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Fall Issue 2017, Volume 43, Issue 3

Green Works1 Summer Meeting page 4

Ed Burke VJ Comai
Rocky Dale Gardens Bartlett Tree Experts BUDGET AND FINANCE
806 Rocky Dale Road 184 Tamarack Rd COMMITTEE CHAIR
Bristol, VT 05443 Charlotte, VT 05445 Nate Carr - Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
802.453.2782 802.296.1797 802.425.5222
VICE-PRESIDENT Marlys Eddy Ed Burke - Rocky Dale Gardens
Vermont Technical College 802.453.2782
Hannah Decker PO Box 500
Fairfax Perennial Farm, Inc. Randolph Center, VT 05061 LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE CHAIR
7 Blackberry Hill Road 802.728.1207 Gabriel Bushey - Crafted Landscapes, LLC
Fairfax, VT 05454 802.233.8551
802.849.2775 Ashley Robinson MARKETING & EDUCATION
PO Box 28 Ed Burke - Rocky Dale Gardens
Nate Carr Charlotte, VT 05445 802.453.2782
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc. 802.922.1924
Charlotte, VT 05445 VJ Comai - Bartlett Tree Experts
802.425.5222 802.425.6222
ADMINISTRATIVE SECRETARY Hannah Decker - Fairfax Perennial Farm
DIRECTORS Kristina MacKulin
Gabriel Bushey P.O. Box 92 VJ Comai - Bartlett Tree Experts
Crafted Landscapes, LLC N. Ferrisburgh, VT 05473 802.425.6222
4800 Basin Harbor Road Toll Free: 888.518.6484 Ashley Robinson - Ashley Robinson
Vergennes, VT 05491 P: 802.425.5117; F: 802.425.5122 Landscape Designer
802.233.8551 802.922.1924
Carrie Chalmers Design VJ Comai - Bartlett Tree Experts
239 Lawrence Hill Road 802.296.1797
Weston, VT 05161
Nate Carr - Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.

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nic Ga
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The Ro

PRESIDENTS LETTER Ed Burke, Rocky Dale Gardens

Dear Fellow Green Works Members, inside this

Another season is winding down to a close, yet the outdoor temps
seem to be holding on to summer! While this weather is enjoyable it
really just serves to remind us our planet is warming and climate Board of Directors 2
change is real. As professional horticulturists, we are on the front
The Presidents Letter 3
line dealing with how plants are responding to these trends. It is
becoming more and more difficult to know the how/whys of plant
The Buzz 4
hardiness and invasiveness, plus their propensity to diseases and
Green Works Summer
pests. It is becomin clearer and clearer we are only at the beginning
Meeting & Trade Show
of this adventure.
Welcome New Green
Works Members
As we move forward, it is important for us all to share our observations and information in
Twilight Gathering
our professional horticultural network and Green Works is here to foster that on-going
New Rules for Industry
network. We remain committed, as a board and association, to disseminating as much
Awards Program
information as we can through our meetings and trade shows, email blasts, keynote speakers
With Deep Sadness
and articles in The Dirt. Staying connected and informed as a professional association is as
Summer/Fall Garden
important as ever.
Tours - a Recap
Calendar of Events
Now is a good time to make sure you renew your commitment to your professional
community and to your own growth and education by renewing your Green Works Leonards Clippings 14
membership today. Renewal applications were recently mailed and you can also complete
your renewal on-line through our website. Our membership has been increasing and we hope The Lab 12
to continue that trend. If you know of a prospective member reach out to them and share Observations from
what you know about Green Works and why you are a member. UVM Diagnostic Lab
News from the Agency of
Our members are the heart and soul of our Association and it is with great sadness I mention Ag - September, 2017
the loss of two of our long-time members from our community. Scott Barnes of SMB Custom
Landworks passed away this past December and most recently Jim Foster, Jr. of Vermont The Idea Factory 21
Natural Ag Product/Foster Brothers Farm in a tragic farm accident. Both Scott and Jim are Vermont Forests are
greatly missed in our community and by their family and friends. Shrinking
Its Tick Season
As we look back on 2017, Green Works hit a high note with the Vermont Flower Show. With
Visiting Don & Lela
the expansion into Expo North, the Central Display was undoubtedly the best weve ever
Averys Garden at Cadys
produced. Just when you think we cant top the last show, we do just that! The hard work of
our members, the Flower Show and Grand Garden Display Committees, the Master Falls
Gardeners, and all the other volunteer participants make us all proud. Our show is
Strictly Business 26
collaboration at its best.
Standing in the Presence
of Greatness
Our winter meeting at UVM drew a good size crowd despite some snow and our keynote
New Member Profiles
speaker, Roy Diblik, who has worked with such luminaries as Piette Oudolf at Chicagos
Millennium Park, was well received. Our summer meeting at The Marble House Project in The Plant Lounge 30
Dorset was another great event with a gorgeous site and another well received speaker, Barry
King of the Shade - Sun
Glick, who spoke about native woodland plants.
King Japanese
As we begin to wind down the season and look toward 2018, my wish to all of you is for
Just When You Think You
successful and happy times as we hope for some positive changes in the world.
Have Seen it All!

Best to you,
Cover Photos: Green Works
Ed Summer Meeting & Trade
Show held at The Marble
3 House Project in Dorset, VT.
the low down on whats up!

Green Works Summer Meeting - August 16, 2017

by Judith Irven
a time to learn, relax and renew the Marble House for three-week
sessions to hone their various skills
in a collaborative setting.
For me our Green Works August
This splendid house is actually
meetings are always one of
situated on an expansive 48-acre
summers highlights. Not only do
property, complete with hiking
they create a welcome pause at the
trails and the old quarries. As we
height of our busy season, but they
arrived we could see the large
are also held at wonderful and
formal garden that abuts the main
varied locations around our
house, complete with marble-
beautiful state.
edged flowerbeds and a classic
And this years meeting was no fountain the perfect spot for the
exception! The weather gods resident artists to contemplate
smiled, the speakers were excellent their work.
and it was located on the beautiful
We then drove up to the flat space
grounds above Dorsets Marble
above the house, where the scene
House Project.
quickly turned informal. Two
In case you missed it, here are beautifully restored barns provided
some pictures of this gorgeous a great location for our Green
location taken by my husband, Dick Works meeting. And an elegant
Conrad, together with a brief marble water feature, flanked on
reprise of a lovely day. either side by sweeping formal
The Marble House Project steps, connected the informal
upper level to the formal garden
Arriving at our meeting location on
Dorset West Road, no-one could
miss the massive Italianate villa. Above: the elegant Marble House. Below: looking down And as horticulturists, everyone
Built exactly 200 years ago, it is was drawn to the large rock-edged
the grand water feature to the lower level. Photos by Dick
clad entirely in marble that had ornamental gardens brimming with
Conrad. Below keynote speaker Barry Glicks morning
been quarried right on the late summer flowers. There was
property. also a large and very productive
kitchen garden for the use of the
Until five years ago, two local
visiting Chefs-in-Residence in their
families owned this dignified house.
creative cooking endeavors.
But today it has been transformed
into a unique artist residency Great Speakers
program with the special mission of Barry Glick, of Sunshine Farm and
fostering sustainability and Garden in West Virginia, made the
environmental connectivity. long journey to Vermont to share
Throughout the summer, groups of both his insights and his beautiful
artists representing a wide mix of pictures of a plethora of woodland
disciplines (writing, painting, dance, wildflowers that would also be at
drama, cooking and more), retreat to home in a shady garden. Most of the

seventy plants he included in his talk are native to the
Appalachian Mountains and, with a nod to his Vermont
audience, all are hardy to at least to Zone 5.
Barry was also a highly entertaining speaker and throughout
his talks he made it abundantly clear that our choices for
populating shady garden spaces should not be limited to
The second speaker was Brian Post of Standing Stone
Landscape Architecture, from Springfield, Vermont. Brian has
the unique distinction of being both a certified dry stonewall
buildera waller AND a licensed Landscape Architect.
In his talk to Green Works Brian discussed some of the
technical detail involved in creating a wall that is both A pair of old barns have have been beautifully restored for
beautiful and also has the integrity to outlive its builder. Then, meetings and more. Photo by Dick Conrad.
for contrast, he showed us
examples of walls that will
probably fail after a just few
Since I hail from the British
Isles the land of ancient dry
stone walls I found this
particular talk both highly
instructional as well as gently
Many Thanks
So much goes into creating a Green Works meeting that will be
both enjoyable and educational, and then in overseeing the
myriad details that ensure everything happens without a hitch.
I know I am not alone when I offer my sincere thanks to
Kristina, Ed and all the Green Works Board for all your
dedication and hard work in bringing us these great meetings
twice a year.

