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## Osama Mohammed Elmardi Suleiman Khayal

Nile Valley University
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Pressure and Manometers b)
1.1 p Ugh
What will be the (a) the gauge pressure and (b) the absolute pressure of water at depth 12m below the 103 u 9.81 u 0.4 3924 N / m 2
surface? Uwater = 1000 kg/m3, and p atmosphere = 101kN/m2.
[117.72 kN/m2, 218.72 kN/m2] c)
Z Ug
a)
p Ugh
p gauge Ugh
7.9 u 103 u 0.4 3160 N / m 2
1000 u 9.81 u 12
d)
117 720 N / m 2 , ( Pa )
p Ugh
117.7 kN / m2 , ( kPa )
520 u 9.81 u 0.4 2040 N / m2
b)
1.4
pabsolute p gauge  patmospheric A manometer connected to a pipe indicates a negative gauge pressure of 50mm of mercury. What is the
(117 720  101) N / m2 , ( Pa ) absolute pressure in the pipe in Newtons per square metre is the atmospheric pressure is 1 bar?
[93.3 kN/m2]
218.7 kN / m2 , ( kPa )
patmosphere 1bar 1 u 105 N / m2
1.2
At what depth below the surface of oil, relative density 0.8, will produce a pressure of 120 kN/m2? What pabsolute p gauge  patmospheric
depth of water is this equivalent to? Ugh  patmospheric
[15.3m, 12.2m]
13.6 u 10 3 u 9.81 u 0.05  105 N / m2 , ( Pa )
a)
93.33 kN / m2 , ( kPa )
U JU water
1.5
0.8 u 1000 kg / m 3
What height would a water barometer need to be to measure atmospheric pressure?
p Ugh [>10m]
p 120 u 10 3 patmosphere | 1bar 1 u 105 N / m2
h 15.29m of oil
Ug 800 u 9.81 5
10 Ugh
b)
105
h . m of water
1019
U 1000 kg / m3 1000 u 9.81
5
120 u 10 3 10
h 12.23 m of water h 0.75 m of mercury
1000 u 9.81 (13.6 u 103 ) u 9.81
1.3
What would the pressure in kN/m2 be if the equivalent head is measured as 400mm of (a) mercury J=13.6
(b) water ( c) oil specific weight 7.9 kN/m3 (d) a liquid of density 520 kg/m3?
[53.4 kN/m2, 3.92 kN/m2, 3.16 kN/m2, 2.04 kN/m2]
a)
U JU water
13.6 u 1000 kg / m3
p Ugh
13.6 u 103 u 9.81 u 0.4 53366 N / m2

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 1 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 2
1.6 1.7
An inclined manometer is required to measure an air pressure of 3mm of water to an accuracy of +/- 3%. Determine the resultant force due to the water acting on the 1m by 2m rectangular area AB shown in the
The inclined arm is 8mm in diameter and the larger arm has a diameter of 24mm. The manometric fluid diagram below.
has density 740 kg/m3 and the scale may be read to +/- 0.5mm. [43 560 N, 2.37m from O]
What is the angle required to ensure the desired accuracy may be achieved? O
[12q 39] P
p2
p1 diameter d 1.22m 1.0m
45
A C
diameter D x
d er
Rea 2.0 m 2.0 m
ale z2
Sc
B D
Datum line
z1 The magnitude of the resultant force on a submerged plane is:
R = pressure at centroid u area of surface
R Ugz A
1000 u 9.81 u 122
.  1 u 1 u 2
43 556 N / m2
p1  p2 U man gh Uman g z1  z2
This acts at right angle to the surface through the centre of pressure.
z2
Volume moved from left to right = z1 A1 A xA2 I OO 2nd moment of area about a line through O
sin T 2 Sc
2 2 2
Ax 1st moment of area about a line through O
SD z 2 Sd Sd
z1 x
4 sin T 4 4 By the parallel axis theorem (which will be given in an exam), I oo I GG  Ax 2 , where IGG is the 2nd
z2 d 2 d2 moment of area about a line through the centroid and can be found in tables.
z1 2 x 2
sin T D D I GG
Sc x
d 2 Ax
p1  p2 Uman gx sin T 
D2 b
2
d
Uwater gh Uman gx sin T 
D2 G G
008 2
Uwater gh 0.74 u Uwater gx sinT  00..024 2

d
bd 3
For a rectangle I GG
h 0.74 x (sin T  01111
. ) 12

The head being measured is 3% of 3mm = 0.003x0.03 = 0.00009m As the wall is vertical, Sc D and x z,

This 3% represents the smallest measurement possible on the manometer, 0.5mm = 0.0005m, giving 1 u 23
Sc  122
.  1
0.00009 0.74 u 0.0005 (sin T  01111
. ) 12 1 u 2 122
.  1
2.37 m from O
sin T 0132
.
T 7.6\$
[This is not the same as the answer given on the question sheet]

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 3 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 4
1.8 Forces on submerged surfaces
Determine the resultant force due to the water acting on the 1.25m by 2.0m triangular area CD shown in
2.1
the figure above. The apex of the triangle is at C.
Obtain an expression for the depth of the centre of pressure of a plane surface wholly submerged in a
[43.5u103N, 2.821m from P] fluid and inclined at an angle to the free surface of the liquid.
b A horizontal circular pipe, 1.25m diameter, is closed by a butterfly disk which rotates about a horizontal
axis through its centre. Determine the torque which would have to be applied to the disk spindle to keep
the disk closed in a vertical position when there is a 3m head of fresh water above the axis.
[1176 Nm]
G G The question asks what is the moment you have to apply to the spindle to keep the disc vertical i.e. to
d keep the valve shut?
d/3 bd 3
For a triangle I GG
36 So you need to know the resultant force exerted on the disc by the water and the distance x of this force
from the spindle.
2
Depth to centre of gravity is z .  2 cos 45 1943
10 . m. We know that the water in the pipe is under a pressure of 3m head of water (to the spindle)
3
R Ugz A
2.0 u 125
.
1000 u 9.81 u 1943
. u 2.375 h 3
2.0
2
h
23826 N / m

## Distance from P is x z / cos 45 2.748m

F
Distance from P to centre of pressure is x
I oo
Sc Diagram of the forces on the disc valve, based on an imaginary water surface.
Ax
I oo I GG  Ax 2 h 3m , the depth to the centroid of the disc
3
I GG . u2
125 h = depth to the centre of pressure (or line of action of the force)
Sc x  2.748
Ax 36 125
. 2.748 Calculate the force:
2.829m F Ugh A
2
1.25
1000 u 9.81 u 3 u S
2
36.116 kN
Calculate the line of action of the force, h.
2nd moment of area about water surface
h'
1st moment of area about water surface
I oo
Ah
By the parallel axis theorem 2nd moment of area about O (in the surface) I oo I GG  Ah 2 where IGG is the
2nd moment of area about a line through the centroid of the disc and IGG = Sr4/4.

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 5 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 6
I GG If we take moments from the surface,
h' h
Ah DR fd1  fd 2  fd 3
Sr 4
3 D 3 f f d1  d 2  d 3
4(Sr 2 )3
12 d1  d 2  d 3
r2
3 3.0326m Taking the first beam, we can draw a pressure diagram for this, (ignoring what is below),
12
So the distance from the spindle to the line of action of the force is
2H/3
x h ' h 3.0326  3 0.0326m
And the moment required to keep the gate shut is H
F=58860
moment Fx 36.116 u 0.0326 1176
. kN m
2.2
A dock gate is to be reinforced with three horizontal beams. If the water acts on one side only, to a depth 1 2F
of 6m, find the positions of the beams measured from the water surface so that each will carry an equal We know that the resultant force, F UgH 2 , so H
2 Ug
[58 860 N/m, 2.31m, 4.22m, 5.47m] 2F 2 u 58860
H 3.46 m
First of all draw the pressure diagram, as below: Ug 1000 u 9.81
And the force acts at 2H/3, so this is the position of the 1st beam,
d1 2
h 2h/3 position of 1st beam H 2.31m
3
f d2
Taking the second beam into consideration, we can draw the following pressure diagram,

R d3
f d1=2.31
H 2H/3
f f d2

The resultant force per unit length of gate is the area of the pressure diagram. So the total resultant force
is F=2u58860 f
1
R Ugh 2 = 0.5 u 1000 u 9.81 u 62 176580 N ( per m length)
2 The reaction force is equal to the sum of the forces on each beam, so as before
Alternatively the resultant force is, R = Pressure at centroid u Area , (take width of gate as 1m to give 2F 2 u (2 u 58860)
force per m) H 4.9 m
Ug 1000 u 9.81
h
R Ug u h u 1 176580 N ( per m length) The reaction force acts at 2H/3, so H=3.27m. Taking moments from the surface,
2
(2 u 58860) u 3.27 58860 u 2.31  58860 u d 2
This is the resultant force exerted by the gate on the water.
depth to second beam d 2 4.22 m
The three beams should carry an equal load, so each beam carries the load f, where
For the third beam, from before we have,
R
f 58860 N 12 d1  d 2  d 3
3
depth to third beam d 3 12  2.31  4.22 5.47m

