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Building on a Vertical Site

r {t
Moments of forces

I itilibrium of nonconcurrent forces

t ,r,rphical analysis of nonconcurrent forces

ltttailing and construction of a steel frame

,.lrttcture on a very difficult site

tleep river gorge in Idaho is renorvned for the

richness of its bird life. Falcons, hawks of many
; ' types, ospreys, wrltures, and bald eagles ride its
rr ('rrrrents and prey on its small mammals and rep-
t rh's. We are clesigning an ornithological viewing pavil-
l,o, will be built on a vertical rock wall of the gorge
rr rr

lrr rt'rmit close-range observation of birds in flight and

,rl tlrcirnests on the cliffbelow (Figure 5.1).Access to
tlrr' ravilion will be by way of a tunnel in the rock that
r orrl:lir-rs a
stair and an elevator to the plateau above. As
r','u,r'd in plan, the preliminary design for the building
,, :rr isosceles triangle that measures 20 ft along its
,,lrort side, which will lie adjacent to the chff face, and
Itl li from its apex to the short side (Figure 5.2). 'Ihe
rrxrf', because it has generous overhangs for sun sha-
rlrrrg, is substantially larger than the floor.

Selecting a Structural Material

Wt' have decided to frame the building with structural
,,lt'cl. A wood structure would be light in weight and
('lsy to fabricate, but resistant to neither fire nor clecay.
A concrete buildingwould be dif6cult to form and pour
,rr the vertical cliff face and would be comparatively Figure 5.1 A sketch of the proposed pavilion

116 cHAprrR s,/ BUTLDING oN A vERlcAL sirE

hear,y, requiring stronger foundations ancl greater

expenditure of energy during construction than r,vood
or steel. Steel building members are noncombustible
and can be protected against the high temperatures of
a fire with either spray-on insulation ar anifl.til.mescent
coating, a paintlike finish that swells when heated by a
fire to form a thick, insulating char. A steel frame can
be assembled on the plateau above the building site
and lowered over the side in several large pieces by a
mobile construction crane, thus reducing the amount
of work that must be done on the vertical cliff.


Cliff face
Floor \trIe conside a number of alternative ways of building
Roof--' and supporting the pavilion, as shown schematically in
Figure 5.3. Alternative (a) ls to assembie the structurc
fully on the level ground at the top of the cliff while pre
paring foundation attachments on the cliff I'ace. 'fhe
strllcture is then lowered into place by a large mobile
crane working from above. 'Ihe fwo bottonr corners
adjacent to the ciiff are hinged to foundations that
provide vertical support but allow rotation. The trv<r
top comers are fastened to links, rhich have trvo pins
each and can resist only horizontal forces. This combi
nation assures that there urIl be no forces exerted on
the structure or foundations that are caused by differ
ences in thermal expansion betu,een the cliff and thc
strlrcture. 'Ihis desgn is relatively easy to construct,
but it requires hear,y diagonal bracing within the walls
of the stnicture.
Alternative (b) also utilizes the tw'o hinges at thc
corners of the floor, but replaces the internal diagonal
bracing with external diagonal strlrts that support thr:
outer edge of the lame flom below. It is a little morc
difficr-rlt to build than (a) because it requires that fielcl
connections be made at the outer edge, but its mem- . 1.'r' i",
ber frorces u,.ill probatly be lower. Alternative (c) is the' l,,lr.
Figure 5.2 A floor plan of the pavilion. same as (b) except that it adds members in a vertical rl,.l,ll
plane near the cliff face to support the bottom ends i,,,
of the diagonal struts. This simplifies construction by r111i!
DrvEloPrNG A suPPoRr scHrME 117

the bernrs ii.r exactlr' the right positions, :rncl grotrl-
han wood
ing thc shalts to enrbcd the beams. lhis looks sirnpit'
on paper, lrt it irl'oh,es a lot of hean.. tlinrcnsionallv
rratures of prer:1se u,orli on the face of dre clll. u,hich is rlanger-
otrs ancl expe'nsive.
eated by a
trame can
ilding site
ieces by a
le amollnt
,\ltcr tr u-lng mant, r4rtiorrs, rre :rclr.rpt a tentativc dr:sigr-r
iff. lor the pavilion tlrat is looselv basei'l on altcrnatir;e (b).
[:]ec:rtrse olt lhe rrnLrsual charcter o['the site, we pro-
rluce preiirninan, dctli[* lor tirc birilding vcn, earlv in
tl-re design process so thrt. \\'e can proceed r--orfidentlr,
l.r,itlr tl'rc clesign (IigLrrr:s 5.4, 5.5).'I'he structrrai stcr:l
rf buildng
fkor Franre lhat r,r.c proposLr is clraun in Figrrrc 1.r,.
ratically in
A single long. stceply inclineil strirt alrglcs out fr-on')
r structure
thc clilT belou' and mc'cts the lrame of the builcling to
while pre- support its outcr cncl. W'e proposc. lr ntake this stt"ut
f'ace. 'I'he
ltrtnr a squarc ster:l tube. 'i'hc attacllment of the cor-
rge mobile
ners o1'the f}ame to the chlf is shorvn ir FigLrrc 5.7.
m corners and the intcrsectiorr rf the strut ancl the floor leams
rtions tirat in Fi.qtrre 5.8.'l'he ltrarning plan f'or tire floor ol the
.'lle two
parilion (FigLrrc 5.5a) shor,r,s r beam at cach lirce of
e tr.vo pins
the bLrilding antl tu,o interior l.rcams. 'l'he marinurn
his combi- spacirrg of thesc fbrrr beains is cle[r:rmined bv the
exerted on
lniimtm sperr o the corrugatcrl stcel decking thev
I by differ- srpport. r\ roured concrctc lill uill bc- installed
iff and the tl're: dcckir-rg to produce level floor sLrrlacc. '['he rool
construct, is {lramecl n,ith light-gatrge steel raflcrs rnd sheraiheci
n the walls
u,ith firr.-ret,rrdant plru,oocl. liilich ser\ies Lo rccrrirt:
thc nails lbr attaching staniling-searn coppelr roofir5.
'rges at the
Figure 5.3 Section drawings showing some ways of suppr:rting the pavil- AII the u,cight o{tthe, ror>l is brotrght to tlir: f:loor stnrc-
al diagonal ion on a vertical rock face. tirre ior: support throLrgh the vertical stecl rzrilliar.s,
upPort the
tl're posls betiveen the r,r,'irdot,s.
little more 'lb prour:ecl rvith clc'r,oloprnenl r{'thc design. u,e
,s that field
ttrst fir:st dct.erntine tl're ertema.l lirces tlut are lurl,
lt its mem- rr,rrriring only rwo connections to be made on each Alternative (d) is the sme as (b) except that the essary to suppurt the builclirrg. 'l'he dead nd live locls
.e (c) is the
qt'|,, irlier the crane has lowered the structure dolvn diagonal struts below the floor are replaced by diagonal have alred). becn esfinrated" 'l'hr: total u'eght ol thc
n a vertical llr,' t'lifT. It increases maintenance costs, horneve tes above tire floor. Altemative (e) involves excavating l;rrilcling is aboLrt 7i liips t7l.000 1l).'l'his is nradr. up
rttom ends l,r.r'rrusc the additional members will need periodic two horizontal shafts into the face of the cliff, inserr- o| a tot1 roof rveigl.rt (live ancl dead loads) o| 26 liips
truction by ing and are in a place that is difficult to reach. ing steel beams into the shafts, shimming and bracing ancl a total floor vveight of .r15 kips. 'l'hc floo n,eight is
r,r in l


lal ll,,',r l,

t: :.r,tlt:ljrlll
:,. rlilitl


I'l lt,,lt I

l lprtt. ri

I I i5lr,. ',
..1,1 r ,

,l rt' lr,l I

Figure 5.4 A perspective drawing of the design for the pavilion

I r,,lll
Design and image by Boston Structures Croup. rl,' t,,lr



I rarylnqPlat (b) Eloor?lan

Figure 5.6 A perspective view of the floor frame for the pavilion

lal lronteuaon (d)

