redundant nodes/branches (only if the node is connected to branches of a single flow in & a single flow out with unity gain). Label the input/output signals and the branches accordingly. For each negative sum. summing junctions & pickoff points → they are replaced with nodes. Identify the input/output signals. 4. Example 2.11: Convert the block diagram in the figure to a signal flow graph and determine the transfer function using Mason’s gain formula. 2. 5. 6.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 2. .they are replaced with branches. Add unity branches as needed for clarity or to make connections. Interconnect the nodes & indicate the directions of signal flow by using arrows. a negative sign is included with the branch.
There are no nontouching loops. . 4. the forwardpath gains are: P1 = G1G2G3 P2 = G1G4 2. There are two forward paths. thus 1 = 1. ∆ = 1 – (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 + L5) = 1 + G1G2H1 + G2G3H2 + G1G2G3 + G1G4 + G4H2 All the loops are in touch with forward path P1. There are five individual loops. the loop gains are: L1 = −G1G2H1 L2 = −G2G3H2 L3 = −G1G2G3 L4 = −G1G4 L5 = −G4H2 3.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The equivalent SFG: 54 1.
8 STATE SPACE EQUATIONS State space approach is an alternative method for representing physical system. In order to use this approach. we have to limit our approach to linear. Y P1 1 P2 2 R G1G2 G3 G1G4 1 G1G2 H 1 G2 G3 H 2 G1G2 G3 G1G4 G4 H 2 2. requirements for control systems increased in scope.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam All the loops are in touch with forward path P2. Hence the use of classical control design seems inadequate. Thus. analyze and design a wide range of system. This means we can work directly with the governing differential equations to model. thus 2 = 1 55 5. classical control design practices looking at the frequency domain output to interpret system’s physical dynamics. the models are constructed in the time domain. In contrast. In addition. singleoutput systems. Multipleinput. Many systems do not have just a single input. multipleoutput systems can be compactly represented in state space with a model similar in form and complexity to that used for singleinput. the state space approach is also attractive because of the availability of numerous statespace software packages for the personal computer . timeinvariant systems or system that can be linearized by the methods we have covered previously. With the arrival of space exploration. In state space method. To address the multiple input and output system a convenient matrix based is used in representing the state space.
e it is described by an nth order D. often something associated with system “energy” . The path in state space produced by the state vector as it changes with time.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The table below outlines the advantages and disadvantages of state space models ADVANTAGES Multiple input / output models are now possible Possible to minimize “error critera” (optimal control) Possible to examine stability in more depth Ideally suited to computerbased design and analysis DISADVANTAGES Difficult to examine robustness (stability margins) More work than classical control for “simple” problems “optimal” systems require “optimal” error criteria 56 2.….E. These variables are not unique.8. The ndimensional space in which the components of the state vector are the coordinate axes. x2. The (column) vector of the nth state variables: 𝑥 𝑡 = [𝑥1 𝑡 𝑥2 𝑡 … 𝑥𝑛 𝑡 ] Note: system is of order n (i. it is often reasonable to choose something with “physical meaning”.  State Space State trajectory  Note: The selection of state variables is not unique. For example x1.1 Definition of state space terms State of a system State Variables State Vector A set of quantities which completely determine the evolution of the response of a system (in the absence of external inputs) Set of variables that define the state. In the first instance.
2 State space model 57 We begin our state space equation with a state equation. C and D are all matrices involved in a state space equation A = (n x n) state matrix that describes “internal (homogenous) motion B = (n x r) input matrix that describes how r inputs affect n states C = (m x n) output matrix that describes how n states contribute to m outputs D = (m x r) direct transmission matrix that describes how r inputs are fed through to m outputs. B.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 2. A state equation consist of the state equation and output equation as follows: 𝑥 = 𝐴𝑥 + 𝐵𝑢 𝑦 = 𝐶𝑥 + 𝐷𝑢 State Equation Output Equation Now A. LECTURER’S NOTES: .8.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam LECTURER’S NOTES: 58 .
In this chapter. and controllers are designed so that the specifications are all met by the design system.1) In control systems. (3. In the design problem. Thus yt(t) has the property lim yt (t ) 0 t (3. it can be written as y(t) = yt(t) + yss(t) where yt(t) denotes the transient response and yss(t) denotes the steadystate response. In the analysis problem.2) The steadystate response is simply the part of the total response that remains after the transient has died out. we will strive to delineate a set of quantitative performance measures that adequately represent the performance of the control systems. the transient response is defined as the part of the time response that goes to zero as time becomes very large. Let y(t) denote the time response of a continuousdata system. All real stable systems exhibit transient phenomena to some extent before the steady state is reached.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam CHAPTER 3. then. 3.0 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 59 The ability to adjust the transient and steadystate response of a control system is a beneficial outcome of the design of feedback systems. This response will be characterized by a selected set of response measures. specifications are usually given in terms of the transient and steadystate performance. we will use selected input signals to test the response of control systems. in general. Since time is used as an independent variable in most of control systems. .1 Time Response and Test Signals The time response of a control system is usually divided into two parts: the transient response and the steadystate response. it is usually of interest to evaluate the state and output responses with respect to time. or simply the time response.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 60 Since it is difficult to design a control system that will perform satisfactorily for all possible forms of input signals. The ramp function is shown in Fig. it is represented by r (t ) The parabolic function is shown in Fig. to assume some basic types of test signals properly for the prediction of the system's performance to other more complex inputs. 3.4 ParabolicInput Function The parabolic function represents a signal that is one order faster than the ramp function. 3. it is necessary. a ramp function is represented by r (t ) Atu s (t ) where A is a real constant. Mathematically. The mathematical representation of a step function of magnitude A is A r (t ) 0 t0 t0 Mathematically.3 RampInput Function The ramp function is a signal that changes constantly with time.1(b).1(a).2 StepInput Function The stepfunction input represents an instantaneous change in the reference input.1(c). 3. The step function is shown in Fig. r(t) = Aus(t).1.1. where us(t) is the unitstep function. 3. Mathematically. At 2 u s (t ) 2 . for the purpose of analysis and design. 3.1. 3.
Maximum overshoot = ymax − yss Percentage of maximum overshoot maximum overshoot 100% y ss (3. Rise time: The rise time. ts is defined as. 3. the time required for the step response to reach and stay within a specified percentage (5%) of its final value. the time required for the step response to rise from 10 to 90 percent of its final value. 3.1 shows the three timedomain test signals. the time required for the step response to reach 50% of its final value. the following performance criteria (parameters) are defined: 1. tr is defined as. (c) Parabolic.2 First & Second Order System: Transient & Steady State Response For linear control systems. Fig. The maximum overshoot of y(t) is defined as. 3. 3.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Fig. . the time response is characterized by using the unitstep input. Delay time: The delay time. The response of the control system to the unitstep input is called the unitstep response. Settling time: The settling time. Maximum overshoot: Let ymax denotes the maximum value of y(t) and yss be the steadystate value of y(t) and ymax yss.3) 2. td is defined as.1: Test input signals: (a) Step. 4. (b) Ramp.2 illustrates a typical unitstep response of a linear control system. With reference to the unitstep response. 61 Figure 3.
Analytically.2: Step response of a control system.5) . especially the ones that can be approximated by secondorder systems. The openloop transfer function of the system is 2 n G( s) ss 2 n (3. these quantities are difficult to establish. Consider that a secondorder control system with unity feedback is represented by the block diagram shown in Fig.3.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 62 Figure 3.1 Transient Response of a Prototype of SecondOrder Systems Although it is true that secondorder control systems are rare in practice. 3.2. 3. their analysis generally helps to form a basis for the understanding of analysis and design of higherorder systems. except for simple systems that are lower than the third order.
the output response is given as n 2 Y ( s) 2 s( s 2 2 n s n ) (3. and marginally stable (Oscillation for a bounded input) if the characteristic equation has simple roots on the imaginary axis with all other roots on the left half of splane.6) to zero 2 (s) s 2 2 n s n 0 (3.3: A prototype of a secondorder control system. the characteristic equation has at least one root on the right half of the splane or it has a repeated j roots. The closedloop transfer function of the system is 2 n Y ( s) 2 R( s) s 2 2 n s n 63 (3.6) The characteristic equation of the prototype of the secondorder system is obtained by setting the denominator of Eq.9) .8) By taking inverse Laplace transform. Figure 3. R(s) = 1/s. For an unstable (Unbounded output for any bounded input) system. we obtain the unit step response of the control system y (t ) 1 e nt 1 2 sin n 1 2 t cos 1 t0 (3. For a unitstep input. (3.7) The system is stable (Bounded output for bounded input) if the roots of the characteristic equation is located on the left half of splane.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam where ζ and n are real constants.
2 Damping Ratio and Damping Factor The effects of the system parameters ζ and n on the step response y(t) can be studied by referring to the roots of the characteristic equation in Eq. It may be noted that the response becomes more oscillatory with larger overshoot as decreases.10) = ζn and (3.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Fig. 3.11) .4: Unitstep response of a secondorder system with various ζ values. The roots can be expressed as s1 .7). 3. s2 n jn 1 2 j where (3. (4.2.4 shows the unitstep response of the secondorder system for various values of . 64 Figure 3.
Thus. when = 0.12) The physical significance of ζ and is now investigated. the unitstep response of the system becomes purely oscillatory with angular frequency of n. and n.10). the oscillations disappear and the system is said to be critically damped. actual damping factor n damping factor at the critical damping (3.13) When < 1. 3. controls the rate of rise or decay of the unitstep response y(t). The inverse of .3 Natural Undamped Frequency The parameter n is defined as the natural undamped frequency. In other words. . When = 1. the factor = n appears as a constant multiplied by t in the exponential term of the response y(t). (3. Therefore. Under this condition. Thus n 1 2 Fig. As seen from Eq. the roots of the characteristic equation are imaginary.2. 3. As seen from Eq. the system is underdamped and when > 1. 1/ is proportional to the time constant of the system.9). the system is overdamped.5 illustrates the relationships between the location of the roots of the characteristic equation and . For 0 < < 1. (4. Thus. = n. controls the "damping" of the system and is called the damping factor. we can regard as Damping ratio. the imaginary parts of the roots have the magnitude of the actual (damped) frequency of oscillation.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 65 n 1 2 (3. ζ.
3.5: The relationships between the location of the roots of the characteristic equation and . The effect of the roots of the characteristic equation on the damping of the secondorder system is illustrated in Fig. .6. ζ. and n.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 66 Figure 3.
.6: Stepresponse comparison for various locations of the roots of the characteristic equation in the splane.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 67 Figure 3.
as given in Eq. the first overshoot is the maximum overshoot.. n =1. t 2 dt 1 n 1 2 t n From which we get (3.15) For the unitstep responses shown in Fig. This corresponds to n = 1 in Eq. 3. The magnitude of the overshoots and undershoots can be determined by subistituting Eq. (3. (3. This results in y(t)max or min .1.2. that is. 3. is plotted in Fig.1. the overshoots occur at odd values of n.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 3.4. we get n dy (t ) e nt sin n .4.2.9) with respect to time t and setting the result to zero. …. 1 2 .18). and undershoots occur at even values of n..17) percentage of maximum overshoot 100e  / 1 2 (3. (3..2.. Therefore maximum overshoot ymax 1 e / and the percentage of maximum overshoot is 1 2 (3. 5.9). Thus. . (3. 3.14) into Eq. (4...18) The relationship between the percent maximum overshoot and the damping ratio.4 Analytical Expression for Maximum Overshoot 68 By taking the derivative of Eq.7.14) n 0.16) With reference to Fig. t n n 1 2 n 0.15). the time at which the maximum overshoot occurs is tmax n 1 2 (3. (3. 3.
0 (3.7 n 0 1.7: The relationship between the percent maximum overshoot and the damping ratio. rise time tr.8.19) The plot of ntr versus ζ is shown in Fig.16 n 0 1 (3.2.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 69 Figure 3.20) . However. and settling time ts. we can utilize the linear approximation td 1 0. This relation can be approximated by a straight line over a limited range of ζ.60 2. 3.5 Delay Time and Rise Time It is more difficult to determine the exact analytical expressions of the delay time td. 3. tr 0.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 70 Figure 3. the following conclusions can be made: 1. For ζ < 0. 2. The settling time ts can be approximated as ts 3 n (3.69.69. the settling time is inversely proportional to ζ and n. From this discussion. For ζ > 0. . ts can be reduced by increasing n. Again.8: Normalized rise time versus ζ for the prototype secondorder system. tr and td are proportional to ζ and inversely proportional to n. the settling time is proportional to ζ and inversely proportional to n. 2.21) We can summarize the relationships between ts and the system parameters as follows: 1. A practical way of reducing the settling time is to increase n while holding ζ constant. Increasing (decreasing) the natural undamped frequency n will reduce (increase) tr and td.
1 RouthHurwitz Criterion The RouthHurwitz criterion represents a method of determining the location of zeros of a polynomial with constant real coefficients with respect to the left and right half of the splane. (3. these conditions are not sufficient. for it is quite possible that an equation with all its coefficients nonzero and of the same sign still will not have all the roots in the left half of the splane. it is necessary and insufficient that the following conditions hold: 1.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 3.25) does not have roots in the right half of splane.3. For design purposes. (3. 3. In order that Eq. there will be unknown or variable parameter embedded in the characteristic equation.3 STABILITY & PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS – ROUTHHURWITZ STABILITY TEST 71 The discussions in the preceding sections lead to the conclusion that the stability of a linear timeinvariant system can be determined by checking on the location of the roots of the characteristic equation. The first step in the RouthHurwitz criterion is to arrange the coefficients of the Eq.25) as follows: . The method outlined below is well known for the determination of stability of a LTI system without involving root solving.25) where all the coefficients are real. All the coefficients of the equation have the same sign 2. None of the coefficients vanishes However. When the system parameters are all known. the roots of the characteristic equation can be solved by means of a rootfinding computer program. Consider that the characteristic equation of a linear timeinvariant SISO system is of the form F (s) an s n an1s n1 a1s a0 0 (3. and it will be feasible to use the rootfinding programs. without actually solving for the zeros.