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 7 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 8
2.3 As this force act normal to the surface, it must act through the centre of radius of the dam wall. So the
The profile of a masonry dam is an arc of a circle, the arc having a radius of 30m and subtending an angle depth to the point where the force acts is,
of 60q at the centre of curvature which lies in the water surface. Determine (a) the load on the dam in N/m y = 30sin 39.31q=19m
length, (b) the position of the line of action to this pressure.
[4.28 u 106 N/m length at depth 19.0m] 2.4
The arch of a bridge over a stream is in the form of a semi-circle of radius 2m. the bridge width is 4m.
Draw the dam to help picture the geometry, Due to a flood the water level is now 1.25m above the crest of the arch. Calculate (a) the upward force on
R the underside of the arch, (b) the horizontal thrust on one half of the arch.
[263.6 kN, 176.6 kN]
a
The bridge and water level can be drawn as:

60 1.25m

FR y
h
R
2m
Fh

a) The upward force on the arch = weight of (imaginary) water above the arch.
Rv Ug u volume of water
Fv S 22
volume .  2) u 4 
(125 u4 26.867 m 3
2
h . m
30 sin 60 2598 Rv 1000 u 9.81 u 26.867 263568
. kN
a . m
30 cos 60 150
b)
Calculate Fv = total weight of fluid above the curved surface (per m length) The horizontal force on half of the arch, is equal to the force on the projection of the curved surface onto
Fv Ug (area of sector - area of triangle) a vertical plane.
. u 15
60 2598
= 1000 u 9.81 u S 302 u  1.25
360 2
.
2711375 kN / m
Calculate Fh = force on projection of curved surface onto a vertical plane
1
Fh Ugh 2 2.0
2
05 . 2
. u 1000 u 9.81 u 2598 3310.681 kN / m
The resultant, Fh pressure at centroid u area

FR 2
F F 2 2
3310.681  2711375
. 2 Ug 125
.  1 u 2 u 4
v h
176.58 kN
4279.27 kN / m
acting at the angle
2.5
Fv
tan T 0.819 The face of a dam is vertical to a depth of 7.5m below the water surface then slopes at 30q to the vertical.
Fh If the depth of water is 17m what is the resultant force per metre acting on the whole face?
T 39.32 \$ [1563.29 kN]
Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 9 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 10

d1
d2
h2
d3
f1
F
f2
f3
h1
60q
density of oil Uoil = 0.9Uwater = 900 kg/m3.
Force per unit length, F = area under the graph = sum of the three areas = f1 + f2 + f3
x
(900 u 9.81 u 2) u 2
h2 = 17.0 m, so h1 = 17.0 - 7.5 = 9.5 . x = 9.5/tan 60 = 5.485 m. f1 u 3 52974 N
2
Vertical force = weight of water above the surface, f2 (900 u 9.81 u 2) u 15
. u 3 79461 N
Fv Ug h2 u x  0.5h1 u x (1000 u 9.81 u 15. ) u 15
.
f3 u 3 33109 N
9810 u 7.5 u 5.485  0.5 u 9.5 u 5.485 2
F f 1  f 2  f 3 165544 N
659.123 kN / m
To find the position of the resultant force F, we take moments from any point. We will take moments
The horizontal force = force on the projection of the surface on to a vertical plane.
1
Fh Ugh 2 DF f 1d1  f 2 d 2  f 3d 3
2
2 15
. 2
0.5 u 1000 u 9.81 u 17 2 165544 D 52974 u 2  79461 u (2  )  33109 u (2  15
.)
3 2 3
1417.545 kN / m D 2.347m ( from surface)
The resultant force is . m ( from base of wall)
1153
FR Fv2  Fh2 659.1232  1417.5452
1563.29 kN / m
And acts at the angle
Fv
tan T 0.465
Fh
T 24.94\$
2.6
A tank with vertical sides is square in plan with 3m long sides. The tank contains oil of relative density
0.9 to a depth of 2.0m which is floating on water a depth of 1.5m. Calculate the force on the walls and the
height of the centre of pressure from the bottom of the tank.
[165.54 kN, 1.15m]
Consider one wall of the tank. Draw the pressure diagram:

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 11 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 12
2 2 2
Application of the Bernoulli Equation pB  p A u u B A uA
 zA  k
3.1 1000 g 2g 2g
In a vertical pipe carrying water, pressure gauges are inserted at points A and B where the pipe diameters
are 0.15m and 0.075m respectively. The point B is 2.5m below A and when the flow rate down the pipe is
.  2.5  1045
15 .  0.065 0.065k
0.02 cumecs, the pressure at B is 14715 N/m2 greater than that at A.
v2
Assuming the losses in the pipe between A and B can be expressed as k where v is the velocity at A, k 0.319
2g
find the value of k. Part ii)
If the gauges at A and B are replaced by tubes filled with water and connected to a U-tube containing p xxL Uw gz B  p B
mercury of relative density 13.6, give a sketch showing how the levels in the two limbs of the U-tube
differ and calculate the value of this difference in metres. p xxR Um gR p  Uw gz A  Uw gR p  p A
[k = 0.319, 0.0794m] p xxL p xxR
U w gz B  p B Um gR p  U w gz A  U w gR p  p A
dA = 0.2m A pB  p A U w g z A  z B  gR P Um  U w
14715 1000 u 9.81 u 2.5  9.81R p 13600  1000
Rp 0.079 m

dB = 0.2m B 3.2
A Venturimeter with an entrance diameter of 0.3m and a throat diameter of 0.2m is used to measure the
volume of gas flowing through a pipe. The discharge coefficient of the meter is 0.96.
Assuming the specific weight of the gas to be constant at 19.62 N/m3, calculate the volume flowing when
Rp the pressure difference between the entrance and the throat is measured as 0.06m on a water U-tube
manometer.
[0.816 m3/s]

Part i)
d2 = 0.2m
dA 0.15m dB 0.075m Q 0.02 m 3 / s
d1 = 0.3m
pB  p A 14715 N / m 2
kv 2
hf
2g
Taking the datum at B, the Bernoulli equation becomes:
Z2
p A u 2A p B u B2 u 2A
 z   zB  k
Ug 2 g A Ug 2 g 2g Z1
hRp

zA 2.5 zB 0
By continuity: Q = uAAA = uBAB
uA 0.02 / S 0.075 2 1132
. m/ s
uB 0.02 / S 0.0375 2 4.527 m / s
giving

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 13 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 14
What we know from the question: 3.3
A Venturimeter is used for measuring flow of water along a pipe. The diameter of the Venturi throat is
U g g 19.62 N / m 2 two fifths the diameter of the pipe. The inlet and throat are connected by water filled tubes to a mercury
Cd 0.96 U-tube manometer. The velocity of flow along the pipe is found to be 2.5 H m/s, where H is the
d1 0.3m manometer reading in metres of mercury. Determine the loss of head between inlet and throat of the
d2 0.2 m Venturi when H is 0.49m. (Relative density of mercury is 13.6).
[0.23m of water]
Calculate Q.
u1 Q / 0.0707 u2 Q / 0.0314
For the manometer:

p1  U g gz
p 2  U g g z 2  R p  Uw gR p
p1  p 2 19.62 z 2  z1  587.423      (1)
For the Venturimeter
p1 u12 p2 u 22
 z  z Z2
Ug g 2g 1 Ug g 2g 2
p1  p 2 19.62 z 2  z1  0.803u 22      (2 ) Z1
H
h