Top left: The Inner Garden crew on the revolving marble bench; on the
right West End Landspacing crew and friends; above: the afternoon tour
of the grounds - Sabrina Joy Milbury center stage; and left a tour to the
quarry and honeymoon cabin complete with a woodland sculpture
commissioned this year, which gives new meaning to finding a discarded
mattress. Photos by Kristina MacKulin.

THANKS to all our attendees and exhibitors who were able to make it to the
Summer Meeting & Trade Show! It is always such a pleasure to spend the day
together!! Mark your calendars for our Winter Meeting and Trade Show -
February 15, 2018 - at the UVM Davis Center.
Welcome New Green Works Members!

Anna Johansen Andrea Luchini Kelly Spooner / Paul Sachs

AJLA/Annas Blooms Hildene, The Lincoln Family Home North Country Organics
1859 Dorset Hill Road PO Box 377 203 Depot Street
East Dorset, VT 05253 Manchester, VT 05254 PO Box 372
802-362-4768 802-362-1835 Bradford, VT 05033 802-222-4277
Active Member Associate Member
Category: Florist, Category: Historic site/Museum Associate Member
Landscape Architect Category: Supplier/Fertilizers

Green Works
It is that time of year!

Renew your Membership

for 2018 today!

Renew your VCH

certification for 2018
today! Get Certified!
Dont delay
Take the time to and order your
nominate a member or study manual
colleague for a Green today!
Works Award!
Please renew on-line via our
website, or mail/email your renewal 888.518.6484
forms into the office.

Green Works Twilight Gathering!
On September 17, 2017 some Green Works members gathered
at River Walk Nursery in Charlotte, VT for a beautiful
evening tour of this wholesale container nursery.

The tour was led by owner Schuyler Watson. Schuyler talked

about what it has been like to start up a wholesale
container nursery. He also talked about the plants they
choose to grow and why and what is in store for the future at
River Walk! As you can see, dogs are always welcome!

New Rules for the Industry Awards Program!

The purpose of the Green Works Industry Awards Program is to bring
recognition to outstanding landscape design and installation and promote Participate in the Green Works
excellence and encourage greater public awareness of the aesthetic and
environmental benefits of landscaping. 2017 Industry Awards Program
New this Year! In an effort to make our process easier than ever we have
made a couple of changes. Each member business can enter up to three
projects per year now instead of one per designer. We have eliminated
all the project categories and instead entries will judged upon their own
individual merits using a specific set of judging criteria and scoring process
we have developed. You can view this judging criteria on our website by
navigating to the Industry Awards tab. You can also view all current and
past winners here. The deadline for entries is December 31, 2017.

Award winners are honored and promoted in a variety of ways: an

exclusive full color newspaper insert, honored at our Winter Meeting and
Trade Show on February 15, 2018 as well as winners present their projects Entry forms available @
to attendees. Winning project display boards will be on view at our winter
and summer meetings as well as the 2019 Vermont Flower Show, as well as
featured on our website and in our quarterly newsletter The Dirt, on social
media platforms and in press releases state-wide.
There is a great project out
We hope many of our members will consider entering a project this year! there waiting for an award!
It remains a great avenue for Green Works to recognize the outstanding
work of our members to the public.

With Deep Sadness . . .

It is with deep sadness that we share the news/ Mark Foster and wife Nicole of Middlebury. Also
obituary of longtime member James Foster, Jr. of by his aunts and uncles, Robert and Nancy Foster,
Vermont Natural Ag Judith and Bill Roy, Sharon and Robert Chalecki,
Products and Foster Dorothy and James
Brothers Farm. Douglas, Joyce and
David Wetmore, Linda
James H. Foster Jr., 47, and Craig LHeureux
died as the result of a and Bettee and Keith
farming accident on LeBeau, also by his
Thursday, September nieces, Ashlynn
21, 2017. He was born Foster, Tatum
January 29, 1970 in Eastwood and Remy
Middlebury, VT the Eastwood, by his
son of James and nephew, Colin Foster,
Joyce (Warner) Foster. and his god daughter
Mackenzie LeBeau.
Jim was a graduate of
Middlebury Union He was predeceased
High School class of by his grandparents
1988 and received his Howard and Helen
Associates degree in Foster, Robert and
Ag Business Gladys Warner and by
Management from his aunt Susanne
Vermont Technical Gove.
College in 1990. He furthered his education at
Kansas State University and received his A celebration of his life was held on Thursday,
Bachelors Degree in Animal Science in 1992. October 5, 2017 at the Middlebury Congregational
He married Tricia Eastwood on October 9, 1993 at Church, with the Rev. Andy Nagy-Benson
the Middlebury Congregational Church. officiating.
Memorial contributions may be made to The
Jim was a dedicated husband and father whose James H. Foster Jr. Childrens Fund in care of
values of integrity guided him each day. Jim was a Tricia Foster, 2066 Case Street, Middlebury, VT
humble and kind leader on the Addison County 05753 or to Addison County Fair and Field Days at
Fair and Field Days board, the Vermont FFA P.O. Box 745, Middlebury, VT 05753.
Foundation and the Central Cemetery Association.
Jims life was surely cut too short and our hearts
He is survived by his wife Tricia of Middlebury, by and thoughts go out to the Foster Family at this
his parents James and Joyce Foster of Middlebury, time. He will be greatly missed.
his children, MaKayla, Caleb and Jocelyn Foster all
of Middlebury, by his sister Karen Foster-Baccei
and husband David of Middlebury, by his brother


0% 48
Skid steers. Mini Excavators. Other compact equipment.

