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Lim Ruei Jia 133633 26th September 2017

EKC 271 BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS

Assignment: Write short notes on the different branches of Biotechnologygive one


application and impact it has on society.

Blue biotechnology:

Blue biotechnology or marine biotechnology is the application of molecular biological methods


to marine and freshwater life. This technology is used in exploitation of the diversity found in
marine environment in terms of the form, structure, physiology and chemistry of marine
organisms [1]. It helps to increase seafood supply and safety, control proliferation of noxious
water-borne organisms and also develop new drugs [2]. Blue biotechnology not only
emphasises on little known forms of deep ocean life but also on the growing use of marine life
in the food, cosmetic, industries and agriculture.

Application of Blue Biotechnology


One of the application of blue biotechnology is aquaculture. Aquaculture is also known as
fish or shellfish farming and it involves the breeding, rearing and harvesting the fish and
plants in all type water environment such as rivers, sea, ponds and etc. Aquaculture includes
the production of seafood by using stock restoration in which hatchery fish and shellfish are
released into the wild to rebuild wild populations. Aquaculture helps to satisfy the seafood
demands from the society by increasing the quantity and quality of seafood [3].

Impact of Blue Biotechnology on Society


Blue biotechnology secure food supply. It increases the global aqua cultural production and
helps to minimise seafood shortage. It is a must to increase seafood production by
aquaculture to meet the worlds demand of food [4].

[1] Marine institute. What is marine biotechnology?. Retrieved from: https://www.marine.ie/Home/site-


area/research-funding/marine-biotechnology/what-marine-biotechnology
[2] Segens Medical Dictionary(2012).Blue biotechnology. Retrieved from:
http://medicaldictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Blue+Biotechnology
[3] NOAAFISHERIES.What is aquaculture?.Retrieved from:
http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/aquaculture/what_is_aquaculture.html
[4] Niranjana Menon. 2016. Blue biotechnology. Retrieved from
https://www.slideshare.net/niranjanamenon1/blue-biotechnology-72049260
Lim Ruei Jia 133633 26th September 2017

Green Biotechnology:
Green biotechnology is also termed as agricultural biotechnology. It refers to the application
of biotechnology in crops and plants in order to improve the nutritional quality, quantity of
plants and production economics by using more environmentally friendly solutions
alternative to the traditional industrial agricultural [5]. DNA is vital for new improvements

and developments in Agricultural Biotechnology. The scientists carry out DNA tests to

develop new ways to enhance agricultural productivity besides enhance breeders to make
improvement in new crops and livestock [6].

Application of Green Biotechnology


One of the application of green biotechnology is the plant tissue culture. It is a technique
that uses minute amount of plants part like roots or even just a single plant cell to produce
new plants under laboratory conditions. For instance, products in Kenya like banana and
Irish potato [5]. Other example is the use of genetic engineering to produce pest, cold or
drought resistant crops, or the use of bio-fertilizers to enhance plant growth and
development [7].

Impact of Green Biotechnology on Society


Green biotechnology has helped to improve the quality of each crop cultivated when genes
are transferred from one crop to another. The transferring of genes helps to enhance the
nutritional qualities, taste, appearance and feel of the eatables. Moreover, with the aid of
green biotechnology, the dependency on artificial fertilizers and pesticides for the
cultivation of these crops are reduced [6].

[5] Menna Ahmed. March 14, 2013. Green biotechnology. Retrieved from:
https://www.slideshare.net/mennaahmed3956/green-biotechnology
[6] Biotechonweb. Agricultural Biotechnology. Retrieved from: http://www.biotechonweb.com/types-of-
biotechnology.html
[7] Plataforma de Mercados Biotechnologicos. Retrieved from:
http://www.mercadosbiotecnologicos.com/en/green_biotechnology.cfm
Lim Ruei Jia 133633 26th September 2017

Red Biotechnology
Red biotechnology is also termed as medical biotechnology. Red biotechnology refers to the
use of organisms for the improvement of medical processes. It is a fundamental knowledge
for the researchers to manufacture vaccines and antibiotics, developing new drugs,
molecular diagnostics techniques and regenerative therapies. Red biotechnology or medical
biotechnology also includes the engineering of genetic cures through genomic multiplication
and its use in forensics through DNA profiling [8]. Some of the examples are cell therapy and
regenerative medicine, gene therapy and medicines based on biological molecules such as
therapeutic antibodies [9].

