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Source: The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 70, No. 3 (Mar., 1963), pp. 281-284

Published by: Mathematical Association of America

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2313125

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1963] AN ALTERNATIVE DERIVATION OF THE Z-TRANSFORM 281

Acknowledgment.

The workoftheauthorwas performed in connectionwithresearchdirected

by theAdvancedResearchProjectsAgencyof the Departmentof Defenseand was administered

bytheAirForceOffice

ofScientific

ResearchunderContractAF-49(638)-1113.

Reference

1. P. JordanandJ.vonNeumann,On InnerProductsin LinearMetricSpaces,Ann.ofMath.,

36,No. 3 (1935) 719-723.

AUBREY M. BUSH AND DANIEL C. FIELDER, GeorgiaInstituteofTechnology

Introduction.The Z-transform,originallydeveloped for use in the analysis

of sampled data and digital controlsystems,has been historicallydeveloped by

"modulating an impulse train," which is a mathematically unsatisfyingap-

proach. The presentwork extends that of H. A. Helm, of the Bell Telephone

Laboratories to include nonzero initial conditions and functionsthat are dis-

continuous at the samplinginstants. It is hoped that the derivationgiven here

will encourage the study of the Z-transformand its adoption in the analysis of

situations to which it has not yet been applied.

A general transformexpression. Using the Stieltjes integral,we may define

a transform,which we call the Laplace-Stieltjes transformand denote by

fl00

(1) Ls{f; a)} = ff(t)estda (t),

and where s = - +jw.

This expression is a generalization of the familiar Laplace transform.It

reduces to the Laplace transformfor oa(t)= t. If a(t) is continuous and has a

continuous first derivative, a'(t), (1) reduces to the Laplace transformof

f(t)a'(t).

The Z-transform.The functiona(t) need not be a continuous function.We

will consider one discontinuous integratorin detail, for it will lead, after a

change of variable, to the Z-transformexpression.

Consider the real-valued functional(t) defined for all t to be the unique

integersatisfyingthe inequalities

(2) ai(t) < t < a1(t) + 1.

We note that a, (t) differsfromthe "greatest-integerfunction,"[t], only in that

282 ANALTERNATIVE OF THE Z-TRANSFORM

DERIVATION [March

fromthe rightat each discontinuity.

This integratingfunctionis a special case of the class of integratingfunctions

known as step functionintegrators.For this class of integratorsthe integralin

(1) reduces to a sum. To illustrate,considerthe integral

(3) ff(t)da(t),

rb

a(a), a(c), a(b) are arbitrary,

aQ(t)- a(a) if a ? t < c,

a (t) = a(b) if c < t ? b.

It can be shown that iff(t) is any functiondefinedon [a, b] in such a way that

at least one of the functionsf and a is continuous fromthe left at t= c and at

least one is continuousfromthe rightat t= c, thenf is Stieltjes integrablewith

respect to a on [a, b] and

(4) f b

where a(c-) and a(c+) are the leftand righthand limitsof a with respect to

t at c.

From the linearityof the Stieltjes integralwe may write forthe expression

(1), with a=oal,

100

00

(5) Jf(t)e-8tdal(t) = >f(k)e-8

.10 k=O

This follows directly from (4), for the integral may be writtenas a sum of

integralstaken over intervalscontainingonly one discontinuityof a,, and the

jump in a, at each discontinuityis a unit jump.

Now ifthe scale ofa, is changed fromt to t/T,we have the integratoraW(t/T)

which is discontinuousat t= 0, T, 27T,- and otherwiseidentical to a,i(t). We

then have the transformation

00

(6) L8{f; ael} fJf(t)ea-tddal(t/T).

00co 00

=

(7) Ls{f; al} f(t)e-=1dal(t1T)= Ef(nT)e-nT F(eaT).

n=0

1963] AN ALTERNATIVEDERIVATION OF THE Z-TRANSFORM 283

ff(t)z-tTdai(t/T) =E

00 00

If theseriesin (8) convergesat all forsomez, it hasa finite radiusofcon-

vergence 8, and convergesabsolutely and uniformly forall Iz| >_

8> 8. Using

Iz = I esTI =e?T, this gives av_1/T log p1>1/T log p, where 1/T log p is the ab-

scissa of convergenceof the transform(6).