Summer/Fall Garden Tours - A Recap
by: Dr. Leonard Perry, UVM Professor Emeritus
Philadelphia Area Gardens. Burpee Seed Companys
This summer, in collaboration Fordhook Farm. In
with Green Works, we had a tour 1888, W. Atlee Burpee
to gardens of this horticulturally- acquired several hundred
rich area July 21-25. I organized acres of farmland in
and hosted the tour, along with bucolic Bucks County.
Charlie Nardozzi Once home to the Burpee
( and family, the eighteenth-
Sarah Kingsley-Richards (UVM century manor has been
research technician) as co-hosts. designated a National
Here is a summary and a few Historic Site. The house
photos, which may inspire, or features the study where
give you some ideas and places to W. Atlee Burpee compiled
visit if youre ever in that area. and edited the first
We were lucky to see such world- Burpee catalogs. Burpee
renown sites such Longwood Hall, located in an
Gardens and Chanticleer adjoining stone barn, has
Gardens, as well as less visited been renovated as a
The Philadelphia Garden Tour Group
such as the Pennsylvania conference center. It
Horticulture Societys features a 360 hand-
Meadowbrook Farm, and top sites painted mural of Fordhook
seldom open to the publicBurpees Farm during the late
Fordhook Farms and the PSU flower nineteenth century. Once the
trials. hub for seed processing at
Fordhook, the one-of-a-kind
The Kings Garden. The history of
Seed House is located across
these gardens is celebrated in the
the drive from the manor.
name, The Kings Garden, a term used
on 18th-century military maps of
There are just about 7 acres
Ticonderoga to delineate the Forts
of perennial gardens, trial
garrison gardens. The walled Kings
grounds, and vegetable
Garden was originally designed in
gardens over 60 acres now at
1921 by leading landscape architect
Fordhook. There are some
Marian Coffin. The formal elements
older, classic varieties of
a reflecting pool, manicured lawn
flowers and vegetables
and hedges, and brick walls and
planted and showcased, as
walkways are softened by a Longwood Gardens well as new trial
profusion of annuals and perennials,
introductions to be
carefully arranged by color and form. Heirloom flowers and
introduced over the next few years in trial beds that you will be
modern cultivars are used to recreate the historic planting scheme.
able to walk through. The gardens were the birthplace of culinary
The nine-foot brick walls create a backdrop for borders while
favorites such as Golden Bantam, the first yellow sweet corn; Big
thirty-two geometrically shaped beds anchor the central lawn and
Boy tomato; Iceberg lettuce; Fordhook lima bean; and
reflecting pool. Significant architectural elements include a two-
ornamental innovations such as the double-flowered rudbeckia
story teahouse, gates of wrought iron and steel, urns, benches, a
daisy, Gloriosa; African Queen, the first yellow garden impatiens
lead watering trough, and numerous plaques and ornaments
and the many generations of pure white marigolds.
collected by the garden founders. The Young Diana, a bronze by
sculptor Anna Hyatt Huntington is the gardens crowning jewel.
Outside the walls are the Discovery Gardens a childrens garden, Longwood Gardens. There is so much to this gardens, it is hard
military vegetable garden, food-to-table garden, cut flower to condense into a few words. Although it covers 1,077 acres, the
garden-- plus a restored Lord and Burnham greenhouse, and main display gardens are under half that. This premier
grounds of the Pavilion leading to the lake and boat landing. horticultural display garden is one of the top in the country and is
( world renowned for its floral displays, some of the top fountain
displays in the world (just renovated, computer controlled and set and Lydia Morris, brother and sister. The I.P. Morris Company, an
to music), 4.5 acres of conservatories, education, research, events, iron-manufacturing firm founded by their father and later run by
and more. John Morris, was a source of family wealth. John and Lydia Morris
laid plans for a school and laboratory at Compton devoted to
In 1700, aQuaker farmer named George Peirce purchased 402 horticulture and botany. Through the stewardship and vision of
acres of this English-claimed land the Quaker family, Compton
fromWilliam Penns became the Morris Arboretum of
commissioners. Georges son the University of Pennsylvania in
Joshua cleared and farmed the land 1932. Listed on The National
and in 1730 he built the brick Register of Historic Places, it is an
farmhouse that, enlarged, still interdisciplinary resource center
stands today. His twin grandsons for the University, and is
began an arboretum which, by recognized as the official
1850, housed one of the finest tree arboretum of the Commonwealth
collections in the country. As the of Pennsylvania.In addition to
19th century rolled into the 20th, many special trees there are floral
the familys heirs lost interest in gardens, a Victorian conservatory,
the property and allowed the tree canopy walk, grist mill, and
arboretum to deteriorate. When a extensive garden railway.
lumber mill was about to cut down (
the trees in early 1906, Pierre S.
Dupont purchased the property to King of Prussia Mall. While not a
save the trees. American Chanticleer Garden horticultural site, this mall is worth
entrepreneur, businessman, seeing if in the area and offers many
philanthropist, and member of the prominent DuPont family, he dining options. Featuring over 400 stores and a recent expansion,
soon transformed the property into an elaborate European style it is billed as the largest mall (in square feet) in the country, the
gardens where he could entertain friends. The main aspects of the second largest in number of stores. (
gardens he created form the garden backbone of-prussia)
today.( The Penn. State University (PSU) Flower Trials. Located at The
Southeast Agricultural Research and Education Center (SEAREC)
Chanticleer Garden. Chanticleer has been called the most
of Penn. State University, this is one of the most established and
romantic, imaginative, and exciting public garden in America. The
largest such trials in the country, with over 1100 new annuals and
garden is a study of textures and forms, where foliage trumps
perennials each year. This is a site where breeders worldwide send
flowers, the gardeners lead the design, and even the drinking
their new plants to be trialed and rated, and for growers to learn
fountains are sculptural.
new varieties and decide which to grow and offer in the coming
The garden has evolved greatly since the death of the owner in year. Youll be among the first to see these too.
1990. As the home of the Rosengartens, Chanticleer was beautiful (
and green with impressive trees and lawns. Most of the floral and
Shady Maple Smorgasbord. When in the Amish country of
garden development you see today has occurred since 1990,
Lancaster county, one needs to sample Pennsylvania Dutch
designed by Chanticleer staff and consultants. The Teacup Garden
cuisine. This buffet offers the widest selection of this and other
and Chanticleer Terraces feature seasonal plants and bold-
types of cooking, being the largest buffet in the eastern U.S. Their
textured tropical and subtropical plants. The Tennis Court, Ruin,
campus also houses a bakery, meat department, and over 40,000
Gravel Garden, and Pond Garden focus on hardy perennials, both
square feet (almost an acre) of gift shop which you can take a
woody and herbaceous.The Ruin is a folly, built on the foundation
virtual tour of online. (
of Adolph Rosengarten, Jr.'s home. It is meant to look as if the
house fell into disrepair. The Gravel Garden is hot and dry, a touch PHS Meadowbrook Farm & Nursery. Designed and created by
of the Mediterranean in Pennsylvania. The Pond area is prominent Philadelphia horticulturist and wholesale florist J.
exuberantly floriferous. Asian Woods and Bell's Woodland are Liddon Pennock, Jr. (1913-2003), Meadowbrook Farm remains his
shady areas. The former features natives of China, Korea, and garden legacy. Situated on 25 acres in Abington Township to the
Japan; the latter, plants of eastern North America. The Serpentine north of Philadelphia, 18 of those acres are lightly-managed,
celebrates the beauty of agricultural crops. The cut flower and second-growth woods and the remaining seven acres contain the
vegetable gardens produce flowers for daily arrangements around private house, display gardens, and garden center.After retiring
the gardens, and food to share. ( from the florist business in the early 1970s, he turned his talents
to creating the retail greenhouse at Meadowbrook Farm to share
Morris Arboretum. Morris Arboretum of the University of
his love of horticulture and horticultural design with a new
Pennsylvania began in 1887 asCompton, the summer home of John
audience. After his passing in 2003, Meadowbrook Farm became a
nonprofit affiliate of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in
April 2004. In addition to offering tours of his house and many
garden spaces, the PHS runs a retail shop featuring special plants
and garden gifts. Meadowbrook Farm supplies flowers and plants
for many of the Philadelphia Flower Show's 50 major exhibitors.

Adams Farm Market and Greenhouses. Adams Fairacre Farms

began in the early 1900s as a roadside farmstand in Poughkeepsie,
New York, run by Ralph A. Adams and his family. To this day
Adams Fairacre Farms is a family-owned and operated business,
offering much more than just produce. With 4 locations in the
Hudson Valley, Adams consists of a full-service Meat Department,
Seafood Department, Deli, Prepared Foods Department, Cheese Train Mosaicculture in Ottawa above and
and Coffee Departments, Bakery, Sweet Shop, Gourmet Grocery, Montreal Botanical Garden below.
Gift Shop, Flower Shop, Garden Center, Greenhouses and Nursery
as well as three side businesses Adams Landscaping, Adams
Fences and Adams Power Equipment. Mark Adams five acres of
greenhouses supplies their locations plus many other retailers and
landscapers in the Hudson Valley. (

Canada Garden Tours. On September 11 and 12 I led a tour to

Canada where we visiting the Ottawa Mosaicultures which
contained some 40 awe inspiring creations in celebration of
Canadas sesquicentennial. The second day we visited the
Montreal Botanical Garden to see the Chinese lantern display. We
had 53 people attend this tour along with some great weather.


