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Running head: SCIENCE ENRICHMENT 1

Engaging Young Scholars in Science: A Study of a Summer Enrichment Experience for Middle

School Students

Meredith Mitchell

George Mason University

EDLE 897 Summer 2016

Dr. Scott Bauer


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Engaging Young Scholars in Science: A Study of a Summer Enrichment Experience for

Middle School Students

Organizations such as the Partnership for 21st Century Learning, and many other

research based organizations, have begun to highlight the necessity of refocusing our

educational system on the significant issue of equipping students with the skillsets they need to

be productive in todays global economy (Kay & Greenhill, 2011; Voogt & Roblin, 2012).

Their research suggests that it is not rote memorization of facts and content knowledge, which

is what the majority of mandated national and state standardized assessments currently

measure, that matters; it is the ability to create, collaborate, communicate and think critically

that will allow young scholars to be equipped with what they need in todays job market

(Supovitz, 2009; Kay & Greenhill, 2011; Voogt & Roblin, 2012). As the body of research on

21st century teaching and learning gains momentum, many school districts have adopted

measures and practices to commit to teaching these educational ideals, which is an important

first step in reforming education (Gunn & Hollingsworth, 2013). While the explicit adoption

of a shared vision of 21st century learning is important, merely stating our intention of better

equipping students for the future cannot and will not suffice.

A particular issue in the implementation of 21st century learning is in regards to how

educators may reach students from diverse contextual backgrounds. Educational research

often points to the ways in which economically, racially, and linguistically diverse students are

often more susceptible to the ills of our educational system, including a more narrowed

curriculum and overemphasis of fact memorization (Anderson, 2009; Au, 2009). There is

minimal research on exploring 21st century learning and the effects of Problem Based Learning

(PBL) instruction in minority populations (De La Paz, 2013; Black, 2009) which is a problem
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for educational leaders who should be knowledgeable advocates for all kinds of student

populations (Anderson, 2009). Through my research, I hope to understand the experiences of

a diverse population of students as they engage in a 21st century skill rich summer science

experience. By tapping into the opinions, attitudes, and experiences of these students both at

the start and end of their experience, it will be possible to show how these enrichment

experiences benefit students and provide support and awareness for educational leaders to seek

to expand and develop such programs.

This research will be significant in that it aims to not only explore a particular

phenomenon within education today, the inclusion of 21st century learning skills in the

classroom, but will also help clarify what this reform will mean for marginalized populations.

Currently, significant research would suggest creativity, communication, critical thinking, and

collaboration are skillsets that are important for all our students (Kay & Greenhill, 2011;

Jacobsen-Lundeberg, 2013), but it would be shortsighted and nave to say that the reform will

reach all students in the same way regardless of their individual contexts. If we can

understand the perceived effects of a reform on students, we can better understand how to

implement the reform in a variety of educational settings and contexts. Practically speaking, it

will be important to understand whether promoting specific initiatives of 21st century skill

building in marginalized youth is effective in incurring positive outcomes for students.

Methods

My own experiences teaching in a school with a high population of students with

lower socioeconomic status and higher rates of English language learners relative to the rest of

the district has driven me to pursue findings for the following research question: What are the

effects of a 21st century enrichment program on a population of diverse students?


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Research Design

The design of this study is characterized as a mixed methods research. My purpose is

to gain insight on the experiences and effects on students as they engage in a summer science

enrichment program that utilizes 21st century skills.

Sample Selection

Site Selection. The study was conducted within a school district that will be referred

to as Large Mid-Atlantic County. Large Mid-Atlantic County is named for its actual

geographic location and demographics, and was selected not only for convenience purposes,

but also because it has recently adopted a vision and mission at the district level to provide

students with more frequent and authentic 21st century learning experiences. Within this 21st

century learning initiative, there is a specific program called Young Scholars that specifically

serves underrepresented students with enrichment experiences. The district identifies bright,

inquisitive students as Young Scholars if they are students who are racially or linguistically

diverse, experience socioeconomic adversity, and/or have an otherwise extraordinary life

circumstance they have overcome. This study utilizes purposeful selection because it is based

within a Young Scholars summer experience that is specific to a diverse population of

students.

