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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Greenhouse (disambiguation).
Victoria amazonica (giant Amazon water lily) at the Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden, Russia.
The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken, Brussels, Belgium. An example of 19th-century greenhouse architecture
The Eden Project, in Cornwall, England, the United Kingdom's largest greenhouse A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a building where plants are grown. A greenhouse is a structure with a glass or plastic roof and frequently glass or plastic walls; it heats up because incoming visible solar radiation from the sun is absorbed by plants, soil, and
These structures range in size from small sheds to very large buildings. The warmed structures and plants inside the greenhouse re-radiate this energy in the infra-red. cooling. which heats both the plants and the ground inside it. The glass used for a greenhouse works as a barrier to air flow. and its effect is to trap energy within the greenhouse. One of the largest greenhouse complexes in the world is in Almeria. and that energy is trapped inside the glasshouse. thereby improving food production in marginal environments.other things inside the building. there is a net increase in energy (and therefore temperature) inside the greenhouse. This can be demonstrated by opening a small window near the roof of a greenhouse: the temperature drops considerably. Commercial glass greenhouses are often high tech production facilities for vegetables or flowers. Glass is transparent to this radiation. Plastics mostly used are PEfilm and multiwall sheet in PC or PMMA. where greenhouses cover almost 50. and this air is prevented from rising and flowing away. Although there is some heat loss due to conduction. lighting and may be automatically controlled by a computer. This principle is the basis of the autovent automatic cooling system. greenhouses are increasingly important in the food supply of high latitude countries. Spain. and help to keep out pests. Air warmed by the heat from hot interior surfaces is retained in the building by the roof and wall. shield plants from dust storms and blizzards. Greenhouses can be divided into glass greenhouses and plastic greenhouses.1 Notes o 6. Contents [hide] y y y y y y y 1 Uses 2 History 3 Netherlands 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References o 6.2 Bibliography 7 External links  Uses Greenhouses protect crops from too much heat or cold. to which glass is partly opaque. heating.000 acres (200 km2). Because greenhouses allow certain crops to be grown throughout the year. Sometimes called the sea of plastics. This warms the air near the ground. Light and temperature control allows greenhouses to turn inarable land into arable land. . The glass greenhouses are filled with equipment like screening installations. A miniature greenhouse is known as a cold frame.
The closed environment of a greenhouse has its own unique requirements. a wireless sensor network can be used to gather data remotely. cooling. The data is transmitted to a control location and used to control heating. Besides tobacco. Germany . 1910 19th Century Orangerie in Weilburg. compared with outdoor production. and irrigation systems. and tobacco plants. many vegetables and flowers are grown in greenhouses in late winter and early spring. fruits.Greenhouses are often used for growing flowers. where market gardeners grew a wide variety of produce for sale in Minneapolis. although other types of bees have been used. Bumblebees are the pollinators of choice for most greenhouse pollination. Pests and diseases. ca. Special greenhouse varieties of certain crops such as tomatoes are generally used for commercial production. Hydroponics can be used in greenhouses as well to make the most use of the interior space.  History Cucumbers reached to the ceiling in a greenhouse in Richfield. have to be controlled. Started plants are usually available for gardeners in farmers' markets at transplanting time. and irrigation is necessary to provide water. vegetables. Significant inputs of heat and light may be required. and then transplanted outside as the weather warms. Minnesota. as well as artificial pollination. Because the temperature and humidity of greenhouses must be constantly monitored to ensure optimal conditions. and extremes of heat and humidity. particularly with winter production of warm-weather vegetables.