In writingthe integralsin (7) and (8) as infiniteseries,special care must be

taken when the functionf is not continuousat the discontinuitiesof a,. Note

thatf and a,1mustbe such that at least one of these functionsis continuousfrom

the leftat each discontinuityof a, and at least one is continuousfromthe right

at each discontinuityof a1.

If we do not definef(O) as f(O+), but rathermaintain that f(0) = 0, then we

must re-definethe Z-transformas

The inverse Z-transform.The inverseZ-transformmay be readily derived

from

theseriesexpression

in (8) bymultiplying byzn-1

through andintegrating

term-by-termaround any closed contour in the z-plane which encloses the

originand forwhich jz I - IzoI = 61. For most transformsa convenientcontour

is a circle about the originenclosingall poles of F(z). The developmentof the

inversionintegralcan be made in this way quite readily,with the result

1r

(10) f(nT) = - zn-lF(z)dz

Z-transformonly gives the values off (t) fort= nT. This is not really surprising,

forthese are the only values off(t) used in arrivingat F(z).

For convenience,the Z-transformpair is given below.

00 00

ai} =

o

f(t)z-I;Tda (t/T) = Ef(n$T)z-,

(11) F(z) = L{f;

~~~~~~~n==o

(12) f(nT) = 2.i zn-lF(z)dz.

of the Z-transformcan be foundin many places in the literature[I, 2, 3, 4].

284 LARGEST SUBTOPOLOGIES WITH SPECIAL PROPERTIES [March

References

1. J. R. Raggaziniand G. E. Franklin,Sampled-DataControlSystems,McGraw-Hill,New

York, 1958.

2. J. A. Azeltine,The Transform Method in Linear SystemAnalysis,McGraw-Hill,New

York,1958.

3. J. T. Tou, Digitaland SampledData ControlSystems,McGraw-Hill,New York, 1959.

4. W. Kaplan, OperationalMethodsforLinearSystems,Addison-Wesley, Reading,Mass.,

1962.

NORMAN LEVINE, Ohio State University

Let (X, r) be a topological space and P any topological property.We shall

be interestedin the followingquestion: Is there a largest P-subtopology of r

(i.e., a P-subtopology forX which contains all other P-subtopologies forX)?

Remark 1. Let (X, 'r) be a topological space and {ia-a} A a familyof sub-

topologies.It is well knownthat thereexistsa smallestsubtopologyr* ofr which

contains every 7ra We term 7* the topology generatedby {m} aeA.

THEOREM 1. Let (X, r) be a topologicalspace and suppose r has a T3-sub-

(T3 means regularand T1.)

topology,Then 7 has a largestT8-subtopology.

Proof. Let {"a}aeA be the familyof all T3-subtopologiesof r. Then A5-40.

Let r* be the topology generatedby {rTa} aE:A. It sufficesto show that r* is T3.

But 7* is T1 since it contains a T1 topology. We show now that 7* is a regular

topology. Let x E U E r*. Then x E U1 ) C*n UnC U, where Ui 7aC E

i- 1, * * *, n. Since 7ai is regular, there exists for each i a ViCrm; such that

xE ViCViC Ui. Let V= V1i ... n Vn.Then

x VEV C V .1.r, n V. C V1,r * * * n ...

cU 1CUU n UnC U.

Thus (X, 7*) is regular,

Remark 2. The methods of the above proof, togetherwith the fact that

{ 0,X } is a regular-subtopology,

show that everytopologyhas a largestregular-

subtopology.

THEOREM 2. Let (X, 7) be a topologicalspace and let 7 have a Tychonoff-sub-

T has a largestTychonoff-subtopology.

topology.Thenr (Tychonoff means completely

regularand T1.)

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