Participants. Young scholars are sixth through eighth grade students who come from

12 different school site locations across the county and represent a diverse range of

demographics. Their individual programs are managed by site supervisors and are run by

teachers within the district who have been specifically trained on one of four JASON learning

units: Terminal Velocity, Resilient Planet, Infinite Potential, and Seas of Change. I contacted

teachers and site supervisors directly via email in order to facilitate data collection throughout
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the study. By including all of the available school sites, there was some element of maximum

variation sampling because a range of teachers were delivering the program across multiple

sites to demographically diverse subjects (Merriam, 2009, p. 79).

Data Collection

I followed the timetable in Appendix A in order to collect data and complete my

research study. Teachers of the Young Scholars science program were initially contacted via

email, with directions on how to direct their students to access a Google Forms survey during

the first week of the summer science program. I followed up with correspondence with

particular school sites and compiled student work samples, videos, and photos from each

school site. Each participant was given and asked to complete an informed assent statement

included in Appendix B. Informed assent serves to protect the privacy of informants and

explain the intents and purposes of the study (Glesne, 2011). Students who did not assent to

participation were not asked to complete the survey.

Each participant completed an initial Google Form survey that asked them to describe

their attitudes, feelings, and perspectives on science during the first few days of the three week

long summer program. This survey is included in Appendix C. The first question, which was

analyzed quantitatively, asked students to mark all feelings they experience when thinking

about science. The subsequent questions required students to type out a response regarding

their experiences and attitudes in science as well as explain the skillsets they need to be an

effective scientist.

The student artifacts which were collected throughout the duration of the study were

catalogued in a Google Drive folder and accessible to program administrators for future use in

training and disseminating information about the summer program. The purpose of this
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additional data collection was also to triangulate information for when post survey information

was collected from students. During the third and final week of the summer program, I

contacted teachers and site supervisors with the post survey, included in this report as

Appendix D. Students again responded to quantitative and qualitative measures which were

nearly identically constructed. The purpose of a similar question set was to facilitate

answering the question of how students feelings and attitudes had changed over the duration

of the summer program.

Data Analysis

I began data analysis concurrently with data collection. After the first initial survey

was completed, I began searching through the data for themes and patterns (Glesne, 2011,

p.187). I started with the process of open coding to sort data and information into categories

(Merriam, 2009). I inductively derived three themes after an initial reading of all survey

responses and then reread the survey responses, organizing pertinent information into an

analytic file (Glesne, 2011). Finally, I categorized the responses within a data analysis matrix

adapted from Maxwell as shown in Appendix E (2013).

After the follow up surveys were completed, I used quantitative methods to analyze

how feelings about science changed between the pre program survey and the post program

survey. I calculated effect sizes using Cohens d in order to measure the magnitude of the

differences that occurred before and after the three week summer enrichment program. The

data output for this quantitative statistical testing is reported in Appendix F.

I reviewed all post survey responses and coded them within the same thematic

categories as the pre program surveys, attending to any differences or new occurrences from

this round of data collection. These adjusted themes were compiled in a data analysis matrix
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in Appendix G. Finally, I coded and sorted data relating to the final element of the post

survey: student responses to the 21st century skill utilization and development. These results

are organized in a separate data analysis matrix in Appendix H. The data responses and my

analysis were peer reviewed by coordinators in the Young Scholars program office as well as

teachers of the summer program.

Validity and Reliability

While the purpose of this research study is not necessarily intended for generalization,

rather an evaluation of the utility of a 21st century enrichment program within a particular

population, it is important to ensure that my study was carried out in such a way to maximize

its validity and reliability (Glesne, 2011). Of the eight strategies Maxwell proposes for

promoting validity and reliability, this research study used four strategies including extensive

engagement with data, reflexivity, peer review, and maximum variation (Merriam, 2009,

p.229). While these techniques cannot eliminate sources of bias or ensure absolute truth, I

endeavored with due diligence to produce a study that reflects the beliefs and experiences of

the participants. In addition, after open coding and determining themes, I read through surveys

multiple times in search of discrepant cases (Merriam, 2009).