( Qlalq..Elevation

lluro 5.5 Four views of the pavilion design

)liirrru5.7 fhefloorframeishingedtotwosteel platesanchoredintotherockcliff.Arectangular

ffi ',',
[, I rs excavated from the rock. Several holes are drilled from this pocket deeper into the rock. Steel
rrrl.rr n3 bars are inseted into the holes, then the holes are pumped full of grout. Next, the anchor
l.rlr' ,rr(l its button-headed bolts are held in place by a temporary wooden frame, and the pocket is
,,,rrtr.rl Afterthegrouthascured,ittransfersforcefromthebuttonheadsoftheboltstothereinforcing
l,.r'. ,rr(l lhence to the rock cliff. The hinge avoids forces caused by thermal expansion and contraction of
rlr, .ltr,l as it responds to changes in air temperature.
12CI cHAprER s ,/ BUtLDING oNi A vERricAL strE

much larger than the roof weght because the bLrild- i .,,, ,,,
ing code mandates a live load estimate of 100 lb per li,, , rr,,,,
sqlrare foot. '[his addresses the fact that at times the
room may be tightly packed with people.
'I'his weight is centered about the centroid of the
floor plan. Because the floor plan is trianguiar, the cen- lt,,r
troid is approxirnately one-third of the distance from tl'. , t, rrr
the rock wall to the tip of the building. In Figure 5.9a, I t rti, ,,
for the pulpose of determining equlibrium, we see .1,riltl,lr',,
this distributed load represented as a concenrrated .irrl ,,1 r
loacl at the centroid. An upward force is applied to the ,rl llr,,
edge of the floor by the founclations at the face of
the cliff. Because these two forces are not coilinear (do
not act along the same line of action), the stmcture I F Atrt ill
is not in equilibrium, and will romte downward into ,!1illvll il
the canyon unless we take steps to bring it into equilib-
rium. In Figure 5.9b we have added the inclinecl stnlt I l.1.1,,,,
12R ,

to stabiiize the building and preyent it from rotating. I ,, ,,t , r

Figrrre 5.10 is the start of a flee-body diagram of

the pavilion floor. It shows in secrion ew the roof
and floor loads as tlvo concentrated forces that act
at points a short distance apart. The centroid of the
Figure 5.9 Stabilizinr
roof is farther from the cliff than that of the floor the platforrn of the
because the roof, with ts overhangs, is substantialiy pavilion with a diago
larger. We have resolvecl the inclined forces from the nal strut.
strut and the hinge at the cliff face into their horizon-
tal and vertical components to facilitate a numerical 1& ft. J
In Chapter 2, r,ve learned two expressions of shtic
12.33 fr. I

equilibrium that we can use to determine the external 10fu. )

reactions at the cliff face and the inclined strut: til ]'-
Kipe 45 Kipe I

14: o n'o'o)ta

Figure 5.8 The diagonal strut, made from a square steel tube,
Irr:o I V
+ /l
supports the outer end of the floor and roof. A seat cut from Rh
a structural steel tee is shop-welded to the strut to support
There are just two horizontal forces, Q and B,. \

the wide-flange crosspiece that brings the loads from the floor These are opposite in direction and must be equal
frame. A plate welded to the strut and field-bolted to the beam
prevents the beam from oveturning. Despite all the bolts and
to each other to be in equilibrium, but we clo not
know their magnitude. In the vertical direction, we
welds, this is considered to be a pinned or hinged joint becar;se have two gravity loads and two vertical components
it provides little resistance to twisting of the beam. of reactions. fubitrariiy assigning a positive sign to Figure 5.10 A free-body diagram of the pavilion floor.
f iE*rts': II

rlnulu,rrtl lbrces, we sllm the forces n the vertical hrrces are lrot concurrent, ther,' exert mofi]ents, ancl
tlllr'r lrtt: the clcr.icc rotrtcs ([]igtrrc' 5.11). A iltoiltent ol'J'orce. Referenae Line of
irsrrallv crllcd a t]toilrcilt, is a rncasrrrc cl[' the cairabil- axia #1 aation o* P
: o : 26kips * 45kips - Q, - R, itv cl a fbrce to cause rotation olt a body arouncl a
scle--r:ted axis ol rotrtion. \Alc quantilv a nxx-rrtrnt, r\'f ,
'l'lrr is s far as we can progress toward evaluating as the pr:oduct of a lbrce, P. and the perpenclicul:rr
lk rrtlnurl lbrces on the building using two equations clistrnce, /. lrom the line ol action of ther lbr:cc to
ul ql,rlrl r'<rrilibrium. We need a third expression of static the axis of rotation aboirt u,hich nc: wish tr find the
Frlllllrrirrrrr to determine the direction, magnitude, and tTt()1)t('nl:
llrllt'; ul rrrrlication of these forces. This expression con-
I ptlr', llrr'r'<trilibrium of moments of forces. M:P [5-t]
'lhe perpendicular distance, d, which is also the
LIARNING FROM THE PLAYGROUND: shortest distance between the line ofaction ofa force Momenl of 7
and an axis, is commonly referred to as the lno'nxent aboul axis #1 is
arw.ln Figure 5.12, force P creates the same moment unaffeoted by
| 'lrlhL,rr rrpply equal br-rt opposing forces to the push- Pd with respect to the given axis, regardless of its loca- yoartion of ? on
lr,u', ,,l ir rlayground merry-go-round. Because these fion on its line of action. its line af acbion

{a) ?erapeclive

9 Stabilizing
rrm of the
vith a diago- $

Referenae -, I

axis #1 \
C7 a' fi1

Moment r / so"Y

Rh (b) lop View

Figurc 5.12 Definition of a moment of force, M :

Pd. Drawing
(a) shows the force and axis in perspective. Drarving (b) depicts
the same system in top view, where the reference axis shows as
a point. This is the most usual view.

Flguro 5.11 A playground merry-go-round

122 cHAprER 5 ./ BUTLDTNG oN A vERTIcAL srrE

i\n axis of' rotalion mar. le thoLight of as resem this sense as being rositive or ncgativcr; thr:rc is no interest. t-,ecause the moment arm ol tlle lirr:c: u'itl, 4tt,'llr,.r
bling the cenlerlinc: o{' a r<-rtaLing rxle or the: shaft of hard-rnc'l-l-ast convention lbr cloing this. In this book r,r'cr rcspcct to each of them is zero.'l'his means that llrt' llro t,,.,..
a machine. \\/hen r,r'e represer)t a s)steni ol'forccs on a lr,i11 Lrsuai\, assign a positi\e sign to ckcll ise'moments lirrce exerts no rnonrcnt abrut anv ol these pourts, ,i 1,, ,l,rl,ll,
shcct o| papcr cr computcr ciisplay, an axis of rr.rta anci a legative sign to counterckckrvise rnonrcnts. \\hal l,henorncnon that u'e iill pLrt to goocl use sl.rortlr,. ,,,1,1,,,,r
tiou is trsLallv perpcndictrlar to thc slrcct ol scree]r. is important is to Lrse the same conventjon throrrgl'xrtrt ,, ' l, l,,ll
and thirs shorls as a roint. \\'hcn lr,e say \.ie x: tak- l clculation. '1'hc lorce P in FigLrre 5.1-] is the same as i,,rr'rlr
ing moments "aboirt a point," r,r'e unc:lerstand thnt this it r,r'as in liigLrrc 5.13, but it exerts a clifllrent ru)ment EQUTLIBRIUM OF MOMENTS l,.r,r tlr,
lroint represents an axis cf rutation, n,hich is alctually r,r,itl-r re'spcr:t to axis l than it cloers nith respect fo ris r.r: . t,,,rr, r ,

r line. i:-xperirnentaaiun has shou,r-r that a 1oil-r t'loes rtt,l .1.i,

(lonslcler the lbrce I) shou'n [n lrigure 5.] -1. \\'itlr Nlu : ro lb)(+.5 ft) : - 3,-375 Ib - li rottr: if thc surn ol the nrr.lnents of fbrce that t t
,,,,11, , 1,,,
rcspect to axls r;r, thc fbrcc e.\erts i:loclor,ise nlonrent, L.rron it r:qrrals zcrc,
l'he sign is negatil'e lecarrse the rlonlent is crun-
,\4,,, that is er,alrratecl rs follou,s, ,,'ll,llrl
terclocli.rvise about axis /:. frtt:0 [5-21
l rl
M_Pd ln lrigirre 5.15, r'r,e adt'l ac'lditic.rn.rl axes to this pic- 'l'his is thc thircl and final conclitiolr of static c-11rrr il r,, l,r rr,,
1y,, : (750 lbxl ft) ture. \Ve coulcl also e\,ahrate the rnoment ol fbrce P
libritrm fbr fbrcr,s that act in a plar-re. '[b sun'rmarizc- rrll ll,,r,
NI" - 2'251 5 f1 about lhc arcrs r"epresented bl.'point c. point rl, or anv
tlrree expressiorrs: l,il,,l,r,
other point rve n-right choose. Poir-rts r:,f ancl g, x'hich
A bodv is in stal-ic cqrrilibriunr if: ,,r,1,1,,,
Notice that the mornernt arm in this case is mra- lic on thc line ol actir.n of the frrce, are ol particullr
li:,, tr,,r,
srired along a line through r thrt is perpenclicular tt.r o 'l'he sunr of its external lbrces in thc horizont-al clirt't

