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Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors, Working Strength Design (WSD)

choose largest U in design


(a) Flexure w/o axial load 0.90 or Alternate Strength Design (ASD)
Basic Loads: (b) Axial tension & axial tension w/ flexure . 0.90
(c) Axial comp. & axial comp. w/ flexure: Allowable Stresses (if not given):
= 1.4 + 1.7
(1) Spiral .. 0.75 Horizontal members Vertical members
With Wind Load: (2) Tie ... 0.70 (i.e. beam, slab, footing, etc.) (i.e. column, wall, etc.)
= 0.75(1.4 + 1.7 + 1.7) (d) Shear & torsion .. 0.85 fc = 0.45 fc fc = 0.25 fc
(e) Bearing on concrete .,. 0.70 fs = 0.50 fy fs = 0.40 fy
= 0.9 + 1.3
= 1.4 + 1.7 where:
Design Conditions Values fc compressive strength of concrete at 28 days
With Earthquake Load: Over-reinforced: fy axial strength of steel
Choose Smaller Value/ Structural Grade ASTM Gr.33 / PS Gr.230 fy = 230 MPa
= 1.32 + 1.11 + 1.1 concrete fails first Round-down Intermediate Grade ASTM Gr.40 / PS Gr.275 fy = 275 MPa
fs < fy (USD) Moment Capacity
= 0.99 + 1.1 Ms > Mc (WSD)
High Carbon Grade ASTM Gr.60 / PS Gr.415 fy = 415 MPa

With Earth Pressure Load: 424.3.2 for fy = 275 MPa; fs 140 MPa
Under-reinforced:
for fy = 415 MPa; fs 170 MPa
= 1.4 + 1.7 + 1.7 steel fails first Choose Larger Value/
fs > fy (USD) Round-up
= 0.9 Ms < Mc (WSD)
Modular Ratio, n (if not given):

= 1.4 + 1.7 Estronger Esteel 200,000
Balance Condition: n= = =
With Structural Effects: concrete & steel Eweaker Econcrete 4700fc
simultaneously fail
= 0.75(1.4 + 1.7 + 1.4) fs = fy (USD) 424.6.4 n must be taken as the nearest whole number & n 6
= 1.4( + ) Ms = Mc (WSD) 424.6.5 for doubly, use n for tension & use 2n for compression

Internal Couple Method: Solutions for Cracked Section (Singly): Solutions for Cracked Section (Doubly):

Location of neutral axis, NA: Location of neutral axis, NA:


Factor k:
n Factor j: Ayabove NA = Aybelow NA Ayabove NA = Aybelow NA
k= 1 x x
fs j= 1 k bx ( ) = nAs (d x) bx ( ) + (2n 1)As (x d ) = nAs (d x)
n+ 3 2 2
fc
x obtained x obtained
Moment Resistance Coefficient, R:
1 Solve transferred moment of inertia at NA: Solve transferred moment of inertia at NA:
R = fc kj
2 bx 3 bx 3
Moment Capacity:
INA = + nAs (d x)2 INA = + (2n 1)As (x d )2 + nAs (d x)2
3 3
1
Mc = C jd = fc kdb jd = Rbd2 INA obtained INA obtained
2
Solve for Stresses or Resisted Moment: Solve for Stresses or Resisted Moment:
Ms = T jd = As fs jd
For concrete: For tension steel: For concrete: For tension steel: For comp. steel:

Provisions for Uncracked Section:


Mc x fs Ms (d x) Mc x fs Ms (d x) fs Ms (x d)
fc = = fc = = =
Solve for inertia of gross section, Ig.
INA n INA INA n INA 2n INA
Solve for cracking moment, Mcr.
Solve for actual moment, Ma: Solutions for Gross Section (Singly): Solutions for Uncracked Section (By Sir Erick):
2
wL Location of neutral axis, NA:
Ma = (for simply supported beam)
8 Ayabove NA = Aybelow NA
409.6.2.3. if Ma < Mcr, no crack; Ig = Ie x dx
if Ma > Mcr, w/ crack; solve for Ie bx ( ) = b(d x) ( ) + (n 1)As (d x)
2 2
Solve for inertia of cracked section:
x obtained
bx 3
Icr = + nAs (d x)2 Location of neutral axis, NA:
Solve transferred moment of inertia at NA:
3 bx 3
b(d x) 3
Solve for effective moment of inertia, Ie:
h INA = + + (n 1)As (d x)2
yt = ; y obtained 3 3
Mcr 3 Mcr 3 2 t INA obtained
Ie = ( ) Ig + [1 ( ) ] Icr Solve moment of inertia of gross section at NA:
Ma Ma Solve for Stresses or Resisted Moment:
3
bx For concrete: For tension steel:
409.6.2.4. For simply supported, Ie = Ie (mid) Ig =
For cantilever, Ie = Ie (support) 12 Mc x fs Ms (d x)
Ig obtained fc = =
Ie mid + Ie support INA n INA
Ie =
2 Solve for cracking moment:

409.6.2.5. Factor for shrinkage & creep due


Mcr yt
to sustained loads:
fr = 0.7fc =
time-dep factor, : Ig
5 yrs + 2.0
Mcr obtained
= 12 mos 1.4
1 + 50 6 mos 1.0
3 mos 1.0
Solve for instantaneous deflection:
4
5wL
i = (for uniformly distributed load)
384Ec Ie
Solve for additional deflection:
add = sus
add = (% of sustained load)i
Say, 70% of load is sustained after n yrs.
add = 0.7i
Solve for final deflection:
final = i + add