. The roots of the equation are all in the left half of the splane if all the elements of the first column of the Routh's tabulation are of the same sign. 1 an an1 an1 1 an an1 an1 1 an1 bn1 bn1 an2 a n 3 an 4 a n 5 a n 3 bn3 Once the Routh's tabulation has been completed. we investigate the signs of the coefficients in the first column of the tabulation.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 72 sn s n 1 an an1 an2 a n 3 an4 a n 5 Further rows of the schedule are then completed as follows: sn s n 1 s n2 s n 3 s0 an an 1 bn 1 cn 1 hn 1 an 2 an 3 bn 3 cn 3 an 4 an 5 bn 5 cn 5 where bn1 bn3 cn1 and so on. The number of changes of signs in the elements of the first column equal the number of roots with positive real parts or in the righthalf splane.
the equation has two roots located in the righthalf splane.2: Consider the equation 2s 4 s 3 3s 2 5s 10 0 Since this equation has no missing terms and the coefficients are all of the same sign. Example 3. at s = 2 and s = 3. the Routh's tabulation is made as follows: s3 s2 s1 s0 1 4 2 . the equation has two roots in the right half of the splane. In fact. it satisfies the necessary conditions for not having roots in the right half or on the imaginary axis of the splane. However. For the purpose of illustrating. s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 2 3 10 1 5 0 7 10 0 6. from the factored form of the equation.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 3.1: Consider the equation 73 s 2s 1s 3 s3 4s 2 s 6 0 This equation has one negative coefficient. .5 6 1 6 0 0 Since there are two sign changes in the first column of the tabulation. since these conditions are necessary but not sufficient. we have to check the Routh's tabulation. Thus. we know that there are two roots in the righthalf splane. we know without applying Routh's test that not all the roots of the equation are in the lefthalf splane.43 0 0 10 0 0 Since there are two changes in the first column of the tabulation.
The elements in one row of Routh's tabulation are all zero. . the element in the s1 row would all be infinite. the equation has two roots in the righthalf splane. 2.3: Consider the characteristic equation of a linear system: s 4 s 3 2s 2 2s 3 0 Since all the coefficients are nonzero and of the same sign. Routh's tabulation is carried out as follows: s4 s3 s2 1 2 3 1 2 0 0 3 Since the first element of the s2 row is zero. and then proceed with Routh's tabulation. the following difficulties may occur that prevent the Routh's tabulation from completing properly: 1. s2 s 1 s0 3 3 0 3 0 Since there are two sign changes in the first column of Routh's tabulation. To overcome this difficulty. we need to apply the RouthHurwitz criterion. The first element in any one row of Routh's tabulation is zero. we replace the zero element in the first column by an arbitrary small positive number .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 74 Special Cases When Routh's Tabulation Terminates Prematurely Depending on the coefficients of the equation. In the first case. we replace the zero in the s2 row by a small positive number and then proceed with the tabulation. This is illustrated by the following example: Example 3. but the others are not.
it indicates that one or more of the following conditions may exist. when all the elements in one row of Routh's tabulation are zeros before the tabulation is properly terminated. 3.g. 3. which is formed from the coefficients of the row just above the row of zeros in Routh's tabulation. we conduct the following steps: 1. Take the derivative of the auxiliary equation with respect to s. 4. Replace the row of zeros with the coefficients of dA(s)/ds = 0. The situation with the entire row of zeros can be remedied by using the auxiliary equation A(s) = 0. s = 1 j1). The equation has pairs of complexconjugate roots forming symmetry about the origin of the splane (e. 1. The roots of the auxiliary equation also satisfy the original equation. 2. Form the auxiliary equation A(s) = 0 by use of the coefficients from the row just preceding the row of zeros. The equation has at least one pair of real roots with equal magnitude but opposite signs.4: Consider the following characteristic equation of a linear control system: s 5 4s 4 8s 3 8s 2 7s 4 0 The Routh's tabulation is s5 s4 s3 s2 s1 1 4 6 4 0 8 7 8 4 6 0 4 0 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 75 In the second special case. Continue with Routh's tabulation in the usual manner. To continue with Routh's tabulation when a row of zeros appears. this gives dA(s)/ds = 0. 2. The equation has one or more pairs of imaginary roots. Example 3. s = 1 j1.
Solving the auxiliary equation A(s) = 0.5 10 7 k 3408 1204 10 3 3408 1.3 1. which are also two of the roots of the characteristic equation. and the system is marginally stable.5 10 7 k 0 For the system to be stable.3s 2 1204 103 s 1. Example 3. we get the two roots at s = j and s = j. This lead to the following conditions: 1. Thus.57 . s3 s2 s1 s0 1 3408. These imaginary roots caused the tabulation to have an entire row of zeros in the s1 row.5 10 7 1204 10 3 1.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam A(s) = 4s2 + 4 = 0 The derivative of A(s) with respect to s is dA(s)/ds = 8s = 0 From which the remaining portion of the Routh's tabulation is 76 s1 s0 8 0 4 Since there are no sign changes in the first column. the equation has two roots on the jaxis.5 107 k 410.5 107 k 0 Determine the crucial value of k for stability.36 107 0 3408 Therefore. the condition of k for the system to be stable is 0 k 273. all the coefficients in the first column must have the same sign. the system is stable.5: Consider that a thirdorder control system has the characteristic equation s 3 3408.
where r(t) is the input.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam If we let k = 273. Thus if the system operate with k = 273.11. as follows: 77 A(s) 3408.27 and s = j1097.57 in the auxiliary equation. and the natural composition of the system. .27. 3.11: ClosedLoop Control System. one of the objectives is to keep the steadystate error below a certain tolerable value.27 rad/sec. The error of the system may be defined as: Figure 3. Steadystate error is the difference between the output and the reference in the steady state. and y(t) is the output. 3. the system response will be an undamped sinusoid with a frequency of 1097.57.4. the characteristic equation will have two roots on the jaxis.57.1 Definition of the SteadyState Error with respect to System Configuration Let us refer to the closedloop system shown in Fig.4 STEADY STATE RESPONSE – STEADY STATE ERROR One of the objectives of most control systems is that the system output response follows a specific reference signal accurately in the steady state. we substitute k = 273. In the design problem.3s 2 4. frictions. Steadystate errors in control systems are almost unavoidable and generally derive from the imperfections. To find these roots. 3.1036 109 0 which has roots at s = j1097. e(t) the actuating signal.
e.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 78 e(t ) reference signal y(t ) (3. When the system has unity feedback (i. H(s) = 1).12 shows steady state errors for different input functions. This number is known as the system type. the error is simply e(t ) r (t ) y(t ) The steadystate error is defined as ess lim e(t ) lim sE( s ) t s 0 lim sR( s) s 0 1 G ( s ) (3. More specifically. 3.26) where the reference signal is the signal that the output is to track. ess depends on the number of poles that G(s) has at s = 0. Fig. .27) Clearly. ess depends on the characteristics of G(s).
(b) ramp input Now let us investigate the effects of the types of inputs on the steadystate error.12: Steadystate errors (a) step input.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 79 Figure 3. .
(4.28) For convenience.4. r (t ) Atu s (t ) where A is a real constant.27) as follows: .4. (4. ess lim s 0 sR( s) A A lim s 0 1 G ( s ) 1 G(s) 1 lim G( s) s 0 (3.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 3.28) becomes ess A 1 k p (3. Then Eq. we define k p lim G(s) s 0 as the steperror constant. the Laplace transform of r(t) is R( s) A s2 The steadystate error is written using Eq.27).2 SteadyState Error of System with a StepInput Function 80 When the input r(t) to a control system with unityfeedback is a step function with magnitude A. then R(s) = A/s and the steadystate error is written from Eq. (4.29) We can summarize the steadystate error due to a stepfunction input as follows: Type 0 system: Type 1 or higher system: ess A = constant 1 k p ess = 0 3.3 SteadyState Error of System with a RampInput Function When the input to the unityfeedback control system is a ramp function with amplitude A.
30) becomes ess A kv (3.4 SteadyState Error of System with a Parabolic Input When the input is described by the standard parabolic form r (t ) The Laplace transform of r(t) is At 2 u s (t ) 2 R( s ) The steadystate error of the system is A s3 ess A lim s 2 G ( s) s 0 (3.4.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 81 ess lim A A s 0 s sG( s ) lim sG( s) s 0 (3. (3.30) We define the ramperror constant as kv lim sG( s) s0 Then Eq.32) .31) The following conclusions may be stated with regard to the steadystate error of a system with ramp input: Type 0 system: Type 1 system: Type 2 or higher system: ess = ess = A/kv = constant ess = 0 3.
ka = 0 ess = A/ka = 3.13.4. kv = 4. as shown in Fig. kp = ess = A/1+kp = 0 Ramperror constant. 3.5 SteadyState Error for Nonunity Feedback System For nonunity feedback control. .34) The following conclusions are made with regard to the steadystate error of a system with parabolic input: Type 0 system: Type 1 system: Type 2 system: Type 3 or higher system: ess = ess = ess = A/ka = constant ess = 0 Example 3.2k ess= A/kv = A/(4.5) H(s) 1 It is clear that this system is a type 1 system. The steadystate errors are: Step input Ramp input Steperror constant.5)(s 0.5: Find the steady state errors of the following system G( s) k ( s 3.15) s( s 1. we usually find the equivalent unityfeedback system.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Defining the parabolicerror constant as 82 ka lim s 2G( s) s0 (3.33) the steadystate error becomes ess A ka (3.2k) Parabolic input Parabolicerror constant.
4. that the above steps require that input and output of the same units. and the steady state errors.14. The following example summarizes the concepts of steadystate error. Example 3.6: For the system shown in Fig. Assume input and output units are the same.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 83 Figure 3.13: Forming an equivalent unity feedback for nonunity feedback system. We have to take into consideration. system type. . find the system type and the steady state error for the unit step function.
the system is type 0. Using the equivalent forward transfer function of Fig.13(e) along with G( s) and 100 s( s 10) H ( s) we find 1 s5 Ge ( s) G( s) 100( s 5) 3 1 G( s) H ( s) G( s) s 15s 2 50s 400 Thus. and k p lim Ge ( s) s 0 100 5 5 400 4 The steadystate error is ess 1 4 1 kp .6. 84 The first step in solving the problem is to convert the system of Fig.14: Nonunity feedback control system for Example 3.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Figure 3. 3. 3.14 into an equivalent unity feedback system.
a wealth of graphical and other techniques are available that are useful for system analysis and design. i. the performance of a control system is measured more realistically by its timedomain characteristics. there are no unified methods of arriving at a designated system that meets timedomain performance specifications. r(t) R sin ωot the steadystate output of the system.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 3.5 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 85 In practice.e. irrespective of the order of the system. Let the transfer function of a SISO system be M(s).and timedomain performances in linear system so that timedomain properties of the system can be predicted based on the frequency–domain characteristics. but possibly with different amplitude and phase. It is important to realize that there are correlating relations between the frequency..1 Frequency Response of a System It is well known from linear system theory that. 3.5. In design problems.e. y(t) Y sin (ωot φ) where Y is the amplitude of the output sine wave and is the phase shift. y(t). With these in mind. the output Y(s) and the input R(s) are related through Y(s) M(s)R(s) . The reason is that the performance of most control systems is judged based on the time response due to certain test signals. will be a sinusoid with the same frequency o. we shall study the frequency response analysis of control systems. when the input to a linear time invariant system is sinusoidal with amplitude R and frequency o. in frequency domain. i. On the other hand.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam For sinusoidal steadystate analysis. The frequency response of the loop transfer function G(s)H(s) [G(s) if H(s) is unity] can be plotted in several ways. the frequency response of the system can be obtained. The two commonly used representations are: a. for the input and output signals described by equations (6. and equation (6.2).3) becomes 86 Y(j) Μ j)R j) By writing Y(j) and M(j) as (similar expression for R j ) also): Y ( j ) Y ( j ) Y ( j ) M ( j ) M ( j ) M ( j ) Y ( j ) M ( j ) R( j ) and the phase relation: Y ( j) M ( j) R( j) Thus. or Nyquist plot. by knowing the transfer function M(s). Y M ( jo ) R M ( jo ) Thus. b.1) and (6. or Logarithmic plot. Bode diagram. we replace s by j. . Polar plot.
1 d. using the log scale for frequency and linear scale for either magnitude (in dB) or phase angle (degrees). Quadratic factors. One is a plot of the logarithm of the magnitude of a sinusoidal transfer function. j . The unit used in this representation is the decibel (dB). the other is a plot of the phase angle. In Bode diagrams. Constant gain. the frequency ratios are expressed in terms of octaves or decades. n c. where 1 is any frequency. . Simple zeros and poles. corrections could be made easily to these basic asymptotic plots. 1 2 j / n j / n 2 1 . Should the exact curve be desired.2 Frequency Response – Bode Diagram 87 A Bode diagram consists of two graphs. A decade is a frequency band from 1 to 101.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 3. 1 jT . both are plotted against the frequency on a logarithmic scale. where the base of the logarithm is 10. The standard representation of the logarithmic magnitude of G(j) is 20 log G(j). Real Constant: G(s)H(s) = K G(jω)H(jω) = K Magnitude: G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = 20 log10 K (dB). Phase angle: G(jω)H(jω) = 0°. a. The curves are drawn on a semilog paper. Furthermore. K. An octave is a frequency band from 1 to 21. Zeros and poles at the origin.5. The main advantage of Bode diagrams is that the multiplication of magnitudes can be converted into addition. Basic Factors of G(j)H(j): The basic factors that very frequently occur in an arbitrary openloop transfer function G(j)H(j) are: a. where 1 is any frequency. a simple asymptotic method is available for sketching the approximate curve. b.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The Bode plot for any value of K is shown in Fig. 6. Poles and zeros at the origin: G(s)H(s) = s±n For sn: G(jω)H(jω)=(jω)n Magnitude: G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = 20n log10 jω (dB) = 20n log10 ω (dB) Phase angle: G(jω)H(jω) = 90n° (a constant).1: Bode plot for gain K.12) The Bode magnitude plots are a straight line in semi log coordinate.11) For sn: G(jω)H(jω)=(jω)n Magnitude: G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = −20n log10 jω (dB) = −20n log10 ω (dB) Phase angle: G(jω)H(jω) = −90n° (a constant). The phase angle () of ±j is constant and equal to ±900. 88 Figure 6. .e.The Bode plots are shown in Fig. The straight line passes through 0 dB at = 1. 6. (6.2. the magnitude change by ±20n dB for the frequency change of 10 times.1. The slope of the line is ±20n dB/decade i. (6. b.
Simple zeros and poles: G(s)H(s) = (1+sT)±1 G(jω)H(jω)= (1+ jωT)±1 Magnitude: G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = ±20 log10 1 + jωT (dB) = ±20 log10 √*1 + ω2T2] (dB) (6.11) . c.2: Bode diagrams for (a)G(j) = 1/j (b)G(j) = j.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 89 Figure 6.