thr: linc ol'rctirxr of P, not to some point on the vector tiol'r is zero.
r '1'he strnr
itsell. r -\4 ol its erte:rnal forces in the velticai clilet,ti,,,'
\ rlor'ncnf is h,r,avs erpressc'd in ur-rits ol fbrce
tirles c'listance, in this case lb-lt. Othcr con'rnlon unrts
a\ r,P
is zero.
'i'her srrrri cll'its mornents of external forcer about arr

, ,,i , ,,,,1
t {

,\ 11,,,,
fbr momerts are ll-in., kip-in., kip-ti, and N-ni. It \ ris ol t'otrtion is zr'trr.

clocsn't rnake anr. dif'ferc'nce n,hich units u,e aclopt il b ',,

Figure 5.14 lf we adopt
clockwise moments as posi- Svmbohcall',,, r bodv is in static ecprilibrium if:
r.rr '.rrrlr
errhratinq rnoments. as long as thev rerrnail-l consistcnt
\ tive, force P exeds a positive li::r r ,,1
Er; :

tl-rroughout a computation. (In cclnlentional trnits. li[- P : 75O Ib'\ moment about axis a and u l,.1,1,,
crtir:s arc olicr-r talien u,ith the accepted practice of a negative moment about . ;r rrt,, ll
placirrg thc lbrcc tnit bcforc the clistance trnit, so thirt axis b- Ir'; -u
1,., rl,,
1b-in., fr exarnplc, is oflerr cailecl in. lb).
t\ momr:nt has either a clocl,ise or counterclocli-
\-t - o
tl,, I ,rr ll,

r,ise senser.uith rcspcr:t to a givclr axis. \Vi: rcprcsellt \" In c:r-alrrating the e"qrrilibrirrm of anv structurt' .r r,1,.,, ,

', . Axis b part of a stnlcturcr in rvhich ther cxl-ernal forc,s lre- rr,,', ,,, rl, t,
concrrrrcnt. u,(' mLrst en-rplo1, all tl-rree expressions.' l'1,,
rr)olrsl[s c,l lor-cc, that u,e use ir-r eqr-ration l5 2 ] niav 1,,
.n"u, \ Figure 5.15 The moment
\ .c ervaluatecl aboLrt anv poinl or axis that rve lyish to acki|t
of a force may be evalu-
if\ l;Lrt ii'itl-rin anv single cornprrtatiorr, al1 the rnon'rents li ,,
ated about any axis. With
a gir:cn bod,v n'rust be r:valr-rated ;rbout the same l)r,rrr
"a \ respect to axes e, l, and
or axis. I{ ltrrns out, con\:cnicntlr', that for anv st'l ,,1
g, which lie on its line of
? - 750 tb\ Figure 5.13 A moment arm
\ action, P has no momert fbrces ilr ecltrilibrirrln, if the sum ol'thc mornt:nts alrorr
is always perpendicular to the \ arm, and therefore exerts ln\ onc" axis is zero, the srrr ol the l-nrments abr.ut lrrrr
line of action of the force. \6 zero moment. olher xis is rlso zero.
irrce with An,tlrer Lesson from the Playground: 100tb wtb
s that the llr. \r.csaw Analogy
' points, a ll ,lrrlrllrorrl, each of us learned intuitively abotrt

rortiy. , ,r,rlrl,r rrrrrr o[ moments rvhile playing on a seesa\\ or
r, , r' r rol('r'. A larger child and a smaller one can see-
,r,rr r'rlulrl torms bvplacingthe smalierchilcl larther
lr,' l',' rxis.'l'he larger child exerts a larger force at
r lr, rrtr'r rlistar-rce from the axis, and the smaller chilcl
does nof ,, l,r, r, i :rrr cqual bLrt opposite moment by excrting a
e that act rl rll, r lir'r'rt a greater distance. In Figure 5.16, one
, lrl,l ,,rr tlrc seesaw weighs 100 lb and the other only

15-21 'l ll, ll tlrt'smaller child is seated 8 ft from the axis

,,1 rlr, :r'r'srl, at what distance mr-rst the larger chilcl
;tatic equi- tr I , I r ir rg the device into balance?
nmarize all llr,'r't' rrc no horizontal forces in this system,
.,1,,, l, , lirrrinrtes the need to sum forces in the hori-
,,rrt.rl rlirct'lion. A summation of forces in tl-re vertical
,lrr,, trorr tclls rs that the reaction at the axis of the
rntal direc-
, , ,,r\\ is crtral to the total weight o[ the two children,
I ,o llr 'lir dc.termine the position of the larger child,
al direction , , rilil,,1 sUrn the moments in the s,vstem and set their
t,'l rl,,lrrl to zero.
r about any
llrr'r' is onlv one unknorvn, h, the distance of the
| ,r,,, r , lriltl lrom the aris.'lb shorten the erpression for
rium if: I rt r, r'rrrililrrium of moments,u,e aclopt aref'erence axis
llrrr r,, on thc line of acdon of one of the thrcc forces,
,,lrr, lr lr;rs the effect of eliminating one term liom the
,,lrr.rlr{[t tllat rve re a'bout to urite. We choose to
l,l r, , tlris uxis on the hinge of the seesarv.'Ihis removes
Figure 5.16 Children on a seesaw.
rlr, I ,0 llr rcaction f'rom the operation because it has
.. r nronl('nt arm rvith respect to this axis. AssLrnring
lructllre or ,1,,, l.rrist'rnoments as positive, rve evaluate moments
'es are non- tr llrr,, systCm: Each term in the expression that we set Llp here is Dnr: o
ssions.'lhe a moment of force: The weight of the larger child, 100
i-21 may be Dr:o lb, is multiplied by its distance from the as, h.'[he
(150 hX8 ft) - lr'(l0o h) 0
sh to adopt, rveight of the smaller child, 50Ib, is mrrltiplied by B ft, _ 050 hx8 ft) _
roments for
(-loo h)h + (8 ftX5o lb) -o its distance from the same axis.
lm Ib
12 ft

same point (8 ftx5o h) \\4rat happens if we select another axis about

'any set of lt +ft which to evaluate moments? Let's again eliminate a The smaller child is 8 ft fiom the axis of the seesaw
r0O ll
nents about fbrce by placing the axis on its line of action, in this so the larger child must be (12 ft B ft) = 4 ft fiom the
s about any I lr,'
lrt'rrir:r child must sit 4 ft from thc axis ot case the weight of the smaller child. We define h' as axis, just as we discovered in the original computation. We
r I r, .( { .,it\\. the distance betneen the tu,o children: arriv-e at the same result, no matter r.vhich axis we adopt.
124 cHAprER 5 ./ BUTLDTNG oN A vERTTcAL srrE

Before tacklir-rg the problem of supporting the 150 lb. Again r,r,e assume that dou,nr,ard forces are T'his completes our finding of the reactions on tht' :i", ,1,,,

paiion on the verticai face of a cliff, we r,vill develop lrl Ii rt

positive. and upu'ard are negative: beam. It is common practice to sllm forces in the verti
our familiarity with moments by means of several cal and/or horizontal directions as a check on the corr
addtional examples. Dp": o
ectness of our work. Assuming downrryard lorces art'
l5oh-R,*Rr:0 positive: r. lf I

