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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

International Journal of Research and Innovation in


Thermal Engineering (IJRITE)

MODELING AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF AIR-CONDITIONER EVAPORATOR

Potireddi Sriram1, S.Raja Sekhar2.

1 Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Godavari Institute of Engineering And Technology, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2 AssociateProfessor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Godavari Institute of Engineering And Technology, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Air conditioning evaporator works by absorb heat from the area (medium) that need to be cooled. It does that by main-
taining the evaporator coil at low temperature and pressure than the surrounding air. Since, the AC evaporator coil
contains refrigerant that absorbs heat from the surrounding air, the refrigerant temperature must be lower than the air.

In our project we have modeling an air-cooled evaporator for a home 1.5ton air conditioner. Presently the material used
for coils is copper and the material used for fins is copper or aluminum. A 3D model of the evaporator is done in para-
metric software Pro/Engineer.

To validate the temperatures and other thermal quantities like flux and gradient, thermal analysis is done on the evapo-
rator coil by applying properties copper and suitable material like aluminum. And also we are varying inside cooling
fluid Hydrocarbon (HC) and Hydro chloroflouro carbon (HCFC).The best material for the evaporator of our design can be
checked by comparing the results.

Thermal analysis is done in ANSYS.

*Corresponding Author: In the refrigeration cycle, a heat pump transfers heat from
a lower-temperature heat source into a higher-tempera-
Potireddi Sriram, ture heat sink. Heat would naturally flow in the opposite
Research Scholar,Department of Mechanical Engineer- direction. This is the most common type of air condition-
ing, Godavari Institute of Engineering And Technology, ing. A refrigerator works in much the same way, as it
Andhra Pradesh, India. pumps the heat out of the interior and into the room in
Email: psriram365@gmail.com which it stands as it pumps the heat out of the interior
and into the room in which it stands.
Year of publication: 2016
Review Type: peer reviewed This cycle takes advantage of the way phase changes
Volume: III, Issue : I work, where latent heat is released at a constant tem-
perature during a liquid/gas phase change, and where
Citation:Potireddi Sriram, Research Scholar "Modeling varying the pressure of a pure substance also varies its
And Thermal Analysis of Air-Conditioner Evaporator" condensation/boiling point.
International Journal of Research and Innovation on
Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET) (2016) Refrigeration cycle
92-97

INTRODUCTION TO AIR CONDITIONER

An air conditioner, often referred to as AC is a home ap-


pliance, system, or mechanism designed to dehumidify
and extract heat from an area. The cooling is done using
a simple refrigeration cycle. In construction, a complete
system of heating, ventilation and air conditioning is re-
ferred to as "HVAC". Its purpose, in a building or an au-
tomobile, is to provide comfort during either hot or cold
weather.

Air conditioning system basics and theories


INTRODUCTION TO EVAPORATOR
A simple stylized diagram of the refrigeration cycle:
1) condensing coil,
It is in the evaporators where the actual cooling effect
2) expansion valve,
takes place in the refrigeration and the air conditioning
3) evaporator coil,
systems. For many people the evaporator is the main
4) compressor.
part of the refrigeration system and they consider other
parts as less useful. The evaporators are heat exchanger
surfaces that transfer the heat from the substance to be

