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sAFE lONGTERM dEFLECTION tUTORIAL

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Updated on 08/12/2016: Illustration of the 2nd method of computing Long Term Deflection

In case you missed the Step by Step series, Check it up below. Its a MUST !

1. [Part 1] Step by Step Analysis Procedure of Seismic Loads Based on IBC2012/ASCE7-10 (http://kickmybrain.com/step-

by-step-analysis-procedure-of-seismic-loads-based-on-ibc2012asce7-10/)

2. [Part 2] Step by Step Analysis Procedure of Seismic Loads Based on IBC2012/ASCE7-10

(http://kickmybrain.com/part-2-step-by-step-analysis-procedure-of-seismic-loads-based-on-ibc2012asce7-10/)

3. Step by Step Deflection Analysis Using CSI SAFE (http://kickmybrain.com/step-by-step-deflection-analysis-using-

csi-safe/)

Because of the complexities involved in calculating two-way slab deflections, engineers have preferred to control

deflections by giving minimum slab thickness as a function of span length. Equations such as those in section 9.5 of

ACI318, as shown in Table 4.2, are based on experience gained over many years. The ACI 318 equations express

minimum thickness in terms of clear span between columns, steel yield strength, and flexural stiffness of edge beams.

The minimum thickness values are modified for the effects of drop panels and discontinuous edges. ACI 318 permits to

use of thinner slabs if deflections are computed and found to satisfy the specified maximum permissible values.

In this post, Ill try to explain step by step how two way slabs deflections shall be computed using SAFE software:

2. Long Term Deflections Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep

Here we have a simple slab of:

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40 cm solid slab thickness

25 Mpa concrete compressive strength

0.5 ton/m2 uniform loading under Super Imposed Dead load & 1 ton/m2 uniform loading of Live load

Supported on 4 edges by 80x80cm square columns.

This example is meant only to clarify how to compute the deflection using SAFE. However, there is more economical

solutions for such spans as post tension, hollow core slabs, etc.

376

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Under Define Load cases, we will define one load case called IMMEDIATE ALL LOADS, where we will include of load

patterns ( Dead , Live & Super Imposed Dead loads) in one load case under Nonlinear (Cracked) analysis type.

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And in term of comparison, we will define a load combination that include all load patterns (Dead+Live+Super Imposed

Dead load).

It will be linear (Non-Cracked) Elastic load combination.

Now well define the cracking analysis options under the Run menu, here we have 3 options to choose from:

From Finite Element Based Design

Quick Tension Rebar Specification

In this example, we will choose From Finite Element Based Design.

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After running the analysis, here below are the results that we get under:

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Here we can notice that the deflection under Non-Linear Crack analysis is around 2 times the deflection under Elastic

Linear load combination.

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Now, we will elaborate the deflection for Long Term cracked Deflection Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep.

Long-term cracked deflection, in which analysis is divided into the following two categories:

Non-sustained portion, in which cracked-section analysis considers only the non-sustained portion of LIVE load,

solving for incremental deflection.

Sustained portion, in which long-term cracked analysis considers the sustained loading from DEAD, SDEAD, and a

portion of the LIVE load. Creep and shrinkage are included only in this sustained portion of analysis because these

effects are only applicable under sustained loading.

Here I draw your attention that:

Long-term concrete modulus = Age-adjusted concrete modulus Ec(t,to), given as:

For example, assume that 25% of the LIVE load is sustained. Analysis proceeds as follows:

Case 1: Cracked analysis for short-term load with short-term concrete modulus is given as DEAD + SDEAD + sLIVE,

in which s = 1.0

Case 2: Cracked analysis for permanent load with short-term concrete modulus is given as DEAD + SDEAD + LLIVE,

in which L = 0.25 (L = 0 if 100% of the LIVE load is non-sustained)

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Case 3: Long-term cracked analysis (with creep and shrinkage) for permanent load with long-term concrete modulus is

given as DEAD + SDEAD + LLIVE, in which L = 0.25

The value of total long-term deflection is then the combination of Case 3 + (Case 1- Case 2).

The difference between Case 1 and Case 2 represents the incremental deflection (without creep and shrinkage) due to non-

sustained loading on a cracked structure.

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And here below how becomes our load combination under which will be conducted the long term cracked deflection

result.