## Combining (1) and (2)

0.803u 22 587.423
u 2 ideal 27.047 m / s
2
0.2 For the manometer:
Qideal 27.047 u S 0.85m 3 / s
2 p1  Uw gz1 p2  Uw g z2  H  Um gH
Q Cd Qidea 0.96 u 0.85 0.816m 3 / s p1  p2 Uw gz2  Uw gH  Um gH  Uw gz1      (1)
For the Venturimeter
p1 u2 p2 u2
 1  z1  2  z2  Losses
Uw g 2 g Uw g 2 g
Uw u22 Uw u12
p1  p2  Uw gz2   Uw gz1  LUw g      ( 2)
2 2
Combining (1) and (2)
p1 u12 p2 u 22
 z   z  Losses
Uw g 2 g 1 Uw g 2 g 2
Uw
LU w g Hg Um  Uw  u 2
2  u12      (3)
2
but at 1. From the question
u1 2.5 H . m/ s
175
u1 A1 u 2 A2
2
d2 2d
. uS
175 u2 S
4 10
u2 10.937 m / s
Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 15 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 16
2
Substitute in (3) u 3
183
.
0.49 u 9.81 13600  1000  1000 / 2 10.937 2  1.75 2 2g
Losses L u3 5.99 m / s
9.81 u 1000
0.233m Q u 3 A3
3.4 d 32
0.02665 5.99 u S
Water is discharging from a tank through a convergent-divergent mouthpiece. The exit from the tank is 4
rounded so that losses there may be neglected and the minimum diameter is 0.05m. d3 0.0752m
If the head in the tank above the centre-line of the mouthpiece is 1.83m. a) What is the discharge?
b) What must be the diameter at the exit if the absolute pressure at the minimum area is to be 2.44m of If the mouth piece has been removed, p1 p2
water? c) What would the discharge be if the divergent part of the mouth piece were removed. (Assume
p1 p2 u 22
atmospheric pressure is 10m of water).  z1 
[0.0752m, 0.0266m3/s, 0.0118m3/s] Ug Ug 2g
u2 2 gz1 5.99 m / s
0.052
Q 5.99S 0.0118 m 3 / s
4
3.5
A closed tank has an orifice 0.025m diameter in one of its vertical sides. The tank contains oil to a depth
h of 0.61m above the centre of the orifice and the pressure in the air space above the oil is maintained at
13780 N/m2 above atmospheric. Determine the discharge from the orifice.
(Coefficient of discharge of the orifice is 0.61, relative density of oil is 0.9).
2 [0.00195 m3/s]
3

P = 13780 kN/m2
From the question:
d2 0.05m
p2 0.66m
minimum pressure 2.44 m oil
Ug
p1 p3
10m
Ug Ug
Apply Bernoulli: do = 0.025m
p1 u12 p2 u22 p3 u32
 z  z  z From the question
Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2 Ug 2 g 3
Uo
If we take the datum through the orifice: V 0.9
Uw
z1 . m
183 z2 z3 0 u1 negligible Uo 900
Between 1 and 2 Cd 0.61
u 22 Apply Bernoulli,
10  183
. 2.44 
2g p1 u12 p2 u22
u2 . m/s
1357  z  z
Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2
2
0.05
Q u2 A2 . u S
1357 0.02665 m 3 / s Take atmospheric pressure as 0,
2
Between 1 and 3 p1 p3
Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 17 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 18
2 2 2
13780 u2 p1 u1 p2 u2
 0.61     hf
Uo g 2g Ug 2g Ug 2g
u2 6.53 m / s p1 p 2 u12 u 22
   hf
0.025
2 Ug Ug 2 g 2g
Q 0.61 u 6.53 u S 0.00195 m 3 / s
2 3.77 2 u 22
25   2.5
3.6 2g 2g
The discharge coefficient of a Venturimeter was found to be constant for rates of flow exceeding a certain u 2 21.346 m / s
value. Show that for this condition the loss of head due to friction in the convergent parts of the meter can Q u 2 A2
be expressed as KQ2 m where K is a constant and Q is the rate of flow in cumecs.
d 22
Obtain the value of K if the inlet and throat diameter of the Venturimeter are 0.102m and 0.05m 0.0667 21.346 u S
respectively and the discharge coefficient is 0.96. 4
[K=1060] d2 0.063m

3.7 3.8
A Venturimeter is to fitted in a horizontal pipe of 0.15m diameter to measure a flow of water which may A Venturimeter of throat diameter 0.076m is fitted in a 0.152m diameter vertical pipe in which liquid of
be anything up to 240m3/hour. The pressure head at the inlet for this flow is 18m above atmospheric and relative density 0.8 flows downwards. Pressure gauges are fitted to the inlet and to the throat sections.
the pressure head at the throat must not be lower than 7m below atmospheric. Between the inlet and the The throat being 0.914m below the inlet. Taking the coefficient of the meter as 0.97 find the discharge
throat there is an estimated frictional loss of 10% of the difference in pressure head between these points. a) when the pressure gauges read the same b)when the inlet gauge reads 15170 N/m2 higher than the
Calculate the minimum allowable diameter for the throat. throat gauge.
[0.063m] [0.0192m3/s, 0.034m3/s]
d1 = 0.15m

d1 = 0.152m

d2

## From the question: d1 = 0.076m

d1 . m
015 Q 240 m 3 / hr 0.667 m3 / s
u1 Q / A 3.77 m / s
p1 p2
18m 7 m
Ug Ug

## Friction loss, from the question:

p 1  p2
hf 0.1
Ug From the question:
Apply Bernoulli: d1 0.152 m A1 0.01814 m
d2 0.076m A2 0.00454 m
U 800 kg / m 3
Cd 0.97
Apply Bernoulli:

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 19 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 20
2 2
p1 u 1 p2 u
2
Tank emptying
 z  z
Ug 2g 1 Ug 2g 2 4.1
A reservoir is circular in plan and the sides slope at an angle of tan-1(1/5) to the horizontal. When the
a) p1 p2 reservoir is full the diameter of the water surface is 50m. Discharge from the reservoir takes place
u12 u 22 through a pipe of diameter 0.65m, the outlet being 4m below top water level. Determine the time for the
z z water level to fall 2m assuming the discharge to be 0.75a 2 gH cumecs where a is the cross sectional
2g 1 2g 2
area of the pipe in m2 and H is the head of water above the outlet in m.
By continuity: [1325 seconds]
Q u1 A1 u 2 A2 50m
A1
u2 u1 u1 4
A2

u12 16u12 r
 0.914
2g 2g H
0.914 u 2 u 9.81
u1 .
10934 m/ s
15 x
Q Cd A1 u1
Q 0.96 u 0.01814 u 10934
. 0.019 m 3 / s 1
b) 5
p1  p 2 15170
From the question: H = 4m a = S(0.65/2)2 = 0.33m2
p1  p2 u 22  u12
 0.914
Ug 2g Q 0.75a 2 gh
15170 Q 2 220.432  5511
. 2 10963
. h
 0.914
Ug 2g In time Gt the level in the reservoir falls Gh, so
55.8577 Q 2 220.432  5511
. 2 Q Gt  A Gh
Q 0.035 m 3 / s A
Gt  Gh
Q
Integrating give the total time for levels to fall from h1 to h2.
h2 A
T  dh
h1 Q
As the surface area changes with height, we must express A in terms of h.
A = Sr2
But r varies with h.
It varies linearly from the surface at H = 4m, r = 25m, at a gradient of tan-1 = 1/5.
r = x + 5h
25 = x + 5(4)
x=5
so A = S( 5 + 5h )2 = ( 25S + 25Sh2 + 50Sh )
Substituting in the integral equation gives

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 21 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 22
2
h2 25S  25Sh  50Sh And we can write an equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change:
T  dh
h1 10963
. h Q Gt  A Gh
2
25S h2 1  h  2h A

10963
. h1 h
dh Gt  Gh
Q
h2 1 h2 2h Integrating give the total time for levels to fall from h1 to h2.
.
71641   dh
h1
h h h h2 A
h2 T  dh
.
71641 h 1/2  h 3/ 2  2h 1/2 dh h1 Q
h1
h h2 A
2 4 2 .
 168 dh        (1)
. 2h 1/2  h 53/ 2  h 3/ 2
71641 h1 h
5 3 h1
a) For the first 1m depth, A = 8 x 32 = 256, whatever the h.
From the question, h1 = 4m h2 = 2m, so
So, for the first period of time:
2 4 2 4
T . 2 u 4 1/2  u 4 53/ 2  u 4 3/ 2  2 u 2 1/2  u 2 53/ 2  u 2 3/ 2
71641 h2 256
5 3 5 3 T .
 168 dh
h1 h
. > 4  12.8  10.667  2.828  2.263  3.77 @
71641
. >27.467  8.862@
71641
430.08 h1  h2> @
1333 sec >
430.08 2.6  16
. @
299 sec
4.2
A rectangular swimming pool is 1m deep at one end and increases uniformly in depth to 2.6m at the other
end. The pool is 8m wide and 32m long and is emptied through an orifice of area 0.224m2, at the lowest b) now we need to find out how long it will take to empty the rest.
point in the side of the deep end. Taking Cd for the orifice as 0.6, find, from first principles,
a) the time for the depth to fall by 1m b) the time to empty the pool completely. We need the area A, in terms of h.
[299 second, 662 seconds] A 8L
32.0m L 32
h 1.6
A 160h
1.0m So