or pineapple pits. In the nineteenth Century the largest greenhouses were built. greenhouses spread to the universities.The idea of growing plants in environmentally controlled areas has existed since Roman times. The Roman emperor Tiberius ate a cucumber-like vegetable daily. The greenhouse at the Palace of Versailles was an example of their size and elaborateness. since they were used to protect orange trees from freezing. The French botanist Charles Lucien Bonaparte is often credited with building the first practical modern greenhouse in Leiden. designed and built the first. There were serious problems with providing adequate and balanced heat in these early greenhouses. Giant greenhouses in the Netherlands The first modern greenhouses were built in Italy in the thirteenth century to house the exotic plants that explorers brought back from the tropics. 42 feet wide. in Derbyshire. The cucumbers were stored under frames or in cucumber houses glazed with either oiled cloth known as "specularia" or with sheets of selenite (a. London's Crystal Palace. They were originally called giardini botanici (botanical gardens). Holland to grow medicinal tropical plants. Some of these early attempts required enormous amounts of work to close up at night or to winterize. The concept of greenhouses soon spread to the Netherlands and then England. the New York Crystal Palace and Munich¶s Glaspalast. Cucumbers were planted in wheeled carts which were put in the sun daily. Today the Netherlands has many of the largest greenhouses in the world. then taken inside to keep them warm at night. Experimentation with the design of greenhouses continued during the Seventeenth Century in Europe as technology produced better glass and construction techniques improved. As pineapples became popular pineries. The French called their first greenhouses orangeries. were built. according to the description by Pliny the Elder. working for the Duke of Devonshire. some of them so vast that they are able to produce millions of vegetables every year. Although intended for both horticultural and non-horticultural exhibition these included London's Crystal Palace. it was more than 500 feet long. The conservatory at Kew Gardens in England is a prime example of the Victorian greenhouse. Originally on the estates of the rich. The Roman gardeners used artificial methods (similar to the greenhouse system) of growing to have it available for his table every day of the year. and 45 feet high. who had experimented with glass and iron in the creation of large greenhouses as the head gardener at Chatsworth.k. lapis specularis). with the growth of the science of botany. along with the plants.a. A . Joseph Paxton.
Gutter connected greenhouses are now commonly used both in production and in situations where plants are grown and sold to the public as well. or structured polycarbonate materials. Around 1900 greenhouses began to be constructed of nothing but glass.  Netherlands Greenhouses in Westland. Such is the scale of food production in the country that in 2000 greenhouses occupied 10. Constructed of aluminium extrusions. special galvanized steel tubing. A notable example is the Eden Project. Heating inputs were reduced as the ratio of floor area to roof area was increased substantially. This meant many more greenhouses on smaller farms and garden centers. These UV inhibitors extended the usable life of the film from one or two years up to 3 and eventually 4 or more years. Greenhouse structures adapted in the 1960s when wider sheets of polyethylene film became widely available. Polyethylene film durability increased greatly when more effective inhibitors were developed and added in the 1970s. or 0. Gutter connected greenhouses became more prevalent in the 1980s and 1990s.526 hectares. or row of support posts. construction costs were greatly reduced. In the Twentieth Century the geodesic dome was added to the many types of greenhouses. or even just lengths of steel or PVC water pipe. Hoop houses were made by several companies and were also frequently made by the growers themselves. In Japan. The addition of sand to bogs and clay soil created fertile soil for agriculture. in Cornwall. a British merchant who exported herbs.major architectural achievement in monumental greenhouse building were the Royal Greenhouses of Laeken (1874-1895) for King Leopold II of Belgium. These greenhouses have two or more bays connected by a common wall. This also allowed for the production of fruits and vegetables that .25% of the total land area of the Netherlands. Gutter connected greenhouses are commonly covered with a double layer of polyethylene film with air blown between to provide increased heating efficiencies. and around 1850 grapes were grown in the first greenhouses. and they began to be heated. Greenhouses began to be built in the Westland area of the Netherlands in the mid-nineteenth century. simple glass constructions with one of the sides consisting of solid wall. Netherlands. The Netherlands has some of the largest greenhouses in the world. the first greenhouse was built in 1880 by Samuel Cocking.
Floating greenhouses are used in watery areas of the country. The Netherlands has around 9000 greenhouse enterprises that operate over 10. besides plants and flowers. some 80% of which is exported. and flowers. . Since the twentieth century. Today the Westland and the area around Aalsmeer have the highest concentration of greenhouse agriculture in the world. plants. efficiently producing E4.000 hectares of greenhouses and employ some 150. a completely closed system allowing the grower complete control over the growing process while using less energy. The Westland produces mostly vegetables.did not ordinarily grow in the area. technical innovations include the "closed greenhouse". Since 2000.000 workers.5 billion worth of vegetables. fruit. the area around Venlo (in Limburg) and parts of Drenthe have also become important regions for greenhouse agriculture. Aalsmeer is noted mainly for the production of flowers and potted plants.
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