November 6, 2017 November 29 -
Natural Shorelands Erosion December 2, 2017
Control Certification New England Grows
Training - 8am - 4pm Boston Convention &
VT Dept of Environmental Exhibition Center
Conservation Boston, MA
Fairbanks Museum &
St. Johnsbury, VT November 30, 2017 The Ecological Plant
watershed/lakes-ponds/ Conference
lakeshores-lake-wise/nsecc Brooklyn, NY
November 8, 2017 event/ela-ny-ecological-
Natural Shorelands Erosion landscape-conference/
Control Certification
January 10 - 12, 2018
Training - 8am - 4pm
Mid-Atlantic Nursery Trade
VT Dept of Environmental
The Baltimore Convention
Associated General Center
Contractors of VT
Baltimore, MD
Montpelier, VT
February 15, 2018
Green Works Winter
Meeting & Trade Show
November 8, 2017
UVM Davis Center
Conference: The Evolving
Burlington, VT
Role of Urban Landscapes
Details TBA
Winterthur Museum
Winterthur, DE
March 6-9-, 2018
Philadelphia Flower Show
Bus Tour
Green Works/VNLA
Details TBA
November 15, 2017
Natural Shorelands Erosion March 21-25, 2018
Control Certification Maine Flower Show
Training - 8am - 4pm Thompsons Point
VT Dept of Environmental Portland, ME
Lake Champlain Sea Grant at July 30 - August 3, 2018
UVM Extension Perennial Plant Symposium
Essex Junction, VT Raleigh, NC
lakeshores-lake-wise/nsecc March 1-3, 2019
Vermont Flower Show
Champlain Valley Expo
Essex Junction, VT

by Dr. Leonard Perry, UVM Horticulture Professor Emeritus

You may remember from the last Dirt my mention of the Our Philadelphia Area Gardens tour July 21-25, in collaboration with
your association, went very well and was highly rated by the 30
changes this year in the Burlington Waterfront Park flower
attendees. See the separate article on this tour. We also had a
display gardensthe last year to have All-America flower
successful Canada Gardens tour Sept. 11-12, also a collaboration
selections there and it part of that program, my turning over
with VNLA, with almost a full bus on this tour. With an overnight in
coordination of it to Annie White (my former grad student, and
Ottawa area, the mosaicultures were visited the first afternoon, the
now owner of Nectar Landscape Design), and the large focus (the
Montreal Botanical Gardens and Chinese lanterns the second day. If
main large bed) on pollinatorsannuals and a few perennials.
you read this before Oct. 15, you still can see the mosaicultures on
Annie has a good description of this, plant list, and graphics on
your own, or the lanterns before the end of October.
her website: (
Jacques-Cartier Park in Gatineau (just across the river from the
As with other universities, UVM makes sure to promote its capital city Ottawa), hosts the biggest horticultural event in Canada
accolades and national rankings. Here are three such from this this year withMOSACANADA150. Some 40 spectacular
past year, courtesy of the UVM Annual Report: mosaicultures reflect 150 years of history, values, culture and arts in
Canada. These sculptures consist of a metal frame lined with fabric,
U.S. News and World Report ranked UVM as one of the top filled with growing mix, and into which thousands of plants are
40 public universities in the country. The rankings cite artistically arranged to cover the sculpture and form a tapestry. The
UVM among the top 100 schools in 12 categories, 10 provinces and 3 territories, as well as First Nations Qubec and
highlighting UVMs strength as a national research Labrador, unite with sister cities Shanghai and Beijing, to present 5
university, a top medical school, and a best college for aspects of their history with these mosaicultures.
veterans, among other accolades. (
The University of Vermont received several high rankings A main attraction at the Montreal Botanical Gardens is the Chinese
from the Princeton Review, among them being No. 10 as a lanterns display, with a new theme each year. This year the dragon,
top green college, No. 6 for most beautiful campus, and representing China as a whole, is the star of the 25th edition of the
No. 10 for their students love these colleges. lantern festival in the Chinese Garden. It will be accompanied by its
UVM received is second Gold rating from STARS, the nine offspring, protecting the newly restored pavilions just reopened
Sustainability Tracking, Assessment and Rating System for after a two-year renovation. And around them will be flying red-
higher education, placing among the top 12 percent of all crowned cranes, symbolizing the longevity of the friendship between
rated institutions UVM practices stood out in each of the Montral and its sister city of Shanghai. Many Chinese rituals are
STARS categories: academics, engagement, operations, intimately linked with the theory of the Five Elements: water, earth,
planning and administration, and innovation and fire, wood and metal. Water is at the heart of this world view, as the
exemplary practices. source and binding force of the other four. And with water is
associated the dragon-- the beneficial yet dangerous creature living
To give you an idea of the PSS department focus and student in the heart of the oceans and clouds. Besides the Chinese display
interest, here is a snapshot of courses being offered this fall, and gardens are the Japanese (done in a contemporary style
instructor, and number of students enrolled in each as of this compared to the Ming dynasty period of the Chinese), specialty
writing: Home and Garden Horticulture (Starrett, 125), gardens with new plant introductions, rock garden, conservatories,
Introduction to Ecological Agriculture (Izzo, 145), Drawing and and more.
Painting Botanicals (Neroni, 15), Entomology and Pest
The Gardens of Light (lanterns plus lighted landscape in the
Management (Chen, 24), Weed Ecology and Management
Japanese garden) runs through October 31. Try and avoid going on
(Bosworth, 27), Woody Landscape Plants (Starrett, 15),
weekends, as the crowds can be overwhelming (as I learned a couple
Landscape Design Fundamentals (White for Hurley, 20), Forage
years). This year youll find the water garden area under
and Pasture Management (Bosworth, 12), Permaculture (Izzo,
construction. Next year will begin a major overhaul of the
28), Fundamentals of Soil Science (Alvez for Gorres on
Insectarium. For 2018, watch for details on my website
sabbatical, 78), Landscape Design: Pollinators (Sorensen, 15),
( and your Green Works site for our bus tour
Advanced Agroecology (Mendez, 23). In addition are my online
March 6-9 back to the Philadelphia area and their Flower Showthe
courses on Home Fruit Growing (54), Garden Flowers (23),
oldest in the country, largest such indoor show in the world, and
Indoor Plants (22), and Flowers and Foliage (22).
winner of many international awards.

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Observations from the UVM Plant Diagnostic Lab

by Ann Hazelrigg, Phd.
Apple scab in crabapples has been rainy summers. This early defoliation
will not kill the tree but over time, it
especially severe this year throughout
may weaken the tree. The best
the state. Scab infections have
resulted in early defoliation of trees, recommendation for crabapples is to
with some crabs appearing bare by the rake and destroy all the fallen leaves
beginning of September. The fungal since this is where the apple scab
pathogen overwinters on fallen leaves pathogen will overwinter. Prune the
and releases spores as soon as the trees in late winter to open them up
right conditions occur in the early to light and air. The quicker the
spring, usually conveniently timed foliage dries after a rain, the less
with bud break. Depending on infection you will have. You could
temperatures and wetting periods, consider a fungicide spray at bud
spores are released throughout the
break but you would want to repeat
spring and early summer (Primary Above, apple scab. Below: Espaliered training
this every 7-10 days through June. I
Scab). The more wetting periods or systems-Crepe Myrtle, Magnolia, Atlas Blue
think the fungicide treatment is
wet weather that occurs, the more
chance for repeated infection of the rarely warranted, since rainy
young leaves. By the end of June or summers are rarely followed by
so, all the overwintering spores of the another. For more information and
pathogen have been released and if pictures on the disease go to https://
you have protected your trees with
fungicides every 7-10 days there yard-garden/trees-shrubs/managing-
should be no scab lesions (olive green apple-scab/.
velvety spots) on the foliage. This is
what every commercial apple I was honored to be invited to attend
orchardist strives for, since if they a recent Research Field Days put on
have done a good job of using by Bartlett Tree Research
preventative fungicides during Laboratories with V.J. Comai,
Primary Scab season, no more sprays Bartlett Tree Experts Representative
are needed for this disease the rest of and VLNA board member. The
the summer, reducing labor and Bartlett lab was established in 1965
pesticides. on 350 acres of property in
However, if you have not protected Charlotte, North Carolina, and is
your crabapples with fungicides, the home to an incredible and diverse
early leafspots on the foliage then arboretum that serves as a research
begin to produce a secondary type of grounds and outdoor classroom. The
fungal spore that continues to infect grounds have over 15,000
leaves the rest of the summer. This accessioned plants and highlights
part of the disease lifecycle is called include some of the best collections
Secondary Scab and it is this part of of oaks and conifers on the east
the disease lifecycle that often Pleached Carpinus betula Fastigiata. This planting coast, the largest collection of
is 17 years old but the Bartlett horticulturist said it magnolia cultivars in the world, the
results in a rapid buildup of leaf spots
was established after about 5 years. third largest collection of holly in the
resulting in defoliation, especially in