2.6m
h2 160h
T .
 168 dh
h1 h
L 2
268.9
3 1 >
h 3/2  h2 3/2 @
2
The question tell us ao = 0.224m2, Cd = 0.6 268.9 16
3
3/ 2
>
.  0
3/ 2
@
Apply Bernoulli from the tank surface to the vena contracta at the orifice: 362.67 sec
p1 u12 p2 u22 Total time for emptying is,
 z  z
Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2 T = 363 + 299 = 662 sec
p1 = p2 and u1 = 0. u 2 2 gh
We need Q in terms of the height h measured above the orifice.
Q Cd a o u 2 Cd a o 2 gh
0.6 u 0.224 u 2 u 9.81 h
0.595 h
Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 23 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 24
4.3 Q Gt  A Gh
A vertical cylindrical tank 2m diameter has, at the bottom, a 0.05m diameter sharp edged orifice for A
which the discharge coefficient is 0.6. Gt  Gh
Q
a) If water enters the tank at a constant rate of 0.0095 cumecs find the depth of water above the orifice
when the level in the tank becomes stable. Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level
b) Find the time for the level to fall from 3m to 1m above the orifice when the inflow is turned off.
c) If water now runs into the tank at 0.02 cumecs, the orifice remaining open, find the rate of rise in water
h2 A
T  dh
level when the level has reached a depth of 1.7m above the orifice. h1 Q
[a) 3.314m, b) 881 seconds, c) 0.252m/min] h2
.
 6018 h 1/ 2 dh
h1

1203.6>h 1/ 2 @h
h2

Q = 0.0095 m3/s 1

1203.6>h21/ 2  h11/ 2 @
h1 = 3 and h2 = 1 so
T = 881 sec
h c) Qin changed to Qin = 0.02 m3/s
From (1) we have Qout 0.00522 h . The question asks for the rate of surface rise when h = 1.7m.

## i.e. Qout 0.00522 17

. 0.0068 m3 / s
do = 0.005m The rate of increase in volume is:
Q Qin  Qout 0.02  0.0068 0.0132 m 3 / s
From the question: Qin = 0.0095 m3/s, do=0.05m, Cd =0.6
As Q = Area x Velocity, the rate of rise in surface is
Apply Bernoulli from the water surface (1) to the orifice (2),
Q Au
p1 u12 p2 u22 Q 0.0132
 z  z u 0.0042 m / s 0.252 m / min
Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2 A S 22

p1 = p2 and u1 = 0. u 2 2 gh . 4

## With the datum the bottom of the cylinder, z1 = h, z2 = 0 4.4

A horizontal boiler shell (i.e. a horizontal cylinder) 2m diameter and 10m long is half full of water. Find
We need Q in terms of the height h measured above the orifice. the time of emptying the shell through a short vertical pipe, diameter 0.08m, attached to the bottom of the
Qout Cd a o u2 Cd a o 2 gh shell. Take the coefficient of discharge to be 0.8.
2
[1370 seconds]
0.05
0.6S 2 u 9.81 h d = 2m
2
0.00522 h       (1) 32m
For the level in the tank to remain constant:
inflow = out flow
Qin = Qout
0.0095 0.00522 h
h 3.314 m
(b) Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change: do = 0.08 m

## From the question W = 10m, D = 10m do = 0.08m Cd = 0.8

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 25 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 26
Apply Bernoulli from the water surface (1) to the orifice (2), h2 20 2h  h 2
T  dh
p1 u12 p2 u22 h1 .
01078 h
 z  z
Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2 h2 2h  h 2
1123.6 dh
p1 = p2 and u1 = 0. u 2 2 gh .
h1 h
h2 2h  h 2
With the datum the bottom of the cylinder, z1 = h, z2 = 0 1123.6 dh
h1 h
We need Q in terms of the height h measured above the orifice. h2
1123.6 2  h dh
h1
Qout Cd a o u2 Cd a o 2 gh
2
> @
3/ 2 h2
0.08
2
1123.6  2  h
0.8S 2 u 9.81 h 3 h1
2
749.07>2.828  1@ 1369.6 sec
0.0178 h
4.5
Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change: Two cylinders standing upright contain liquid and are connected by a submerged orifice. The diameters
Q Gt  A Gh of the cylinders are 1.75m and 1.0m and of the orifice, 0.08m. The difference in levels of the liquid is
A initially 1.35m. Find how long it will take for this difference to be reduced to 0.66m if the coefficient of
Gt  Gh discharge for the orifice is 0.605. (Work from first principles.)
Q
[30.7 seconds]
Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level d1 = 1.75m d2 = 1.0m
h2 A
T  dh
h1 Q
But we need A in terms of h
h = 1.35m
2.0m

1.0m
a
L
h
do = 0.108m
.
2 2
Surface area A = 10L, so need L in terms of h 175
. 1
A1 S 2.4m2 A2 S 0.785m2
2 2 2
L
12 a2  0.08
2
2 do 0.08m, ao S 0.00503m2 Cd 0.605
2
a (1  h)
L
2 by continuity,
12 (1  h) 2 
2  A1Gh1 A2Gh2 QGt      (1)
L 2 2h  h 2
defining, h = h1 - h2

A 20 2h  h 2  Gh Gh1  Gh2

Substitute this into the integral term, Substituting this in (1) to eliminate Gh2

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 27 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 28
 A1Gh1 A2 (Gh1  Gh) A2Gh1  A2Gh Q Gt  A Gh
A2Gh A
Gh1 Gt  Gh
A1  A2 Q
A2Gh Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level
 A1 QGt       ( 2)
A1  A2
A
h2
T  dh
From the Bernoulli equation we can derive this expression for discharge through the submerged orifice: h1 Q
Q Cd ao 2 gh 60000 h2 1
0.678 h1 h 3/ 2
 dh
So
. >h 1/ 2 @h
h2
2 u 8849558
A Gh 1

 A1 2 Cd a o 2 gh Gt
A1  A2 From the question T = 3600 sec and h1 = 0.6m

## A1 A2 1 . >h21/ 2  0.6 1/ 2 @

3600 17699115
Gt  Gh
A1  A2 Cd ao 2 g h h2 0.5815m

## Integrating Total depth = 3.4 + 0.58 = 3.98m

A1 A2 h2 1
T 
A1  A2 Cd a o 2 g h1 h
dh

2 A1 A2

A  A2 Cd a o 2 g
h2  h1
1

 2 u 2.4 u 0.785
0.8124  11619
.
2.4  0.785 u 0.605 u 0.00503 2 u 9.81
30.7 sec
4.6
A rectangular reservoir with vertical walls has a plan area of 60000m2. Discharge from the reservoir take
place over a rectangular weir. The flow characteristics of the weir is Q = 0.678 H3/2 cumecs where H is
the depth of water above the weir crest. The sill of the weir is 3.4m above the bottom of the reservoir.
Starting with a depth of water of 4m in the reservoir and no inflow, what will be the depth of water after
one hour?
[3.98m]

## From the question A = 60 000 m2, Q = 0.678 h 3/2

Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change:

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 29 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 30
Notches and weirs 5.2
Derive an expression for the discharge over a sharp crested rectangular weir. A sharp edged weir is to be
5.1
constructed across a stream in which the normal flow is 200 litres/sec. If the maximum flow likely to
Deduce an expression for the discharge of water over a right-angled sharp edged V-notch, given that the
occur in the stream is 5 times the normal flow then determine the length of weir necessary to limit the rise
coefficient of discharge is 0.61.
in water level to 38.4cm above that for normal flow. Cd=0.61.
A rectangular tank 16m by 6m has the same notch in one of its short vertical sides. Determine the time
[1.24m]
taken for the head, measured from the bottom of the notch, to fall from 15cm to 7.5cm.
[1399 seconds]

## From your notes you can derive:

From your notes you can derive: 2
Q C b 2 gh 3/ 2
8 T 3 d
Q C tan 2 g H 5/ 2
15 d 2 From the question:
For this weir the equation simplifies to Q1 = 0.2 m3/s, h1 = x
3
Q 144
. H 5/ 2
Q2 = 1.0 m /s, h2 = x + 0.384

Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change: where x is the height above the weir at normal flow.