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

cooled to the refrigerant, thus removing the heat from the W1=0.015kg/kg of dray air ratio
substance. The evaporators are used for wide variety of Indoor conditions:
diverse applications in refrigeration and air conditioning Dry bulb temperature =270C RH=60%
processes and hence they are available in wide variety W2 =0.011kg/kg of dry air ratio
of shapes, sizes and designs. They are also classified in
different manner depending on the method of feeding the Assumptions:
refrigerant, construction of the evaporator, direction of air
circulation around the evaporator, application and also Using a factor of 1.25 for florescent light
the refrigerant control. Room latent heat load with 4% factor of safety
Estimation of sensible Heat gain
In the domestic refrigerators the evaporators are com- South wall area = 28*10 = 28m2
monly known as the freezers since the ice is made in North wall area = 28*10 = 28m2
these compartments. In case of the window and split air East and west wall area = 22.4m2
conditioners and other air conditioning systems where Equaling temp diff te0C
the evaporator is directly used for cooling the room air, it South wall Sensible heat gain = UAH
is called as the cooling coil. In case of large refrigeration =1.56*28*110 = 480.4W
plants and central air conditioning plants the evaporator North wall Sensible heat gain = 1.56 *28*90 = 393012W
is also known as the chiller since these systems are first East wall Sensible heat gain =1.56*22.4*110 =384.384W
used to chill the water, which then produces the cooling West wall F Sensible heat gain =1.56*22.4*60 =2090664W
effect. Floor Area Sensible heat gain =159*80*2.40 = 30528W
Roof Area Sensible heat gain = 5.675*80*190 =8626W
In the evaporator the refrigerant enters at very low pres- Door Area Sensible heat gain = 142*3.55*90 =4536.9W
sure and temperature after passing through the expan- South wall = 3.65*4.70*2*110 =377.41W
sion valve. This refrigerant absorbs the heat from the sub- North wall = 3.65*4.70*1*90 154.395W
stance that is to be cooled so the refrigerant gets heated
while the substance gets cooled. Even after cooling the Solar Heat Gain through South glass:
substance the temperature of the refrigerant leaving the
evaporator is less the than the substance. The refrigerant Area of windows* SHGE for south = 3.65*2*140=1022m2
leaves the evaporator in vapor state, mostly superheated Total Sensible heat gain per person* No of persons =
and is absorbed by the compressor. 117*40 = 4680W
Q* Total No of persons per person* No of persons =50*40
COOLING LOAD CALICULATIONS =2000W
Amount of In filter air (vi) = length* Width*height*no of air
Floor Volume= length*Width*height changes /60
= 8*10*2.8=224m3 = 224*1/60 = 30733m3/min
Door area =w*h Sensible heat gain due to infiltration air =0.02044*V1*(tdb1
= 1.53*2.32 =3.55m2 - tdb2)
Wall thickness =0.254m = 0.02044*3.73*(38-27)
No of systems =34 =0.83865kW
Window area =1.325*2.75=3.65m2 Tdb1 = outside temp
No of windows = 3 Tdb2 = inside temp
=3*3.65 Latent heat gain due to infiltration Air =50*V1*(w1 w2)
= 10.95m 2 = 50*3.73*(0.015-0.011)
No of lights = 4 = 0.746kW
=4*40 = 160 watts Sensible heat gain for computer = wattage per system*no
Florescent co-efficient = 1.25 of systems
Total lighting load = 160*1.25 = 200W
Solar heat gain factor (SHGF) = 450*36=16200W
South wall = 140W/m2
North wall =120W/m2 Total room Sensible heat (RHS) = 1.0495 (heat gain form
West wall = 340W/m2 walls + windows + solar heat gain through glass + heat
East wall = 60W/m2 gain form persons + due to infiltration + due to ventilation
Overall coefficient of heat transfer (U) W/m2K +due to lightening +due to computers)
UWALL = 1.56W/m2K
UROOF= 5.675W/m2K = 1.045(556.115+1022+0.8386532+16200+200+63)
UFLOOR = 159W/m2K = 23754.892W
UDOOR =142W/m2K
UWINDOW =4.70W/m2K Total Room latent Heat (RHL) = 1.05*(from persons + un-
Equivalent temperature difference (te) filtered air +ventilation).
te of north wall =90C = 1.05(4680+3.733+10.95)
te of south wall =110C = 5070.2576W
te of west wall =110C Total heat=28825.15/3530
te of east wall =60C = 8.16tons
te of roof =190C Hence we can take 9tons.
te of floor =2.40C 6x 1.5 ton Split ACs
No of persons =40
Sensible heat load per person =117W INTRODUCTION TO CAD
Latent heat load per person =50W
Ventilation required per person =0.28m3/min Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as Computer-
Outdoor Conditions: Aided Design and Drafting (CADD), is the use of com-
Dry bulb temperature =380C RH =60% puter technology for the process of design and design-

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

documentation. Computer Aided Drafting describes the INTRODUCTION TO FEA


process of drafting with a computer. CADD software, or
environments, provides the user with input-tools for the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was first developed in 1943
purpose of streamlining design processes; drafting, docu- by R. Courant, who utilized the Ritz method of numeri-
mentation, and manufacturing processes. cal analysis and minimization of variation calculus to ob-
tain approximate solutions to vibration systems. Shortly
DATA POINTS thereafter, a paper published in 1956 by M. J. Turner,
R. W. Clough, H. C. Martin, and L. J. Top established a
broader definition of numerical analysis. The paper cen-
tered on the "stiffness and deflection of complex struc-
tures".

By the early 70's, FEA was limited to expensive main-


frame computers generally owned by the aeronautics, au-
tomotive, defense, and nuclear industries. Since the rapid
decline in the cost of computers and the phenomenal in-
crease in computing power, FEA has been developed to
an incredible precision. Present day supercomputers are
now able to produce accurate results for all kinds of pa-
rameters.

