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Introduction & Overview

CSET 4650 Field Programmable Logic Devices Dan Solarek

Logic Families

Logic Family : A collection of different IC’s that have similar circuit characteristics The circuit design of the basic gate of each logic family is the same The most important parameters for evaluating and comparing logic families include :

Logic Levels Power Dissipation Propagation delay Noise margin Fan-out ( loading )

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**Example Logic Families
**

General comparison or three commonly available logic families.

the most important to understand 3

**Implementing Logic Circuits
**

There are several varieties of transistors – the building blocks of logic gates – the most important are:

BJT (bipolar junction transistors)

one of the first to be invented

**FET (field effect transistors)
**

especially Metal-Oxide Semiconductor types (MOSFET’s) MOSFET’s are of two types: NMOS and PMOS

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**Transistor Size Scaling
**

Performance improves as size is decreased: shorter switching time, lower power consumption.

2 orders of magnitude reduction in transistor size in 30 years.

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(HP PA-8500) 6 . grow exponentially with time Considered a visionary – million transistor/chip barrier was crossed in the 1980’s 2300 transistors. 2 GHz clock (Intel P4) .. 1 MHz clock (Intel 4004/4040) .Moore’s Law In 1965.2001 140 Million transistors.e. Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors that can be integrated on a die would double every 18 to 14 months i.1971 42 Million transistors.

Moore’s Law and Intel From Intel’s 4040 (2300 transistors) to Pentium II (7.500.000 transistors) and beyond 7 .

TTL and CMOS Connecting BJT’s together gives rise to a family of logic gates known as TTL Connecting NMOS and PMOS transistors together gives rise to the CMOS family of logic gates MOSFET (NMOS. PMOS) BJT transistor types TTL logic gate families CMOS 8 .

Fan-Out Comparison of Logic Families Interpretation of Data Sheets 9 .Electrical Parameters And Interpretation Of Data Sheets Voltages and Currents Noise Margin Power Dissipation Propagation Delay Speed-Power Product Fan-In.

Electrical Characteristics TTL faster (some versions) strong drive capability rugged CMOS lower power consumption simpler to make greater packing density better noise immunity • Complex IC’s contain many millions of transistors • If constructed entirely from TTL type gates would melt • A combination of technologies (families) may be used • CMOS has become most popular and has had greatest development 10 .

current that flows from an output in the logic 1 state under specified load conditions. IOH.Voltage & Current For a High-state gate driving a second gate. high-level output current. high-level input voltage. the minimum voltage level that a logic gate will produce as a logic 1 output. VIH (min). current that flows into an input when a logic 1 voltage is applied to that input. high-level input current. Voltage below this level will not be accepted as high. IIH. we define: VOH (min). the minimum voltage level that a logic gate will recognize as a logic 1 input. high-level output voltage. Test setup for measuring values Ground I OH VOH I IH VIH 11 .

low-level output current. low-level output voltage.Voltage & Current For a Low-state gate driving a second gate. we define: VOL (max). the maximum voltage level that a logic gate will recognize as a logic 0 input. Voltage above this value will not be accepted as low. Inputs are connected to Vcc instead of Ground Ground I OL I IL V IL V OL 12 . current that flows from an output in the logic 0 state under specified load conditions. VIL (max). low-level input current. IOL . the maximum voltage level that a logic gate will produce as a logic 0 output. low-level input voltage. current that flows into an input when a logic 0 voltage is applied to that input. IIL .

Electrical Characteristics logic 1 Important characteristics are: VOHmin min value of output recognized as a ‘1’ VIHmin min value input recognized as a ‘1’ VILmax max value of input recognized as a ‘0’ VOLmax max value of output recognized as a ‘0’ Values outside the given range are not allowed. indeterminate input voltage logic 0 13 .

0V Logic 1 14 .0V Logic 1 3.5V 2.Logic Level & Voltage Range Typical acceptable voltage ranges for positive logic 1 and logic 0 are shown below A logic gate with an input at a voltage level within the ‘indeterminate’ range will produce an unpredictable output level.5V Logic 0 Indeterminate 5. 5.8V Logic 0 0V TTL 0V CMOS 1.5V Indeterminate 0.

if any noise should corrupt the signal.8V when it is supposed to output a HIGH but. there is some margin for error. In this way.Noise Margin Manufacturers specify voltage limits to represent the logical 0 or 1. 15 . at its input side. it can take a voltage of 3V as HIGH. For example. a particular Gate A may output a voltage of 4. These limits are not the same at the input and output sides.

Noise Margin If noise in the circuit is high enough it can push a logic 0 up or drop a logic 1 down into the indeterminate or “illegal” region The magnitude of the voltage required to reach this level is the noise margin Noise margin for logic high is: NMH = VOHmin – VIHmin logic 1 VOHmin VIHmin indeterminate input voltage logic 0 VILmax VOLmax 16 .

VOLmax 17 .Noise Margin Difference between the worst case output voltage of one stage and worst case input voltage of next stage Greater the difference.VIHmin NMlow = VILmax . the more unwanted signal that can be added without causing incorrect gate operation NMhigh = VOHmin .

calculate the noise margin of 74LS series.7V-2. VNL = VIL (max) . Parameter VIH(min) VIL(max) VOH(min) VOL(max) 74LS 2V 0.VOL (max)=0. VNH = VOH (min) .4V=0.VIH (min)=2.4V 18 .7V 0.8V-0.8V 2.Worked Example Given the following parameters.0V=0.7V Low Level Noise Margin.4V Solution: High Level Noise Margin.