## Q Gt  A Gh So we have two situations:

A 2
Gt  Gh 0.2 C b 2 g x 3/ 2 1801
. bx 3/ 2    (1)
Q 3 d
2 3/ 2 3/ 2
Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level 10
. C b 2 g x  0.384 . b x  0.384
1801    ( 2)
3 d
h2A From (1) we get an expression for b in terms of x
T  dh
h1 Q
b . x 3/ 2
0111
16 u 6 h2 1

.
144 h1 h5/2 dh Substituting this in (2) gives,
2 x  0.384
3/ 2
u 66.67>h 3/ 2 @h
h2

3 10
. 1801
. u 0111
.
1
x
h1 = 0.15m, h2 = 0.075m x  0.384
52 / 3
44.44>0.075
T 3/ 2
 015
. 3 / 2
@ x
x 01996
. m
1399 sec
3/ 2
b . 01996
0111 .
. m
124

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 31 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 32
5.3 b) Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change:
Show that the rate of flow across a triangular notch is given by Q=CdKH5/2 cumecs, where Cd is an
Q Gt  A Gh
experimental coefficient, K depends on the angle of the notch, and H is the height of the undisturbed
water level above the bottom of the notch in metres. State the reasons for the introduction of the A
Gt  Gh
coefficient. Q
Water from a tank having a surface area of 10m2 flows over a 90q notch. It is found that the time taken to
Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level
lower the level from 8cm to 7cm above the bottom of the notch is 43.5seconds. Determine the coefficient
Cd assuming that it remains constant during his period. A
h2
T  dh
[0.635] h1 Q
8 T 56000 h2 1
. B h1 h 3/ 2
The proof for Q C tan 2 g H 5/ 2 Cd KH 5/ 2 is in the notes.  dh
15 d 2 177
2 u 56000 1/ 2 0.3
From the question:
. B
177
> h @ 0. 6
A = 10m2 T = 90q h1 = 0.08m h2 = 0.07m T = 43.5sec
5784>0.3  0.6 1/ 2 @
1/ 2

So
T 3093 sec
Q = 2.36 Cd h5/2
5.5
Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change: Develop a formula for the discharge over a 90q V-notch weir in terms of head above the bottom of the V.
Q Gt  A Gh A channel conveys 300 litres/sec of water. At the outlet end there is a 90q V-notch weir for which the
A coefficient of discharge is 0.58. At what distance above the bottom of the channel should the weir be
Gt  Gh placed in order to make the depth in the channel 1.30m? With the weir in this position what is the depth
Q
of water in the channel when the flow is 200 litres/sec?
Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level [0.755m, 1.218m]
A h2 8 T
T  dh Derive this formula from the notes: Q C tan 2 g H 5/ 2
Qh1 15 d 2
10 h2 1 From the question:
2.36Cd h1 h 5/2
 dh
T = 90q Cd 0.58 Q = 0.3 m3/s, depth of water, Z = 0.3m
2 4.23 3/2 0.08
u
3 Cd
>h @0.07 giving the weir equation:
. H 5/ 2
Q 137
2.82
435
.
Cd
>0.07 3/2  0.083/2 @ a) As H is the height above the bottom of the V, the depth of water = Z = D + H, where D is the height
Cd 0.635 of the bottom of the V from the base of the channel. So
5/2
5.4 . Z  D
Q 137
A reservoir with vertical sides has a plan area of 56000m2. Discharge from the reservoir takes place over . 13
0.3 137 .  D
5/2

a rectangular weir, the flow characteristic of which is Q=1.77BH3/2 m3/s. At times of maximum rainfall, D 0.755m
water flows into the reservoir at the rate of 9m3/s. Find a) the length of weir required to discharge this
quantity if head must not exceed 0.6m; b) the time necessary for the head to drop from 60cm to 30cm if b) Find Z when Q = 0.2 m3/s
the inflow suddenly stops. . Z  0.755
0.2 137
5/ 2

[10.94m, 3093seconds]
Z 1218
. m
From the question:
A = 56000 m2 Q = 1.77 B H 3/2 Qmax = 9 m3/s
a) Find B for H = 0.6
9 = 1.77 B 0.63/2
B = 10.94m

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 33 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 34
5.6 Application of the Momentum Equation
Show that the quantity of water flowing across a triangular V-notch of angle 2T is 6.1
8 The figure below shows a smooth curved vane attached to a rigid foundation. The jet of water,
Q Cd tan T 2 g H 5/ 2 . Find the flow if the measured head above the bottom of the V is 38cm, when
15 rectangular in section, 75mm wide and 25mm thick, strike the vane with a velocity of 25m/s. Calculate
T=45q and Cd=0.6. If the flow is wanted within an accuracy of 2%, what are the limiting values of the the vertical and horizontal components of the force exerted on the vane and indicate in which direction
[0.126m3/s, 0.377m, 0.383m] [Horizontal 233.4 N acting from right to left. Vertical 1324.6 N acting downwards]
Proof of the v-notch weir equation is in the notes.
From the question:
H = 0.38m T = 45q Cd = 0.6
45q
The weir equation becomes:
25q
Q 1417
. H 5/ 2
. 0.38
1417
5/ 2 From the question:
0126
. m3 / s a1 0.075 u 0.025 1875
. u 10 3 m 2
u1 25 m / s
Q 1875
. u 10  3 u 25 m 3 / s
Q+2% = 0.129 m3/s
a1 a 2 , so u1 u 2
.
0129 .
1417 H 5/ 2
H 0.383m Calculate the total force using the momentum equation:
FT x UQ u 2 cos 25  u1 cos 45
Q-2% = 0.124 m /s 3 1000 u 0.0469 25 cos 25  25 cos 45
.
0124 .
1417 H 5/ 2 233.44 N
H 0.377m FT y UQ u 2 sin 25  u1 sin 45
1000 u 0.0469 25 sin 25  25 sin 45
1324.6 N
Body force and pressure force are 0.
So force on vane:
Rx  Ft x 233.44 N
Ry  Ft y 1324.6 N

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 35 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 36
6.2 FRy FTy  FPy  FBy
A 600mm diameter pipeline carries water under a head of 30m with a velocity of 3m/s. This water main is 2.457  80.376  0 82.833 kN
fitted with a horizontal bend which turns the axis of the pipeline through 75q (i.e. the internal angle at the
bend is 105q). Calculate the resultant force on the bend and its angle to the horizontal. These forces act on the fluid
[104.044 kN, 52q 29] The resultant force on the fluid is
u2
y FR FRx  FRy 104.44 kN
FRy
T tan 1 52 \$ 29 '
FRx
x
6.3
A horizontal jet of water 2u103 mm2 cross-section and flowing at a velocity of 15 m/s hits a flat plate at
60q to the axis (of the jet) and to the horizontal. The jet is such that there is no side spread. If the plate is
stationary, calculate a) the force exerted on the plate in the direction of the jet and b) the ratio between the
u1
quantity of fluid that is deflected upwards and that downwards. (Assume that there is no friction and
therefore no shear force.)
[338N, 3:1]

y

x u2
From the question:
2
0.6
a S 0.283 m 2 d 0.6 m h 30 m
2
u1 u2 3m / s Q 0.848 m 3 / s
u1
Calculate total force.
FTx UQ u 2 x  u1x FRx  FPx  FBx
FTx 1000 u 0.848 3 cos 75  3 1.886 kN

FTy
UQ u2 y  u1 y FRy  FPy  FBy u3

## FTy 1000 u 0.848 3 sin 75  0 2.457 kN

From the question a2 = a3 =2x10-3 m2 u = 15 m/s
Calculate the pressure force
Apply Bernoulli,
p1 = p2 = p = hUg = 30u1000u9.81 = 294.3 kN/m2
FTx p1 a 1 cos T1  p 2 a 2 cos T2 p1 u12 p 2 u 22 p 3 u 32
 z  z  z
Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2 Ug 2 g 3
294300 u 0.283 1  cos 75
. kN
6173
FTy p1 a1 sin T1  p 2 a 2 sin T2 Change in height is negligible so z1 = z2 = z3 and pressure is always atmospheric p1= p2 = p3 =0. So

## 294300 u 0.283 0  sin 75 u1= u2 = u3 =15 m/s

80.376 kN By continuity Q1= Q2 + Q3

## There is no body force in the x or y directions. u1a1 = u2a2 + u3a3

so a1 = a2 + a3
FRx FTx  FPx  FBx
1886
.  61.73  0 63.616 kN Put the axes normal to the plate, as we know that the resultant force is normal to the plate.