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So now as a summary, here below are the maximum deflection results that we got for the time being:

Immediate Deflections No Shrinkage & No Creep = 5.6cm (50% increment from Elastic)

Long Term Deflections Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep = 7.8cm (40% increment from

Immediate Deflections)

The procedure indicated above (Long Term Deflections) results on total long term deflection over time. Most engineers

simply check this values against ACI 318 Table 9.5(b), since this will always result in safe and conservative design. In

order to remove portion of dead load deflection occurring before attachment of nonstructural elements, the following

procedure can also be used:

Case 4= Cracked analysis for permanent load with short-term concrete modulus is given as DEAD + DSDEAD, in which

D = percentage of super imposed dead load present before attachment of non structural elements

Or Case 4= Cracked analysis for permanent load with long-term concrete modulus creep and shrinkage is given as DEAD

+ DSDE

D, in which D = percentage of super imposed dead load present before attachment of non structural elements, and say

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The value of total long term deflection to occur after attachment of nonstructural elements is then the combination of

Case 3 + (Case 1- Case 2)- Case 4

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Updated on 08/12/2016: Illustration of the 2nd method of computing Long Term De ection

Even though this method is not recommended by the CSI, but Ill explain it and we will check together the results:

A single load pattern is applied in a load case, then another case is set to continue From State at End of Nonlinear Case.

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Add a DEAD load case using the Nonlinear (Cracked) option, starting with a Zero Initial Condition.

Add a SDEAD load case using the Nonlinear (Cracked) option, starting From State at End of Nonlinear Case DEAD.

Add a LIVE load case using the Nonlinear (Cracked) option, starting From State at End of Nonlinear Case SDEAD.

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The DEAD load case predicts cracking from a zero initial condition, in which no load is present, then computes cracking

due to DEAD load-pattern application. Adding SDEAD then uses the stiffness at the end of DEAD load case, and

contributes additional deflection.

And the maximum deflection will be conducted under the load case Live-LT = 5cm

But with reference to CSI this method is not recommended since the deflection result reports the total deflection from

both DEAD and SDEAD cases, however, the increase in DEAD load deflection due to additional cracking from SDEAD

load application is not recognized.

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Summary:

Immediate Deflections No Shrinkage & No Creep = 5.6cm (50% increment from Elastic)

Long Term Deflections Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep

(Case1 +Case3 -Case2) = 7.8cm (40% increment from Immediate Deflections)

Long Term Deflections Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep

(Case1 +Case3 -Case2 -Case4) = 5.8cm (less than 5% increment from Immediate Deflections)

Long Term Deflections Sustained Load with Shrinkage &Creep

(2nd Method)= 5.0cm

Hopefully we could clarify properly how to compute the long term cracked analysis. If you have any question please do not

hesitate to drop it by comment below.

And in case you have any query in the structural engineering, drop it by the Handy Forum

(http://kickmybrain.com/handy-forum/) and well assist you as soon as possible !

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Reply (http://www.kickmybrain.com/step-by-step-de ection-analysis-using-csi-safe/?replytocom=7700#respond)

Murali (December 12, 2016 - 7:48 PM)

Dear all, I would like to receive all posts from this site. Thanks in advance.

Step by Step How to Compute P-Delta e ect using ETABS according to ASCE7-10 | KickMyBrain (http://kickmybrain.com/step-by-step-

how-to-compute-p-delta-e ect-using-etabs/)

(December 12, 2016 - 9:31 AM) Reply (http://www.kickmybrain.com/step-by-step-de ection-analysis-using-csi-safe/?replytocom=7687#respond)

Faris (December 11, 2016 - 12:33 AM)

Hello Zahi,

Thanks for posting this article. Where does CSI mention that the other method is not recommended? Ive always used that method with no issues. If its not

recommended, I dont see a reason why they have the continue from state at end of non-linear case option to begin with.

Regards,

Faris

Hello Faris,

However, this does not mean that the results are wrong. It only does not re ect properly the real case scenario because the increase in DEAD load de ection

due to additional cracking from SDEAD load application is not recognized.

And the option of continue from state at end of non-linear case its not limited only for de ection computation. It may be useful for other purposes.

Faris (December 11, 2016 - 1:05 AM)

I just read what they wrote and I agree that the way they did it does not recognize the additional super-imposed DL. The way I typically do it is different and I

believe it does encompass all de ections, I wish I can share an image. Thanks again for sparking the discussion.

Sure you may explain/ Illustrate your method

to admin@kickmybrain.com

(mailto:admin@kickmybrain.com) and well

review it accordingly.

Hi , thanks for the illustration , its very helpful . Reply (http://www.kickmybrain.com/step-by-step-de ection-analysis-using-csi-safe/?replytocom=7376#respond)

option Continue from state at end of non-linear

case instead of subtracting the de ection values

manually as you did .

Sincerely ,

Good to hear that you found this article helpful.

However, We did not use this method because its

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not recommended from CSI. As the de ection

results reports the total de ection from both

DEAD and SDEAD cases, however, the increase in

DEAD load de ection due to additional cracking

from SDEAD load application is not recognized.

Anyway, upon your query, We have updated the

post above and illustrate this second method of

computation for long term de ection. You may

check it above.

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