6. such that T << 1. Phase angle: G(jω)H(jω) = tan 1 T . 6. The frequency. The phase plot can be approximated by a straight line passing through 0 at one decade below corner frequency and ±90 at one decade above corner frequency.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam To obtain asymptotic approximation we consider both very large and very small values of .4. Hence. G(jω)H(jω) = ±45. the value of 20 log T increases/decreases with 20 dB/decade.3 and Fig. 20 log 1 2T 2 20 log T dB At =1/T. At corner frequency. log magnitude = 0 dB while at =10/T. log magnitude = ±20 dB. =1/T. for example the factor 1/(1+jT). For low frequencies. The Bode plots are shown in Fig. the logmagnitude and phase angle curves need only be changed in sign. An advantage of the Bode diagram is that for reciprocal factors. one a straight line at 0 dB for the frequency range 0 < < 1/T and the other a straight line with slope ±20 dB/decade for the frequency range 1/T < < . the magnitude plot can be approximated by two straightline asymptotes. the log magnitude may be approximated by 90 20 log 1 2T 2 20 log1 0 dB For high frequencies. . Thus. since 20 log 1 20 log 1 jT and phase angle of 1/(1+jT) = tan 1 T = (phase angle of 1 jT (1+jT). such that T >> 1. at which the two asymptotes meet is called the corner frequency or break frequency.
.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 91 Figure 6.3: Bode plot for (1+jT).
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 92 Figure 6. d.4: Logmagnitude curve (with asymptotes) for 1/(1+jT). Quadratic factors: G( s) H ( s) 1 2 s / n s / n 2 1 G( j ) H ( j ) 1 2 j / n j / n 2 1 Magnitude: G(jω)H(jω) (dB) = ±20 log10 1 + 2ζ(jω/ωn)+ (jω/ωn)2 (dB) = ±20 log10 2 1 2 2 (dB) n n 2 2 (6.12) .
The low frequency asymptote is thus a horizontal line at 0 dB. The asymptotic frequency response curves can be obtained as follows.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam If ζ > 1. Fig.5 shows exact curves with the straightline asymptotes and the exact phase angle curves. For high frequencies such that /n >> 1. 93 For low frequencies such that /n << 1. Phase angle of the quadratic factor is: 2 n tan 1 2 1 n (6. The equation for the high frequency asymptote is a 2 n n straight line with a slope of ±40 dB/decade.13) . 6. The two asymptotes just derived are independent of the value of ζ. the logmagnitude becomes 20 log 2 40 log dB. the log magnitude becomes ±20 log 1 = 0 dB. this quadratic factor can be expressed as a product of two firstorder factors with real zeros/poles. this quadratic factor is the product of two complexconjugate zeros/poles. If 0 < ζ < 1. The frequency n is the corner frequency.
(6.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 94 Figure 6.13). .12) and (6.5: Bode plot for Eqn.
Magnitude (dB) 15 20 25 0 20 To: Y(1) 40 60 80 1 10 10 0 10 1 Frequency (rad/sec) Figure 6.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 6. G ( j ) j j 2 2 s2 1 2 1 2 2 2 Magnitude: 20 log G ( j ) 20 log .1: Sketch the Bode plot for the following function: G ( s) 95 1 s2 1 1 1 1 Solution: G ( s) .6: Bode plots for the system in Example 6. .1.20log 1 G( j ) tan1 2 5 10 Phase (deg).
Draw the asymptotic logmagnitude curves with proper slopes between the corner frequencies considering all the basic factors together. In the polar plot. Phaseangle curve can be drawn by adding the phaseangle curves of individual factors. 96 3.3 Polar Plot (Nyquist Plot) The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G(j) is a plot of the magnitude of G(j) versus the phase angle of G(j) on polar coordinates as is varied from zero to infinity. Identify the corner frequencies associated with these basic factors.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam General Procedure for Plotting the Bode Diagrams: Rewrite the sinusoidal transfer function as a product of the basic factors discussed above. which lies very close to the asymptotic curve. The polar plot is very often called the Nyquist plot in control system engineering. The exact curve. Each point on the polar plot of G(j) represents the terminal point of a vector at a particular value of . .7. it is important to show the frequency graduation of the locus.5. 6. in polar plots. Note that. An example of such a plot is shown in Fig. can be obtained by adding contributions from all the factors and proper corrections. a positive (negative) phase angle is measured counterclockwise (clockwise) from the positive real axis.
a.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 97 Example of a Polar Plot.14) The polar plot of G(j)H(j) = j is the positive imaginary axis. Poles and zeros at the origin: G(s)H(s) = s±n G( j ) H ( j ) j 1 The polar plot of G(j)H(j) = 1/j is the negative imaginary axis since G j H ( j ) 1 j 1 90 0 j (6. .
respectively. the magnitude approaches 0 and the phase angle approaches –900.5. The polar plot of this transfer function is a semicircle as the frequency is varied from 0 to . The center is located at 0. and the upper semicircle corresponds to 0 . Simple zeros and poles: G(s)H(s) = (1+sT)±1 G( j ) H ( j ) 1 jT 1 For the sinusoidal transfer function G j H ( j ) 1 1 tan 1 T 2 2 1 jT 1 T (6. (b)Same plot in XY plane.5 in the real axis and the radius is equal to 0. The lower semicircle corresponds to 0 . Figure 6. .15) the values of G(j)H(j) at = 0 and at = 1/T are.8.8: (a) Polar plot of 1/(1+jT) . 6. It is shown in Fig. 1 1 1 G j 0H ( j 0) 100 and G j H j 450 2 T T If approaches infinity.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 98 b.
8. Quadratic factors: G(s) H (s) 1 2 s / n s / n G( j ) H ( j ) 1 2 j / n j / n 2 1 2 1 The low and high frequency portions of the polar plot of the following transfer function G j H ( j ) are given. *Phase angle of the quadratic factor is the same as Eqn. (6.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The polar plot of the transfer function 1+jT is simply the upper half of the straight line passing through the point (1. 6. by 0 1 2 j / n j / n 1 2 lim G j H ( j ) 10 0 and lim G j H ( j ) 0 1800 Thus. c.13): . 6. The polar plots are shown in Fig.7: Polar plot of 1+jT. 0) in the complex plane and parallel to the imaginary axis as shown in Fig. the high frequency portion is tangent to the negative real axis. 99 Figure 6.7. respectively.
consider the following transfer function: G j H ( j ) 1 2 j / n j / n 2 1 2 n The lowfrequency portion of the curve is: 0 2 2 j n lim G j H ( j ) 100 and the highfrequency portion of the curve is: . Next.8: Polar plots of 1 2 j / n j / n 1 2 for ζ > 0.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 100 2 n 1 tan 2 1 n Figure 6.
2 Example 6.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 101 lim G j H ( j ) 1800 The general shape of the polar plot is shown in Fig. 1 s2 G( j ) 1 j 2 1 G( j ) tan 1 G( j ) 2 2 4 .9: Polar plot of 1 2 j / n j / n for ζ > 0. 6. Figure 6.2: Draw polar plot of G ( s) Solution: First substitute s = j in G(s).9.
2.10: Polar plot of G(s) in Example 6. Example 6.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 102 Figure 6.3: Draw polar plot for the system with G ( s) 10 s( s 1)( s 2) Solution: G( j ) 10 j ( j 1)( j 2) G( j ) 10 ( 1) ( 2 2) 2 G( j ) 90 tan1 2 tan1 .
11: Polar plot for the system in Example 6. we want to know if there are any closedloop poles (zeros of 1+G(s)H(s)) in the righthalf plane. we are not as interested in G(s)H(s) as in the closedloop transfer function G(s)H(s)/[1+G(s)H(s)] If 1+G(s)H(s) encircles the origin. and mapping it through a complex function G(s). N=Z–P Encirclements of the origin are counted as positive if they are in the same direction as the original closed contour or negative if they are in the opposite direction. 6. 103 Figure 6. that the plot of G(s) encircles the origin is equal to the number of zeros. Z. NYQUIST STABILITY TEST – THE CAUCHY CRITERION The Cauchy criterion (from complex analysis) states that when taking a closed contour in the complex plane. Since we are interested in the closedloop stability.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The plot is shown in Fig. When studying feedback control. the number of times. of G(s) enclosed by the frequency contour. N. P. of G(s) enclosed by the frequency contour minus the number of poles. .3. then G(s)H(s) will enclose the point 1.11.
0) “A feedback control system is stable if and only if the number of counterclockwise encirclements of the critical point (1.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 104 The Nyquist Stability Criterion usually written as Z = P + N.s= j • The number of openloop poles in the RH side of the splane. and N is the number of clockwise encirclements of (1.” (Nyquist Stability Criterion Definition) Example: • Consider the unity feedback applied to the following system G(s)=K/[s(s+3)(s+5)] • The loop transfer function is G(j)H(j)=K/[s(s+3)(s+5)]K=1.0) by the GH polar plot is equal to the number of poles of GH with positive real parts. P = __ . where > > > Z is the number of right hand plane poles for the closed loop system (or zeros of 1+G(s)H(s)) P is the number of openloop poles (in the RH side of the splane) of G(s)H(s) (or poles of 1+G(s)H(s)).
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam • • • For stability Z = 0. For marginal stability. K = _____ 105 RELATIVE STABILITY – GAIN AND PHASE MARGIN • • K is a variable (constant) gain G(s) is the plant under consideration Gain margin is defined as the change in open loop gain required to make the system unstable. . Systems with greater gain margins can withstand greater changes in system parameters before becoming unstable in closed loop. therefore N must also be __ From Nyquist diagram it can be seen that K can be increased by ____________ before the Nyquist diagram encircles 1. Phase margin is defined as the change in open loop phase shift required to make a closed loop system unstable.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Stability Analysis with Bode Plot 106 Bode plot is a very useful graphical tool for the analysis and design of linear control systems. The phase margin is the difference in phase between the phase curve and −180° at the point corresponding to the frequency that gives us a gain of 0dB (the gain cross over frequency. ωg). . Advantages of the Bode Plot over Nyquist plot: 1. gain margin. the effects of adding controllers and their parameters are more easily visualized on the Bode plot. Identifying Marginal Values from Bode Plot The gain margin is the difference between the magnitude curve and 0dB at the point corresponding to the frequency that gives us a phase of −180° (the phase cross over frequency. 2. For design purposes. phase crossover. Gain crossover. and phase margin are more easily determined on the Bode plot. ωp).
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 107 Figure 6. . find the GM and PM and corresponding frequencies. Example 6.12: Determination of GM and PM from the Bode plot.4: Consider the loop transfer function given as L( s ) 2500 s( s 5)( s 50) From the provided Bode diagram.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Solution: 108 Figure 6.4. 6. Fig.14 illustrates PM and GM of a stable and unstable system in Bode diagrams.13: Bode diagram for Example 6. .
required at 180° to make the closedloop system unstable. M Gain margin and phase margin . expressed in dB. GM CLOSED LOOP The change in openloop gain. Good range 30 < PM < 60 degrees. A good range is 2<GM<5 (equivalent to 6dB < GM < 14dB).KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 109 Figure 6. related to root locus. The change in the openloop phase shift required at unity gain to make the closedloop unstable.14: Phase and Gain margins for stable and unstable systems. Phase Margin. quantitative measures of stability. Stability Analysis with Nyquist Plot OPEN LOOP Gain Margin. in that systems with poles farther from the imaginary axis have a greater degree of stability. systems with large gain and phase margins can withstand greater changes in system parameter before becoming unstable.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 110 A gain of a will move the system response to the critical point If a phase shift of degrees occurs. then the system will become unstable .
which look at the time domain characteristics of the system response to a step or impulse frequency response methods. . There are two common approaches: transient response methods.0 PID CONTROLLER 111 There are three broad categories of PID tuning techniques: i) Featurebased techniques ii) Techniques that require an analytical model iii) Optimisation (minimisation of an error criterion) But before looking at PID tuning. white noise or one or more sinusoids Stick to transient response models and very simple frequency response for the moment.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam CHAPTER 4. we need to look at modeling of simple process dynamics. which look at the response to an impulse.
5 Amplitude 1. Peak Overshoot 1.1 Transient Response Method of Modelling 112 Step response modeling probably the most common approach.1 0 0 Time Delay Time Settling Time Step Response i) Peak Overshoot (peak .05 1 0.final value)/final value*100% Measure of maximum value of response Indication of the largest error between input and output Increases as damping decreased Well designed systems generally have overshoot less than 30% ii) Rise Time Measure of the speed of response Time necessary for the response to rise from 10% to 90% of its final steady state error iii) Time Delay Time for system to show any response .95 0.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4.9 Unit Step Input 0.5 Rise Time 0.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam iv) Delay Time Time necessary for the step response to reach some value (often 50%) of the steady state value. Often 1%. is used traditionally but is often too high For a second order system given by CL( s ) 2 n 2 s 2 2 n s n G( s) 1 G ( s) 1 1 2s / n ( s / n ) 2 The decay ration is given by d e 2 / 1 2 . 2% or 5% 113 vi) Decay Ratio Defined as the ratio between two consecutive maxima of the error for a step change in the setpoint The value d=1/4. Not to be confused with Dead time = Time Delay v) Settling Time The time taken for the step response to decrease and stay within a specified range of the final value. which is called quarter amplitude damping.
1. .1 Step Response Model 1 – 2 parameter model 114 18 16 G(s) = 14 12 amplitude a sL e Ls 10 8 6 4 2 1 step response for e2s s 2 L 4 6 8 10 12 time 14 16 18 20 a Model of Integrator with time delay (first order response) Response rises linearly over time characterised by two parameters L .essentially the “dead time” a .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4.where a/L is the slope.
gain k.2 Step Response Model 2 – 3 parameter model (first order) 115 T 2 k 1.5 step response for 0 0 1 L Response rises smoothly and is stable: characterised by three parameters. time constant T and time delay L.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4. Most common model for PID tuning 2 2s e 1+s 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 time Problem: Tangent to step response must be drawn at the location of the largest slope Need some alternatives that are more robust .5 amplitude G(s) = k sL e 1+sT 1 0.1.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4.5 step response for 0 0 2 2s e 1+s 7 8 9 10 1 L 2 3 4 5 6 time Response is 63% of final value at t = T 63% =1e1 Still some sensitivity to high frequency noise .1.63k k sL e 1+sT 1 0.3 Step Response Model 3 – Alternative 3 parameter model (first order) 116 T 2 k 1.5 amplitude G(s) = .