FEA consists of a computer model of a material or de-


CURVES GENERATION sign that is stressed and analyzed for specific results. It
is used in new product design, and existing product re-
finement. A company is able to verify a proposed design
will be able to perform to the client's specifications prior
to manufacturing or construction. Modifying an existing
product or structure is utilized to qualify the product or
structure for a new service condition. In case of structural
failure, FEA may be used to help determine the design
modifications to meet the new condition.

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF EVAPORATOR USING COP-


PER FOR TUBE AND PLATE HYDROCARBON FLUID

Imported Model through IGES Format (Initial graphical


exchanging specification) it is used to convert 3d parts/
assemblys between graphical softwares
PIPES SECTON

Tube Material - Copper


PLATES FINAL MODEL Element Type: solid 20 nodes 90
Material Properties: Thermal Conductivity 63W/mK
Specific Heat 14 J/kg K
Density - 0.00007500 kg/mm3
Plate Material - Copper
Element Type: solid 20 nodes 90
Material Properties: Thermal Conductivity 63W/mK
Specific Heat 14 J/kg K
Density - 0.00007500 kg/mm3

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

Meshed model- meshing is used to deconstruct complex


problem (model) into small problems (elements) to solve in
numerical method.

Above image is showing Thermal Gradient-rate of change of tem-


perature per unit distance.

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF EVAPORATOR USING COP-


PER FOR TUBE AND AL 204 FOR PLATE HYDRO-
CARBON FLUID

Above image is showing Temperature distribution on object

Above image is showing Temperature distribution on object.

Above image is showing Thermal Gradient-rate of change of tem-


perature per unit distance.
Above image is showing Thermal Gradient-rate of change of tem-
THERMAL ANALYSIS OF EVAPORATOR USING COP- perature per unit distance.
PER FOR TUBE AND AL [AL99.0 (1100)] FOR PLATE
HYDROCARBON FLUID THERMAL ANALYSIS OF EVAPORATOR USING COP-
PER FOR TUBE AND PLATE HYDROCHLORO-
FLOUROCARBON FLUID

Above image is showing Temperature distribution on object.


Above image is showing Temperature distribution on object.

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

RESULTS

Thermal analysis for fluid Hydrochlorofluorocarbon

Nodal Tem- Thermal Thermal Flux


perature (0C) Gradient (K/ (W/mm2)
mm)
Copper Tube 16 0.658e-11 0.415e-11
Copper Plate

Copper Tube 16 0.186e-11 0.41e-11


Al 99 Plate

Copper Tube 16 8.93 1.34


Al 204 Plate
Above image is showing Thermal Gradient-rate of change of tem-
perature per unit distance.
Thermal analysis for fluid Hydrocarbon
THERMAL ANALYSIS OF EVAPORATOR USING COP-
PER FOR TUBE AND AL [AL99.0 (1100)] FOR PLATE
HYDROCHLOROFLOURO- CARBON FLUID Nodal Tem- Thermal Thermal Flux
perature (0C) Gradient (K/ (W/mm2)
mm)
Copper Tube 16 0.4e-11 0.252e-11
Copper Plate

Copper Tube 16 0.683e-11 0.15e-11


Al 99 Plate

Copper Tube 16 4.719 2.973


Al 204 Plate

CONCLUSION

In our project modeling and analysis is done for air-cooled


Above image is showing Thermal Gradient-rate of change of tem-
evaporator for 1.5ton air conditioner.
perature per unit distance.

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF EVAPORATOR USING COP- 3D Modeling is done using Pro/Engineer.


PER FOR TUBE AND AL 204 FOR PLATE HYDRO-
CHLOROFLOUROCARBON FLUID Performed Thermal analysis on the evaporator by taking
tube material as copper and varying the plate materials.
We also did analysis by varying refrigerant Hydrocarbon
and Hydro fluorocarbon.

In thermal analysis, we analyze the thermal properties


like nodal temperature, thermal gradient and thermal
flux.

By observing the results, for hydrocarbon or hydro fluoro-


carbon, by using plate material Al 204 has more thermal
conductivity.

So using Al 204 is advantageous.

When comparing Hydrocarbon and Hydro fluorocarbon,


Above image is showing Thermal Gradient-rate of change of tem- using Hydro fluorocarbon is more advantageous since its
perature per unit distance. thermal conductivity is more.

FUTURE SCOPE

In further I would like to do experimental investigation on


the above conditions and CFD analysis to provide some
more accurate results and provisions.

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

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Potireddi Sriram,
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