This is as far as the first and second conditions of
'Ihe most common use of moments of fiorce is to
evaluate the rea,ctiotts ol beams, trusses, and other
static equilibum rvill take us. Now we must turn to 150h-lmh-5Oh:O check
the third condition to complete the soh-rtion: The sum
stnctural spanning deces. lieactiolrs are so namerd of the moments about any aris m-st be zero. If rve
because they are fbrces that react to the loads placed Perhaps ,vor: have noticed that this example is thc
chose to take moments about an a,ris that does not lie
on the structure in such a \.vay as to maintain static seesaw example turned upside clown.
on the line of action of one of the reactions, r,ve u,ould
equilibrium. In Figure 5.17, a wooden beam is sr:lt- Selecting the most advantageous axis aboul
have to solve two simultaneous equations for the two
jecred to a single load of I 50 lb ar a disrance of 4 which to evaluate moments is the key to efficienf
unknowns, R, and Rr. Instead rve select an axis that
ft from its right support. 'lhe beam is supported by solution of any protrlem involving two or morc
lies on the line of action of one of the unknonn reac-
two vertical reactions near its ends; these are 12 fi unknwn forces. It is always possible to locate ar
tions, point 1, rvhich results in a mornent arm of zero
apart. What is the magnitude of each reaction, assum- axis on the line of action of at least one unknown
for force R, ancl an equation with only one unknorvn,
ing for the sake of simplicity that the beam itselfi is force, thr-rs eliminating that force from the initial conr
Rr. With respect to point 1, the 150-1b load has a
rveightless? putation, as we did in the previous example.
moment arm oft B ft, and E, has a rnoment arm of

We have available three expressions that we can 12 ft. The 150-1b load exerts a clockwise, positive
use to find these reactions. First, the sum of the
horizontal fbrces must be zero. 'l'here are no forces in
moment, and B, exerts a counterclochvise, negative
the horizontal direction, so this condition is satisflecl
automatically. Second, the sum of the vertical forces
must be zero. 'Ihis means that the downrvard force of Du,:o Beam loadings in real strucrlrres are often compkx. i

150 lb must be balanced by upu,ard forces that total (r50 hx8 ft) - R2(12 ft) : o Consider a bearn that supports a load of 2,000 lb thrr
is concentrated at the end ofan overhang, and a load ol
- -_ l.2ooh-fl:tooh
^' 6,000 lb vyhose action is distributed over two-thirtls
150 tb
-I2 r, of the main span (Figr-rre 5.18a).
The beam must also support its own unifonnli,
I Hang found the vairre of R, so directly, we may
distributed weight of t,eOO lb. What are the values of' I
Y find the value of B, with equal ease, either by taking

the tr,r.,o reactions, R, and E,7
moments about point 2, or by substituting into the
: For the purpose of finding the reactions, u,e repla<'r'
erpression IF, 0,
each distributed load u,ith its resultant, a single forc,'
of eqLral raagnitrrde that is located at the center ol I
Rrl*, IM,:o the distributed load (Figure 5.18b). I

\Me can find the solrrtion to this seemingly messv

: il,1

t-- un I 4rt, ) /rr(12 ft)

- (l5o h)(4 fr)
(l50 hx4 ft)
problem with tw< sirnple equations, each of whit lr
contains only one unknovvn quantity. We set rrr f tElilts ' lll
- ^' - tzft each equation by summing moments about an aris l.:r,lrrr1 , rl l,
Figure 5.17 A beam with a single concentrated load. Ilr:5Oh that lies on the line of action of one of the reactions, "l


[ions on the llttts climinating one of the unknowns from the 12R,, -- (8 ftXr6,000 h) (aft)(l.6{n b)
in the verti- t,rirrPr
r (.+ frx2,00o lb) : 0
on the corr-
.l forces are
Lm,: o
R,, - -3,867 ILr
The type of support that is provided at each
(6,(xn hX4 ft) + (r,600 hX8 ft) + (2,000IbXt6 ft) reacton of a truss, arch, or beam has an important
Clhecli: effect on the distribution of forces throughout
the member (Fig. A).
n,, - i,7-33 h 14 --o
A roller or rocker (1.1, 1.2) cannot transmt
L I'u,, - o
6,000 b+ 1,600 h -l- 2,000 tb - 3,867 lb 5,7-13 h
: moment. lt can transmit on[y compressive force,
and it can do so only in a direction that is per-
pendicular to the surface on which ii bears. The
rniple is the 0 - 0 ch:k
same effect can be achieved with a slide bearing
( )rrr riorli is Cot'rect. which depends on petroleum grease or slip-
lrxis about
o efficient pery Teflon plastic between two rnetal plates to
() t}r tnore avoici transmission of iateral forces.
o loc:rtr': an ;tl A link (2.'l), like a rolier or rockel cannot trans-
t'urknor'r'n mit moment. lt can transmit either tensiie or
iriitial com- compressive force atong its axis.
:,: A pin or hinge (3..l) aiso cannot transmit
moment. but it can transmt a force in any
iEAM 'A thought that structural design consists basically r;r A fixed end {aJ) can transmit any direction and
in performing computatons is for a responsible character of force" as well as moment.
engineer not less ridiculous than would be an
,n complex. attitude of a tennis player who watches the When analyzing a simpty supported spanning
,000 lb that scoreboard instead of the bol, or af an airplane element such as a truss or beam, we usuatiy
nd a load of


re ilt
6,00tb 1,600 1b 2,OOO tb pilot who {lies in the mountains on instruments
only, without looking out of the window."
-Mcutr DERTouzos
show diagrammaticaily on the free-body diagram
a hinge support at one reaction and a roller
support at the other (Fig. B). This enables us
to assume with confidence that the reaction

ne values of
at the roller is vertical. Any lateral component
of the reactions must pass through the hinge.
, u,e replace
single force
e center of
tRa Rbl
Thrs, the problem is made statically determi-
nate. A hinge-and-rotler support condition also

{+t + lt. o-l+*-l assures that there witl be no forces ptaced on

ingly messy (b) the structural element by thermaI expansion anci
h of which contraction, materiat shrinkage, or smalt move-
We set up I r,.,,rr, !
18 A beam with a complex loading. (a) The actual ments in foundations.
1,, ,,lurr' lnl.tern. (b) Converting distributed loads to concen-
out an axis (Continues)
r, ,r,,I h),r(ls forthe purpose offinding reactions.
e reactions,
126 cHAprER 5 ./ BUTLDTNG oN A vERTTcAL srrE

ip I'e , ,.r
r---l L----,1
Ht f lrl,,,,
Etlrel l'rr,

t 'ry^ !lc rrllr,rr

''/ /A
1. Vertical t.t, Koiler 1.2. Rocker 1.3.1lide bearing Frt.lg., ,,
ItlEirl ', , 'l
Hli Frlr,
l--_1 i ril l
-L-,u---l elEc , ,f

2.Yertiaal lension 2.2. Link

or Comprcaoion

>K---l i
2,Forae in
any Oireation
3.1. ?in or Hin6e

4" Moment an forae 4.1.Fixe end
n any ireation

Fig. A


t I
Fig. B FIE I

i, , I ,,. r cr tin that the conditions for which a beam made of steel, regardless of the predominant material through the connections (c). Except for cantilevers,
, ,r tr r.,., rs designed are those that it will actuatly of the structure of which they are a part. By keep- structura[ elements with one or more fixed ends are
, { t ,'.r r n( e, rollers, slide bearings, hinges, and rockers ing an eye out as you pass under bridges and walk staticalty indeterminate, which makes them some-
,,, , ,l t,n translated literalty nto support hardware in through very [arge enctosed spaces, you wil{ discover what more difficutt to anatyze than those with ends
l,r r, 1r,,. r ()nstruction and in the longer-spanning ele- a surprising variety of practical ways of creating that are free to rotate. But fixed ends usualty create
,, , rt',,rf large buildings (Fig. C). Because of the high these details.
, , ,, ,.lratons of forces that pass through very small
The famous concrete hinges in Maillart's arch bridges
r .r,, , f lheir materia[, these elements are invariabty
function mainty through the flexing action of highly
___l r il
compressed steel reinforcing bars (Fig. D). The crossing

ofthe bars at the hinge point reduces their resistance

to bending almost to zero.
A fixed-end condition for a beam of any material _tt_l
_ -l
may be created by embedding it deepty into a large,
inert mass of masonry or concrete (fig. E(a)). ln steel
construction, a beam whose flanges are fully wetded
_ t[_-_]
to a stiff steel column is considered to have a fixed {a)
end (b). ln concrete construction, fixed ends are easily
created by placing steel reinforcing bars continuously


I ri. C Fig. D Fig. E


Reactions may also be found graphically, a procedure

that can be faster than a numerical determination
when the loadings on a beam or truss are very complex.
'Ihe steps to a graphical determination of reactions for
any loading are as follows:

Roller or Rooker: Hinge: Fixed End: l. Draw accurately to scale a free-body diagram ol'
1 Link 2 Linka 5 Links
the truss or beam.