US, as well as extensive collections At Bartlett, the diagnosticians need
of elm, crape myrtle, crabapple, to be familiar with the insects and
maple, rhododendron, witch hazel, diseases attacking a broad range of
numerous display gardens and woody ornamentals from all over
research plots. We spent two days in the US. Also daunting is the fact
this beautiful outdoor classroom their season starts early in southern
learning about disease Florida and ends much later than
management, sidewalk root our first frost. In the lab, we
management, structural soil plots, watched demonstrations of ladybugs
pruning techniques, injections, attacking aphids, examined root
mature tree management in addition knot nematodes and saw examples
to soil renovation and biochar of several of the common disease
research. I was impressed with the problems they encounter. Of all the
expert staff heading up each samples that came into their lab, the
Replicated trial of soil temperature variations
workshop- it was clear they enjoyed Bartlett diagnosticians said about
their jobs and their beautiful work 50% of the problems they looked at
space. Also impressive was the were caused by abiotic (non-
dedication the company infectious) issues, matching our
demonstrated in identifying the best same experience at the UVM Plant
methods for tree care based on Diagnostic Clinic. After talking with
scientific principles and replicated the diagnosticians, I did realize we
trials. all have one thing in common about
this time of year-we cant wait for
Another interesting discussion and
all the (diseased and insect-
demonstration at the Field Days was
infested) leaves to drop in autumn!
showing the impact of girdling roots
in established landscape trees. This The most interesting part of the
can occur when trees are planted Field Days for me was meeting the
too deeply or can be a result of plant pathologists and
Replicated trial of sidewalk/ size of planting holes.
encircling roots in a
container plant.

The Bartlett horticulturist

demonstrated what trees
look like after being
grown in a container too
long. He then proceded to
show how these trees
should be handled before
planting-with an AXE! He
cut the root ball vertically
on four quadrants, shook
out the roots and then
showed the size of the
actual root system. He
indicated a tree dug in the
entomologists who
field for transplanting loses as much as 95% of its root system worked in the
so this hacking was not as devastating as it appeared. When Bartlett Plant
planting these trees he emphasized you want the tree to be in a Diagnostic Lab.
mud bath. Never wait a day to water newly transplanted trees! Each of the three plant pathologists examine at least 2,000
plant samples each year sent in by Bartlett reps from all over

the country. In comparison, the UVM Plant Diagnostic Clinic
looks at about 600 samples each year from a variety of crops.

As always, the UVM Plant Diagnostic Clinic is happy to help

with disease and pest ID. You are welcome to send samples to
Jeffords Hall (or drop by), 63 Carrigan Drive, UVM, Burlington,
VT 05405. If we are in the field, samples can be left near the
lab door at 201 Jeffords. Pictures can be emailed to but you can only send one at a time.
To reach us, our number is 656-0493.
Your source for over 35 years

Mailing: 24 Buzzell Road, Biddeford ME 04005

Physical: 291 Waterhouse Rd, Dayton ME 04005
phone (207) 499-2994 fax (207) 499-2912

Bartlett Tree Lab Plant pathologists/Entomologists.

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News from the Agency of AG - September, 2017
by Tim Schmalz, State Pathologist
The Spring and Summer of 2017 were marked by considerable Pests in 2017 Apple Scab Revisited
change here within Plant Industry. In April, our State
A wet cool summer has provided more than ample opportunity
Entomologist of five years retired. Alan Graham had served as
for foliar diseases to become established and spread like
the Vector Management Specialist and Coordinator
wildfire throughout the landscape. Perhaps the most striking is
intermittently from the early 1990s through 2004, and then
the impact of apple scab in wild and managed trees, especially
continuously until 2012, when he became the entomologist
toward the end of the season when it seemed all the leaves
after long time entomologist Jon Turmel retired. As
dropped off apple trees overnight. Obviously, it wasnt as
entomologist, Alan focused on survey and management of
sudden as that, but the rapidity with which the trees defoliated
mosquito and tick populations in Vermont, largely as a result of
in August was remarkable, and I received a lot of inquiries from
increasing concern surrounding Eastern Equine Encephalitis
homeowners and landscapers as to why their apple trees, which
and various tick-borne pathogens, but he was also available to
were doing so well earlier in the season, suddenly fell apart.
assist with identification and control recommendations of
Although there was a good bit of cedar apple rust present on
various plant insect pests when the need arose. He left the
many leaves I checked, most of the affected trees seemed to be
program last spring with the vector survey program having
overwhelmed by scab. I wrote an article for the DIRT on scab
undergone considerable expansion, going from a small
and other apple diseases back in 2010, for those of you who
intermittent and largely individual effort to a statewide, fully
dont have that article, or just want a quick refresher, here are
staffed program, able to function without constant supervision
some of the more important details of the pathogen life cycle
and tinkering.
and management.
Alans replacement, Judy Rosovsky, had been a long time
The apple scab pathogen (Venturia inaequalis) overwinters on
temporary employee of Plant Industry and our cooperating
previous year fruit and leaves, and in some cases as mycelia in
Federal partner, USDA APHIS PPQ. Some of you may remember
buds. In spring, when rain and warmer weather triggers
Judy participating in the sudden oak death survey activities in
production of fruiting bodies on the leaf and fruit litter,
2005 and 2006, when she approached several nurseries with
emergent spores are carried by wind and rain splash onto
rhododendron and azalea inventories for foliar sampling for
tender blossoms, emerging leaves, and succulent twigs, where
SOD. She has also worked extensively with the Vermont
primary infection of new tissues occurs. The infection spreads
Monitoring Cooperative, the Vermont Agency of Natural
quickly, causing the familiar dark and crusty, sometimes sooty,
Resources, and as an instructor at St. Michaels and Johnson
lesions within a few days. These so-called scabs on the leaves
State Colleges. She obtained a BS in Biology at the University
fruit are unsightly, causing misshapen fruit and ugly black,
of Massachusetts and an MS in Plant and Soil Science/
crusty blemishes which diminish the value of infected apples as
Entomology from the University of Vermont. We are starting
table stock, but pose no threat to people. In fact, the lesions
her out as a nursery inspector, to give her a chance to meet
extend barely beyond the skin; the flesh beneath a lesion is
many of you and learn the plant protection ropes here in
perfectly safe to consume. Infections on emerging leaves
Vermont; by now, some of you have hopefully had the
results in puckering and curling in addition to the lesions.
opportunity to meet her in this capacity.
Infections on succulent twigs generally result in raised bumps
The other personnel change was due to an internal move from and deformation or cracked corky growths like those on the
my section to the agrichemical section. Patti Casey, who had fruits.
been our Vector Management Coordinator since 2014, left to
As lesions mature, they release more spores, and given proper
take over the position in Ag Chem vacated by Soil Scientist Jeff
weather conditions will cause secondary infections.
Comstock, who retired this fall. Patti has been replaced by
Eventually, heavily infected leaves and fruits can succumb and
Eliza Doncaster, a recent Johnson State graduate, and a native
drop off the tree sooner in the season than normal, as we
of Vermont, who has been working with us as a vector survey
observed this fall.
technician over the previous three years. Although Eliza is
primarily tasked with vector survey and identification duties, I The secondary infection cycle repeats as often and long as
anticipate the chance to expand her duties to include some weather conditions allow, until the leaves and unharvested
plant protection activities in the future. fruit fall to the ground, where the fungus sets up the
overwintering stage to wait out the winter. In this stage, the
Please join me in welcoming both Judy and Eliza to the
fungal mycelium dives deeply into host tissues, well beneath
Vermont Agricultural community!
the cuticle and surficial palisade cells, down into the
parenchyma, where it lurks until spring.