Throughout the entire research process, the practice of reflexivity remained in the

forefront of my intentions. Glesne writes that researchers tend to discuss reflexivity by

inquiring into their own biases, subjectivity, and value-laden perspectives or into the

appropriateness of their research methodology and methods, including concerns regarding data

collected, interpretations made, and representations produced (2011, p. 151).

Researcher Biases

For the purposes of this study, it is important to clarify that I have approached this
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research with a firm belief in the need for reform within our educational system by

emphasizing the skillsets required for students to achieve in the 21st century and

deemphasizing the value placed in standardized assessments based in rote memorization of

content knowledge. Furthermore, I come from the viewpoint that educational leaders should

advocate for marginalized students who are often underserved in terms of enriching academic

experiences. Lastly, it is worth noting that I had personally taught this summer program

before, which inevitably shaped my perceptions of its utility and value for the students it

serves. As noted previously, these biases were carefully considered throughout the research

process.

Discussion of Findings

The purpose of this study was to explore both quantitatively and qualitatively the

experiences of a diverse group of students as they engage in a summer science enrichment

program. To understand the effects of this summer program on students attitudes towards

science quantitatively, the effect sizes of the mean differences were calculated for each feeling

construct and Table 1 below reports the results.

Table 1

Effect Sizes of Mean Differences of Students Feelings about Science Pre and Post Program

Feeling Pretest M Pretest SD Posttest M Postest SD Effect Size (d)

Happy .367 .483 .518 .50097 0.307*


Excited .485 .501 .679 .46817 0.398**
Interested .803 .398 .808 .39467 0.013
Scared .023 .149 .021 .14283 -0.014
Nervous .140 .348 .124 .33084 -0.065
Bored .201 .401 .155 .36327 -0.118
Unsure .242 .429 .150 .35825 -0.230*
Curious .648 .479 .658 .47560 0.022
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Successful .220 .415 .342 .47560 0.277*


Motivated
.345 .476 .394 .48986 0.102
Note. Sample size decreased from the pretest to posttest surveys. Pretest N= 264, Posttest N=193.
*Indicates small effect size
** Indicates medium effect size

Four of the feeling constructs that were reported by students changed between the pre

and post survey with at least a small effect size: happy, excited, unsure, and successful. The

proportion of students reporting they felt happy about and successful in science increased after

the program by a small magnitude, and the proportion of students who felt excited by science

after the experience increased by a moderate magnitude. The proportion of students who felt

unsure about science decreased by the end of the program by a small effect. While all other

feeling constructs changed in educationally desirable directions (an increase in the proportion

of positive feelings and a decrease in the proportion of negative feelings), no other feeling

constructs changed with an effect size large enough to be considered to have practical

significance.

In looking at the qualitative data, student responses can be organized within three

major themes that demonstrate some minute differences from the pre program survey to the

post program survey. The first theme, the utility and application of science, first emerged in

the pre program survey and can be characterized as students understanding that there are

problems to be solved in the world and things yet to be discovered that science may help

achieve. One student noted, [science] helps me learn how to improve the community around

us and how to develop our future. Many students also noted that issues such as global

warming, extinction, and pollution were science related problems that were in need of

solutions. Finally, students alluded to science being useful in the future, but lacked concrete
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descriptions of in what ways this were possible. In the post program survey, the application

and utility of science became more personal; students wrote when I grow up, I want to be a

doctor [and] science can help me cure and help my patients and when I get older, science is

going to help me a lot when I get a job as [an] engineer. These personalized applications of

science might potentially indicate a growing perception of students seeing themselves as

scientists and having the interest and confidence to do so.

Another theme which emerged is the spectrum of emotions tied to the sciences.