'%'%N [-. = r_-_ I
2. Construct to another scale a load line that is mader
up of all the knor,n forces on the truss or beam.
3.Adopt any convenient pole; draw rays; and paral-
n2 n-b n:5 lel to the rays, draw a luniculr polygon, either a
Unsiabla Sfabla" Determinate Stable, Determinate
cable or an arch, over verticaX extension lines fronr
the forces on the member.

t _1 ._-- _l
4. Draw the closing string of the funicular polygon.
5. Draw a ray parallel to the closing string through
a.-4 n-4 the pole of the force polygon. This ray divides thc
Slable, lneLermnale load line into the two reactions.

F9. F
In Figure 5.19, we have applied this method to thi.
beam that ne havejust considered in Figure 5.IB.
a much more efficient utilization of the material in support is both stabte and statically determinate. A Arbitrarily chosen pole location o is used to iener.
a beam, which results in a lower overall cost for a support condition that totals four or more links is ate the force polygon and funicular polygon. Becaust'
staticai ly indeterminate. space C extends from the 1,600-lb load to the 2,000-llr
load at the end of the overhang, and space D wraps
It is helpful in understanding various support condi- Most beams, joists, rafters, and puriins in bui[dings around from the 2,000-lb load to the right reaction,
tions to imagine that each is made up entireiy of span modest distances and are botted, nailed, or segment oc of the funicular polygon reaches all thc
iinks (Fig. F). A roller, rocker, slide bearing, or link welded to their supporting members with simple way to the right end of the funicular polygon, and seg,
is equivalnt to a single link. A pin is equivalent to
two links. A fixed end is equivalent to three tinks.
connections that, strictiy speaking, are neither
hinges nor rol[ers. Yet these common connections
ment od doubles back from the overhanging end to thc
right support. The closing string of the funicular poly" IilIIE
A stable support condition cannot be created with offer little restraint against rotation and act atmost go' oe, is drawn between the ends of the fLrnicular W* i+tll r

polygon. Ray oe on the force polygon, drawn parallcl

a total of only one or two links. lf the total num- as hinges, thus avolding any significant levei of inci- llrrr, lr,,r,
to the ciosing string, dides the load line into segment
ber of links that support a single span is three, the dental forces in the members. llr= llr'.,i
ae, which measLrres 3,900 lb, and ed,5,700 lb. 'Ihesc
It,t.'', ,,
are the values of the reactions to within I percent ol
the theoretical values that we calcr,rlated earlier. If wc lrl lt lIl' l

*From Shaping Structures: Statcs by Waciaw Zalewski and Edward Atlen

{New :.John Wiley & Sons. lnc-), 1998. were to do this graphical deternination In a CAD pro
Reprinted with permission. gram, we would arrive at exactly the same values as
with a numerical solution.

.:tions for
3,900 tb

agram of OA_

t is made
rd paral-
either a
nes from 5,700

through I

ides the

rd to the
o gener-
2,000-lb Forae Tolyqon
) wraps 5cale1" : 3,OOO lb
; all th'e Figure 5.19 A graphical determination of reactions on the beam shown in Figure 5.18.
lnd seg-
rd to the
lar poly-
I rrg-*-"t. iun.tonr.
.rnicular W,, wi[[ make only rudimentary use of trisonometric The vertical component of any inclined force is
parallel lrt tions in this book. The functions that we wi[[ use equal to the force multiplied by the sine of the angte
.rr. the sine, cosine, and t"ng"nt. These are defined between the force and the horizontal. The horizontal
l.r ,rrr) angte, 0, as follows, referring to the accom- component is equal to the force multiplied by the
:cent of

,,rrrying figure: cosine of the same angte. lf this is difficutt for you to
:r. If we
\D pro- ,ing: y,/r remember, then use onlythe cosine: Either component of
a force is equat to the force rnultiplled by the cosine *From Shaping Structures: Sfotics by Wactaw Zaiewski and
rlues as cosg: x/r
of the angle between the force and the component. Edward Alien (New York:John Wiley & Sons, lnc.). 1998.
,un g : y/x Reprinted with permission.
130 cHAprER s ./ BUTLDTNG oN A vERTcAL srrE

'lhe horizontal component of the 9,000-1b load A l,f,l Y

was found by multiplng 9,000 lb by the cosine ol' A fr{ )lt

--t-12ln. 30'. 'ihe vertical component is equal to 9,000 lb
ll , r,l,
I times the sine ol 30'. 'lhe components of the 3,600-lb
--1- loacl rvere determined in a similar way. 'Ihe left-hand
reaction has been resolved into horizontal and vertical I 11,, r

components r.,r,hose magnitudes are unknown.

I r , rl
We begin by summing moments about point a in
,,, I , rrr,
the lower left corner of the beam. 'lhis point is a good
axis abor-rt which to take moments because the lines
r I r1,,,,
of action of three force components, two of them of'
Fgure 5.20 A beam with inclined loads. unknown magnitudes, pass through it and, thus, two
nnknowns are eliminated from the first step of thc
4ilnb computation, leang only one unknown force for 'r, l,r ,,1 r

which to solve. We are carefr-rl to include an e.rpres-

tl'. ,.,,,,
sion for the moment caused by the 7 ,794-lb horizontal
component of the top load,
L, rr,,r,
<{l- Dm,: o
R I,l,
(4,500 hX5 k) + (7,7e4 h)(1fr) .,,..,,,1
+ (2,546 h)(ll ft) - E,,(15 ft) : 0 il,, ,
: l,,1 ,rr
B" 3'887 h ,

Dur:o rl'. ,,,,1 r

Figure 5.21 Resolving the inclined loads into their horizontal and vertical components. -(4,500 h)(10 ft) + (7,794 h)(l ft) - (2,546 [,X4 ft)
+ Il,(15 ft) : o

FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF MOMENTS One is to flnd the lengths oF the inclined moment Rr, : 3, 159 lb rlrtr rtxt
OF FORCE: FINDING REACTIONS ON A arms of these loads with respect to a selected point.
-lhe other is to resolve each inclined load into its
BEAM WITH INCLINED LOADS The remaining unknown quantity, B,, is foun<l
vertical and horizontal components, and then to sum
by summing forces in the horizontal direcrion. It is
F'igtrre 5.20 depicts a beam that supports rwo inclinecl the moments of the components of the loads. Either
5,248 lb, acting leftward on the beam. We may checli
Ioads. One load is applied to the top of the beam, and method rvill yield the same resLrlt. For this example,
the accuracv of our moment calculations by summing
the other to the bottom. 'Ihe beam is 12 in. deep. One lve choose to resolve the forces into components
forces in the vertical direction:
reaction is furnished by a roller, which can transmit because it makes the determination of the lengths of
force only in a vertical clirection. 'Ihe other reaction is the moment arms much easier.
thror:gh a hinge, rvhich can transrnit force at any angle. Figure 5.21 shows a free-body diagram in which Dr; :0: -3,159h+4,500l. +z,s46h-3,887h = o ,,ll
'lb find the reactions, we must sLrm the moments the inclined loads have been resolved into their hori-
of the inclinecl loacls. 'l'here are two ways of doing this: zontal and vertical components. 0= 0 check rl,,