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4.1.5 amplitude G(s) = A1 k sL e 1+sT 1 0.4 Step Response Model 4 – Another alternative 3 parameter model (first order) 117 L+T 2 k 1.5 A2 0 0 1 L 3 Parameter Model Alternative: Effective at removing noise Let (L+T) = A1/k Can show that T = (A2/k)e1 2 3 4 5 time 6 7 8 9 10 .
w.5 0 0 2 4 6 2 2 1/2 d = e (1 ) k2 s2 + 2s + 2 8 10 12 time = or 14 16 18 20 or 1 (1 + (2/ log d) ) 2 = Tp(12)1/2 2 1/2 Tp = 2 (12)1/2 Time delay can be added to this model and determined as done previously in the tutorial. .5 d = e2 / e1 amplitude 2 1. z Tp 3.1.5 e1e2=o(1d) 3 2.5 k G(s) = 1 0.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4.need k.5 Step Response Model 5 – Second order response 118 Second order response generally has the following features: Oscillatory 3 parameters .
will be approximately Tu (a little longer in practice. T25%.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4. find controller gain that produces a 1/4 decay ratio (overshoot of one peak is 25% of the peak before it). requiring several trials Process can be detrimental to plant equipment and product quality Can easily mistake other responses for the ultimate gain a. but close enough) .2 Frequency Response Modelling 119 Some tuning formulas are based upon the frequency response of the plant Parameters of interest are the ultimate gain Ku and the ultimate period Tu Find these by first closing the loop and then disabling the integral and derivative parts of the controller (Td=0. and increasing the proportional gain until the system begins to oscillate. small amplitude “limit cycles” due to valve friction or hysteresis b. large amplitude oscillations due to actuator saturation Alternative method for finding ultimate gain and period: for the closedloop system. Gain at this point = Ku and period of oscillation = Tu Controller ysp + Plant G(s) y  K e(s) Problems with looking for ultimate gain in this way Often time consuming in practice. Let this be K25% Ku = 2 K25% Period of oscillation. Ti=very large).
2.1 Nyquist Plot Frequency Reponse Modelling 120 On a Nyquist plot: Look at openloop response static gain Kp = point on plot where w=0 Ku = 1 divided by ultimate point Tu = 2p divided by w at ultimate point ultimate point 1 + Im G(j) =0 Re G(j) .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4.
3 Simple Tuning Law 121 There are several tuning law can be implemented in order to obtain the desired response. This tuning law was developed empirically based on large number of cases. These tuning law are as follows: i) Ziegler – Nichols Step Response Ultimate Gain method Generalised ZN ii) Chien. It can be said as a standard starting point. Hrones and Reswick Method iii) Cohen Coon Method 4. . There are some drawbacks of using this rule mainly because it needs additional manual tuning and not particularly robust.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4.1 Ziegler – Nichols Method ZieglerNichols rule was first presented in 1942.3. Now we will employ this method for both step response and frequency response modeling.
7L 3.1 ZN method for Step Response modeling 122 Uses 2 parameter model “a” and “L” CONTROLLER TYPE P PI PID K 1/a 0.218 L= 0.4L Tp is the estimate of the period of the closed loop system Example: Consider the plant G(s) = (s+1)3 a= 0.9/a 1.1.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4.806 From step response a = _____ L = _____ PID controller .3.2/a Ti Td Tp 4L 3L 2L L/2 5.
Ti = ____ and Td = ____ Overshoot in setpoint response is too large 123 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam K = ____.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4.85Tu Example: Consider the plant G(s) = (s+1)3 . and ultimate period.8Tu 0.4Ku 0.6Ku 0.3.5Ku 0.5Tu 0.125Tu Ti Td Tp Tu 1.1.2 ZN Method for Frequency Response Modelling 124 PID settings based upon ultimate gain.4Tu 0. Ku. and acceptable set point following CONTROLLER TYPE P PI PID K 0. Tu Aims to achieve effective disturbance rejection.
2 The Chien. Hrones and Reswick Method – Improved ZN step response modeling The CHN method is a modified ZN step response rules which can gives better damped closed loop response. The tuning method gives you two options depending on the desired response and they can be either: quickest response without overshoot.3. Ku = _____ Ultimate Period.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam From the Nyquist diagram Ultimate Gain. or quickest response with 20% overshoot . Tu = _____ = _____ PID controller K = ____ Ti = ____ and Td = ____ 125 4.
37)/(10.3 CohenCoon Method Based on plant model G( s) K 0 sL e 1 sT Attempts to position dominant poles that give quarter amplitude decay ratio by employing: Method same as the ZN rules This minimises the SS error due to load disturbances.370.52)/(10.92/(1)] (1.3.35/(1)] (0.7/a 1.95/a Ti Td 126 4L 2.3/a 0. two complex conjugate poles and the third real pole is positioned at the same distance from the origin as the other 2 poles.13/(1)] (1.9/a)*[1+0.6/a 0.24/a)*[1+0.42L Option for 0% overshoot CONTROLLER TYPE P PI PID K 0.4L 0.42L Option for 20% overshoot 4.87)]*L [(0.81)]*L PI PD PID Where a = K0L/T and = L / (L+T) and K0 is the Open Loop DC Gain.270.7/a 0.35/a)*[1+0. . For PID control.33)/(1+1.36) / (10.2)]*L [(0. 3 poles are assigned.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam CONTROLLER TYPE P PI PID K 0. CONTROLLER TYPE P K Ti Td (1/a)*[1+0.39)]*L [(3.18/(1)] [(2.3L 2L 0.2/a Ti Td 2.
5Ku Ti=3L Ti=2L K=0.4Ku Ti=0.6ku Ti=0.5 PID Tuning – A Summary CONTROLLER TYPE P PI PID ZN Step ZN Nyquist 0.125Pu amplitude open loop step response a L time .5Pu Td=0.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 4.4 PID Tuning Rule of Thumb PARAMETER K increases Ti increases Td increases SPEED STABILITY Decreases Increases Increases 127 Increases Decreases Does not really change to much (Increase) 4.2/a Td=L/2 K=0.8Pu K=1/a K=0.9/a K=1.
1 Interpretation of ZN Ultimate Gain Approach The ZN ultimate gain approach can be interpreted as shifting a point in the Nyquist curve. where the Nyquist curve intercepts the real axis. or at 90 degrees to P D moves in direction of jwG(jw).5.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 128 step response with closed loop proportional control with gain Ku amplitude Pu time 4. . or radially out. or at 90 degrees to P ultimate point = 1/Ku 1 + I P D Im G(j) =0 Re G(j) A point on the Nyquist curve can be moved to an arbitrary position using PI. P moves in direction of G(jw). The technique is based around finding the “ultimate point”. I moves in direction of G(jw)/jw. PD or PID control.
The Laplace Transform of the equations: 𝑠𝐗 𝑠 − 𝐱 0 = 𝐀𝐗 𝑠 + 𝐁𝑈(𝑠) 𝑌 𝑠 = 𝐂𝐗 𝑠 + 𝐷𝑈(𝑠) Assuming the initial conditions are zero 𝑠𝐗 𝑠 − 𝐀𝐗 𝑠 = 𝐁𝑈(𝑠) Or 𝑆𝐈 − 𝐀 𝐗 𝑠 = 𝐁𝑈(𝑠) By premultiplying (𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀)−1 to both sides of this equation. we obtain 𝑋 𝑠 = 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 Substitute into output equation. controllability and observability. In this chapter. u is the input and y is the output.0.0 ANALYSIS OF CONTROL SYSTEM STATE SPACE 129 The introduction of the state space representation has been discussed earlier in chapter 2. Consider a transfer function given by: 𝑌(𝑠) = 𝐺(𝑠) 𝑈(𝑠) This system may also be represented in state space as: 𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝑢 𝑦 = 𝐂𝐱 + 𝐷𝑢 Where x is the state vector. 5. 𝑌 𝑠 = 𝐂 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 −1 −1 𝐁𝑈(𝑠) 𝐁 + 𝐷 𝑈(𝑠) . we will cover InsyaAllah the extension of state space representation for example the conversion between the transfer function and state space equation.1 State Space Representation Extended The transfer function of any system can be converted to state space equation and vice versa. Please refer to the chapter for basic overview of state space representation. Also in this chapter we will gonna look at how to solve the time invariant state equation.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam CHAPTER 5.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Comparing with the above equation, we see that 𝐺 𝑠 = 𝐂(𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀)−1 𝐁 + 𝐷 5.1.1 Transfer Matrix
130
For MIMO system that the r inputs 𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , … … . , 𝑢𝑟 and m outputs 𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , … … . , 𝑦𝑚 define as: 𝑦1 𝑦2 𝑦 = . . 𝑦𝑚 𝑢1 𝑢2 𝑢 = . . 𝑢𝑟
The transfer matrix G(s) relates the output Y(s) to the input U(s), or 𝐘 𝑠 = 𝐆 𝑠 𝐔(𝑠) Since the input vector u is r dimensional and the ouput vector y is m dimensional, the transfer matrix is an m x r matrix.
5.2
Converting State Space to transfer function
A modern complex system may have many inputs and outputs. Let say we have a state space representations of the following: 𝑦
𝑛 + 𝑎1 𝑦 𝑛−1 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑦 + 𝑎𝑛 𝑦 = 𝑏0 𝑢𝑛 + 𝑏1 𝑢𝑛−1 + ⋯ + 𝑏𝑛−1 𝑢 + 𝑏𝑛 𝑢 Controllable canonical form 𝑥1 0 𝑥2 0 . . = . . 𝑥𝑛−1 0 −𝑎𝑛 𝑥𝑛 1 0 . . 0 −𝑎𝑛−1 0 1 . . 0 −𝑎𝑛−2 … 0 … 0 … . … . … 1 … −𝑎1 𝑥1 0 𝑥2 0 . . . + . 𝑢 𝑥𝑛−1 0 𝑥𝑛 1 𝑥1 𝑥2 . . + 𝑏0 𝑢 𝑥𝑛−1 𝑥𝑛 𝑦
= 𝑏𝑛 − 𝑎1 𝑏0 𝑏𝑛
−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑏0
… . 𝑏1 − 𝑎1 𝑏0
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam
131
Observable canonical form 𝑥1 0 𝑥2 1 . . = . . 𝑥𝑛−1 0 0 𝑥𝑛 0 0 . . 0 0 … … … … … … 0 0 . . 0 1 −𝑎𝑛 −𝑎𝑛−1 −𝑎𝑛−2 . . −𝑎1 𝑥1 𝑏𝑛 − 𝑎1 𝑏0 𝑥2 𝑏𝑛−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑏0 . . 𝑢 . + . 𝑥𝑛−1 . 𝑥𝑛 𝑏1 − 𝑎1 𝑏0 𝑦
= 0 0 … 0 1 𝑥
1 𝑥2 . . + 𝑏0 𝑢 𝑥𝑛−1 𝑥𝑛
Diagonal Canonical Form
Consider the transfer function system defined by equation below. In this case the denominator polynomial involves only distinct roots only. 𝑌
(𝑠) 𝑏0 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝑏1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + ⋯ + 𝑏𝑛−1 𝑠 + 𝑏𝑛 = 𝑈(𝑠) 𝑠 + 𝑝1 𝑠 + 𝑝2 … (𝑠 + 𝑝𝑛 )
1 2 𝑛 = 𝑏0 + 𝑠+𝑝 + 𝑠+𝑝 + ⋯ + 𝑠+𝑝 1 2
𝑐
𝑐
𝑐
𝑛
𝑥
1 −𝑝1 𝑥2 0 . . = . . 𝑥𝑛−1 0 0 𝑥𝑛
0 −𝑝2 . . 0 0
… … … … … …
0 0 0 0 . . . . 0 . 0 −𝑝𝑛 𝑥
1 1 𝑥2 1 . . . + . 𝑢 𝑥𝑛−1 . 𝑥𝑛 1 𝑦
= 𝑐1 𝑐
2
… 𝑐𝑛−1 𝑐𝑛 𝑥
1 𝑥2 . . + 𝑏0 𝑢 𝑥𝑛−1 𝑥𝑛
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Jordan Canonical Form
132
Consider the case where the denominator polynomial involves multiple roots. 𝑌(𝑢) 𝑏0 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝑏1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + ⋯ + 𝑏𝑛−1 𝑠 + 𝑏𝑛 = 𝑈(𝑠) 𝑠 + 𝑝1 3 𝑠 + 𝑝4 𝑠 + 𝑝5 … (𝑠 + 𝑝𝑛 ) The partial fraction expansion becomes 𝑌(𝑠) 𝑐1 𝑐2 𝑐3 𝑐4 𝑐𝑛 = 𝑏0 + + + + + ⋯+ 𝑈(𝑠) (𝑠 + 𝑝1 )3 (𝑠 + 𝑝1 )2 (𝑠 + 𝑝1 ) (𝑠 + 𝑝4 ) (𝑠 + 𝑝𝑛 ) A state space representation of this system in the Jordan canonical form is given by: −𝑝1 𝑥1 0 𝑥2 0 𝑥3 0 𝑥4 = . . . . . . 𝑥𝑛 0 1 −𝑝1 0 0 0 1 −𝑝1 0 0 0 0 −𝑝4 . . . 0 … … … … 0 0 0 0 . . . −𝑝𝑛 𝑥1 0 𝑥2 0 𝑥3 1 𝑥4 1 . + . 𝑢 . . . . 𝑥𝑛 1
0
0
… 𝑦
= 𝑐1 𝑐
2
… 𝑐𝑛−1 𝑐𝑛 𝑥
1 𝑥2 ⋮ +𝑏0 𝑢 𝑥𝑛−1 𝑥𝑛
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam LECTURER’S NOTE 133 .
B) is said to be (statefeedback) stabilizable if there exists a state feedback u=Kx such that A+BK is stable. part of the system is unconnected from input. 𝐂𝐨 = 𝐁 𝐀𝐁 𝐀𝟐 𝐁 … 𝐀𝐧−𝟏 𝐁 i.3 Controllability and Observability 134 5. In order to test the controllability of a LTI system. Additional tests are to show that the controllability Gramian P is positive definite.e the controllability matrix must be invertible. A system is controllable if it is possible to transfer any state with any set of initial conditions to any final state in some finite time period. This might mean that there are some stable uncontrollable states. Strictly speaking the dynamical system described by the pair (A. Note the difference between rank and determinant. ∞ 𝐏 ≡ 0 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 𝐁𝐁𝑇 𝑒 𝐀 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑇 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 5.1 Controllability Controllability is a test of the ability of the actuators. Alternatively. A system is referred to as “stabilizable” so long as we can state control all unstable modes. a system is only controllable if every mode (or state) is connected to the control input.3. Alternatively. where P may be found by the solution to the Lyapunov equation: 𝐀𝐏 + 𝐏𝐀𝐓 = −𝐁𝐁𝐓 . The Controllability matrix. Often in uncontrollable systems. the “Controllability Matrix” must be of full rank.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 1: 135 Investigate the controllability of: 𝐀 = −1 0 1 . Example 2: Investigate the controllability of: 𝐀 = −1 0 1 . 𝐂𝟎 = −1 ≠ 0 1 2 −1 −3 The rank of this matrix is 2. 𝐁 = 1 −2 2 Finding the Controllability Matrix. 𝐂0= 𝐁 𝐀𝐁 𝐂0= Look at the determinant. hence the system is controllable. 𝐁 = 0 −1 3 Example 3: Investigate the controllability of: 𝑌(𝑠) 1 = 𝑇 𝑠 = 3 2 + 𝑎 𝑠 + 𝑎 𝑈(𝑠) 𝑆 + 𝑎2 𝑠 1 0 .
