# SEU 2012: Electronic SEU 2012 El t i

3  Analysis of Diode Circuits 3 – Analysis of Diode Circuits
Ab Al‐Hadi Ab Rahman Dept. of Microelectronics and Computer Engineering The Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

The Shockley/Diode Equation The Shockley/Diode Equation
I D = I S (e
VD nVT

− 1)

Where Is is reverse saturation current VD i th f is the forward bi d biased voltage d lt n is the ideality factor (usually equals to 1) VT is the thermal voltage (usually 26mV)
-- When VD is negative (reversed biased), ID ≈ -IS -- When VD is positive (forward biased), ID ≈ I S (e
VD nVT

)

Example: Given Is = 10pA draw the I-V characteristics of the diode 10pA, IV

Simplified Diode Characteristics Simplified Diode Characteristics

VD must be less than or equal to the knee voltage!

Diode Equivalent Circuit for  Simplified Model
Forward Biased, Vs ≥ Vk
D1 Vs
Vs + Vk 0 Ohms Vs + Vk -

Reversed Biased, Vs < Vk Biased
D1 Vs
Vs + Vs Inf inite Ohms

Vs + Vs -

Where Vk (ideal) = 0 V, Vk (Ge) = 0.3 V (G ) 0 3 V, Vk (Si) = 0.7 V

Steps for diode circuit analysis Steps for diode circuit analysis
1. Replace forward biased diodes with relevant  voltage source l 2. Replace reversed biased diodes with open‐ circuit 3. Perform KVL to find node voltages  g 4. Perform Ohm’s Law to find current

Example 1 Example 1
Find VD, VR and IR in the circuit below.
Si VR

0.7V 0 7V 2k IR + VR

3V IR

2k

3V

V IR = Using KVL, Using Ohm’s Law, R 3 V = 0.7 V + VR 2.3V VR = 2.3 V = VD = 0.7 V 07 2kΩ = 1.15mA ©Hadi, The Faculty of Electrical Engineering, UTM – January 2008

Example 2 Example 2
Find VD, VR and IR in the circuit below.
Si

+
VR

3V

2k + VR -

3V IR

2k

3V IR

Since it is an open circuit IR = 0 circuit, Using Ohm’s Law, VR = IRR =0 Using KVL, VD = 3V

Example 3 Example 3
Find VR and IR in the circuit below.
Si Ge +12V VR 5.6k 5 6k IR

0.7V +12V

0.3V 5.6k 5 6k IR + VR

Example 3 (cont.) Example 3 (cont.)
Using KVL KVL, 12 V = 0.7 V + 0.3 V + VR VR = 11 V Using Ohm’s Law,

IR =

V R 11V = 5.6kΩ = 1.96mA

Example 4 Example 4
Find V1, V2 and Vo in the circuit below.
+ V1 +10V 4.7k 2.2k -5V V Vo 4.7k 4 7k 2.2k -5V

Si Vo + V2

+ V1 +10V

0.7V

+ V2

Example 4 (cont.) Example 4 (cont.)
Using KVL KVL, 10 V = V1 + 0.7 V + V2 – 5 V1 + V2 = 10 – 0.7 + 5 = 14.3 V Using Ohm’s Law to get current Therefore, Th f V1 = IR1 = 2.07 mA x 4.7 kΩ = 9.73 V V2 = IR2 = 2.07 mA x 2 2 kΩ 2 07 2.2 = 4.55 V V2 = Vo + 5 = 4.55 V Vo = 4.55 – 5 = -0.45 V

V +V I= 1 2 R1 + R2 14.3V = 4.7 k + 2.2k

14.3V = 6.9kΩ = 2.07 mA A

Example 5 Example 5
The hardest one! Please try at home. -- Find Vo1 and Vo2 in the figure below
Ge -10V 10V Si Vo1 1.2k 3.3k 3 3k Vo2

Solution: Vo1 = -9 V Vo2 = - 6.6 V