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Fatigue and Creep

of Materials
CME 470
Physical & Mechanical Properties of Materials

J. Ernesto Indacochea
University of Illinois at Chicago
Civil & Materials Engineering Dept.
Fatigue
Materials ultimately fail if exposed to cyclic stresses.
Degradation of mechanical properties occurs when
loading is repetitive.
Stresses are below the yield.
Fatigue is most important in metals.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LhUclxBUV_E

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Fatigue

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Fatigue -- Characteristics
Recall: Stresses are much less than the
yield stresses
~ 90% of all metallic failure are caused by
fatigue.
Polymers and ceramics (except glasses)
can fail by fatigue too. Fatigue failure surface of a piston
rod. Failure began at a forging flake
Process consists of crack initiation near the center. Fatigue propagated
outward slowly; outer circular region
(originates at point of stress is final failure by brittle fracture.
Final
concentration, such as corner, notch, failure
metallurgical inclusion or flaw) &
propagation.
Fracture surface is normal to the
applied stress. Crack initiation

Crankshaft failure

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Fatigue Fracture Characteristics

5
CME 470 Physical & Mechanical Properties of Materials J. Ernesto Indacochea
Fatigue
Fatigue damage:
Accrues with ongoing load application until cracks
initiate.
Crack(s) propagate(s).
Material fractures.

The fatigue properties are referred to as


dynamic properties since the cyclic stresses
and strains are applied continuously and at high
rates.

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Fatigue Factors Considered for Testing
Application of fatigue in design
involves:
Prediction of the life (# of cycles)
the material can sustain before
cracks form.
The life before one of these
cracks propagates to the critical
size.
The fact that a critical crack size
the design process involving
fatigue also considers the fracture
toughness of the material

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Fatigue

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Fatigue Types of Fatigue tests
The fatigue properties of materials may be obtained
via:
Constant stress amplitude test.
Constant strain amplitude test.

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Fatigue - Constant Stress Amplitude Test
Sinusoidal wave with 2 reversals per cycle.
Terminology:
Stress range, sr:
sr sm ax sm in
Stress amplitude, sa:
sr smax smin
sa
2 2
Mean stress, sm:

sm
smax smin
2
Stress ratio, R:
sm in
R
sm ax

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Fatigue - Constant Stress Amplitude Test
A material with an applied stress at the fatigue
limit has a 50% probability of failure.
This value is used by designers; an empirical
relationship for quenched and tempered steels:
Fatigue Limit sUTS

Referred to as fatigue
strengths for the
corresponding life

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Fatigue - Constant Stress Amplitude Test
Common modes for fatigue testing:
Push-pull axial test.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LhUclxBUV_E

The rotating beam bending mode. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbpeNfJFtlI

The flexural beam bending mode.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DykiHVrVkKg

The push-pull test has most conservative


results, i.e., the lowest stresses, fatigue limit,
and fatigue strengths for a given life N.
Thus, it is safe to use the push-pull test results
for any design application.

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Fatigue Testing
The goals of fatigue testing:
Determine the # of stress cycles at a given stress
level a material can support before failure (Fatigue unsafe
life).
Determine the stress level below which failure by
fatigue is unlikely to occur (Endurance or Fatigue safe Endurance limit
limit)
The S-N Curve:
Test parameters: Fatigue strength
Start test with relatively large max stress amplitude @ 2/3 of unsafe
static tensile stress, then count # of cycles to failure
Repeat procedure always using a new sample and using safe
progressively lower max. stress amplitudes.
Data plotted as stress amplitude S vs the log.
of the # N of cycles to failure

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Fatigue Testing Types of samples

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Fatigue

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Fatigue Probability of Failure Curves

The S-N curves represented in the literature are normally average values.

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Creep
Turbine rotors in jet engines & steam generators:
components are exposed to static stresses at Thigh
Materials deformation under these circumstances is known
as creep.
Creep is undesirable and it is observed in all materials. For
metals, becomes significant at Ts > 0.4 Tm.
Amorphous polymers (plastics & rubbers) are especially
sensitive.

Failure due to creep. Stress rupture of a jet engine turbine blade.

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Creep
Creep test involves a constant load (most tests) or stress at
Tconst
Deformation or strain is measured & plotted as function of
time.
Schematic of a creep curve:

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Creep
Primary or transient creep:
continuous decreasing creep rate.
Material experiences strain hardens &
thus increases its creep resistance.
Secondary creep: rate is
constant. Often the stage of longest
duration. Balance of two processes
strain hardening & recovery. Steady
state creep, is the design parameter
for engineering long life applications
Tertiary creep: acceleration of the
creep rate. Microstructure &
Metallurgical changes occur: grain
boundary separation, internal cracks,
voids & cavities.

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Creep
Stress & Temperature Effects:
instantaneous strain increases.
steady-state creep rate increases.
rupture lifetime is diminished

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Creep
Creep rupture tests:
Short-life creep tests,
Rupture lifetime.

Presentation of creep rupture tests.

Stress (logarithmic scale) versus rupture


lifetime (logarithmic scale) for a low
carbon-nickel alloy at 3 temperatures.

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Creep
Data Extrapolation Methods:
Larson-Miller parameter:

LM T (C log t r )
o
C= const, about 20; T= K;
tr= rupture time in hours
Data plotted as vs L-M parameter.

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Larson-Miller Parameter
DESIGN EXAMPLE
Using the Larson-Miller data for S-590 iron
(right Figure), predict the time to rupture
for a component that is subjected to a
stress of 140 MPa (20,000 psi) at 800C
(1073 K).
SOLUTION
From Figure, at 140 MPa (20,000 psi) the
value of the Larson-Miller parameter is 24.0
x 103, for T in K and t, in h; therefore,
24.0 x 103 = T(20 + log t,)
= 1073(20 + log t,)
and, solving for the time,
22.37 = 20 + log t,

t = 233 h (9.7 days)

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