In order to test the observability of an LTI system. Strictly speaking the pair (C. This may mean the system has unobservable states which are stable. 𝐂 = 1 0 and 𝐂 = 0 1 1 −2 Finding the observability matrix. the “Observability Matrix” must be of full rank. ⋮ 𝐂𝐀𝐧−𝟏 Additional tests are to show that the controllability Gramian Q is positive definite.3. ∞ 𝐐 ≡ 0 𝑒 𝐀 𝑡 𝐂 𝑇 𝐂𝑒 𝐀𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑇 Example 1: Investigate the observability of: 𝐀 = −1 0 .2 Observability 136 Observability is a test of the ability of the sensors. where Q may be found by the solution to the Lyapunov equation: 𝐀𝐓 𝐐 + 𝐐𝐀 = −𝐂 𝐓 𝐂.A) is said to be detectable if there exists a matrix L such that A+LC is stable. A system is observable if every initial state x(0) can be determined by observing the system output over some finite time period.e the observability matrix must be invertible. Alternatively. A system is referred to as “detectable” if all unstable modes are state observable.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 5. 𝐎𝐛 = 𝐂𝐀𝟐 i. The 𝐂 𝐂𝐀 observability matrix. 𝐂 = 1 0 𝐂𝐀 = −1 0 𝐎𝐛 = 1 0 −1 0 .
What about the other case? Example 2: Investigate the observability of: 𝐀 = −1 0 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Look at the determinant. hence the system is non observable. 𝐂𝟎 = 0 137 The rank of this matrix is 1. 𝐂 = 1 3 1 −1 Example 3: Investigate the observability of: 𝑌(𝑠) 1 = 𝑇 𝑠 = 3 2 + 𝑎 𝑠 + 𝑎 𝑈(𝑠) 𝑆 + 𝑎2 𝑠 1 0 .
Hence there are two common ways of expressing it: 1. 𝑥1 0 1 𝑥1 = 𝑥2 −2 −3 𝑥2 Obtain also the inverse of the state transition matrix.4 Solving the time invariant State equation 138 The homogeneous State Equations is 𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 which gives: 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 𝑥(0) Matrix 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 is a matrix exponential. Inversion: 𝜙 𝑡 = 𝐿−1 Φ 𝑠 = 𝐿−1 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 −1 𝐴2 𝑡 2 𝐴𝑘 𝑡 𝑘 + ⋯+ 2! 𝑘! The forced response (inhomogeneous solution) is given by (assuming 𝑡0 = 0): 𝑡 𝒙 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 𝐱 0 + 0 𝑒 𝐀 𝑡−𝜏 𝐁𝐮 𝜏 𝑑𝜏 The output is therefore given by: 𝐲 𝑡 = 𝐂𝐱 𝑡 + 𝐃𝐮(𝑡) Example 1: Obtain the state transition matrix Φ(𝑡) of the following system. Expansion: 𝜙 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐴𝑡 = 𝐼 + 𝐴𝑡 + 2. This matrix is also known as the state transition matrix. The state transition matrix is difficult to calculate.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 5. Φ−1 𝑡 For this sytem 𝐴 = The state transition matrix is given by 0 1 −2 −3 . It is sometimes labeled as 𝜙 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 .
Determine the condition for the system to be controllable If y is a single output displacement. ii. . establish the conditions which must be avoided if the system is to remain observable. determine i.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Φ 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 = 𝐿−1 [ 𝐬𝐼 − 𝐀 Since 𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 = 𝑠 0 𝑠 −1 0 0 1 − = −2 𝑠 + 3 𝑠 −2 −3 (sI − A)−1 = 1 s+3 s + 1 (s + 2) −2 1 𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 2) 𝑠 𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 2) −1 s −1 139 ] 𝑠 + 3 𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 2) −2 𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 2) Hence Φ 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝐀𝑡 = 𝐋−1 𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 Noting that Φ−1 𝑡 = Φ(𝑡) −1 = 2𝑒 −𝑡 − 𝑒 −2𝑡 −2𝑒 −𝑡 + 2𝑒 −2𝑡 𝑒 −𝑡 − 𝑒 −2𝑡 −𝑒 −𝑡 + 2𝑒 −2𝑡 Φ−1 𝑡 = 𝑒 −𝐀𝑡 = Example 2: EM/APR 2008/KJM597/MEC522 2𝑒 −𝑡 − 𝑒 −2𝑡 −2𝑒 −𝑡 + 2𝑒 −2𝑡 𝑒 −𝑡 − 𝑒 −2𝑡 −𝑒 −𝑡 + 2𝑒 −2𝑡 a) An electrohydraulic car suspension system can be modeled by the following state matrix equation 𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑘 − 1 𝑥1 𝑥 𝑘 = + 1 𝑢 1 𝑥2 𝑥2 0 − 𝑘 𝑥1 𝑦 = 𝑐1 𝑐2 𝑥 2 −1 Where 𝑥1 and 𝑥2 are suspension displacements. ii. u is an electrical actuating signal and k is the suspension stiffness. iii. 𝑐1 =1 and 𝑐2 =0. b) If the values of k=2N/m. i. (given as 𝑐1 𝑐2 where 𝑐1 and 𝑐2 are constants). The eigenvalue of the system The state transition matrix The variation of x(t) response to a step change in u(t) at time t=0 from u=0 to u=1N for initial conditions 𝑥1 (𝑡) and 𝑥2 (𝑡) equal to zero.
determine the absolute and relative stability of the system. which represents a typical position control system. the root loci when a certain system parameter varies. The transientresponse specifications can be translated into desired locations for dominant closedloop poles.0 CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN 140 We have discussed so far the importance of the closedloop system poles on the dynamic performance of the system. Therefore. The plant consists of a servomotor and load. 6. The roots of the characteristic equation.1) . Evans (1948). The openloop transfer function of the system is G( s) K s( s 2) (6. In this chapter. we will discuss the construction of root loci using simple rules. driven by power amplifier with gain K. The basics of root loci should be thoroughly understood so that the engineers may be able to interpret the data provided by root loci for system analysis and design. an important study in linear control systems is the investigation of the trajectories of the roots of the characteristic equation. The basic properties and construction of root loci are first due to W. one can always use standard computer program packages like MATLAB. For plotting the root loci accurately. 6.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam CHAPTER 6.1 Root locus technique Consider the secondorder system shown in Fig.R. or simply. which are the poles of the closedloop system.1.
2: Root locus for Eq. are at s = 0 and s = 2. (6.1: A position control system Figure 6.2) . The closedloop transfer function of the system is Y ( s) G( s) K 2 R( s ) 1 G ( s ) s 2 s K (6.2.3) The openloop poles. marked in Fig. 5.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 141 Figure 6.
6. the roots are real and distinct and the system is overdamped. the root s1 is equal to the openloop pole at s = 0.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The characteristic equation is 142 ( s ) s 2 2 s K 0 (6. 6. 6. (6. Thus. Each root locus starts at an openloop pole with K = 0 and terminates at infinity as K . . the roots move toward each other. the closedloop poles move in the splane as shown in Fig. As K is increased further. the roots move along the line = −1.2: For 0 < K < 1. At K = 0. As K increases. become complex conjugate. 2 1 1 K and hence on the choice of the parameter K. and root s2 is equal to the openloop pole at s = −2.4) As K is varied from zero to infinity. The two branches ACE and BCD of the plot of Fig. The root locus plot gives us considerable information about the transient behavior of the system as gain K is varied. Each root locus gives one characteristic root (closedloop pole) for a specific value of K. the roots are real and repeated. A root locus of a system is a plot of the roots of the system characteristic equation (poles of the closedloop transfer function) as some parameters of the system are varied. the system is critically damped. The two roots meet at s = −1 for K = 1. the roots are complex conjugate and the system is underdamped with the value of decreasing as K increases. For K > 1.3) This second order system is always stable for positive values of K.1. the roots breakaway from the real axis. From Fig. For K = 1.2 are thus two root loci of the system of Fig. and since the real part of both roots remains fixed at s = −1. 6. The relative stability of the system depends upon the location of the closedloop poles s1.2.
1. G(s)H(s) = 1/K (6. we can cause a characteristic root at any point on root locus. 143 6. 5. For example.2 correspond to = 0.7) .3: Typical control system Consider the control system shown in Fig.6) (6.3. The roots of the characteristics equation must satisfy the expression 1 + KG(s)H(s) = 0 or.5) Let K be a positive quantity. 6. the dashed lines in Fig.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Thus.1 Basic properties of root loci KG(s) Figure 6. by choosing appropriate value of K. The points where the root loci cross the dashed lines have been marked These points corresponds to the closed loop poles for K = 2.707. The closedloop transfer function is Y ( s) KG ( s) R( s) 1 KG ( s) H ( s) (6. .
the values of K on the loci are determined by using the magnitude condition.10) The magnitude condition becomes G(s) H (s) s z i m s p j j 1 i 1 n 1 K (6. 2.9) (6. ±1.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Thus. 1.8) 144 The angle condition is used to determine the trajectory of the loci in the splane. if it satisfies the following conditions (K > 0): Magnitude condition: G(s)H(s) = 1/K Angle condition: G(s)H(s) = (2q+1) = (2q+1) 180o where q = 0. ±2. Once the root loci are drawn. … i 1 j 1 m n (6. Graphical Interpretation Let KG ( s) H ( s) K ( s z1 )(s z2 ) ( s zm ) ( s p1 )(s p2 ) ( s pn ) (6.11) The angle condition becomes G( s) H ( s) ( s zi ) ( s p j ) (2q 1)180o where q = 0.12) . … (6. any point s is a closedloop pole or a root of the characteristic equation.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 145 Figure 6.4: Zero (z1) and pole (p1) on a complex plane In Fig 6. Thus. Find the magnitude of K on the root loci.4. A and B are magnitudes of vectors (s+z1) and (s+p1) and 2 and 1 are angles of (s+z1) and (s+p1). A search for all the points in the splane. let us assume a complex pole and real zero: s+p1 and s+z1 represent the respective vectors in the complex plane. the construction of root loci involves: 1. Once the root loci are constructed. The graphical interpretation is: The difference between the sums of the angles of the vectors drawn from the zeros and those from the poles of G(s)H(s) to s is an odd multiple of 180. the values of K along the loci can be determined. 2. respectively. .
the root locus for a given F(s) can be sketched by measuring F(s) at all the points of the complex plane and marking down those places where we find F(s) equal to an odd multiple of 1800.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 6. The value of the parameter K corresponding to a point on the root locus can be obtained from the magnitude criterion G( s) H ( s) s z i m s p j j 1 i 1 n 1 K In principle. 2. Every point s = + j in the complex plane that satisfies the angle criterion G( s) H ( s) ( s zi ) ( s p j ) (2q 1)180o . 1. Further. the effects of shifting of polezero locations and of bringing a new set of poles and zeros. However.13) where G ( s) H ( s) s z i m s p j j 1 i 1 n . i 1 j 1 m n is on the root locus. q = 0. mn (6.2 Properties and construction of root loci 146 The purpose of root locus is to show in graphical form the general trend of the roots of the characteristic equation (s) = 1+KG(s)H(s) = 1+F(s) = 0 (6.1. This approximate sketch provides a guide for the selection of trial points such that a more accurate root locus can be obtained by a few trials. this trialanderror method would be a very tedious task.14) as the parameter K is varied from zero to infinity. the approximate root locus sketch is very useful in visualizing the effects of variation of the parameter K. certain rules have been developed for making a quick approximate sketch of the root locus. . Therefore. ….
.15). (6.. When K = 0. The characteristic equation can be written as: ( s) ( s p j ) K ( s zi ) 0 j 1 i 1 n m (6. Thus. respectively. for each real K. Refer to Eq. m root loci end on the openloop zeros. Therefore. Rule 1: Number of Root Loci (Branches) The root locus plot consists of n root loci (branches) as K varies from 0 to .15) This equation has degree n. (6.14)) where m n. the equation has roots at –zi (i = 1. The number of root loci ending at equals the number of openloop poles minus zeros. (6. the n roots form n continuous loci as K varies from 0 to . which are openloop poles. F(s) has m zeros at s = zi and n poles at s = pj (refer to Eq. Since the complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs. . Eq. Rule 2: Starting and Ending Points of Root Loci As K increases from 0 to . the root loci start at openloop poles. each root locus starts from an openloop pole with K = 0 and ends on an openloop zero or on with K = .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Rules for Construction of Root Loci 147 The root locus for a given F(s) is to be sketched. there are n roots. These m zeros and n poles of F(s) are referred to as openloop zeros and openloop poles. n). the equation has roots at pj (j = 1. Thus. m). The loci are symmetric with respect to the real axis. the root loci must be symmetrical about the real axis.15) can be rearranged as m 1 n ( s p j ) ( s zi ) 0 K j 1 i 1 When K = . which are openloop zeros. As the roots are continuous function of the coefficients of equation.
as shown in Fig..m) root loci end on infinity. 6.5.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam In case m < n. Rule 3: Asymptotes to Root Loci (Behavior at Infinity) The (n − m) root loci which tend to do so along straight line asymptotes radiating out from a single point s= −a on the real axis (called the centroid) where a (real part of open loop poles ) (real part of open loop zeros) nm These (n − m) asymptotes have angles a (2q 1)1800 nm . the poles and zeros can be considered to cluster at the same point. Thus. 6. .1.m) poles are left at a. Eq. For a point far away from the origin.15) can be approximated as 1 K s zi m s p j j 1 i 1 n 1 K (s a ) nm 0 (6. the openloop transfer function has (n . we find that this is satisfied by s ej as K K . and only (n . Thus. (n . q 0.5.16) This means that all m zeros are cancelled by poles. (6. (n m 1) This rule will be justified by referring to a polezero patterns shown in Fig. From the magnitude criterion.m) zeros at infinity. 148 s z i m s p j j 1 i 1 n 1 . say −a.
q 0.5: Asymptotes to root loci From Eq. we get a Moreover. (n m 1) .16)..18) (n m) (2q 1)1800 . by comparison of coefficients. q 0.17) By simplifying this.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 149 Figure 6. s p n j s z i i 1 j 1 m (s a ) nm (6. for the point s0 to be on the root locus. we get. m n s nm p j zi s nm1 s nm n m a s nm1 i 1 j 1 Thus.1. Thus. ( p j ) ( zi ) j 1 i 1 n m nm (6. (2q 1)1800 a nm .1. (6.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The (n .6: Asymptotes for Eq. 150 Example 6. 6. Fig.1: The polezero map of Fig.19) . The (n .6 shows the asymptotes. each starting from an openloop pole with K = 0. and 3000. 6. One root locus will terminate on openloop zero with K = . Figure 6.m) root loci tend to along (n .5 corresponds to F(s) K(s 2 ) (s 1 j 4 )(s 1 j 4 )(s 3 )(s 4 ) (6. The other three loci will terminate on as K along the asymptotes radiating out from s = a where a 1 1 3 4 (2) 7 4 1 3 at angles 600.19) The root loci has four branches.m) asymptotes radiating out from s = a at angles a. (5. 1800. respectively.m) angles given by the above equation divide 3600 equally and are symmetric with respect to real axis.