Control, therefore, should address these two phases of the bag) using bits of leaf material, bark, frass, and silk during its
disease. The first is prevention of initial infection. Cleaning up larval stage. This case is constructed during the early to mid-
as much of the leaf and fruit litter as possible, either during the summer in those areas where the pest is established, typically
fall cleanup or in early spring before the leaves and fruit buds the eastern US in the Mid-Atlantic states and areas further
break will help enormously in preventing many of the initial south, but it has been reported in southern New England. An
infections. Application of labeled fungicides during bud break individual larva might construct a bag that is as much as two
and expansion will also help limit the number of these initial inches long, and will continue to grow until it pupates
infections. There are several products sometime in mid-summer. Adult
available to commercial and home females remain inside their bags, but
apple growers, containing captan, males will emerge after pupation, and
mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl, go off in search of a mate in autumn.
copper/lime and others. Females lay their eggs within the bag
Chlorothalonil (daconil) is not labeled after mating, and drops out of the case
for control of apple scab on apples for and dies on the ground. The eggs
eating, but it would provide protection overwinter in the case and hatch the
for ornamental crabs and those fruit following spring.
trees not in production. The second is
Bagworm damage can be extensive in
managing repeating infections of fruit
heavy infestations, especially in
and foliage throughout the growing
planted trees in nurseries and
season. Again, a chemical applied to
landscaped areas, and results not only
the trees during periods when infection
from feeding by larvae, but the silken
is likely is the best means of control
threads the larvae use to secure the
here, as is mitigation of moisture
cases prior to pupation can girdle the
issues, if possible. Spacing of trees to
twig they hang from, causing mortality
ensure adequate air movement, and
of foliage not already consumed by the
proper pruning to encourage drying of
pests. Control is straightforward and
interior leaves are helpful too.
management options include
Finally, there are scab-resistant apple handpicking of larval bags as you
varieties available. The University of observe them, using organic and
Vermont maintains a listing of scab- conventional insecticides (BTk,
resistant varieties, as well as a lot of carbaryl, imidacloprid, acephate,
apple (and other fruit tree) pest pyrethroids, spinosad, etc.).
management assistance information ( Additionally, there are a number of identified predatory insects
uvmapple/hort/src.html). Obviously, use of resistant varieties (wasps) that have been identified as parasites of bagworm,
is probably the best first step in reducing the use of fungicides, although I do not know of any that are available commercially.
and producing scab-free apples without having to address scab
In the instance observed this fall, the trees were imported from
management annually.
nursery sources outside Vermont (central Atlantic coast), and I
Hopefully, things will dry out next year, and the rate of have not heard of bagworm populations becoming established
infection will return to more normal levels. In the meantime, in Vermont in my tenure here at the Agency. I did see bagworm
keep an eye on valuable trees, and check on dormant buds to on arborvitae in Summer 2006 on nursery stock, but not since
ensure they are green and viable, and the twigs remain alive. until now. Given that it is a native insect, and is widespread
Over the winter, prune out dead and heavily deformed twigs, throughout the northeastern US outside northern New
both to maintain shape and limit quantities of dead material England, I suspect the climate in Vermont is sufficiently hostile
remaining in the tree. As always, be mindful of fire blight and for new populations to become established here because of
disinfect your pruning equipment between cuts when you nursery stock movement. However, maintaining clean stock
suspect fireblight. And clean up as much of the fallen material and quarantining stock with observable pest presence remains
as is possible before spring, to reduce available inoculum. the best management approach.

Evergreen Bagworm So, I look forward to a quiet winter, seeing as many of you as I
can at the Winter Meeting, and to a drier 2018. As always, we
In September, we encountered an odd insect pest on some remain available to assist with your plant and pest questions
imported arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis). The North American and concerns, so do not hesitate to send an email or call, and
or evergreen bagworm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis) is a we will do our best to help.
peculiar lepidopteran (moth) insect that constructs a case (the

tips & trends, food for thought

Vermont Forests are Shrinking! Check this

In case you missed this story, VT Digger recently
Member Charlotte
reported that Vermonts forests are shrinking by
Albers published a
1,500 acres a year and overall New England is
feature article in The
losing approximately 24,000 acres of forests per
American Gardener, the
year. This is according to a report recently
magazine of the
released by forestry researchers from UVM and
American Horticultural
Harvard University. Here in Vermont this
Society featuring
reverses a 150 year trend on our forest expansion
members Sally and Tobi
and recovery.
von Trapp of von Trapp
Greenhouse in
To learn more about why this is happening and
what the long-term goals are for Vermont visit:
AHS granted us permission to share the article with
our members. You can view the complete article

Its Tick Season! You can learn more about AHS and their mission at
Be tick smart! For complete information on
the best way to protect yourself and prevent
tick bites visit Be Tick Smart - VT Health New Recommendations for Disposal
Department at: http:// of Invasive Plant Material!
Visit this link for complete details:
You can treat your clothing for ticks/ invasive-plant-material.
insects. You can have your work clothes
treated with an odorless, EPA registered
A Film Worth Viewing!
product that protects your clothes for up to
70 washes from ticks/insects.. You can also
From member Ashley Robinson - a
purchase new clothing with the same
documentary film that illustrates the
qualities. For more information visit Insect important link between the environment and
Shield: our well being:

Your Landscaping Resource

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Please contact
us to be added to
our 2018 catalog
mailing list.

Landscape Distribution Center

472 Marshall Avenue, Williston, Vermont

Spring/Summer Wholesale Hours:

Weekdays 7:00am6:00pm, Sat. 8:00am5:00pm, Sun. 9:00am4:00pm
Phone: 802-658-2433 Fax: 802-860-2936 E-mail:

Visiting Don & Lela Averys Garden at Cadys Falls
by Judith Irven
Look for more feature articles on the
personal gardens of Green Works
members and other notable Vermont
horticulturists in the future!

Cadys Falls Garden in the town of

Morrisvillethe beautiful creation of Lela
and Don Averyis hidden away at the end
of Duhamel Road alongside the
meandering Lamoille River.

Almost forty years have past since Don and

Lela discovered the old dairy farm that
was for sale. They immediately saw the
unique potential of the site, with the
weathered farm buildings and rich
bottomland soil from the Lamoille River,
and decided to make Vermont their home.

Ever since then they have devoted their

lives to creating the most remarkable Picea abies Pendula creates a living sculpture.
nursery in this beautiful setting, and also
to raising all kinds of rare and interesting garden plants that And now, although Don and Lela have decided the time had
hail from around the world. finally come to close the nursery, they are still welcoming
visitors to their garden throughout the growing season. All
Gradually word got out about Don and Lelas amazing plant they ask is that you contribute a goodwill donation to help with
collection, and before long people from all over New England the cost of upkeep.
and beyond were making the trip to Morrisville to seek them
out. Indeed I have visited Cadys Falls on numerous occasions Thus the Garden at Cadys Falls will continue as a special
and today my own garden is enriched with some of their destination for allhorticulturists and photographers, as well
beautiful plants. as gardeners and non-gardenersand is surely worth a trip
from every corner of Vermont.
Changing Times for the Nursery. But, as everyone knows, all
good things eventually come to an end. This past spring plant Gardens Within a Garden. The Garden at Cadys Falls, which
aficionados were especially saddened to receive Don and Lelas covers about one and a half acres, actually comprises several
email saying that 2017 would be their last season for selling distinct garden areas that merge seamlessly together to create
plants. Indeed it was their aim to have everything sold by July a continuous whole. And since each of these gardens within a
1. garden offers an individual growing environmentsuch as
sunny, shady, wet or dry each also supports a unique palette
So, for this reason, last June I felt a real urgency to head back of plants adapted to the particular environment.
up one more time. And sure enough, when I left Cadys Falls
that day, our tiny car was crammed to the roof with many Of course these environmental differences are of immense
beautiful plants. interest to plant lovers. But in addition these inherent
contrasts also create a sense of mystery for all visitors as they
But the Garden Lives On. The nursery is actually only part of stroll from one part of the larger garden to another.
the Averys story. Over the years Don and Lela have also
developed the most spectacular garden, where visitors have the Many people start their garden wanderings by dipping under
opportunity to see many of their special plants growing in the arbor draped with a weeping larch, to be greeted by a
perfect harmony with one another. monumental Picea abies Pendula which is the centerpiece of
the wide sweeping lawn. And on all sides deep planting beds