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 37 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 38
-3
Q1 = a1u = 2u10 u15 = 0.03 FTx = UQ( 0 - u1x )
Q1 = (a2 + a3) u FTx = 1000u0.11 ( 0 - 25 cos 30 ) = 2.39 kN
Q2 = a2u 6.5
Q3 = (a1 - a2)u The outlet pipe from a pump is a bend of 45q rising in the vertical plane (i.e. and internal angle of 135q).
The bend is 150mm diameter at its inlet and 300mm diameter at its outlet. The pipe axis at the inlet is
Calculate total force. horizontal and at the outlet it is 1m higher. By neglecting friction, calculate the force and its direction if
the inlet pressure is 100kN/m2 and the flow of water through the pipe is 0.3m3/s. The volume of the pipe
FTx UQ u 2 x  u1x FRx  FPx  FBx
is 0.075m3.
FTx 1000 u 0.03 0  15 sin 60 390 N [13.94kN at 67q 40 to the horizontal]
Component in direction of jet = 390 sin 60 = 338 N y p2 u
2 A2

## As there is no force parallel to the plate Fty = 0

x
FTy Uu22 a2  Uu32 a3  Uu12 a1 cosT 0
a 2  a 3  a1 cosT 0
a1 a2  a3 p1 1m
a 3  a1 cosT a1  a 3
u1 45
4
4a 3 a1 a
3 2
1 A1
a3 a
3 2
Thus 3/4 of the jet goes up, 1/4 down
6.4 1&2 Draw the control volume and the axis system
A 75mm diameter jet of water having a velocity of 25m/s strikes a flat plate, the normal of which is
inclined at 30q to the jet. Find the force normal to the surface of the plate.
[2.39kN] p1 = 100 kN/m2, Q = 0.3 m3/s T = 45q

y d1 = 0.15 m d2 = 0.3 m
A1 = 0.177 m2 A2 = 0.0707 m2
x u2

## 3 Calculate the total force

in the x direction

u1 FT x UQ u2 x  u1 x
UQ u2 cosT  u1

u3

## From the question, djet = 0.075m u1=25m/s Q = 25S(0.075/2)2 = 0.11 m3/s

Force normal to plate is
Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 39 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 40
0.3 FP x 100000 u 0.0177  2253614
. cos 45 u 0.0707
u1 16.98 m / s
S 015
. 2 / 4 1770  11266.34 9496.37 kN
0.3
u2 4.24 m / s
0.0707 FP y 2253614
. sin 45 u 0.0707
11266.37
FT x 1000 u 0.3 4.24 cos 45  16.98
1493.68 N 5 Calculate the body force
The only body force is the force due to gravity. That is the weight acting in the y direction.
and in the y-direction FB y  Ug u volume

FT y
UQ u2 y  u1 y 1000 u 9.81 u 0.075
1290156
. N
UQ u2 sin T  0
There are no body forces in the x direction,
1000 u 0.3 4.24 sin 45
FB x 0
899.44 N
6 Calculate the resultant force
4 Calculate the pressure force.

## FP pressure force at 1 - pressure force at 2 FT x FR x  FP x  FB x

FT y FR y  FP y  FB y
FP x p1 A1 cos 0  p2 A2 cosT p1 A1  p2 A2 cosT
FR x FT x  FP x  FB x
FP y p1 A1 sin 0  p2 A2 sin T  p2 A2 sin T 4193.6  9496.37
5302.7 N
We know pressure at the inlet but not at the outlet.
we can use Bernoulli to calculate this unknown pressure. FR y FT y  FP y  FB y
899.44  11266.37  735.75
2 2 . N
1290156
p1 u1 p2 u2
 z   z  hf
Ug 2g 1 Ug 2g 2
And the resultant force on the fluid is given by
where hf is the friction loss
FRy
In the question it says this can be ignored, hf=0 FResultant
The height of the pipe at the outlet is 1m above the inlet.
Taking the inlet level as the datum:
z1 = 0 z2 = 1m

So the Bernoulli equation becomes:
100000 16.982 p2 4.242 FRx
 0   10
.
1000 u 9.81 2 u 9.81 1000 u 9.81 2 u 9.81
2
p2 2253614. N /m

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 41 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 42

FR F 2
F 2 6.7
Rx R y
A curved plate deflects a 75mm diameter jet through an angle of 45q. For a velocity in the jet of 40m/s to
5302.7 2  1290156
. 2 the right, compute the components of the force developed against the curved plate. (Assume no friction).
13.95 kN [Rx=2070N, Ry=5000N down]
u2
y
And the direction of application is
FR y .
1290156
I tan 1 tan 1 67.66\$ x
FR x 5302.7

The force on the bend is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction
R  FR
u1

6.6
The force exerted by a 25mm diameter jet against a flat plate normal to the axis of the jet is 650N. What
is the flow in m3/s?
[0.018 m3/s]
y u2 From the question:
a1 S 0.0752 / 4 4.42 u 10 3 m2
u1 40 m / s
x
Q 4.42 u 10 3 u 40 01767
. m3 / s
a1 a2 , so u1 u2
u1
Calculate the total force using the momentum equation:
FT x UQ u2 cos 45  u1
1000 u 01767
. 40 cos 45  40
207017
. N

FT y UQ u2 sin 45  0
u2 1000 u 01767
. 40 sin 45
4998 N
From the question, djet = 0.025m FTx = 650 N
Body force and pressure force are 0.
Force normal to plate is
So force on vane:
FTx = UQ( 0 - u1x )
Rx  Ft x 2070 N
650 = 1000uQ ( 0 - u )
Ry  Ft y 4998 N
Q = au = (Sd2/4)u
650 = -1000au2 = -1000Q2/a
650 = -1000Q2/(S0.0252/4)
Q = 0.018m3/s

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 43 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 44
6.8 FT x 1000 u 0.45 6.365 cos 45  159
.
A 45q reducing bend, 0.6m diameter upstream, 0.3m diameter downstream, has water flowing through it 1310 N
at the rate of 0.45m3/s under a pressure of 1.45 bar. Neglecting any loss is head for friction, calculate the
force exerted by the water on the bend, and its direction of application.
[R=34400N to the right and down, T = 14q] and in the y-direction
2
y
u2 FT y
UQ u2 y  u1 y
A2
UQ u2 sin T  0
1000 u 0.45 6.365 sin 45
x 1800 N
4 Calculate the pressure force.
1
FP pressure force at 1 - pressure force at 2
u1

## FP y p1 A1 sin 0  p2 A2 sin T  p2 A2 sin T

1&2 Draw the control volume and the axis system We know pressure at the inlet but not at the outlet.
we can use Bernoulli to calculate this unknown pressure.
5 2 3
p1 = 1.45u10 N/m , Q = 0.45 m /s T = 45q p1 u12 p2 u22
 z   z  hf
d1 = 0.6 m d2 = 0.3 m Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2
A1 = 0.283 m2 A2 = 0.0707 m2
where hf is the friction loss
In the question it says this can be ignored, hf=0
3 Calculate the total force
Assume the pipe to be horizontal
in the x direction
z1 = z 2
So the Bernoulli equation becomes:
FT x UQ u2 x  u1 x 145000 . 2
159 p2 6.3652
 
UQ u2 cosT  u1 1000 u 9.81 2 u 9.81 1000 u 9.81 2 u 9.81
p2 126007 N / m 2

## by continuity A1u1 A2u2 Q , so

FP x 145000 u 0.283  126000 cos 45 u 0.0707
41035  6300 34735 N
0.45
u1 . m/ s
159
S 0.6 2 / 4
FP y 126000 sin 45 u 0.0707
0.45
u2 6.365 m / s 6300 N
0.0707

## 5 Calculate the body force

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 45 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 46
The only body force is the force due to gravity. Laminar pipe flow.
There are no body forces in the x or y directions, 7.1
FB x FB y 0 The distribution of velocity, u, in metres/sec with radius r in metres in a smooth bore tube of 0.025 m
bore follows the law, u = 2.5 - kr2. Where k is a constant. The flow is laminar and the velocity at the pipe
6 Calculate the resultant force surface is zero. The fluid has a coefficient of viscosity of 0.00027 kg/m s. Determine (a) the rate of flow
in m3/s (b) the shearing force between the fluid and the pipe wall per metre length of pipe.
[6.14x10-4 m3/s, 8.49x10-3 N]
FT x FR x  FP x  FB x The velocity at distance r from the centre is given in the question:
FT y FR y  FP y  FB y u = 2.5 - kr2
Also we know: P = 0.00027 kg/ms 2r = 0.025m
FR x FT x  FP x  FB x
We can find k from the boundary conditions:
1310  34735 when r = 0.0125, u = 0.0 (boundary of the pipe)
33425 N 0.0 = 2.5 - k0.01252
k = 16000
FR y FT y  FP y  FB y u = 2.5 - 1600 r2
1800  6300 a)
8100 N Following along similar lines to the derivation seen in the lecture notes, we can calculate the flow GQ
through a small annulus Gr:
GQ ur Aannulus
And the resultant force on the fluid is given by Aannulus S (r  Gr ) 2  Sr 2 | 2SrGr
FRy
FResultant
GQ 2.5  16000r 2SrGr
2

0.0125

Q 2S 2.5r  16000r dr
0
3

0.0125
2.5r 2 16000 4
2S  r
2 4 0
. m3 / s
614
FRx
b)
FR FR2 x  FR2 y
The shear force is given by F = W u (2Sr)
334252  8100 2 From Newtons law of viscosity
34392 kN
du
W P
dr
And the direction of application is du
2 u 16000r 32000r
dr
FR y 8100 F 0.00027 u 32000 u 0.0125 u (2 u S u 0.0125)
I tan 1 tan 1 13.62 \$
FR x  33425
8.48 u 10  3 N
The force on the bend is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction
R  FR