)00-lb load AI'I'LYINC MOMENT ANALYSIS TO culhcrc

r 9,000 lb
re 3,600-1b ll r'.1 r u( lrrrc is instatic equilibrium, thenanyportion
e left-hand
,,r '.r'ltnr('r)[ ol it
in static equilibriLrrn.
mLlst a]so be
rnd vertical o[ this principle, let us
1,, rllr.,tr':ttc'the usefulness
vn. ,r,,lr rllrirl rve knorv abott moments to fincl the
I polnt a rn l"rr r' rr rrri'mber n of the steel bridge truss shor,r,n
'rt is a good trr lrl,.rrrt'5.22. ?4ti
e the lines \\'r' rrurlie an imaginarv cut that passes comple-
lr tlrorralr the truss in such a wa,v that it intersects

of them of
, thus, two
tep of the
force fbr
r,,, r,rl,r'r. r. \Ve discard the portion of the trllss to one
r,l, ,,1 tlrt' ctrt (rve could throu, out the portioll to the
rr,lrl ,l
(lrc cut line or the one to the left; it doesn't 100 k
rrr rrr.r ). 'l'hcn u,e construct a free-bodv diagram of
an exPres- Figwe 5.22 A steel bridge truss.
horizontal tl';rirringportion of the tmss (Figure 5.23).
( ) I I r is cliagram, we show the forces in the crrt mem-
1,, r'. .r,. rtctors of unknou,n magnitude but knolr,n lines
,,l .rr Ir,rr. \A/c assume a characte tensile or compressive,
l,,r ,.r'lr of'them. It is not important rvhether the
, .rrrr, tl t'hracters are correct or not.
l lrt'r't' rc three of these vectors of unknown value,
rrr,l .r solrrtion rvorrlcl appear tt first glance to reqtrire
I rlr rrrrrh,ed calculations. But the lines of action of
rir, ,l tlrc rectors, { and F, pass through joint 1,
,, rr. rvill sum moments about this point, ieaving as
rl,, ,,rrlv tull<nor,r'n in this expression F,,,, the force in
trr nrl)(,f ,1::
h)(4 ri)

( r(x),(xX) lhx36 ft) - (100,000 h)(12 ft) + F,,(t6 ft) : 0

is found
tion. It is
nay check l, lt
lrad asstmecl initially that F,, plrshed to the
l'lrt' rnintrs sign ol the ansrver tells us that it pulls
too k
summing r , , t l rl ligltt instead. ru is a tension member rather than
Figurc 5.23 An imaginary cut through the bridge truss.
r, rrrrrrlcssion memler.
\\i' can use the same free-body diagram (Figure
;,887 h: o , ' i ) to fincl fbrce F, in mernber j. Tb do so in a single forces pass, thus eliminatir-rg them from the computa-
.tr'r, 11'1'rlust take moments about the point through tion. 'I'his point of intersection, 2, lies in the emptv
,r lrr, l tlrc lines of action of the other tu,o unknou,r-l space to the right of the diagram. From the dimensions
132 cHAprER s ,/ BUILDING oN A vERTTcAL srrE

on Figure 5.22, we know that it lies at a distance of 24 Figure 5.24 Finding centroid
ft from the adjacent 100-kip load, which makes it easy locations for the pavilion.
to set up the solution:

(100,000 hx48ft)- (100,000 hx24 ft) +
4(16 ft) : o

'lhe minus sign tells us that lve assumed the
wrong direction for F,, as we dld for F,,,; member j is
compressed. --*t\

It is apparent that we could find the force in

any other member by cutting completelv through
the truss along a line that intersects the membe
selecting a point aboLrt which to take moments in
strch a way that only the member force r,ve w,ish to
find remains as an unknown, and fbllowing a simi-
lar procedure to a sohrtion. 'Ihis method of finding :
Scale:11b" 1'
the forces in the members of a truss is knorvn as the
method of sections.'l'he method of sections may be
applied to finding internal forces in other types o[
structures as well. Now we need to find the centroid of the entire 'Ihe centroicl of the w,eight ol the entire structul'
strlrcture, the roof, and the floor acting together as a is on the common centerline of the triangles at a (lis
single entity. We can do this by working numerically: tance of 10.85 ft lrom the short edge of the floor.
CLIFF STRUCTURE l. We evaluate the moments of the roof rveight and llErts'i ,1, II
the floor rveight u.ith respect to the same arbitra-
Moments of force are the primary tools rve need to Finding the Other Forces in the Structure
rily selected rxis. We choose as the axis in this case
find the external forces that act on the observation the short edge of the floor.
Figrrre 5.26 is :r free-body diagram of the whole pavil
pavilion on the wall ol a river gorge. We also need a ion structure, ivhich is represented in side vier,v as il it
2. We add these moments to one another.
tool to find the centroid of anv distrlbr-rted load, the \vere a beam. It shows the 7l-kip total weight ol'tlr,'
point through rnhich it may be considered to act as a 3.We set the sum of these two moments equal to a pavilion acting downrvard at a point 10.85 fi l.rtrr
concentrated force. single moment with respect to the same axis.'lhis the edge near the face of the clifi, as we just dctcr
single moment consists of the total weight of the mined. 'l'he inclined steel tube strut exerts a [orci' (.)
Finding Centroids floor and roof times an unknown moment arm, x, at a distance of 18 ft from this same edge. We uill
'l'he centroid of a triangle lies on a line from any veftex fbr which we solve (Figure 5.25): rvork r.lith Q in the form of its vertical and horiz,rrr
to the center of the opposite side at a distance from the tal components, Q. and Q, respectively We will lls,,
opposite side of one-third of its altitude. 'l'his puts Mnxn IM^
lxx)r Ml()u resolve the reaction at the clff f'ace, l', into its verticrl .,1,,
the centroid of the floor at one-third of the -30-ft length : and horizontal components, l. and [,
(26 kips)(12,33 ft) + (+5 kipsXto ft) (71 kips)r
o[ its triangular floor plan, or 10 ft away from the cliff The angle of Q u,ith the horizontal, , is gir','', ll
face. 'Ihe centroid o the roof, which is 37 ft long, is (26 _T"',\_-'"''_',
-.- _ -" kipsx12.33 ft) I' (45 kipsxl0
\'- _t"'\_" fr)
_ lrla< R
as 16 in. of rise per l2 in. of horizontal run.'l'lrcs,' ,l,l
3713 ft, or 12.33 ft, from the cliff face (Figure 5.24). 7l klps two measurenlents are the legs of a right trianglr' r,l
A GRAPHTcAL soLUloN .g 133

Returning to the free-body diagram in Figure 5.26, The inclined force transmittecl to each of the tw,o
we evaluate moments about point 2, which eliminates foundations at the cliff wall is found in sirnilar fashion,
three variables from consideration:

Lm, :0 - (7.15 ftx71 kips)- (lB ft)y,
":ffi:0., 2
28.22 + 32.12 21.4 kips

(7'15 fr)(7l kiPs)

tluru 5.ZS Findingthe centroid ofthe structure
o - - 28.2 kins
'Ihis force component is shared by two attachments
to the cliff', each 14.1 kips. Next we evaluate moments A graphical solution tr the same problern is remark-
fr-----------1 about point 1, which again leaves only one variable: ably simple and direct (Figure 5.27). 'Ihe distribr-rted
ft--J loacl of the floor ancl rr:of is represented by a single

It' Iru, : 0 :
-ro.e5 (-10.85 ftXTt kps) + 0B ft)e, downward vector of 71 kips at the centroid of the com-
bined floor and roof loads. 'Ib determine rhe location
Q, : 42.8kips
of this vector, we constrllct a load ijne that is made r-rp of
the floor and roofloads.'Ihen rve adopt any convenient
As a check of otrr work, we can sum forces in the poie and drar,v rays to compiete a force polygon (b).
rrr)> Y vertical direction: Parallei to these rays, we clraw the segmelrts of a funic-
ular polygon, (c), on which the distance berween the
trvo loads, 2 k1 in., is plotted accurately to scale. \Ve
t : o:71