are filled with unusual shrubs and me, part of the pleasure of visiting the
colorful perennials. Although lovely in Garden at Cadys Falls is the chance to
every season, this garden comes to a learn more about some of the
natural climax in mid to late summer. uncommon plants they grow there.
And, should you want to know the
From the lawn area it is but a short step identity of a particular plant, look for
before we find ourselves in a shady the metal label with large clear
woodland glen criss-crossed by lettering.
meandering paths. These narrow paths,
all meticulously covered with pea gravel For instance, about a decade ago, they
or soft pine needles, provide a beautiful began growing and propagating the
way for visitors to enjoy the numerous various species of our native Lady's
plants up close. Slippersorchids that grow wild in just
a few locations across Vermont.
Like its wild counterparts, in springtime As Don points out, while Ladys Slippers
the woodland garden is a spectacular (all species of the genus Cypripedium)
tapestry of colorful flowersfrom robust are extremely hard to propagate in a
rhododendrons and azaleas, to nursery setting, they are actually not
diminutive primroses and trillium. But hard to grow in the garden. So
by early summer, as the spring flowers unsurprisingly, in early summer you will
are fading, it is the numerous varieties of find many Ladys Slippers in flower in
ferns and hostas on the ground level that his garden.
combine to create a quieter textural Meandering peastone paths allow the visitor to
composition which lasts for the enjoy the plants up close in the share garden. In early June look too for the many
remainder of the season. peonies, both herbaceous and Itoh
Hybrids, as we'll as the stunning Himalayan Blue
Continuing along Poppies (Meconopsis betonicifolia).
the narrow gravel
paths we soon Don also grows both rhododendrons (evergreen)
encounter the and azaleas (deciduous) in the woodland garden.
spectacular water Indeed the azalea season starts in April and
garden which continues through August. So whenever you visit,
supports you are likely to find some in bloom.
numerous plants
that are adapted to And over the years he has propagated numerous
growing in wet or varieties dwarf and slow-growing conifers at
even standing one point offering over 80 varieties for sale in the
water. You will nursery. (These genetic mutations of forest-sized
easily see the huge conifers that usually bear little resemblance to the
broad-leaved parent species.) So it comes as no surprise that he
Umbrella Plant also has an abundance of these interesting plants
(Darmera peltata), The slopes above the water garden create a dry sunny
contrasting with microclimate.
clumps of slender
linear variegated iris. But look closerand you may spot the
carnivorous pitcher plants with their clever traps to waylay a The water
curious insect. garden at
In complete contrast to the bog-loving plants at the waters Falls.
edge, the steep dry slopes rising up on either side of the water
garden become the perfect environment for a delightful
collection of Alpine plants that thrive in dry conditions.

A Plant-Lovers Delight. Since Don and Lela have always loved

the challenge of growing unusual or fastidious plants, today the
garden boasts over 1000 species and cultivars to enjoy. So for
growing in his garden and he is always delighted to share his
knowledge of their different growth habits with interested

Before you go, be sure to check the dates and times that the
garden is open for visitors on their website, where you can also see numerous
pictures of this lovely garden in every season.

About the Author: Judith Irven and Dick Conrad live in Goshen
where together they nurture a large garden. Judith is a Vermont
Certified Horticulturist and teaches Sustainable Home
Landscaping for the Vermont Master Gardener Program. You can
subscribe to her blog about her Vermont gardening life at Dick is a landscape and
Paeonia 'Cora Louise', an unusual white Itoh Hybrid peony
garden photographer; you can see more of his photographs at
(picture by Don Avery).

Photo Credits: All photos taken by Dick Conrad unless otherwise


Cobble Creek Nursery, LLC

C obble Creek Nursery will be specializing

in quality field grown B&B nursery
stock, having sold our container growing
operation. We would like to take this
opportunity to thank Sally, Jason and Sonya
for their years of loyalty and service and
to wish them well in their new endeavors!
John, Patti and Todd will continue to
offer the same high quality plants and
exceptional customer service you have
come to expect from Cobble Creek.

John Padua
991 Tyler Bridge Road, Bristol, VT 05443
phone/fax: 802-453-3889 / e-mail:

no kidding

Standing in the Presence of Greatness

by Jacki Hart

Every now and I believe that sharing

our successes as well as
then, business
looking to professionals
owners who
for solutions to our
combine passion
challenges, are in
with skill and
themselves moments of
greatness. These are the
have very special
opportunities for our
(and memorable)
own growth both
moments. Some
personally and
of those moments
professionally. It takes
may include
courage, and a bit of
landing a great
vulnerability in order to
contract, hiring a
ask for help solving your business challenges. Were here to
right-fit dynamo, or creating your best ever masterpiece.
Some of those moments may happen when you come across a
mentor, a coach, or perhaps a chapter in a book that really
I encourage you to celebrate your wonderful moments of
connects to your core, and feels right.
greatness, and pay attention to how they make you feel, and
how you could best share and nurture those moments for
When these great moments happen in our careers, they are
others around you. If you slow yourself down enough to
magical. They affirm for each of us that we are doing exactly
notice, youll see that the wave of success, confidence and
what we are supposed to be doing and when. Moments of
achievement will give you a free ride to your next successful
greatness happen when youve really got your game on, and
moment. And, its contagious.
everything comes together smoothly.
Moments of Greatness. Here YOU come!
Many a time over the years of running my landscape
contracting company in Muskoka, I would turn to a planting
About the Author: Jacki Hart is president of Consulting by Hart
crew in the middle of laying out hundreds (or thousands) of
in Ontario, Canada. She is an entrepreneur, advisor, business
plants, and informed them that they were standing in the
consultant, and workshop facilitator with a career in the Green
presence of greatness in other words, they are witness to one
Industry spanning 35 years. Jacki is one of Canadas first women
of my more brilliant creations.
to hold the North American Green Industry certificate for business
management excellence. Jacki also manages the Prosperity
Some of them laughed. Some of them rolled their eyes. Others,
Program and Peer to Peer Network for Landscape Ontario.
asked why. Unbeknownst to them, Its the ones who asked
why, that had the greatest potential of making their own
Jacki writes for other trade magazines and will be a regular
moments of greatness in my business, as a part of my future
contributor to our business column. CBH is a consulting firm that
core team. The keepers as I called them.
passionately believes that entrepreneurial success depends on
sustained forward momentum - across all areas of business - both
As our 2017 year heads into the home stretch, Im asking for
the visible and the invisible. To
you to reflect back, and consider your own Moments of
learn more about CBH visit
Greatness. At what times in your business venture could you
have turned to co workers / staff and told them they were
standing in the presence of greatness your greatness!?

New Member Profile: Andrea Luchini - Hildene

Welcome and please meet new and so when I heard about an

opportunity at Hildene I jumped
member Andrea Luchini!
Andrea submitted this article at the chance. Once again, I am
using our member questionnaire so thankful that I did.
as a guide.
The most challenging issue I
I am the horticulturist at Hildene, face is trying to get it all done!
The Lincoln Family Home, in Hildene is growing in visitation
Manchester, the 412 acre estate and continues to use more of its
and ancestral home of land and natural resources for
presidential son, Robert Lincoln education. Just keeping up with
and wife Mary. Three generations the maintenance of the many
of direct descendants of Abraham gardens on property can be
and Mary Todd Lincoln called challenging, but Im fortunate to
Hildene home for seventy years work with a great, hard-
from 1905 to 1975. Today this working, team that also values
cultural heritage site, rooted in the reward of a job well done. It has
Abraham Lincolns values, is committed been so rewarding to work with this
to 21st century social, environmental team and have their support in
and educational goals. Driven by its implementing property wide
mission Values into Action, Hildene is composting, changing our pest
focused on preservation, conservation management strategies to an IPM-
and sustainability property wide. based program, and growing the
Gardens are abundant and include: majority of our own annuals, along
formal (peonies in spring/perennials in with native perennials for
summer), propagation, butterfly, pollinators, in our new (amazing!)
vegetable, cutting, and pollinator greenhouse.
gardens and a soft fruit cage.
I also appreciate the opportunity this
I am a Vermonter and grew up in So. Burlington. Upon graduating job gives me to interact directly with Hildene guests from
from UVM with a degree in Anthropology and a minor in presentations to groups of interested gardeners to that certain
Environmental Studies, I headed west to Colorado, ending up at someone who discovers something new in the garden or learns a
Keystone Resort. My first winter was spent at the front desk of a little bit more about the natural world after spending time at
hotel and I quickly realized it was not the job for me. When Hildene.
summer arrived, I knew I needed to get outside! Against the
advice of friends, who warned me it would be hard work and the Im often asked what my favorite plant is. Its so hard for me to
boss was tough, I chose to work with the landscaping crew. I am so answer however, because when I think Ive settled on one,
thankful I did. The boss, Ina Gillis, was tough, but only because something else pops up that I realize I also love! We have an
she cared about a job done well. She was also wonderful and extensive peony collection, mostly inherited from the Lincolns
personally inspiring for me. After four years of the ski bum life, I and after tending the collection for the past five years, I am
decided I wanted to pursue horticulture and was fortunate to be coming to really love and appreciate peonies.
accepted into the graduate program in UVMs Plant and Soil
Science department, studying with Dr. Leonard Perry. When Im not working, I still like to be outside, especially on a
sunny day. I like to explore the natural world, taking photographs
Never thinking Id get a year-round horticulture job in Vermont, I while hiking or cross country skiing. When I need to recharge, just
moved south to Asheville, NC. After a brief stint at a garden sitting in the sunshine, reading a good book is all I need.
center, I was hired at The North Carolina Arboretum. I spent 6
years there, learning all I could about horticulture and public We are very happy to be new Green Works members. I am excited
gardening. To this day, there is no place Id rather be in March for the networking and learning opportunities that membership
than Western North Carolina. Nevertheless, Vermont is still home provides and look forward to ongoing conversations with members

