Histology

Histology → study of microstructure of tissues Tissue
group or aggregation of cells display common functional or morphological properties Ma. Chiela M. Cremen, M.Sc.
Department of Biological Sciences College of Science University of Santo Tomas 1st Semester SY: 2010-2011

CELLS → TISSUES → ORGANS

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Tissues
Epithelial Connective Muscle Nerve

Epithelial Tissues
Covers external surfaces of the body or lines cavities Lacks vascular supply but are nourished by diffusion from capillary beds in the underlying CT Derived from the three embryonic layers For protection; secretion, absorption, lubrication & sensory perception Number of Cell Layers: Shape: 1. Simple 1. Squamous 2. Stratified 2. Cuboidal 3. Pseudostratified 3. Columnar 4. Transitional
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Free surface of epithelium

Basement Membrane (extracellular matrix)

Underlying tissue

Cell nuclei

Epithelial Tissues
Simple Squamous Epithelium (inner lining of cheek)
D. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM (lining the esophagus)

A. SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM (lining the air sacs of the lung)

B. SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM (forming a tube in the kidney)

C. SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM (lining the intestine) - mcmc 10 - mcmc 10 -

Epithelial Tissue
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium (Kidney tubules)

Epithelial Tissues
Simple Columnar Epithelium (stomach / small intestine)

highly absorptive surfaces → small intestine secretory surfaces → stomach may be specialized for secretion → goblet cells in the small intestine

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Epithelial Tissues
Simple Columnar Epithelium (Stomach / Small Intestine)

Epithelial Tissues
Stratified Squamous Epithelium (Skin)

2 or more layers of cells Basal cells udergoes continuous mitotic division

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Epithelial Tissues
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium (Trachea)

Epithelial Tissues
Transitional Epithelium (urinary bladder)

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Connective Tissue Proper
• There are six major types of connective tissue

Connective Tissue
Bind, anchor, and support body parts Abundant cellular matrix 2 Types: 1. Connective Tissue Proper – for binding organs 2. Specialized Connective Tissues – binding & other specific functions Fibers: 1. Collagen – thick, un-branched; appear wavy 2. Elastic – thin, branched; less wavy 3. Reticular – fine, delicate, branched extensively
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Cell Collagen fiber Other fibers A. LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE (under the skin) Fat droplets Cell nucleus C. ADIPOSE TISSUE White blood cells Red blood cells Plasma D. BLOOD E. BONE

Cell nucleus

Collagen fibers B. FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE (forming a ligament)

Cells Matrix F. CARTILAGE (at the end of a bone) Central canal Matrix Cells

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Connective Tissue Proper:
Loose or Areolar Connective Tissue

Connective Tissue Proper:
Dense Connective Tissue (Tendon)

Large amount of tissue fluid, many cells, few fibers

More fibers, less ground substance & cells

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Specialized Connective Tissue:
1. Adipose Tissue
Adipocytes → fat cells Fats → triglycerides Stores nutrients, provides insulation, & acts as cushions; fills crevices in organs Nucleus – signet (ring configuration)

Specialized Connective Tissue:
2. Cartilage
Chondrocytes → cartilage cells Lacuna → cartilage matrix 3 Types of Cartilage based on Matrices:
1. 2. 3.

Hyaline Cartilage Elastic Cartilage Fibrocartilage

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Specialized Connective Tissue:
a. Hyaline Cartilage (trachea) Clear homogenous matrix Perichondrium – dense connective tissue found at the periphery; supplied with blood vessels Spindle-shaped lacunae houses the chondrocytes

Specialized Connective Tissue:
b. Elastic Cartilage (Epiglottis & External Ear) Contains collagenous fibers, & a network of elastic fibers

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Specialized Connective Tissue:
c. Fibrocartilage
resembles connective tissue proper Consist of a network of collagenous fibers Round or oval lacunae houses the chondrocytes

Specialized Connective Tissue:
3. Bone
For support, protection, movement, forming blood cells; reservoir of calcium Lamellae → matrix Haversian canal Osteocytes → bone cells Lacunae – small spaces Canaliculi → minute canals radiating from the lacunae Haversian System / Osteone Volkmann’s canal - canals
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Specialized Connective Tissue:
4. Blood
Transport medium Plasma → fluid medium
a. b.

Specialized Connective Tissue:
Human Red Blood Cells Frog’s Red Blood Cells

Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells → carries hemoglobin Leucocytes or White Blood Cells Granular WBC – multi-lobulated nucleus connected by chromatin strands Agranular WBC

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Specialized Connective Tissue:
Granular WBC Agranular WBC

Muscle Tissue
Cells are specialized for contraction Muscle cells are elongated, thus they are called muscle fibers 3 Types: 1. Skeletal muscle – voluntary; striated 2. Smooth muscle – involuntary; non-striated 3. Cardiac muscle – involuntary; striated

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Muscle Tissue
Unit of muscle contraction Muscle fiber Muscle fiber Nucleus Junction between two cells Nucleus

Muscle Tissue
Skeletal Muscle - skeleton
Smooth Muscle – walls of viscera

Muscle fiber B. CARDIAC MUSCLE A. SKELETAL MUSCLE Nucleus

C. SMOOTH MUSCLE

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Muscle Tissue
Cardiac Muscle – wall of the heart

Nervous Tissue:
specialized to receive stimuli from the environment or from various organs of the body transmit impulses to the nerve centers in the brain & spinal cord Composed of 2 Types of Cells:
1. 2.

Neurons Neurologia

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Nervous Tissue
Neurons:
Nerve Processes: 1. Dendrite – short & confined near the cell body; conveys impulses towards the cell body 2. Axon – thinner but much longer; conveys impulses away from the cell body

Nervous Tissue
Teased Nerve

myelin sheath

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Nervous Tissue
Nerve Bundle (x-s nerve trunk)
Fascicle – single bundle of nerve fibers & connective tissue Epineurium – connective tissue that binds several fascicles Perineurium – dense connective tissue that covers each fascicle Endoneurium – connective tissue that covers individual nerve fibers

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