Application of Red Biotechnology


One of the application of red biotechnology is gene therapy. Gene therapy makes used of
the DNA as a pharmaceutical agent to cure and treat diseases. DNA plays the role to
supplement or alter genes within an individuals cell as a therapy to treat diseases. The most
common form of gene therapy is using DNA that encodes a functional, therapeutic gene to
replace a mutated gene [10]. Gene therapy has been developed to treat diseases like
Parkinsons Disease, influenza and Hepatitis.

Impact of Red Biotechnology on Society


Red or medical biotechnology has helped to improve human life by making medicines more
effective and cost wise, improving the already existing techniques for various malignant
diseases to decrease the side effects without compromising with the effectiveness and also
improving drugs and producing proteins used in human bodies artificially [11]. For example,
gene therapy has successfully cure Haemophilia by introducing therapeutic gene into the
liver of the patients, who then acquired the ability to induce blood clots [10].

[8] Biology Online. Red Biotechnology. Retrieved from: http://www.biology-


online.org/kb/biology_articles/biotechnology/red_biotechnology.html

[9] Vicente Diaz Martinez. 10th September 2010. The Colors of Biotech. Retrieved from:
https://biotechspain.com/en/article.cfm?iid=colores_biotecnologia

[10] Aswarya Babu N. 8th February 2014. Application of Medical Biotechnology. Retrieved from:
https://www.slideshare.net/aiswaryababunaishu/applications-of-medical-biotechnology

[11] YOUTH KI AWAAZ. 29th March 2011. Biotechnology in Medicine: Revolutionizing Lives of People. Retrieved
from https://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2011/03/biotechnology-in-medicine-revolutionizing-lives-of-people/
Lim Ruei Jia 133633 26th September 2017

White Biotechnology

White biotechnology is also known as industrial biotechnology. It is applied to industrial


processes such as using cells or components of cells (yeast, moulds, bacteria plants,
enzymes etc.) to produce industrial useful products. The examples of products generated
are chemicals, food, detergents, paper and biofuel. Industrial biotechnology uses renewable
raw material that may contribute to lowering greenhouse effect and avoiding petroleum-
based economy that release harmful gases [12].

Application of White Biotechnology

One of the applications of white biotechnology is production of biocontrol agents (biological


control) such as bio-insecticides and bio-herbicides. It uses microorganism to control
insects, pests, weeds and pathogen. The biological agents employed for this purpose are
termed as biocontrol agents. On top of that, industrial biotechnology is used in production
of bio based fuels and energy. Ethanol is currently produced by fermenting grains. Cellulose
enzyme technique promotes conversion of crop residues like stem, leaves and hulls to
ethanol [13].

Impact of White Biotechnology on Society.

White biotechnology speeds up the transition from a fossil-based to a bio-based economy


and society. In other words, renewable resources are greatly used to replace the limited
fossil resources [14]. It makes the industrial processes environmentally friendly and might
lower greenhouse emission.

[12] Shaimaa Farooq. 12th April 2016. Environmental Biotechnology. Retrieved from:
https://www.slideshare.net/shaimaaFarooq/presentation3-60822443

[13] AIT. 27th June 2009. Application of Industrial Biotechnology. Retrieved from
https://www.slideshare.net/melamoon/applications-of-industrial-biotechnology

[14] NCBI. July-August 2006. The Impact of Industrial Biotechnology. Retrieved from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16897819
Lim Ruei Jia 133633 26th September 2017
Lim Ruei Jia 133633 26th September 2017