Students reported their own conflicting feelings about being both interested and engaged in the

sciences, but also often feeling bored or stressed about science. In the pre program survey,

students often cited the boredom experienced from routine classroom procedures such as

listening to lectures, note taking, and completing assessments. One student wrote I do not like

the boring work, like long talks about things I dont want to learn about while another said

what they did not like about science included [taking] long tests about science because it

sometimes... can get stressful because you may forget. Others reported their dissatisfaction

with no moving and we dont have projects. Students overwhelming pointed to hands on

experiences as positive experiences in the classroom, illustrated by these quotes from students:

For me, going out and performing an experiment or simulation helps me understand

how the topic is performed or found in real life.

When you start a [science] project it takes you to a whole other world.

You get to explore and do experiments that some people cant do but it is fun to do

other things than just sit and listen to the teacher.

These positive experiences with hands on experiments and activities were even more prevalent

in the post program surveys. One participant responded, at first I was like science is
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boring but now that I came to this summer program, every time we were going to do

something with science I get very excited. The differences in the summer experience

compared to the regular classroom experiences were especially highlighted: you dont get to

do much of it [at] school, its really fun to see how the experiment ended. Many students

were glad that they got to do science through the summer program, not be passive recipients

of information. One student noted, since I dont get to do science very often, it gives me all

of these good emotions to get up and work hard at the experiment!

The final theme that emerged from the surveys was the recognition of a broad range

of skills that are needed to be proficient scientists. In both the pre and post program surveys,

students noted that there are certainly cognitive factors, like intelligence, that play a role in

scientific endeavors, but also emotionally based skillsets that contribute to success in the field.

In both the pre and post program surveys, students noted that commitment, resiliency, and

motivation played a large part of being a scientist. After recognizing the broad range of

participant responses in the initial survey, I asked students to specifically reflect on the

skillsets defined by the districts vision of 21st century learning: communication, collaboration,

creativity, critical thinking, goal setting, and ethical/global thinking. Over half of the

respondents cited communication, collaboration, creativity, and critical thinking as being

integral to their scientific process throughout the summer, and expanded upon the ways in

which these skillsets were used throughout the various project and activities they took on.

While both the quantitative and qualitative data point to some nuanced ways in which

students beliefs and attitudes about science have changed as a result of participating in the

summer program, it is important to consider the limitations of the study that shape the

discussion of these findings. The most prevalent limitation is the lack of rich descriptions
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provided by participants in the open ended qualitative survey items. Although students were

given ample space to write within the Google Form surveys in an expandable text box, many

students may have felt that a short, vague answer was sufficient, despite prompts for details

and examples. If this study were to be completed again, I would likely change either the

format of the survey or set sentence minimums in order to probe more description out of the

participants. Alternatively, if the structure or timeframe of the program better allowed for it, I

would have conducted open ended interviews with participants that would allow for me to

have prompted more elaboration and details. Another possible limitation to the study is the

dramatically reduced participant response rate from the pre to post surveys. The study began

with 264 assenting participants, however, only 193 participants followed through in the post

survey. It would have been feasible to conduct a paired analysis through matching students

pre and post survey responses, however, I opted for the larger breadth of responses by looking

at the data unmatched. A final limitation to consider is the fact that many of these students

have been participants in the Young Scholars program for several years, and have had

extensive opportunities to access enriching academic experiences. These prior experiences

may have lessened the novelty or impact of this years summer program in particular, as

compared to a group of students who are experiencing these types of extracurricular activities

for the first time.

Conclusion

Students will need 21st century learning skills to be successful in their futures and by

offering enrichment opportunities to students through engaging experiences, we can share with

students something that they may not be experiencing in the classroom. The contextual factors

of socioeconomic status and language proficiency impact student learners, and it will be
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important to explicitly understand, monitor, and advocate for these students access to

engaging and relevant curriculum. This study may inform future studies on the long term

effects and lasting implications of Young Scholars enrichment experiences including an

exploration of how these opportunities ultimately impact academic performance and future

career choices. As the body of research related to 21st century skills grows, it is my hope that

the reform will contribute to transformational experiences in the lives of students, regardless of

their backgrounds and contexts.