… where mr = number of openloop zeros on the real axis to the right of s0 and nr = number of openloop poles on the real axis to the right of s0. Thus. The onlocus segments of the real axis alternate as shown in Fig. Join this point to all the openloop poles and zeros. and (iii) the net angle contribution of a complex conjugate pole or zero pair is always zero. Take a point s0 on the real axis. F(s)=(mr – nr)1800 = (2q+1) 1800 . (ii) poles and zeros to the left of this point contribute angle of 00 each. the openloop polezeros are shown in Fig. 2. 1. Figure 6.7(a). It is seen that (i) poles and zeros on the real axis to the right of this point contribute an angle of 1800 each. the dividing points being the real openloop poles and zeros.7(b). the angle criterion is satisfied if (nr – mr) or (nr + mr) is odd and hence the rule.7: Onlocus segments of the real axis . q = 0.19). the real axis can be divided into segments onlocus and notonlocus. 6. (6.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Rule 4: OnLocus Segments on the Real Axis A point on the real axis lies on the locus if the number of openloop poles plus zeros on the real axis to the right of this point is odd. Thus. Thus. 151 For the system of Eq. 6.
the roots of the above equation lie on the j axis and are given by s = j5. This signifies instability.4. Thus. Thus. The Routh Table determines the gains at the stability limit. . 18368 – 61K – K2 > 0. and 204 + 2K > 0. the auxiliary equation is formed from the coefficients of s2 row and is given by 244 K 2 s (204 2 K ) 0 9 For K = 108. 152 Segments of root loci can exist in the right half of splane. It can be seen that these conditions are satisfied if K < 108. The points at which the root loci cross the imaginary axis define the stability limits. all the coefficients in s1 row are zero.28. the value s = j0 at the stability limit is computed. Example 6. (5. s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 9 (244 – K)/9 (18368 – 61K – K2)/(244 – K) 204+2K 43 143+K 204+2K 204+2K For stability.20) The corresponding Routh Table is shown below. 244 – K > 0.2: The characteristic equation of system in Eq.4. the root loci intersect the imaginary axis at s = j5.28 and the corresponding value of K is 108.4. For K = 108. By using this gain in the auxiliary equation.19) is s 4 9s3 43s 2 (143 K )s 204 2K 0 (6.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Rule 5: OnLocus Points of the Imaginary Axis The intersections (if any) of root loci with the imaginary axis can be determined by use of the Routh criterion.4.
So. p = 1800 +. The net angle contribution of all other openloop poles and zeros at s0 is 2 (1 3 4 ) Thus. p.p.19). the total phase must be 1800.3: For the system of Eq. . of a locus from a complex openloop pole is given by p = 1800+ where is the net angle contribution at this pole of all other openloop poles and zeros. the characteristic equation is 1 F(s) 1 K(s 2 ) 0 (s 1 j 4 )(s 1 j 4 )(s 3 )(s 4 ) (6. 153 Example 6.8: Angle of departure from complex poles Let s0 be an arbitrary point on the root locus starting from s = 1+j4. 6.8. The phase from this pole to s0 is p. (6. the total phase of F(s) at s0 is .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Rule 6: Angle of Departure from Complex Poles The angle of departure. This is the angle of departure from the complex openloop pole. Figure 6. For s0 to be on the root locus.21) The pole zeromap is shown in Fig.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam If s0 is very close to the pole 1+j4, then the vectors drawn from all other poles and zeros to s0 can be approximated by the vector drawn to the pole at 1+j4, i.e., we consider s0 to be 1+j4 for measurement of angles 1, 2, 3, and 4. With this approximation, for this example, 1 = 900, 2 = 760, 3 = 630, and 4 = 530. So, 2 (1 3 4 ) 1300 and p = 1800 + = 500. A rough sketch of the root locus for this system is shown in Fig. 5.9.
154
Figure 6.9: Root locus plot for Eq. (6.21)
There are four openloop poles, so there are four loci. One locus departs from real pole at –3 and ends on the zero at –2 along the real axis. The second locus departs from real pole at –4 and moves along the asymptote on the negative real axis. The third locus departs from the complex pole at –1+j4 with a departure angle of p = 500 and moves toward the asymptote radiating from the centroid at –7/3 at an angle of +600; it crosses the imaginary axis at j5.28. Using the symmetry property, the fourth locus is obtained immediately by reflection about the real axis.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Rule 7: Angle of Arrival at Complex Zeros The angle of arrival, z , of a locus at a complex zero is given by z = 1800 – , where is the net angle contribution at this zero of all other openloop poles and zeros.
155
Example 6.4: Let us consider the characteristic equation
1 F ( s) 1
K ( s 2 1) 0 s( s 2)
(6.22)
The polezero map of this F(s) is shown in Fig. 6.10. Open loop poles: s = 0, –2. Openloop zeros: s = j1. Let s0 be an arbitrary point on the root locus terminating on the zero at s = j1. Let the phase from this zero to s0 = z. If the point s0 is very close to the zero at j1, then the vectors drawn from the other zero at –j1 and poles at 0 and –2 to s0 can be approximated by vectors to the zero at j1. Under this approximation, the net angle contribution at s0 is given by
= 900 – 900 – 26.50 = – 26.50.
For s0 to be on the root locus, the total phase must be 1800. Thus, z = 1800 – = 206.50. The complete root locus plot is shown in Fig. 6.10.
Figure 6.10: Angle of arrival at complex zero
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Rule 8: Location of Multiple Roots Points at which multiple roots of the characteristic equation occur (breakaway points of root loci) are the solutions of
156
dK 0 ds
where
(6.23)
K
s p
n j
s z
i i 1
j 1 m
(6.24)
Let us assume that the characteristic equation has a multiple root at s = s0 of multiplicity r. Then,
1 F (s) (s s0 )r M (s)
,r2
(6.25)
where M(s) does not contain the factor (s  s0). Thus, by differentiating Eq. (6.25), we have
dF ( s s0 )r 1 rM ( s) ( s s0 ) M ' ( s) ds
At s = s0, the RHS of Eq. (6.26) is zero. Thus, at s = s0,
(5.26)
dF 0 ds
In polezero form, the characteristic equation is:
m
1 F (s) 1
K s zi
s p
j j 1
i 1 n
1
KB( s) 0 A( s)
(6.27)
Thus,
dF A( s) B( s) A( s) B( s) K 0 ds A(s)2
(6.28)
Therefore, the breakaway points are the roots of
A(s) B ' (s) A' (s) B(s) 0
(6.29)
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam This equation can be equivalently represented as
157
dK A(s) 0 , where K ds B(s)
s p
n j
s z
i i 1
j 1 m
(6.30)
Example 6.5: Consider the characteristic equation
1
K ( s 2)(s 3) KB( s) 1 0 s( s 1) A( s)
(6.31)
Fig. 6.11 shows the openloop poles and zeros on the complex plane. Root loci segments exist on the negative real axis between 0 and –1 and between –2 and –3. At K = 0, the roots are at s = 0 and s = –1. As K increases, the two roots move away from poles at 0 and –1 toward each other inside the segment [1,0]. At some K, the two real roots will become repeated real roots and then break away from the real axis into two complex conjugate roots. Such a point is called a breakaway point.
Figure 6.11: Root locus plot for Eq. (6.31) Similarly as K approaches , one root will approach zero at s = –2 along the negative real axis and another will approach zero at s = –3. As the root loci are continuous, the two complex conjugate roots will approach the real axis somewhere inside the segment [–3, –2] and then depart in opposite directions along the real axis. This point is also another breakaway point. Sometimes, such a point is also called as breakin point.
Applying Eq. (6.30) to this case, we get the solutions of dK/ds = 0 as s = –0.634 and s = –2.366. Thus, the root locus has two breakaway points.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam
158
It is important to note that the condition for the breakaway point (as derived above) is necessary but not sufficient. In other words, all breakaway points on root locus must satisfy Eq. (6.30), but not all points that satisfy Eq. (6.30) are breakaway points.
SUMMARY OF RULES FOR ROOT LOCUS PLOTTING
The characteristic equation of the system is
1 KG ( s ) H ( s) 1 F ( s ) 1 ; mn ; K 0
K s zi
m
s p
j j 1
i 1 n
0
1. The root locus plot consists of n root loci (branches) as K varies from 0 to . The loci are symmetric with respect to real axis. 2. As K increases from 0 to , each root locus starts from an openloop pole with K = 0 and ends on an openloop zero or on with K = . The number of root loci ending at equals the number of openloop poles minus zeros. 3. The (n  m) root loci which tend to do so along straight line asymptotes radiating out from a single point s= a on the real axis (called the centroid) where
a
(real part of open loop poles ) (real part of open loop zeros)
nm
(2q 1)1800 nm
These (n  m) asymptotes have angles
a
; q 0,1,, (n m 1)
4. A point on the real axis lies on the locus if the number of openloop poles plus zeros on the real axis to the right of this point is odd. By use of this fact, the real axis can be divided into segments onlocus and notonlocus; the dividing points being the real openloop poles and zeros. 5. The intersections (if any) of root loci with the imaginary axis can be determined by use of Routh criterion. 6. The angle of departure p of a locus from a complex openloop pole is given by p = 1800 + , where
is the net angle contribution at this pole of all other openloop poles and zeros.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 7. The angle of arrival z of a locus at a complex zero is given by z = 1800  , where is the net angle contribution at this zero of all other openloop poles and zeros. 8. Points at which multiple roots of the characteristic equation occur (breakaway points of root loci)
159
dK are the solutions of 0 ds
6.1.3 A complete example
where
K
s p
n j
s z
i i 1
j 1 m
Question: Consider a feedback system with the characteristic equation
1
Plot the root locus for this system.
K 0 ; K 0 s( s 1)(s 2)
(6.32)
Solution: The openloop poles are located at s = 0, −1, −2. There are no finite openloop zeros. The polezero configuration is shown in Fig. 5.12. Rule 1 tells that the root locus plot consists of three root loci as K varies from 0 to . Rule 2 tells that the three root loci originate from the three open loop poles with K = 0 and terminate on with K = . Rule 3 tells that the three root loci tend to along asymptotes radiating out from
s a
with angles
(real parts of
poles ) (real parts of zeros) number of poles number of zeros
2 1 1 30
(2q 1)1800 a ; q 0,1,2, number of poles number of zeros (2q 1)1800 ; q 0,1,2 3 600 ,1800 , 3000
(6. Rule 5 is used to calculate the intersection points on the imaginary axis by Routh Table.12: Root locus plot for Eq. The other two loci originate from s = 0 and s = −1. As K increases further. Their meeting point corresponds to a double root. 6. the root loci breakaway from the real axis to give complex conjugate pair of roots. and move on the real axis towards each other as K increases. and between –2 and  lie on the root locus. 160 Figure 6. one is a realroot locus originating from s = −2 and terminating on −. From Fig.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The asymptotes are shown by dotted lines. The characteristic equation can be written as s3 3s 2 2s K 0 The Routh Table is given below.32) Rule 4 tells that the segments of real axis between 0 and –1. s3 s2 s 1 1 3 (6K)/3 K 2 K s0 . Onlocus segments are shown by thick lines in the Figure.12. it is seen that out of the three loci.
The auxiliary equation is formed from the coefficients of the s2 row as: 3s 2 K 3s 2 6 0 The roots of this equation lie on the j axis and are given by s j 2 which are also the points where the two root loci intersect the imaginary axis and the intersection points correspond to K = 6.e. The complete root loci are shown in Fig. 6.5774 is not on the root locus. the corresponding K can be found. From the magnitude criterion.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 161 For all roots to lie on the left half of the splane. Rule 6 and Rule 7 are not necessary in this case since there are no openloop complex poles or zeros. then their tangents will be 3600/r apart. it is not a breakaway point. the following conditions must be satisfied. In general. the points of intersection are s = −0. Thus. dK (3s 2 6s 2) 0 ds The solutions of this equation are: s = −0.12. From Fig. if r loci breakaway from a breakaway point. If two loci breakaway from a breakaway point. the system has two closedloop poles in the right half splane. A closedloop pole with = 0. Rule 8 is used to determine the breakaway points..5 lies on a line passing through the origin and making an angle cos1 = 600 with the negative real axis. and (6 − K)/3 > 0 Therefore. which corresponds to the roots on the imaginary axis.4226 and s = −1. is 6. K s s 1 s 2 s 0. by differentiating K and equate it to zero. From the characteristic equation of the system.4226 is the breakaway point and. since the other point s = −1. K = −(s3 + 3s2 + 2s).58 1. 6. their tangents will be 1800 apart. For K > 6. K > 0. K = 6 makes all the coefficients on s1 row to be zero.33 j 0. i. s = −0.04 .58 which are the dominant closedloop poles.5774 Thus.12. the tangents will equally divide 3600. the critical value of K.33 j0.