New Member Profile: Anna Johansen -
AJLA & Annas Blooms
Anna recently joined Green What do you find the most challenging/biggest issues
Works and filled out our member in running your business? Both businesses are most
questionnaire. Welcome Anna! active during the spring/summer, which makes it quite
the balancing act.
Introduce yourself and your
business. I have two businesses What do you find most rewarding? A brides smile
- a small cut flower farm and when I hand her the flowers she will be carrying when
floral design business (Annaa she gets married or a clients face when they see drawings
Blooms) and am a landscape come into reality.
architect (AJLA). My clientele is
mainly residential with a focus Share a business tip. Im finding that learning when to
on native and edible plants. say no and being selective with projects leads to more
fulfillment and success, which enables me to focus my
What is your background,
energy more on projects that have meaning and mesh
education, etc. how did you
with my aesthetics and values.
get started in this field? I
grew up surrounded by creative
Share your favorite plant. I have so many but
people and found my joy in the
anemones are at the top. I love how they colonize in the
garden and in nature, which led
me to pursue a degree in
landscape architecture at
Cornell University, concentrated
on visual studies and ecology. In
the summers I worked for a local
engineering firm and
landscapers and then widened
my eyes at Michael Van
Valkenburgh Associates in
Cambridge, NY for a few years
before returning full time to my
home in Southern VT and
becoming a designer for Shepard
Butler Landscape Architecture in
Thetford. Julie Messervy Design
Studio in Saxtons River hired me
while an employee was on maternity leave and I began working garden and their structure in a vase. So fresh and beautiful at
full time as a senior project manager until I had my daughter in the end of the season - plus the bees devour them!
2013 and decided to give up commuting for work. I have
continued my education with the Vermont Master Gardeners Where would you like to be five years from now? Partnered
program and Natural Landscape Design: Meadows & Woods with another professional or small design team with an office
intensive course with Larry Weaner. in town and attending the Flower School in NYC.

How long have you been in this business? Any other Why do you like being a member of Green Works? I enjoy
businesses? When I moved back to VT full time in 2007, I connecting with colleagues and trading knowledge with people
started growing flowers for markets and weddings, fulfilling a that share interests in this broad field.
desire for physical and creative work. After 10 years, my focus
has shifted more to weddings and private events with my Whats your favorite restaurant? SoLo Farm and Table in
organic and locally grown flowers. As for the landscape South Londonderry (also where we had our wedding reception!)
architecture side, my solo career began in 2013 after earning
licensure the year before. Now after my second baby, I work What do you like to do during your down time? What's
from home and often with my husband who is a builderwe that?
actually met on a job site!

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The Dirt - Fall
1/2 page 7.5" x 5"

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King of the Shade - Sun King Japanese Spikenard

by Mark Dwyer - Rotary Botanical Gardens Director of Horticulture

Ive not been this excited about a relatively new perennial for progression towards maturity. Sun King also exhibits the
excellent hardiness (to zone 4) and shade tolerance of the
the shade in many years! The Golden Japanese Spikenard
(Aralia cordata Sun King) first caught my eye in 2010 and species. I did see a specimen in hardiness zone 3 and it looked
since the time of our first planting of one specimen in 2011 at like it was thriving. It is important to note that in dappled
Rotary Botanical Gardens in Janesville, WI (zone 5), Ive now shade or areas where some sun is available, the foliage reads as
installed over 40 more a solid gold. In darker
specimens of this colorful, locations, it still offers
statuesque and textural interest as a strong
perennial in many of our part chartreuse. Our original
shade and full shade specimen (now eight years
gardens. It is nice to see the
old) reaches 5 in height
momentum of established
annually and is a real focal
popularity and performance
this perennial continues to point in the dappled shade of
enjoy each year and it comes our gazebo garden. I have
as no surprise to me. seen Sun King placed in full
sun and while the foliage is
I was formerly familiar with quite bright in spring, leaf
the straight species (green burning or washing out to a
form) of this plant (Aralia blanched white once summer
cordata) for many years and arrives is typical. Some
our two gigantic specimens
degree of shading is vital for
at the gardens would reach
maintaining the integrity of
7 tall every year with showy
white bloom clusters in summer followed by purple (inedible) the foliage intensity and protection from strong winds will help
berries. This species is native to Japan, Korea and portions of keep the foliage intact.
China. The fine young shoots of this perennial (called
mountain asparagus or udo) are a delicacy in Japan (taste like Without a doubt, the foliage is the primary asset of Sun King
asparagus) and the roots can also be consumed as you would Japanese spikenard. However, the reddish stems offer some
parsnips. My interest, however, was in the huge, green, interest as do the white summer flower clusters that later
subtropical appearance of this large herbaceous perennial in transition to deep purple berry clusters. Pollinators enjoy the
the shaded garden. Then along comes Sun King that has, in flowers and while the berries are inedible to humans, many
my opinion, become one of the most exciting perennial birds will avidly consume them. This perennial is also touted
introductions in the last 20 years. as deer resistant and the frequent deer in our garden have left
them entirely alone.
Barry Yinger, plantsman extraordinaire, was said to have found
this gold form at a department store nursery in Japan. The rest Consider adding this stalwart perennial in to the shadier
garden as an accent, focal point, mass planting or for all of
will become welcome history with this spectacular garden
these purposes. I cant envision a day in the future where this
option. This tough perennial offers superior, bold texture in the
plant will be considered ubiquitousI think it has become the
shaded garden and now the compound, golden leaves offer
essential backbone of our shadier gardens and deserves all the
excellent illumination in those locations as well. Reaching 3 accolades it continues to receive. Availability can still be a
6 tall once established, this perennial prefers rich, moist soils challenge but consider locating this plant and giving it a try.
with adequate drainage but has not been overly choosy with
soil conditions beyond the drainage requirements. Extra
pampering will certainly benefit growth rate and the
Just When you Think you Have Seen it All!
by Kristina MacKulin
Fall is in the air and it is mushroom season! Have you ever seen the likes
of this graphically erect fungus? In a Brooklyn Botanical Garden news
blog post they referred to this fungus as the Nastiest.Mushroom.Ever. I
think you can see why!

Mutinus elegans, also known as the elegant stinkhorn (not sure about
that!), dog stinkhorn, or devils dipstick (more like it!), certainly incites
gasps of OMG - what is that? This unusual phallic fungus can be found
growing in shady, damp areas and compost piles. It gets the name
stinkhorn for one important reason. Its stinky carrion-like smell
attract insects, which then in turn, distribute its spores. The mushroom
tips are covered in a spore-thick slime. The odor attracts flies and other
insects, which then in turn, do their duty and spread the spores.

Apparently Charles Darwins daughter, Etty, had it out for these

mushrooms. Remember it was the Victorian era! She would search out
the fungi (via smell) and as stated by her niece, would find one and poke
his putrid carcass into her basket. After ridding the area woods of these
fungi she would then secretly burn them in order to protect the morals of
the maids. You never know what you are going to come across in the Photo credit: Taken at Ravens Ridge, Monkton, VT
Vermont woods! by Julie Mitchell, EOS Botanicals.

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