Iq kips-42.8kips-28.2kips - O
extend the lines of action of the first and last segments
:e structure
Q, check of the funicr"rlar polygon, op an or, until they intersect.
les at a dis- '.[he resultant of the two forces passes through this
e fioor. Tb determine the remaining components of force
point of intersection on the funicular polygon. 'lhis is
at points I and 2, we can carry or-rt more computa- the centroid of the sum of the two loads. We scale the
Flgure 5.26 Findingthe forces in the pavilion
tions, or we can utilize the trigonometric functions of horizontal distance to determine that it is l0 in. to
ture the angle : the ieft of the centroid of the roof load.
,hole pal- -l-he
free body of the par.'ilion, diagram (d) of
iew as if it o, -Q, - a2'8 kips
- Figure 5.27,has only three external forces acting r-rpon
ight of the lrr r';rlt'Lrlate the trigonometric functions of , rve must
<n - un9 f.-13
.12.I kios
it. We know the locations and directions of tr,o of these
l5 ft from Ill I IIrt' Iength of the h)?otenuse of this triangle, which forces, the 7l-kip vertical load, which we have jrrst
iust deter- 1,, tlrr' srrrare root of the sum of the squares of the legs, Because there are only two horizontal forces on found to be I 0 in. to the left of the centroid of the floor
a force Q the free-body diagram, component /h must be equal load, and the diagonal force along the a.xis of the
r. We will Hypoterruse.: ,{lz, tl2 : zo ancl opposite to Q in order to create equilibrium; its inclined strut. Extending the line of action of the floor
C horizon- value is 32.1 kips, which is split between two points of and roof loads until it crosses the axis of the inclined
b will also 'l'lrc sine of d is l6120, which is 0.8. fhe cosine
attachment to the cliff, each carryring 16.05 kips. strut, ure find a point of concurrence thror-rgh u,hich
its vertical t,. l.),1)0, which is 0.6. The tangenr is 16h2, rvhich is 'fhe axial force in the strut, Q, is found from its the third force, which acts through the pin connecrion
I I 1 We can convert d to degrees by finding the components by means of the Pythagorean theorem: to the right, must also pass. (lf the line of acton of
, is given rr( liur of 1.33, which is 53.06'. (Arctan is short for any of the three forces did not pass throlrgh the point
rn. 'Ihese tut t(ilt,qcnt, u,hich is the angle that has a given tangent, of concurrence of the other two, the moments in this
triangle. trr tlris case i.33.) - {s: ilI, - i3.5 liirs
system of forces would not be in equilibrium).
134 cHAprER s ./ BUTLDTNG oN A vERTtcAL slrE

rl,. , 1,,,,


. ?' t\ -

Centroid Centroid of
\\of Root \ floo.
------- '

cenlroid of |

(a) Tlan
--x (c) Funicular ?olygon It (b) Forae?oly}on

: v zt ipu :
r---: Scale:1" 5aalezl" 4O Ki?s

Center line aonnection
of etrut ab:42.2Ki?e

{d) Free-boy diagram

9cale:110" : 1'


(r) Forae ?alyTon

Scale:1" : 3O Ki?a

! ,!. ,, ..
Figure 5.27 Craphical determination of the forces in the pavi{ion. ,,.1,.1

\ \', ' r rsc lJow's notation to label the spaces betrveen in 2-in. increments, then from 2l in. to 36 in. in to the floor [rame near the two hinges '"vil] secure
tl,, .,, lir't'cs. Working clockwise around the point of 3-in. increments. Accordingly, we round up the size to the frame to additional anchors in the clifT. All these
t rr r'(,nce, the 7l -kip load is Dc. As w,e move fiom lll
' , r,( 21 in.'fhe trvo interior beams span about 20 ft, so they neu,ly added members are redutulan, which is to say
t" {,r tlrc [ree-body diagram, the force pushes dovvn-
' can be 12 in. deep.'Ihe short girder that brings the that they duplicate the roles of members already pro-
,, rr,l l'lrrrs, \/e constrLlct a load line to the right (e) loads f?om the floor beams to the inclined stnrt,s at)?- vided in the structure. Normally we do not provide
tlr.rt rs 7l kips long at the designated scale, with b ical, in that it carries a heavy load over a very short span redundant members in a structure, but redundancy
,rt tlrl lop and c at the bottom. Through point b, we and can't be sizecl by a simple approximation. Pending is desirable in circumstances where total structural
, ,,ri'.tf r r( [ lne ab parallel to AB, and through point c, calculations, we guess that it might be 18 in. cleep. failure s likely and/or would have dire consequences.
Ir., , ,/.'l'lle trvo lines b andca intersect atri. We scale '[he inclined strut can be sizecl approximately with Following terrorist attacks on certain kinds of govern-
tl',,.,' lirrcs to lind the numerical values of:the three the aid of the column tables in the AISC Manu,al of ment buildings, it has become standard practice to
1,,r,,.,,: 5 3 kips forca, l,hich is the force in the inclined Steel Cot6tnlction.'l\ere is a table specifically given to design redundancv into the frames of such buildings
rrrrr, :rrrrl -12.6 kips tor ab, rvhich is the total force square tube columns. By readng the ftee length of the so that if any single column is destroyed by a bomb or
tr.r, to the trvo foundations in the rock rvall column, -10 ft, clor,vn the left side, then finding in this vehicle, the ftame will still stand.
,,1 t lrr, gorge. Botl.r valr-res are u,ithin 1 percent ol those row a capacitv in hps that equals or exceeds tl-re load on
rlr,rr \\'(' r,r,ould find numerically. 'lhe angle ol ab is the strut in our structure, rvhich is 63 kips, rve arrive at a
rlr , rr ly tlctermnecl by its passing through the pin and steel tube size of 6 in. square. Although this is a safe size
tlr, ,oirrt of concrtrrence. for this member, given its crucial importance in the sup-
port of the palion, we might w{sh to increase the size to Construction of the pavilion is complicated by its being
\I/ING THE STRUT AND BEAMS 8 in. for additional security against buckling. on a vertical site rather than a horizontal one. With-
out proper safety precautions, any mistake on the part
\ltlr,, rve have not yet learned to assign siz-es Redundancy of the builders could result in the free fall to the bot-
rrr l*.unS, \/e can give approximate sizes based on a 'lhestability of this strlrcture depends primarily tom of the canyon of a dropped tool, a rnishandled
r,rl, ,,l thumb: A simply sr-rpported steel floor beam on just three of its elements: the diagonal tube and component, an incautious rvorker, or the entire struc-
1,,'r rlrl lrave a depth of aborrt ll20 of the span. For the rlvo hinges tl.rat are attached to the chff. If any ture. A safety net will be deployed a short distance
, ,,,,,1, proportion can be 1124.'I'he clif- of these shoLrld t'ail, the result rn",ould be a catastrophe below the strlrcture to catch any worker who might
l, rr'n((, is dLre to the fact that floor beams generalli, that wolld possibly restrlt in the loss of human lives fall. This will be supported by cables attacl-red to
, u\ lrcuvier loac]s and that deflection (sagging) mr-rst as weil as the structure. In talks with the owner of the temporarv or-rtripgers on the floor flame. Additionally,
lrr nrr)r'(' closely controlled in floor beams than roof palion. lve have decided that such a faihrre cannot every worker will be required to wear a safetv harness.
l' .un\ Applying these proportions to the cliff strLlc- be tolerated. We must provide for the stability oF the This rvill be tied to an elasric line that is anchored on the
tru, rs lrickv, because the tvr,o major floor beams, the structure in sLrch a u,av that if any main component rock rvall above the srructure. In accordance with de-
,ur", :rt the or-tside edges, carry healy roof loads that o[ it should [ail, there r,vill be another element to take tailed prosions of the U.S. Occupational Sat'ety and
rr, l,rorrght to them by the windorv mullions, r,l,hich over its supporting role. Health Act (OSHA), each steel floor beam will be
, rll., lirr an increase in their depth. At the sanre time, After much discussion, we design a simple, eco- equipped with a waist-high horizontal cable mounted on
rl,, ,, lrcanls overhang at the outer end, which allrws nomical backLrp structure. 'lwo stainless steel rods temporary vertical brackets. This serves both as a hand-
tlr, ,lr'rth to decrease.somewhat. But the overhang is will tie connections on the two sides o[ the floor of rail for workers and a line to which each worker can con-
r rtlr,'r long. which reqLrires greater depth. In C-'hap- the palion to special foundation plates high on the nect his or her safety harness with a simple clip.
r, r,. I(r irnd 17 rve r,,i11 learn how to assign a clefinite cliff.'l'hese rods will be tightened at the conclusion of As mr-rch assembly of the pavilion as possible rvill
,r.,, lo these beams despite all these complications. construction until they are barelv tar-t. If the diago- take place on the plateau above so that the crane
l,,r n{)\\'. taking all these factors into account, rve w,ill nal steel tube should buckle or othem,ise fail, these can handle it in several largc pieces. Figr-rre 5.28
rr,' llrt' major beams an approximate depth on l/20 rods will assume its load and rransmit it to the spe- diagrams a tentative procedure for erecting the
,'l rlrt'ir or,erall length of 32 tt, rvhich is about l9 in. cial foundations r,r,ith only a slight sr-rbsidence of the building. In part (a), the process begins u,ith rvork-
',t.rrrrl:rr.rl sizes ol steel beams go ftom 8 in. to lB in. structure. In a sirrilar way, short steel rods attached ers being lowered tom above on cables to instali
f,] J

6 r^)
gq --,1
o E

o @
o C
o Z

5 Z
O -:r

,ii,'l .i

: !'l I

\, \ rI
.J] !;t



Figure 5.29 At Fo Stanwix National Monument in Rome, New York, the Marinus Willett Collections Management and Education Facilrty was c{esigned by the team of architects

these struts were found by evaluating moments.