3000 Rule 4 tells that the segments of real axis between 0 and – lie on the root locus. Rule 2 tells that the three root loci originate from the three open loop poles with K = 0 and terminate on with K = .1.1. Rule 3 tells that the three root loci tend to along asymptotes radiating out from s a with angles (real parts of number of poles number of zeros poles ) (real parts of zeros) 22 4 / 3 30 (2q 1)1800 a . q 0.2 3 600 . number of poles number of zeros (2q 1)1800 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Additional Example 162 Question: Sketch the root lo cus of a unity feedback system with forward path transfer function G(s) given as follows: G(s) K s(s 4s 5 ) 2 Solution: The openloop poles are located at s = 0. q 0. The characteristic equation can be written as s 3 4s 2 5s K 0 .2. −2+j. Rule 1 tells that the root locus plot consists of three root loci as K varies from 0 to .1800 . Rule 5 is used to calculate the intersection points on the imaginary axis by Routh Table. There are no finite openloop zeros. −2−j.
s3 s2 s1 s 0 163 1 4 (20K)/4 K 5 K For all roots to lie on the left half of the splane. φ 153. the following conditions must be satisfied. is 20. Thus. K = −(s3 + 4s2 + 5s). both are valid breakaway or breakin points.430 For pole −2−j. K = 20 makes all the coefficients on s1 row to be zero. and (20−K)/4 > 0 Therefore.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The Routh Table is given below. The auxiliary equation is formed from the coefficients of the s2 row as: 4s 2 K 4s 2 20 0 The roots of this equation lie on the j axis and are given by s j 5 which are also the points where the two root loci intersect the imaginary axis and the intersection points correspond to K = 20. which corresponds to the roots on the imaginary axis. by differentiating K and equate it to zero. the critical value of K.852 . K > 0.430 Rule 8 is used to determine the breakaway points. For pole −2+j. K s 1.43 90 and p = 1800 + = 63.667 1. p = 63. dK ( 3s 2 8s 5 ) 0 ds The solutions of this equation are: s = −1 and s = −1. K s 1 2 .667 Since the complete negative real axis is on the root loci. Rule 6 tells the angle of departure for complex poles. From the characteristic equation of the system.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 164 .
The loop transfer function G(s)H(s) becomes. with b = 3. 6. Let us introduce a pole at s = −b (b > 2).13(a): Root loci for K s ( s 2) . The addition of a pole may make the system unstable if K exceeds the stability limit.13(a). Addition of Poles to G(s)H(s) Adding a pole to G(s)H(s) has the effect of pushing the root loci toward the righthalf splane. respectively.6: Consider the loop transfer function KG ( s) H ( s) K s( s 2) The root loci are shown in Fig. 6.1. Figure 6.4 Effects of addition of poles and zeros to G(s)H(s) 165 The controller design in control systems may be treated as an investigation of the effects to root loci when poles and zeros are added to the loop transfer function KG(s)H(s). KG ( s) H ( s) K K s( s 2)(s b) s( s 2)(s 3) The root loci are shown in Fig.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 6. It is noted that the system is stable for all K. Example 6. The asymptote angles and centroid are changed from 90 to 60 and –1 to –(2+b)/3.13(b) where the root loci bend towards the righthalf splane.
Fig. the relative stability is improved by the addition of the zero. .13(b): Root loci for K s( s 2)( s 3) Addition of Zeros to G(s)H(s) Adding lefthalf plane zeros to the function G(s)H(s) generally has the effect of moving and bending the root loci toward the lefthalf splane. 6. The complex conjugate parts of root loci of the original system are bent towards the left and form a circle.14 shows the root loci of G(s)H(s) with a zero added at s = −3. Thus.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 166 Figure 6.
we must examine the scheme or plan of the system and obtain a new design or plan that results in a suitable system. . or the plan. s ( s 2) 6. of the system structure and the selection of suitable components performance is called compensation. an additional component is inserted within the structure of the feedback system.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 167 Figure 6. It is this additional component or device that equalizes or compensates for the performance deficiency. However.1.5 Compensator design via root locus The preceding chapters have shown that it is often possible to adjust the system parameters in order to provide the desired system response. Thus the design of a control system is concerned with the arrangement. Compensation is the adjustment of a system in order to make up for deficiencies or inadequacies. In redesigning a control system to alter the system response. we often find that it is not sufficient to reconsider the structure of the system and redesign the system in order to obtain a suitable one.14: Root locus for K ( s 3) . That is.
mechanical. (c) Output. or load compensation.15a) 168 Figure 6. . hydraulic. (d) Input compensation The objectives of introducing compensator can be categorized as follows: i. Use PD and phaselead compensators to improve transient response. Several types of compensation are shown in Figure 6.15 for a simple. The transfer function of a compensator is designated as 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐸0 (𝑠)/𝐸𝑖𝑛 (𝑠). or some other type of device or network and is often called a compensator. pneumatic. (b) Feedback compensation.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam The compensating device may be electric. The compensator placed in the feedforward path is called a cascade. singleloop feedback control system. and the compensator can be placed in a suitable location within the structure of the system. Commonly an electric circuit serves as a compensator in many control systems. compensator (6. ii. Use PI and phaselag compensators to improve steadystate error. or series. A compensator is an additional component or circuit that is inserted into a control system to compensate for a deficient performance.15: Types of compensation (a) Cascaded compensation.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 169 Ideal PI compensator design The PI compensator’s transfer function is given by: 𝐾2 𝐾2 𝐾1 (𝑠 + 𝐾1 ) 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾1 + = 𝑠 𝑠 The ideal PI compensator’s transfer function is given by. 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝑠 + 𝑎 𝑠 .
Design an ideal PI compensator to reduce the steadystate error to zero without appreciably affecting transient response. close to the compensator pole. 170 If the original OLTF is 𝐺 𝑠 = 1 𝑠+1 𝑠+2 (𝑠+10) operating with a damping ratio of 0. The compensator has a zero at 0. the compensated system should have a dominant closedloop pole at 𝑠1 = −0.174.694 + 𝑗3. 𝐾 = 164.926.7: Given a uncompensated system operating with a damping ration of 0.6 . Find out the steady state error for a unit step input.174.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 6. then design a PI compensator to reduce the steadystate error to zero for a step input without appreciably affecting transient response.1. To achieve these requirements.
𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑝 = 1 1 = = 0.108 1 + 𝐾𝑝 1 + 164. the steadystate error is 𝑒𝑠𝑠.𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑝 = 1 1 = =0 1 + 𝐾𝑝 1 + lim 𝐺𝑐 𝐺(𝑠) 𝑠→0 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 171 Thus.6/20 The dominant pole of the compensated system and the gain are approximately the same as for the uncompensated system 𝑒𝑠𝑠.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam General firstorder compensators
172
Consider the firstorder compensator with the transfer function 𝐺𝑐 = 𝐾(𝑠 − 𝑧0 ) 𝑠 − 𝑝0
When 𝑧0 <𝑝0 , the compensator is called a phaselead compensator, because this results in a contribution to the angle criterion of the root locus that is always positive. ∠𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = ∠𝑠 − 𝑧0 − ∠𝑠 − 𝑝0 = 𝜃𝑧 − 𝜃𝑝 > 0 When 𝑧0 >𝑝0 , the compensator is called a phaselag compensator, because this results in a contribution to the angle criterion of the root locus that is always positive. ∠𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = ∠𝑠 − 𝑧0 − ∠𝑠 − 𝑝0 = 𝜃𝑧 − 𝜃𝑝 < 0
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Phaselead compensator design
173
The compensator transfer function is given by: 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = and it can be rewritten in a form as: 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = Where, 𝐾𝑐 = 𝑎1 𝑎0 1 , 𝑧0 = − , 𝑝0 = − 𝑏1 𝑎1 𝑏1 𝑎1 𝑠 + 𝑎0 𝑏1 𝑠 + 1 𝐾𝑐 (𝑠 − 𝑧0 ) 𝑠 − 𝑝0
The compensator DC gain is 𝐷𝐶𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛 = lim𝑠→0 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝑎0
Assume that the parameter 𝑎0 is either known or can be determined. The design problem is to find 𝑎1 and 𝑏1 such that the compensated system will have a closedloop pole at 𝑠 = 𝑠1 .
First we express 𝑠1 and G(s)H(s) as 𝑠1 = 𝑠1 𝑒 𝑗𝛽 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻 𝑠1 = 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻(𝑠1 ) 𝑒 𝑗𝜓
𝑎
1 𝑠+𝑎 0 𝐺 𝑏1 𝑠+1
From the characteristics equation, we get 1 + 𝑠
𝐻 𝑠 = 0
Equating magnitudes and angles, we can rewrite as 𝑎1 𝑠1 + 𝑎0 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻(𝑠1 ) = 1 𝑏1 𝑠1 + 1 ∠ Where 𝑎1 = sin 𝛽 + 𝑎0 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻(𝑠1 ) sin(𝛽 − 𝜓) 𝑠1 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻(𝑠1 ) sin 𝜓 𝑎1 𝑠1 + 𝑎0 ∠𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻(𝑠1 ) + = 180° 𝑏1 𝑠1 + 1 𝜓
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 𝑏1 = sin(𝛽 + 𝜓) + 𝑎0 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻(𝑠1 ) sin 𝛽 − 𝑠1 sin 𝜓
174
Example 6.8:
Design a phaselead compensator such that the closedloop compensated system has a settling time around 4 sec. and a percent overshoot around 4.32%. The compensator has a DC gain as 0.15.
To achieve these requirements, the compensated system should have a dominant closedloop pole at 𝑠1= − 1 + 𝑖. Because the DC gain for 𝐺𝑐 (𝑠) is 0.15, so we have 𝑎0 =0.15.
At 𝑠1= − 1 + 𝑖, we have 𝑠
21 𝑠+1 (𝑠+3) 𝑠 −1+𝑖 1=
= −2.1 + 6.3𝑗 = 6.64∠108.43°
Also, we have 𝑠1= − 1 + 𝑖 = 2∠135° 𝑎1 = 𝑏1 = sin 𝛽 + 𝑎0 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻(𝑠1 ) sin(𝛽 − 𝜓) = 0.1924 𝑠1 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻(𝑠1 ) sin 𝜓 sin(𝛽 + 𝜓) + 𝑎0 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻(𝑠1 ) sin 𝛽 = 0.1417 − 𝑠1 sin 𝜓
. i. we assume that the compensator has a unit DC gain.. Thus. 𝐺𝑐 (𝑠) 𝑠=0 = 𝐾𝑐 𝑧0 =1 𝑝0 . the angle contribution of the phaselag compensator must be small. towards the unstable region.e. in general. i.e. which is assured by placing the pole and the zero of the compensator very close to each other.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 175 Phaselag compensator design The negative angle contributed by the phaselag compensator will tend to shift the root locus to the right in the splane. For convenience in the design.
so 𝐾 > 𝐾0 . so 𝐺𝑐 𝑠1 = 𝐾𝑐 (𝑠1 − 𝑧0 ) ≈ 𝐾𝑐 𝑠1 − 𝑝0 Now the gain required to place a root of the locus at approximately 𝑠1 for the uncompensated system is given by 𝐾 = −1 −1 𝐾0 = = 𝐺𝑐 𝑠1 𝐺(𝑠1 ) 𝐾𝑐 𝐺𝑐 𝑠1 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐾𝑐 Since 𝐾𝑐 < 1. is 𝑒𝑠𝑠 = lim 𝑒 𝑡 = lim 𝑠𝐸 𝑠 = lim 𝑡→∞ 𝑠→0 𝑠𝑅(𝑠) 𝑠→0 1 + 𝐺(𝑠) . and the magnitudes of 𝑧0 and 𝑝0 to be small compared to 𝑠1 . thus the openloop DC gain has been increased. The compensator has been chosen to have a unity DC gain. when H(s)=1.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 𝐾𝑐 = 𝑃0 <1 𝑧0 176 Suppose that the root locus of the point of the uncompensated system passes through the point 𝑠1 for 𝐾0 . 1 + 𝐾0 𝐺 𝑠1 𝐻 𝑠1 = 0 𝐾0 = −1 𝐺 𝑠1 (𝐻(𝑠1 ) As we choose the value of 𝑧0 and 𝑝0 to be approximately equal. The steadystate error 𝑒𝑠𝑠 . but the transient response appears to remain unaffected.
and this is the principal use of the phaselag compensator. . i. the antenna must rotate at a constant velocity to remain pointed directly at the aircraft. is acceptable. which will appear to the control system as a ramp input. it is required that the 𝑒𝑠𝑠 of 0.e.707 are satisfactory and the compensator has a DC gain as 1. 𝐾 So 𝑠1 = −1 + 𝑗 𝑤𝑒𝑛 𝐾0 = 2 . Example 6. Suppose that the system is required to track aircraft that have essentially constant velocity.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 177 The sreadystate error 𝑒𝑠𝑠 has been improved. Suppose that the design requirements are such that a time constant of 1 second and damping coefficient of 0.9: Phaselag compensator design Design a radar tracking system of the uncompensated OLTF given by 𝐾𝐺 𝑠 𝐻 𝑠 = 𝑠(𝑠+2). Also.2° with a unit ramp input.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 178 .
𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝑠 + 𝑧𝑐 If the original openloop transfer function is 𝐺 𝑠 = Then design the PD compensator zero at 2.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Ideal PD compensator 179 The PD compensator’s transfer function is given by: 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾1 + 𝐾2 = 𝐾2 (𝑠 + The ideal PD compensator’s transfer function is given by. 𝐺𝑠 𝑠 = 𝑠 + 2 𝐾1 ) 𝐾2 1 𝑠 + 1 𝑠 + 2 (𝑠 + 5) .
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 180 .
107 = 3. The desired imaginary part of 𝑠 4 4 the closedloop pole is 𝜔𝑑 = 3.26 = 6. the uncompensated system’s settling time is 𝑇𝑠 = 4 1. design an ideal derivative compensator such that the closedloop compensated system has a threefold reduction in settling time and a 16% percent overshoot. . 181 To achieve these requirements. Thus.302.613.205 4 𝜁𝜔 𝑛 = = 3.613 tan 180 − 120.205 + 𝑗2. The desired real part of the closedloop pole is 𝜁𝜔𝑛 = 𝑇 = 1.064𝐾 = 43.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 6. the compensated system should have a dominant closedloop pole at 𝑠1 = −1.9 Given the system below.193.45.
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 182 .