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 47 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 48
7.2 'p 1
A liquid whose coefficient of viscosity is m flows below the critical velocity for laminar flow in a circular ur
L 4P
R2  r 2
pipe of diameter d and with mean velocity u. Show that the pressure loss in a length of pipe is 32um/d2.
Oil of viscosity 0.05 kg/ms flows through a pipe of diameter 0.1m with a velocity of 0.6m/s. Calculate the The flow in an annulus of thickness Gr
loss of pressure in a length of 120m. GQ ur Aannulus
[11 520 N/m2]
Aannulus S (r  Gr ) 2  Sr 2 | 2SrGr
See the proof in the lecture notes for 'p 1
Consider a cylinder of fluid, length L, radius r, flowing steadily in the centre of a pipe GQ
L 4P
R 2  r 2 2SrGr
R
'p S
r Q
L 2 P 0
R 2r  r 3 dr
'p SR 4 'p Sd 4
r r
L 8P L128P
R So the discharge can be written
'p Sd 4
Q
L 128P
The fluid is in equilibrium, shearing forces equal the pressure forces.
To get pressure loss in terms of the velocity of the flow, use the mean velocity:
W 2Sr L 'p A 'pSr 2 u Q/ A
'p r
W 'p d 2
L 2 u
32 PL
du 32 PLu
Newtons law of viscosity W P , 'p
dy d2
du 32 Pu
We are measuring from the pipe centre, so W P 'p per unit length
dr d2
Giving: b) From the question P= 0.05 kg/ms d = 0.1m
'p r du u = 0.6 m/s L = 120.0m
P
L 2 dr 32 u 0.05 u 120 u 0.6
du 'p r 'p 11520 N / m2
 01.2
dr L 2P
In an integral form this gives an expression for velocity,
'p 1
L 2P
u  r dr

## The value of velocity at a point distance r from the centre

'p r 2
ur  C
L 4P
At r = 0, (the centre of the pipe), u = umax, at r = R (the pipe wall) u = 0;
'p R 2
C
L 4P
At a point r from the pipe centre when the flow is laminar:

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 49 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 50
7.3 vpiston = 0.00064 m/s
A plunger of 0.08m diameter and length 0.13m has four small holes of diameter 5/1600 m drilled through 7.4
in the direction of its length. The plunger is a close fit inside a cylinder, containing oil, such that no oil is A vertical cylinder of 0.075 metres diameter is mounted concentrically in a drum of 0.076metres internal
assumed to pass between the plunger and the cylinder. If the plunger is subjected to a vertical downward diameter. Oil fills the space between them to a depth of 0.2m. The rotque required to rotate the cylinder in
force of 45N (including its own weight) and it is assumed that the upward flow through the four small the drum is 4Nm when the speed of rotation is 7.5 revs/sec. Assuming that the end effects are negligible,
holes is laminar, determine the speed of the fall of the plunger. The coefficient of velocity of the oil is 0.2 calculate the coefficient of viscosity of the oil.
kg/ms. [0.638 kg/ms]
[0.00064 m/s]
From the question r-1 = 0.076/2 r2 = 0.075/2 Torque = 4Nm, L = 0.2m
F = 45N
d = 5/1600 m
Q The velocity of the edge of the cylinder is:
ucyl = 7.5 u 2Sr = 7.5u2uSu0.0375 = 1.767 m/s
udrum = 0.0
plunger Torque needed to rotate cylinder
T W u surface area
0.13 m
4 W 2Sr2 u L
W . N / m2
226354
Distance between cylinder and drum = r1 - r2 = 0.038 - 0.0375 = 0.005m

## cylinder Using Newtons law of viscosity:

du
W P
dr
du 1767
. 0
0.8m
dr 0.0005
W 22635 . P 3534
P 0.64 kg / ms ( Ns / m 2 )

## Flow through each tube given by Hagen-Poiseuille equation

'p Sd 4
Q
L 128P
There are 4 of these so total flow is
'p Sd 4 4S (5 / 1600) 4
Q 4 'p 'p3601
. u 10 10
L 128P . u 128 u 0.2
013
Force = pressure u area
0.08 2 2
5 / 1600
F 45 'p S  4S
2 2
'p 9007.206 N / m2

Q 3.24 u 10 6 m 3 / s
Flow up through piston = flow displaced by moving piston
Q = Avpiston
3.24u10-6 = Su0.042uvpiston
Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 51 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 52
Dimensional analysis And the second group S2 :
8.1 M 0 L0 T 0 LT 1 a2 c2
L b ML 3 L2 T 1
2

A stationary sphere in water moving at a velocity of 1.6m/s experiences a drag of 4N. Another sphere of
twice the diameter is placed in a wind tunnel. Find the velocity of the air and the drag which will give M] 0 = c2
dynamically similar conditions. The ratio of kinematic viscosities of air and water is 13, and the density
L] 0 = a2 + b2 - 3c2 + 2
of air 1.28 kg/m3.
[10.4m/s 0.865N] -2 = a2 + b2
Draw up the table of values you have for each variable: T] 0 = -a2 - 1
variable water air a2 = -1
u 1.6m/s uair b2 = -1
Drag 4N Dair S2 u 1d 1 U 0Q
Q Q 13Q Q
3 3 ud
U 1000 kg/m 1.28 kg/m
So the physical situation is described by this function of nondimensional numbers,
d d 2d
D Q
I S1 , S 2 I , 0
Uu 2 d 2 ud
Kinematic viscosity is dynamic viscosity over density = Q PU
For dynamic similarity these non-dimensional numbers are the same for the both the sphere in water and
Uud ud
The Reynolds number = Re in the wind tunnel i.e.
P Q
S1air S 1water
Choose the three recurring (governing) variables; u, d, U
S 2 air S 2 water
From Buckinghams S theorem we have m-n = 5 - 3 = 2 non-dimensional groups.
For S1
I u, d , U , D,Q 0
D D
I S 1 , S 2 0 2 2 2 2
Uu d air Uu d water
S1 u a1 d b1 U c1 D
Dair 4
S2 u a2 d b2 U c2 Q . u 10.4 2 u (2d ) 2
128 . 2 ud2
1000 u 16
As each S group is dimensionless then considering the dimensions, for the first group, S1: Dair 0.865 N
(note D is a force with dimensions MLT-2) For S2
1 a1 3 c1
M LT 0 0 0
LT L ML
b1
MLT 2 Q

Q

ud air ud water
M] 0 = c1 + 1
13Q Q
c1 = -1 uair u 2d . ud
16
L] 0 = a1 + b1 - 3c1 + 1 uair 10.4 m / s
-4 = a1 + b1
T] 0 = -a1 - 2
a1 = - 2
b1 = -2
S1 u 2 d  2 U  1 D
D
Uu 2 d 2
Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 53 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 54
8.2 M] 0 = c1
Explain briefly the use of the Reynolds number in the interpretation of tests on the flow of liquid in pipes. L] 0 = a1 + b1 - 3c1 + 2
Water flows through a 2cm diameter pipe at 1.6m/s. Calculate the Reynolds number and find also the
velocity required to give the same Reynolds number when the pipe is transporting air. Obtain the ratio of -2 = a1 + b1
pressure drops in the same length of pipe for both cases. For the water the kinematic viscosity was T] 0 = -a1 - 1
1.31u10-6 m2/s and the density was 1000 kg/m3. For air those quantities were 15.1u10-6 m2/s and
1.19kg/m3. a1 = -1
[24427, 18.4m/s, 0.157] b1 = -1
Draw up the table of values you have for each variable: S1 u d 1 U 0Q
1

## variable water air Q

u 1.6m/s uair ud

p pwater pair
U 1000 kg/m3 1.19kg/m3 And the second group S2 :

Q u m s   
u m s (note p is a pressure (force/area) with dimensions ML-1T-2)
1 a1 c1
U 1000 kg/m3 1.28 kg/m3 M 0 L0 T 0 LT L b ML3 MT 2 L1
1

d 0.02m 0.02m M] 0 = c2 + 1
 c2 = -1
Kinematic viscosity is dynamic viscosity over density = Q PU L] 0 = a2 + b2 - 3c2 - 1
Uud ud -2 = a2 + b2
The Reynolds number = Re
P Q T] 0 = -a2 - 2
Reynolds number when carrying water: a2 = - 2
ud 16. u 0.02 b2 = 0
Re water 24427
Q . u 10 6
131 S2 u U 1 p
2

## To calculate Reair we know, p

Re water
Re air Uu 2
uair 0.02 So the physical situation is described by this function of nondimensional numbers,
24427
15 u 10 6
Q p
uair 18.44m / s I S 1 , S 2 I , 0
ud Uu 2
To obtain the ratio of pressure drops we must obtain an expression for the pressure drop in terms of
governing variables.
Choose the three recurring (governing) variables; u, d, U For dynamic similarity these non-dimensional numbers are the same for the both water and air in the pipe.
From Buckinghams S theorem we have m-n = 5 - 3 = 2 non-dimensional groups. S1air S1water
I u, d , U , Q , p 0 S 2 air S 2 water