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References

Anderson, G. (2009). Advocacy leadership: Toward a post-reform agenda in education. New

York: Routledge.

Au, W. (2007). High-stakes testing and curricular control: a qualitative metasynthesis.

Educational Researcher, 36(5), 258-267.

Glesne, C. (2011). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction (4th ed.). Upper Saddle

River, New Jersey: Pearson.

Gunn, T. & Hollingsworth, M. (2013). The implementation and assessment of shared 21st

century learning vision: A district-based approach. Journal of Research on Technology

in Education, 45(3), 201-228. doi:10.1080/15391523.2013.10782603

Kay, K. & Greenhill, V. (2011). Twenty-first century students need 21st century skills. In G. Wan

& D. Gut (Eds.), Bringing schools into the 21st century (pp. 41-65). Netherlands:

Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0268-4_3

Maxwell, J. (2013). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (3rd ed.). Thousand

Oaks, CA: Sage.

Merriam, S. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San

Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Supovitz, J. (2009). Can high stakes testing leverage educational improvement? Prospects from

the last decade of testing and accountability reform. Journal of Educational Change, 10,

211-227.

Voogt, J. & Roblin, N. (2012). A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st

century competences: Implications for national curriculum policies. Journal of

Curriculum Studies, 44(3), 299-321. doi:10.1080/00220272.2012.668938


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Appendix A

Timetable for Research Study

Jan- May 2016 - Ensure funding and secure grant for program

- Schedule timeline for teacher professional development

sessions and set camp schedules

June 27th - Deliver and distribute workshop materials to classrooms at

training facility, set up posters to lead participants to

sessions, set up classrooms with appropriate number of

desks/ tables/ technology

June 28th- June 30th - Set up breakfast for professional development attendees

- Distribute presenter materials

- Collect session attendance sheets

- Coordinate and distribute presenter lunches

- Log teacher recertification points onto online system

- Set up materials for next days presentations

- Collect and repackage all unused professional development

texts and materials

- Discuss research study goals with coordinators of the

program

July 7th - Pilot survey with program coordinators

- Gain approval for communication with program teachers

and site supervisors


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July 11th July 29th - Initial communication with program teachers and site

supervisors

- Follow up correspondence for initial surveys

- Collection of photos, videos, student artifacts

- Begin initial data analysis

- Distribute final surveys and follow up correspondence as

needed
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Appendix B

Informed Assent Statement

The following letter was sent electronically to all participants prior to completing the

survey. Participants were asked to review the information and respond electronically if they

agreed to the terms and conditions. All participants in the study responded affirmatively and

agreed to the terms below:

We are asking the following questions in order to research your thoughts and feelings

about science. Your responses are voluntary, and will help us understand how this summer

program can be a great experience for students like you. Feel free to ask your teacher any

questions while you complete the survey. Please write down examples and reasons for each one

of your answers. You do not have to answer any questions that make you uncomfortable. Thank

you for your time and thoughtful answers! Do you agree to participate?

o Yes

o No
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Appendix C

Survey 1: Pre Summer Program

The following survey was distributed to assenting participants during the first week of the

summer program through a Google Form.

1. I am a student at this school:

School A

School B

School C

School D

School E

School F

School G

School H

School I

School J

School K

School L

School M

School N

2. When I think about science I feel (check all that apply):

Happy

Excited
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Interested

Scared

Nervous

Bored

Unsure

Curious

Successful

Motivated

3. I feel this way about science because

4. I like learning about science for these three reasons

5. These are things I dont like about science:

6. Learning about science is helpful to me because

7. To be a good scientist, I think you need to have these skills:


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Appendix D

Survey 2: Post Summer Program

The following survey was distributed to assenting participants during the final week of the

summer program through a Google Form. The questions are nearly identical to the initial

survey, however two follow up questions were added at the end to delve deeper into the students

experience with the utilization of 21st century skills during the summer program.