The concept of using state space is by placing a pole at a desired location. It takes measurement and/or estimates of the state variables. u in the form of.1 Controller Pole Placement Method The controller pole placement method mainly concerns with the controllability matrix. Let say we have a control input. 6. then formulate control gains to make this happen. 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐁𝐤 𝐱 𝐬 = 0 . consider the state equation: 𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝐮 = 𝐀𝐱 − 𝐁𝐤𝐱 = 𝐀 − 𝐁𝐤 𝐱 Taking the Laplace. In designing the control system by using state space application. we are trying to modify the underlying differential equations. we have to assume that all states can be measured and used in control implementation. u = kx where k = vector (or matrix) of proportional control gains applied to each state given by: k = [𝒌𝟏 𝒌𝟐 … 𝒌𝒏 ] Essentially.2 State Space Applications 183 An alternative method yet powerful tools of control system design by using a State Space representation. multiplies them by the control gains.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 6. Now. this is called full state feedback. Similar in concept to classical control system design where we have to firstly formulate desired pole locations to satisfy some performance criteria. We call this as pole placement method. and produce the control signal. This can be designed by pole placement or optimal control.2.
𝐁 = . 𝐀 = . Then the desired characteristics equation is: 𝑠 − 𝑝1 𝑠 − 𝑝2 … 𝑠 − 𝑝𝑛 = 0 This can be expanded to (desired characteristics equation): 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝑠 + 𝛼𝑛 = 0 Now suppose that the state space equations are in control canonical form: 0 0 . …. 0 −𝑎𝑛 1 0 . 𝑝2 . … . … 1 … −𝑎1 184 0 0 . . 𝑏1 − 𝑎1 𝑏0 The poles of the feedback system are defined by the expression: det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐁𝐤 = 0 Poles are therefore given by det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐁𝐤 = 𝑠 𝑛 + (𝛼1 + 𝑘1 )𝑠 𝑛−1 + ⋯ + (𝛼2 + 𝑘2 )𝑠 𝑛−2 + 𝛼𝑛 + 𝑘𝑛 = 0 Compare this to the “desired” characteristics equation: 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝑠 𝑛−2 … + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝑠 + 𝛼𝑛 = 0 The conclusion is that when the system is in control canonical form. then control gains can be calculated by simple comparison of coefficients: 𝑘𝑖 = 𝛼𝑖 − 𝑎𝑖 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Poles defined by: det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐁𝐤 = 0 Suppose we have some desired pole locations: 𝑝1 . . 0 −𝑎𝑛−2 … 0 … 0 … . 𝑝3 . 0 1 𝐂 = 𝑏𝑛 − 𝑎1 𝑏0 𝑏𝑛−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑏0 … . 0 −𝑎𝑛−1 0 1 .
𝐤 = 𝑘1 2 𝐤 = 3𝜔𝑛 𝑘2 4𝜔𝑛 . In other words. Solution: Assumption: Must be a full state feedback. 𝑠 = 𝑗𝜔𝑛 and closed loop poles.10 Consider an undamped oscillator with frequency 𝜔𝑛 and a SS model given by 𝑥1 0 = 2 −𝜔𝑛 𝑥2 1 𝑥1 0 + 0 𝑥2 1 185 Find the controller that places the both CL poles of the system at −2𝜔𝑛 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 6. det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐁𝐤 = 0 det 0 𝑠 0 − 2 −𝜔𝑛 0 𝑠 1 0 𝑘 + 0 1 1 𝑘2 2 𝑠 2 + 𝑘2 𝑠 + 𝜔𝑛 + 𝑘1 = 0 Comparing with the desired characteristics equation gives: 𝑘2 = 4𝜔𝑛 2 2 𝑘1 + 𝜔𝑛 = 4𝜔𝑛 We have now. 2 The open loop characteristics equation is: 𝑠 + 𝑗𝜔𝑛 𝑠 + 𝑗𝜔𝑛 = 𝑠 2 + 𝜔𝑛 And the desired characteristics equation: 2 (𝑠 + 2𝜔𝑛 )2 = 𝑠 2 + 4𝜔𝑛 𝑠 + 4𝜔𝑛 Now we have to determine the poles of closedloop system. We have an open loop poles. 𝑠 = −2𝜔𝑛 . We need to prove the system has a full state feedback by assessing its controllability matrix. you want to double the natural frequency and increase the damping ratio from 0 to 1. 2 𝑘1 = 3𝜔𝑛 𝑘2 = 4𝜔𝑛 Hence.
𝐱 ′ = 𝐓 −𝟏 𝐱 (𝐱 ′ = transformed state vector) 𝐀′ = 𝐓 −𝟏 𝐀𝐓. Where 𝑎1 . . … = coefficient of the desired characteristics equation.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Generalised Strategy 186 Step 1: Transform state equations into control canonical form. and 𝛾 𝐀 = 𝐀𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝐀𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝐀𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝐈 A = state matrix. … are from the characteristics equation of the uncontrolled system: 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝑠 𝑛−2 … + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝑠 + 𝛼𝑛 = 0 Step 2: Calculate control gains by comparison with the desired characteristics equation Step 3: Transform back to original state Transform has the form: 𝐤 𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 𝐤 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙 𝑐𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐓 −𝟏 Controller Pole Placement using Ackermann’s Formula For SISO systems the control gains using Ackermann’s Formula are 𝐤 = 0 0 … 0 −1 1 𝐂0 𝛾(𝐀) Where 𝐂0 =controllability matrix (note inversion again). 𝑎2 . 𝑎2 . 𝐁′ = 𝐓 −𝟏 𝐁 (A’=transformed state matrix) Where T is the transformation matrix: 𝐓 = 𝐂𝟎 𝐍 𝐂𝟎 = controllability matrix = 𝐁 𝐀𝐁 … 𝐀𝐧−𝟏 𝐁 𝐍 = the following Toeplitz matrix: 𝑎𝑛−2 𝑎𝑛−1 1 ⋮ 0 … 0 ⋱ ⋮ ⋮ 0 1 0 … 𝑎1 1 Where 𝑎1 .
Solution: Our objective is to get the vector k.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Example 6. 𝛾 𝐀 = 2 3𝜔𝑛 3 −4𝜔𝑛 4𝜔𝑛 2 3𝜔𝑛 . 2 (𝑠 + 2𝜔𝑛 )2 = 𝑠 2 + 4𝜔𝑛 𝑠 + 4𝜔𝑛 0 1 1 0 So we have.11: 187 Consider an undamped oscillator with frequency 𝜔𝑛 and a SS model given by 𝑥1 0 = 2 −𝜔𝑛 𝑥2 1 𝑥1 0 + 0 𝑥2 1 Find the controller that places the both CL poles of the system at −2𝜔𝑛 . 𝐀2 = 4𝜔𝑛 𝐀 = 2 −𝜔𝑛 0 0 2 −𝜔𝑛 4𝜔𝑛 0 0 2 4𝜔𝑛 0 3 −4𝜔𝑛 2 4𝜔𝑛 0 2 4𝜔𝑛 𝐈 = Therefore matrix 𝛾 𝐀 is given by. you want to double the natural frequency and increase the damping ratio from 0 to 1. Checking the controllability matrix. 2 𝛾 𝐀 = 𝐀2 + 4𝜔𝑛 𝐀 + 4𝜔𝑛 𝐈 2 Matrices 𝐀2 . 𝐂𝟎 = Where 𝛾 𝐀 = 𝐀𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝐀𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝐀𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝐈 From the desired characteristics equation we have. According to Ackermann’s Formula: 𝐤 = 0 0 … 0 −1 1 𝐂0 𝛾(𝐀) The SS model must be controllable before we can proceed. In other words. 4𝜔𝑛 𝐀 and 4𝜔𝑛 𝐈 are given by.
𝐤 = 0 1 2 0 1 3𝜔𝑛 3 1 0 −4𝜔𝑛 188 4𝜔𝑛 2 3𝜔𝑛 2 𝐤 = 3𝜔𝑛 4𝜔𝑛 Example 6.12: Consider the SS system 𝑥1 −1 0 𝑥1 1 = + 𝑢 𝑥2 1 −2 𝑥2 2 Design a control system to move the system poles to 𝑠 = −1 ± 𝑗 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam Hence.
which predicts the (measurable) target system output.2. 𝐮. using the known parameters (𝐀. we want to minimize the difference between the actual and predicted states. then we can use the estimated states in place of the actual states. 𝐁. 𝐂. The open loop dynamics is then: 𝐱 𝑒 = 𝐱 − 𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝐮 − 𝐀 𝐱 − 𝐱𝑒 − 𝐁𝐮 = 𝐀𝐱𝑒 And the characteristics equation. In other words. 𝐮) of the target system. Let’s say a system is described by: 𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝐮. Assume that we know 𝐀. This can be achieved by linear observers (pole placement) or optimal observers (Kalman filters). 𝐂. 𝐱𝑒 = 𝐱 − 𝐱 Which converges to zero if 𝐀 is stable. det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 = 0 The observer (model) system response is now: 𝐱 = 𝐀𝐱 + 𝐁𝐮 + 𝐋𝐂(𝐱 − 𝐱) .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 6. 𝐁. This difference or error in estimate of state is given by. The objective of designing the observer is to estimate some or all of the states of the system.2 Observer Pole Placement Method 189 The observer pole placement mainly concerns with Observability matrix. If the predicted output is acceptably close to the actual output. 𝐲 = 𝐂𝐱 We need to extract 𝐱 by constructing a second linear system (a model of the target system).
the characteristics equation = det 𝑠𝐈 − (𝐀 − 𝐋𝐂) = 0 i. . 0 0 0 0 . . 𝐴 = .e we can change convergence speed by adding feedback. 0 0 … … … … … … 0 0 . the poles are defined by the expression: det 𝑠𝐈 − (𝐀 − 𝐋𝐂) = 0 . 0 1 −𝑎𝑛 −𝑎𝑛−1 −𝑎𝑛−2 . . Then the desired characteristics equation is: 𝑠 − 𝑝1 𝑠 − 𝑝2 … 𝑠 − 𝑝𝑛 = 0 This can be expanded to (desired characteristics equation): 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝑠 + 𝛼𝑛 = 0 Now suppose that the state space equations are in observer canonical form: 0 1 . −𝑎1 𝑏𝑛 − 𝑎1 𝑏0 𝑏𝑛−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑏0 . Suppose we have some desired pole locations: 𝑝1 . 𝐵 = . …. . 𝑝3 . 𝑝2 .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam where L = vector (or matrix) of estimator (observer) gains applied to each state given by: ℓ1 ℓ2 𝑳 = ⋮ ℓ𝑛 The dynamics of the error become: 𝐱𝑒 = 𝐀𝐱𝑒 − 𝐋𝐂𝐱 𝑒 190 Therefore. 𝑏1 − 𝑎1 𝑏0 𝐶 = 0 0 … 0 1 With the observer feedback.
(𝑠 + 10𝜔𝑛 )2 = 𝑠 2 + 20𝜔𝑛 𝑠 + 100𝜔𝑛 2 Now we have to determine the poles of closedloop system. … . 0 0 0 0 … 0 𝑎𝑛 + ℓ𝑛 … 0 𝑎𝑛−1 + ℓ𝑛−1 … .KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 𝑠 0 −1 𝑠 . . . given 𝑥1 0 = 2 −𝜔𝑛 𝑥2 𝑦 = 1 Solution: The desired characteristics equation is given by. . then control gains can be calculated by simple comparison of coefficients: ℓ𝑖 = 𝛼𝑖 − 𝑎𝑖 Example 6. det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐋𝐂 = 0 det 0 𝑠 0 − 2 −𝜔𝑛 0 𝑠 ℓ 1 + 1 0 ℓ2 0 0 1 𝑥1 0 + 0 𝑥2 1 𝑥1 0 𝑥 2 . … 𝑠 𝑎2 + ℓ2 … −1 𝑠 + 𝑎1 + ℓ1 191 Poles are therefore given by det 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 + 𝐋𝐂 = 𝑠 𝑛 + (𝛼1 + ℓ1 )𝑠 𝑛−1 + (𝛼2 + ℓ2 )𝑠 𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 + ℓ𝑛 = 0 Compare this to the “desired” characteristics equation: 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝑠 𝑛−2 … + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝑠 + 𝛼𝑛 = 0 The conclusion is that when the system is in control canonical form. 𝑠𝐈 − 𝐀 − 𝐋𝐂 = . .13: Compute the estimator (observer) gain matrix which will place both estimator poles at −10𝜔𝑛 .
KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam det 𝑠 + ℓ1 2 𝜔𝑛 +ℓ2 −1 𝑠 192 2 det 𝑠 2 + ℓ1 𝑠 + 𝜔𝑛 + ℓ2 = 0 Comparing with the desired characteristics equation gives: ℓ1 = 20𝜔𝑛 2 2 ℓ2 + 𝜔𝑛 = 100𝜔𝑛 We have now. 𝐱 ′ = 𝐓 −𝟏 𝐱 (𝐱 ′ = transformed state vector) 𝐀′ = 𝐓 −𝟏 𝐀𝐓. … are from the characteristics equation of the uncontrolled system: 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝑠 𝑛−2 … + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝑠 + 𝛼𝑛 = 0 . 𝐂 ′ = 𝐓 −𝟏 𝐂 (A’=transformed state matrix) Where T is the transformation matrix: 𝐓 = (𝐍𝐎𝐛 )−𝟏 and 𝐂 𝐂𝐀 𝐎𝐛 = observability matrix = 𝐂𝐀𝟐 ⋮ 𝐂𝐀𝐧−𝟏 𝐍 = the following Toeplitz matrix: 𝑎𝑛−2 𝑎𝑛−1 1 ⋮ 0 … 0 ⋱ ⋮ ⋮ 0 1 0 … 𝑎1 1 Where 𝑎1 . 𝐤 = 𝐤 = ℓ1 ℓ2 20𝜔𝑛 2 99𝜔𝑛 Generalised Strategy Step 1: Transform state equations into control canonical form. 𝑎2 . ℓ1 = 20𝜔𝑛 2 ℓ2 = 99𝜔𝑛 Hence.
… = coefficient of the desired characteristics equation.KJM597 Control Systems Faculty of Mechanical Engineering UiTM Shah Alam 193 Step 2: Calculate control gains by comparison with the desired characteristics equation Step 3: Transform back to original state Transform has the form: 𝐋𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 𝐓 ∗ 𝐋𝑜𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 Observer Pole Placement using Ackermann’s Formula For SISO systems the observer gains using Ackermann’s Formula are 𝐋 = 𝛾(𝐀)𝐎−1 0 b 0 … 0 1 T Where 𝐂0 =controllability matrix (note inversion again). and 𝛾 𝐀 = 𝐀𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝐀𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝐀𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝐈 A = state matrix. Example 6. Where 𝑎1 .14: Compute the estimator (observer) gain matrix which will place both estimator poles at −10𝜔𝑛 . 𝑎2 . given 𝑥1 0 = 2 −𝜔𝑛 𝑥2 𝑦 = 1 1 𝑥1 0 + 0 𝑥2 1 𝑥1 0 𝑥 2 .
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