## I S 1 , S 2 0 We are interested in the relationship involving the pressure i.e. S2

a1 b1 c1
S1 u d U Q
S2 u a2 d b2 U c2 p

As each S group is dimensionless then considering the dimensions, for the first group, S1:
1 a1 c1
M 0 L0 T 0 LT L b ML3 L2 T 1
1

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 55 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 56
1 1 1
p p S1 Q d U P
2 2
Uu air Uu water dP
pwater Uwater u 2 UQ
water
2
pair Uair u air

. 2
1000 u 16 1 And the second group S2 :
6.327
. u 18.44 2
119 0158
. (note p is a pressure (force/area) with dimensions ML-1T-2)
Show that Reynold number, Uud/P, is non-dimensional. If the discharge Q through an orifice is a function 1 a1 c1
of the diameter d, the pressure difference p, the density U, and the viscosity P, show that Q = Cp1/2d2/U1/2 M 0 L0 T 0 L T
3
L b ML3 MT 2 L1
1

## where C is some function of the non-dimensional group (dU1/2d1/2/P). M] 0 = c2 + 1

Draw up the table of values you have for each variable:
c2 = -1
The dimensions of these following variables are
L] 0 = 3a2 + b2 - 3c2 - 1
  U ML-3
-2 = 3a2 + b2
u LT-1
T] 0 = -a2 - 2
d L
a2 = - 2
P ML-1T-1
b2 = 4
Re = ML-3 LT-1L(ML-1T-1)-1 = ML-3 LT-1 L M-1LT = 1
S2 Q 2 d 4 U 1 p
i.e. Re is dimensionless.
d4 p
UQ 2
We are told from the question that there are 5 variables involved in the problem: d, p, U, P and Q.
So the physical situation is described by this function of non-dimensional numbers,
Choose the three recurring (governing) variables; Q, d, U
dP d 4 p
From Buckinghams S theorem we have m-n = 5 - 3 = 2 non-dimensional groups. I S 1 , S 2 I , 0
QU UQ 2
I Q, d , U , P , p 0 or
I S 1 , S 2 0 dP d4 p
I1
S1 Q a1 d b1 U c1 P QU UQ 2
S2 Q a2 d b2 U c2 p
dU 1/2 p 1/2 d 2 p 1/2
The question wants us to show : Q f
As each S group is dimensionless then considering the dimensions, for the first group, S1: P U
1 a1 c1
M 0 L0 T 0 L T
3
L b ML3 ML1T 1
1

## Take the reciprocal of square root of S2:

1 U 1/2 Q
S 2a ,
S2 d 2 p1/2
M] 0 = c1 + 1
c1 = -1 Convert S1 by multiplying by this number
L] 0 = 3a1 + b1 - 3c1 - 1 dP U 1/ 2 Q P
S1a S1S 2 a
-2 = 3a1 + b1 QU d 2 p 1/ 2 dU 1/ 2 p1/ 2
T] 0 = -a1 - 1 then we can say
a1 = -1
b1 = 1

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 57 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 58
1 a1 3 c1
I 1 / S 1a , S 2 a I
1/ 2 1/ 2
p U d d p
, 1/2
2 1/ 2
0
M 0 L0 T 0 LT L ML
b1
ML1T 1
P U
M] 0 = c1 + 1
or
c1 = -1
p 1/2 U 1/2 d d 2 p 1/ 2
Q I L] 0 = a1 + b1 - 3c1 - 1
P U 1/ 2
-2 = a1 + b1
8.4
A cylinder 0.16m in diameter is to be mounted in a stream of water in order to estimate the force on a tall T] 0 = -a1 - 1
chimney of 1m diameter which is subject to wind of 33m/s. Calculate (A) the speed of the stream a1 = -1
necessary to give dynamic similarity between the model and chimney, (b) the ratio of forces.
b1 = -1
Chimney: U = 1.12kg/m3 P = 16u10-6 kg/ms
S1 u 1d 1 U 1 P
Model: U = 1000kg/m3 P = 8u10-4 kg/ms P
[11.55m/s, 0.057] Uud
Draw up the table of values you have for each variable: i.e. the (inverse of) Reynolds number
variable water air And the second group S2 :
u uwater 33m/s 1 a2 c2
M 0 L0 T 0 LT L b ML 3 ML1T 2
2

F Fwater Fair
M] 0 = c2 + 1
U 1000 kg/m3 1.12kg/m3
c2 = -1
P u kgms ukg/ms
L] 0 = a2 + b2 - 3c2 - 1
d 0.16m 1m
-3 = a2 + b2

T] 0 = -a2 - 2
Kinematic viscosity is dynamic viscosity over density = Q PU
a2 = - 2
Uud ud
The Reynolds number = Re b2 = -1
P Q
S2 u d  1 U 1 F
2

## For dynamic similarity:

F
Re water Re air u 2 dU
1000uwater 016
. . u 33 u 1
112
So the physical situation is described by this function of nondimensional numbers,
8 u 10 4 16 u 10 6
uwater . m/ s
1155 P F
I S 1 , S 2 I , 0
To obtain the ratio of forces we must obtain an expression for the force in terms of governing variables. Uud Udu 2

## Choose the three recurring (governing) variables; u, d, U F, P

From Buckinghams S theorem we have m-n = 5 - 3 = 2 non-dimensional groups. For dynamic similarity these non-dimensional numbers are the same for the both water and air in the pipe.

I u, d , U , P , F 0 S1air S1water
S 2 air S 2 water
I S 1 , S 2 0
S1 u a1 d b1 U c1 P To find the ratio of forces for the different fluids use S2
a2 b2 c2
S2 u d U F

As each S group is dimensionless then considering the dimensions, for the first group, S1:

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 59 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 60
S 2 air S 2 water And the second group S2 :
1 a2 c2
F
2
F
2 M 0 L0 T 0 LT L b ML3 ML1T 2
2

Uu d air Uu d water
M] 0 = c2 + 1
F F
2 2 c2 = -1
Uu d air Uu d water
L] 0 = a2 + b2 - 3c2 - 1
Fair . u 332 u 1
112
0.057 -3 = a2 + b2
Fwater . 2 u 016
1000 u 1155 .
T] 0 = -a2 - 2
8.5
If the resistance to motion, R, of a sphere through a fluid is a function of the density U and viscosity P of a2 = - 2
the fluid, and the radius r and velocity u of the sphere, show that R is given by b2 = -1
P 2 Uur S2 u 2 r 1 U 1 R
R f
U P R
Hence show that if at very low velocities the resistance R is proportional to the velocity u, then R = kPru u 2 rU
where k is a dimensionless constant. So the physical situation is described by this function of nondimensional numbers,
A fine granular material of specific gravity 2.5 is in uniform suspension in still water of depth 3.3m.
Regarding the particles as spheres of diameter 0.002cm find how long it will take for the water to clear. P R
I S1 , S 2 I , 0
Take k=6S and P=0.0013 kg/ms. Uur Uru 2
[218mins 39.3sec]
or
Choose the three recurring (governing) variables; u, r, U R, P
R P
From Buckinghams S theorem we have m-n = 5 - 3 = 2 non-dimensional groups. I1
Uru 2 Uur
I u , r , U , P , R 0
P 2 Uur RU Uur
I S 1 , S 2 0 he question asks us to show R f or 2 f
U P P P
S1 u a1 r b1 U c1 P
Multiply the LHS by the square of the RHS: (i.e. S2u(1/S12) )
S2 u a2 r b2 U c2 R
R U 2u2r 2 RU
As each S group is dimensionless then considering the dimensions, for the first group, S1: u
Uru 2 P2 P2
1 a1 3 c1
M 0 L0 T 0 LT L ML
b1
ML1T 1 So
M] 0 = c1 + 1 RU Uur
f
c1 = -1 P2 P
L] 0 = a1 + b1 - 3c1 - 1 The question tells us that R is proportional to u so the function f must be a constant, k
-2 = a1 + b1 RU Uur
k
T] 0 = -a1 - 1 P2 P
a1 = -1 R Pkru
b1 = -1
S1 u 1r 1 U 1 P The water will clear when the particle moving from the water surface reaches the bottom.
P At terminal velocity there is no acceleration - the force R = mg - upthrust.
Uur From the question:
i.e. the (inverse of) Reynolds number V = 2.5 so U = 2500kg/m3 P = 0.0013 kg/ms k = 6S

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 61 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 62
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## r = 0.00001m depth = 3.3m

4
mg S 0.000013 u 9.81 u 2500  1000
3
. u 10 11
616
. u 10 11
Pkru 0.0013 u 6S u 0.00001u 616
u 2.52 u 10 4 m / s
3.3
t 218 min 39.3 sec
2.52 u 10  4