1. I am a student at this school:

School A

School B

School C

School D

School E

School F

School G

School H

School I

School J

School K

School L

School M

School N

2. When I think about science I NOW feel (check all that apply):

Happy
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Excited

Interested

Scared

Nervous

Bored

Unsure

Curious

Successful

Motivated

3. I feel this way about science because

4. I like learning about science for these three reasons

5. These are things I dont like about science:

6. Learning about science is helpful to me because

7. To be a good scientist, I think you need to have these skills:

8. I used these skills during Young Scholars Summer Camp (check all that apply):

Communication

Collaboration

Creativity

Goal Setting

Critical Thinking

Ethical/Global Citizenship

9. Of the items you checked above, HOW did you practice these skills during your time in

Young Scholars Summer Camp? Please give examples to explain your thinking.
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Appendix E

Data Analysis Matrix: Pre Program Survey

Open Code 1: Open Code 2: Open Code 3:


Utility/ Applications Interest in Hands On/ Range of Skills Needed
Boredom with Routine
Theme 1: Theme 2: Theme 3:

Students recognize there is Students reported mixed Students recognize that a


utility and application to feelings about science; variety of skills are needed to
learning science. Students students experience be scientists. Students
understand problems in the engagement and interest when frequently cited emotional
world can be discovered they can do science and factors such as resiliency and
through understanding science boredom with routine lectures, motivation as frequently (or
and link their experiences in note taking, and assessments. more) than cognitive factors
learning science to potential like intelligence.
future careers
Every day I find some things in Science that open mind respect responsibilty
there's something new to learn are interesting to me. I like to
and you never know how much study cells, I found easy when
you'll end up liking it. And also i we learned about cell parts in
Intelligence, patience,
know that it'll be useful in the Mrs.Kobb's science class. I feel
future. like science I really fun, because cooperation, acceptance,
we get to do experiments in persistence.
There are some real life class. We get to look at things
problems out there I wanted to through a microscope. 1)Courage 2)Motivation 3)And
stop which was global warming, you need to have the passion to
extinction, and pollution. You get to explore and do do it if you don't have passion
experiments that some people then it's not gonna go as well.
I like learning about science can't do but it is fun to do other
because it teaches me about things than just sit and listen to
the teacher. 1. You need to be a quick thinker
what's going around the world
2. You need to be flexible to in
and how to prevent the problems.
I like learning science because I certain situations 3. You have to
It also teach me to cooperate
know that science is pretty much be very good at math 4. You
with others. in everything we do, also I like need to have an open mind
when you try something there is
It helps me learn how to improve no right or wrong answer you just
the community around us and do what you feel, and because Observation skills, creative
how to develop our future. when you start a project it takes thinking, problem solving, verbal
you to a whole other world. and taking notes skills.
There is so much we dont know
and it can benifit the world in I like the hands-on labs and a growth mind set, being able to
different ways and could help experiences one finds in science. commit to any challenging
It helps me get to the core of
others with new herbs or situation.
what the topic is all about.
medecin that are not discoverd.
Taking tests, Not hands on way you need to be curious,
of learning. interested, and be able to relate it
I do not like the boring work, like with other situations or facts. you
long talks about things that I don't need to be intelligent, open
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want to learn about, like light, minded,and have different plans


sound, mostly things involving or techniques if something
physics. doesn't go according to plan.
Sometimes if we take long tests
i think to be a good scientist you
about science it sometimes it can
have to have to capability to be
get stressful because you may
patient and think outside of the
forget what plants do or other
box and question and take in
things
other peoples opinions and
thoughts
1) we don't have projects (2) No
moving (3) mostly bored
To be a good scientist, I think
For me, going out and performing that you must have a passion for
and experiment or simulation learning more and asking
helps me understand how the questions. You must have the
topic is performed or found in determination to keep going and
real life. Therefore, through labs not give up, and it is important
and hands-on experiences, I get that you are honest to yourself
more out of the lesson and and fully involved with whatever
understand it a little bit better.
science you are studying; no
cutting corners or slacking off.
Finally, you must be motivated to
assist further discovery and
assess any issues your science
may have.