Copyright O 2005 Woodruff/Brown Architectural Photography.

138 cHAprER s ./ BUTLDtNG oN A vERTtcAr sirL

threc lbLrndrtions into the rock, one fbr tl-re base ou 1le lrame for u'orker protection. 'lho tcrnporaw mersh is installeci over the deck. 'I'hen t.hc crrric lorr,
o{' thc inclirrecl strut and tu,o for the inside cnd ol' cables rnchorecl to thc' top o1'tlrc clil'l'u,ill support ers concrete irr l:rrge Luckcts. \\brkcrs distribute thr.
the flor-.r platlbrni. 'l'hc:sc are cletailecl in FigLrrc 5.7. the outer e'nrl oitthe floor I'ramc until the inclined concretcr over the florr dccking and trou,el i[ iltr,
\Vir'kcl access mav be irr-rprovcd bv ternrporary la{- strut L:u1 be lolr,erecl, connecter-l to its lbrrndation, a srnooth floor slab. '1'his cove:rs the cr.rrrrrgatiorrs
clcrs, cx: bv excrvating thcr acccss tunnels frorn tl'rcr ancl bolted secrrelv in placc, as shou,n in part ic). A ancl provicles a leverl, sali, conr,cnicnt platforrn i'or
platc:au above earlv in thc process. Part (b) shou,s safetv net is srrspendcd lronr thc Iranie belbre ll,orli the u,ork that f:ollou's. 'l'his inclLrdes installation ol'
the entire floor lrarrc trcing lou,erecl as a ut'rit note ers res Lr rnc thcir l abors (d ) . i\ corru ga teri steel clec k is the lvall palrcls (c) and lou,ering of the conipletell
thc tcrnporarv llanclrails tlrat havt- been installcd attachetl to the beams, and u,clclcd u'irc reinfhrtirrll asseinblecl roof (l).

Exercises 6. l--ind t.he reactions atr anci b rn tl-re uclckrcl stccl fl'ame in frigrrre 5.35. lqnor.t'
t ht' u t'glrt ,,1'tltt' l-l'rrrn,'.
For each of the following exercises, decide whether a graphical or a numerical
approach s more direct, and foilow that approach to a solution.
7. 'I'he l2-ft lleram in f]igLrre 5..16 is embr'clclccl in a x:r:tangular blocl,
of concret-c that is 6 |t u,cle arrcl n,eiglrs .i0,000 1b. At uaL load, 1,f", u,ili tl,,
1. Figure 5.30 shows four additional ways of supporting the pavilion on the cliff. block bcgin to tip over?
In scheme (a), an internal tension rod is substituted for the inclined strut. Scheme
(b) depicts three different inclinations for the inclined strut. Schemes (c) and (d)
r,l,ould place the structure in a different part of the gorge where support is avaiiable Key Terms and Concepts
for a vertical column. Find the forces in the column, strut, or tension rod for each
ol these alLernative designs.
2. Find the reactions for each of the beams in Figure 5.31. The self-weight of the
intLrrnescent coating >M=0
beam is inciuc{ed in the dstributed load in each case. muliior-r reaction
3. Find the forces in members a, b, and c of the theater r<of truss in Figure 5.32" centroicl sine (sin)
4. 'lhe free-body diagram in Fig. 5.33 is a cross section that represents the forces moment ol fbrci: cosine (cos)
that act on a garden toolshed. The downward vector of 2,25A lb represents the moll.lent tangent (tan)
weight of the shec{. "Ihe horizontal vector of 1,600 lb represents the resr-rltant of
the estimated maximum force of the wind. How much dorvnward force is required r\,r = Pd l5-1] method of sections
at point a to keep the shed from overturning? What are the components of the reac- morncnt arm, l redundancy
tion at the other corner of the shed?
5. Figure 5.34 shows a design for a cantilevered roof for a stadium grandstand.
The sum of the live and deacl loads for one bay of the roof is 2l kips. Find rhe
rnagnitudes of the reactions R,, and Rr.

C ran(' 10\1,
;t ribute thc:
u el it into
'rrrrrga tions
l:rtfbnn lor
trllation oll

.-35. Ignore

qr-rlar block
7, will the

1o',-1o"- 10'-1o"
1- Centroid 1 Centroid
of load l
of load
7t tre Hinge 71K'/ej Hinge
1 150

\ '{

(b) {)
Figure 5.30 Additional ways of supporting the pavilion.
140 cHAprLR 5 ./ Bt.JTLDTNG oN A vERTicAL srrE

20 Kip2 Kpa12 Kipo W p di ;rt r'tb u t e ; t;;:li ll; ;l 6; T ; -; ;l

12 Kipe Kipa 63tt +

500 tb 500 tb 500 tb
l_- I --
ibft [t-1,* 12',
Irtrirt' 1 r'*rr'* 11',
'|+ t,l ll
24 lt I
*rf l*, f*,
Figure 5.32 A roof truss for a theater.
,o kN

63 fr

f*, arf

400 tb 400,b
1,200 tb
,*l 1ffiOlb
1B fr
f., *,1 "n
(") I



Figure 5.31
24 ft,
f *,

5.33 Free-body diagram of a garden toolshed

Figure 5.34 Three alternative roof designs for a grandstand.

i tglr- ',

_1m__+_ Women in Structural Design

The building design professions have been slow she had on the design of the bridge; indications
to add women to their ranks. The architecture are that it was considerable. She had not studied
<- ,",t )()kN
profession began to open slightly to women a
century ago, when Marion Mahony Griffin (1871-191)
began doing some of Frank Ltoyd Wrighti design
engineering, but apparentty had an aptitude for
the work of bridge-building and was a quick study.
She made several trips a day to the site to guide
work and renderings in Chicago, and Julia Morgan construction. A newspaper ofthe day declared that
{1872-1957) became an important architect in Cali- she was "Chief Engineer of the Workl' and noted
fornia. Mahony Griffin was the second woman to that she was admired and respected by everyone
earn an architecture degree at MIT and the first to be connected with the project.
licensed to practice in lllinois. Morgan graduated in
civit engineering and subsequently studied architec- A female structuraI engineer who has attained
ture at the Ecole de Beaux Arts in Paris. She designed international prominence as a designer of major
more than 600 projects, the most famous William structures today is Linda Figg. After graduatlng in
Randotph Hearst's San Simeon castle in California. civil engineering from Auburn University in 1981, she
practiced with her father, Gene Figg (.l938-2002),
Today, enrotlments n many schools of architecture
also a civil engineer, for 20 years and took over the
are more or less evenly divided between men and
firm upon his death. ln the first quarter century of
women. A number of women practitioners have
its existence, Figg Engineering and its predecessor
risen to prominence, though none has attracted
firm, Figg and Muller, bult 56 bitiion in projects
attention as a designer of exemplary toad-bearing
and won more than 200 design awards. Their
I i.urr. structures, whether bridges or buildings.
'r.35 A welded steel frame most celebrated projects include the cable-stayed
Women engineers who design and build major Sunshine Skyway Bridge in Ftorida, the Natchez
structures are much rarer than women architects. Trace Parkway in Tennessee, and the Blue Ridge
Enrollments in university programs in structural Parkway in North Carolina.
and civil engineering are still predominantly, but
not exclusively, male. The first woman to come A generation ago, a woman studying architecture

to prominence in bridge construction was Emily or engineering was likely to be subjected to some
-'.=:= Warren Roebling (.i844-1903), who assumed greater amount of hazing and, in many cases, outright
and greater responsibility for the construction of hostility by teachers and/or male students. Today,
the Brooklyn Bridge after her husband, Washington such inexcusably discriminatory behavior has largeiy
Roebling {1837-1926), the engineer for the project, disappeared and there is no reason why women
was permanentty disabled by caisson disease. lt is should not do as wetl as men in the building design
diffrcult to know with certainty how much influence professions.

tr,,rrrc 5.36