Adapted from (Maxwell, 2013)


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Appendix F

Quantitative Data Output

Happy Pre: 97 people Post: 100 people

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
PRE 264 .00 1.00 .3674 .48302
POST 193 .00 1.00 .5181 .50097
Valid N
193
(listwise)
Cohens d= 0.3071
95% CI= (0.1204, 0.4938)

Excited Pre: 128 people Post: 131 people

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
PRE 264 .00 1.00 .4848 .50072
POST 193 .00 1.00 .6788 .46817
Valid N
193
(listwise)
Cohens d= 0.3982
95% CI= (0.2107, 0.5856)

Interested Pre: 212 people Post: 158 people

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
PRE 264 .00 1.00 .8030 .39846
POST 193 .00 1.00 .8083 .39467
Valid N
193
(listwise)
Cohens d= 0.0134
95% CI= (-0.1723, 0.199 )

Scared Pre: 6 people Post: 4 people

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
PRE 264 .00 1.00 .0227 .14932
POST 193 .00 1.00 .0207 .14283
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Valid N
193
(listwise)
Cohens d= -0.0136
95% CI= (-0.1993, 0.172)

Nervous Pre: 37 people Post: 24 people

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
PRE 264 .00 1.00 .1402 .34780
POST 193 .00 1.00 .1244 .33084
Valid N
193
(listwise)
Cohens d= -0.065
95% CI= (-0.2507, 0.1207)

Bored Pre: 53 people Post: 30 people

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
PRE 264 .00 1.00 .2008 .40133
POST 193 .00 1.00 .1554 .36327
Valid N
193
(listwise)
Cohens d= -0.1177
95% CI= (-0.3035, 0.0681)

Unsure Pre: 64 people Post: 29 people

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
PRE 264 .00 1.00 .2424 .42936
POST 193 .00 1.00 .1503 .35825
Valid N
193
(listwise)

Cohens d= -0.2297
95% CI= (- 0.416, -0.0435)

Curious Pre: 171 people Post: 127 people

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
PRE 264 .00 1.00 .6477 .47859
SCIENCE ENRICHMENT 26

POST 193 .00 1.00 .6580 .47560


Valid N
193
(listwise)
Cohens d= 0.0216
95% CI= (-0.164, 0.2072)

Successful Pre: 58 people Post: 66 people

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
PRE 264 .00 1.00 .2197 .41483
POST 193 .00 1.00 .3420 .47560
Valid N
193
(listwise)

Cohens d= 0.277
95% CI= (0.0905, 0.4635 )

Motivated Pre: 91 people Post: 76 people

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
PRE 264 .00 1.00 .3447 .47617
POST 193 .00 1.00 .3938 .48986
Valid N
193
(listwise)
Cohens d= 0.1019
95% CI= (-0.0839, 0.2876 )
SCIENCE ENRICHMENT 27

Appendix G

Data Analysis Matrix: Post Program Survey

Open Code 1: Open Code 2: Open Code 3:


Utility/ Applications Interest in Hands On/ Range of Skills Needed
Boredom with Routine
Theme 1: Theme 2: Theme 3:

Students recognize the Students were engaged with Students recognize that a
opportunity in science driven hands on experiences and variety of skills are needed to
careers and understand how experiments during the be scientists. Students again
their future work in the summer enrichment program cited emotional factors such
science can benefit others. which built confidence in as resiliency and motivation
themselves and interest in the as well as cognitive factors
sciences. Students noted that like intelligence. More than
classroom experiences dont half of students felt they
always allow for this level of employed communication,
hands on activity and collaboration, creativity, and
engagement. critical thinking in their
summer experience.
I get to be aware of what's going i feel like science is fun where listening, patience, observant,
on in the world so that I can try to you can expirament and learn at and the ability to be open
do something about it. the same time which for me thats minded. any variable can change
a 2 in one at any time and will not always
when I get older, science is going go according to plan.
to help me a lot when I get a job I learned new and interesting
as a engineer. thing and got to do hands on 1. You need to have an
experiments open mind 2. You have
to have a sense of
when I grow up, I want to be a
curiosity 3. You need to
doctor a science can help me I know more than I knew before be very good in math
cure and help my patients. so I feel better about science.
Collaboration, creativity, morals,
I used to not like science that
and critical thinking
much but I more attention and I
realized that science is sorta fun
A strong thinking skills, good
when you actually put some
hypothesis , improvise , critical
effort in it.
thinking, and to use all of your
five senses really well.
Since i don't get to do science
very often, it gives me all of these
be committed, smart, and
good emotions to get up and
curious.
work hard at the experiment!

Motivation and senses.


I've always doubted myself in
science, but now I know if I take
first of a all you need to be
my time, and believe in myself, I
determined and have a reason
SCIENCE ENRICHMENT 28

can be successful in science. why you want to do an


experiment and that you don't
During the Young Scholars give up the first time you don't
program, I started to feel like I get something that you want
am a expert on science. When I
felt that, I started to like science.

At first I was like science is


boring but now that I came to this
summer program every time we
were going to do something with
science I get very excited.

It can get confusing and boring


really fast if were not doing
something fun to us. If we are it's
REALLY fun, but on other times
it's really boring...

1. Building stuff is fun 2. Its not


the same thing 3.
Experiments are awesome

You don't get to get to do much


of it school, it's really fun to see
how the experiment ended, and
you get to cooperate with a team
to learn science.

Things I don't like about Science


is how you have to be patient to
doing experiments. Even though
it might take a long time. For
example when we did the
filtering.

You have to touch things with


your hands. You have to cleanup
after an experiment(s)

Nasty experiments, like picking


stuff out of a dead thing or other
things like, looking at bugs.Also
you can get messing.

You have to read a long boring


textbook, there's a ton of things
to remember, and you don't get
to do it often so you might forget
SCIENCE ENRICHMENT 29

how to do certain things.

Adapted from (Maxwell, 2013)


SCIENCE ENRICHMENT 30

Appendix H

21st Century Skills Data Matrix

21st Century Skill Percentage of Participants Reporting Participant Reponses

(Portrait of a Graduate Using Skill during Summer Program

terminology)

Communication 85.3% We did a build battle that


included needing teammates
Collaboration 68.9% and communicating with each
other, but its also using our
Creativity 83.2% creativity to see what you have
come up with. And critical
thinking comes from testing out
Goal Setting 35.3%
what we have created and
seeing what we need to add
Critical Thinking 66.3% and why there is that certain
problem.
Ethical/Global 25.8%
When we were working on our
Citizenship animal project (bottlenose
dolphin) we struggled a bit on
who does what. But later on we
learned about who we are and
how we can make this Raft
project work without problems.

I communicated by talking to
the people around me when we
were stuck, I collaborated by
working as a team with others, I
was creative by thinking of
ideas that might help me and
my table partners get far in the
project, I set goals by thinking
before getting cocky and make
a mistake, I think critically by
"thinking before I speck" and i
show ethical and global
citizenship by helps others
when they need some help.

When my experiments didn't


really work out I tried to add
more to it like when we made
SCIENCE ENRICHMENT 31

paper helicopters I added


paperclips in different places to
see what makes it fly better.

Me and my group had to


communicate somehow to
make a Rube Goldberg
machine and we had to
communicate on what to do to
make it successful on top of that
we had to be creative so we
could be successful. Also
because of that we collaborated
a lot.

Video projects helped me


improve on communication,
collaboration, and creativity,
because working with someone
else encouraged me to combine
their ideas with mine, and make
up my own ideas too.

I worked with my group and


came to a consensus most of
the time, like during labs and
team building. My group and I
were able to think through
problems, and mistakes,
especially when we made the
Rube Goldberg machine.