A quantitative measure of noise immunity is called noise margin High Level Noise Margin.VIH (min) Low Level Noise Margin.Noise Margin & Noise Immunity Noise immunity of a logic circuit refers to the circuit’s ability to tolerate noise voltages on its inputs. VNH = VOH (min) . VNL = VIL (max) .VOL (max) Logic 1 VOH (min) VNH Logic 1 VIH (min) VIL (max) Logic 0 Input Voltage Ranges VOL (max) Logic 0 Output Voltage Ranges VNL 19 .

Further Important Characteristics The propagation delay (tpd) which is the time taken for a change at the input to appear at the output The fan-out. which is the maximum number of inputs that can be driven successfully to either logic level before the output becomes invalid 20 .

High to Low rise time fall time 10% 90% 90% 10% 21 . Low to High Fall Time Time from 90% to 10% of signal.Speed: Rise & Fall Times Rise Time Time from 10% to 90% of signal.

Speed: Propagation Delay A logic gate always takes some time to change states tPLH is the delay time before output changes from low to high tPHL is the delay time before output changes from high to low both tPLH & tPHL are measured between the 50% points on the input and output transitions Input 0 Output 0 tPHL tPLH 22 50% .

due to input signal 23 .Power Dissipation Static I2R losses due to passive components. no input signal Dynamic I2R losses due to charging and discharging capacitances through resistances.

A simple means for measuring and comparing the overall performance of an IC family is the speedpower product (the smaller. an IC has an average propagation delay of 10 ns an average power dissipation of 5 mW the speed-power product = (10 ns) x (5 mW) = 50 picoJoules (pJ) 24 .Speed-Power Product Speed (propagation delay) and power consumption are the two most important performance parameters of a digital IC. For example. the better).

Logic Family Tradeoffs Looking for the best speed/power product tp and Pd are normally included in the data sheet for each device Older logic families are the worst CMOS is one of the best FPGAs use CMOS 25 .

Comparison of Logic Families 26 .

5 0 Volt Output Range for 0 27 .TTL .8 0.5V IIH = 20µA IIL = -0.7 2.4mA tpd = 15 nS for a logic 0 = 0.7V VOL = 0.8V VOH = 2.5 V VIH = 2V VIL = 0.Example SN74LS00 Recommended operating conditions Vcc supply voltage input voltages 5V ± 0.3V for a logic 1 = 0.7V 20 TTL loads Input Range for 1 2.0 5 Volt Electrical Characteristics output voltage (worst case) max input currents propagation delay noise margins Fan-out Output Range for 1 Input Range for 0 0.

Fan-In Number of input signals to a gate Not an electrical property Function of the manufacturing process NAND gate with a Fan-in of 8 28 .

g..Fan-Out A measure of the ability of the output of one gate to drive the input(s) of subsequent gates Usually specified as standard loads within a single family e. an input to an inverter in the same family May have to compute based on current drive requirements when mixing families Although mixing families is not usually recommended 29 .

Current Sourcing and Sinking Current-source : the driving gate produces a outgoing current Low VOH IIH Current-sinking : the driving gate receives an incoming current High VOL IIL 30 .

Fan-Out An illustration of fan-out and the associated source and sink currents 31 .

and IIL = 0. IIH = 20uA. the overall fan-out = fan-out(high) or fan-out(low) whichever is lower. Hence.4mA=20. the maximum values of IOH = 0.4mA/20uA=20 fan-out(low) = IOL(max) / IIL(max)=8mA/0.Worked Example How many 74LS00 NAND gate inputs can be driven by a 74LS00 NAND gate outputs ? Solution: Refer to data sheet of 74LS00. IOL = 8mA. overall fan-out = 20 32 .4mA Hence.4mA. fan-out(high) = IOH(max) / IIH (max)=0.

in the low state IOH(max). in the high state or IIL(max). in the low state A typical figure of fan-out is ten (10) 33 . in the high state or IOL(max).Gate Drive Capability: Fan-Out A logic gate can supply a maximum output current A logic gate requires a maximum input current Ratio of output and input current decide how many logic gates can be driven by a logic gate fan-out(high) = IOH(max) / IIH (max) fan-out(low) = IOL(max) / IIL(max) overall fan-out = fan-out(high) or fan-out(low) whichever is lower IIH(max).

Wired-AND Open collector outputs connected together to a common pullup resistor Any collector can pull the signal line low Logically an AND gate 34 .

Tri-State Logic Both output transistors of totem-pole output are turned off Usually used to bus multiple signals on the same wire Gates not enabled present high-Z to bus and therefore do not interfere with other gates putting signals on the bus 35 .

the three states are illustrated: a) Logic High output b) Logic Low output c) High impedance (Hi-Z) output 36 .Tri-State Logic Tri-state logic includes a switch at the output In the figure below.

Electronic Combinational Logic Within each of these families there is a large variety of different devices We can break these into groups based on the number gates per device Acronym SSI MSI LSI VLSI ULSI Description Small-scale integration Medium-scale integration Large-scale integration No Gates <12 12 – 100 100 – 1000 Example 4 NAND gates Adder 6800 68000 80486/80586 Very large-scale integration 1000 – 1M Ultra large scale integration > 1M 37 .

SSI Devices Each package contains a code identifying the package N74LS00 Manufacturers Code N = National Semiconductors SN = Signetics Specification Family L LS H Member 00 = Quad 2 input NAND 02 = Quad 2 input Nor 04 = Hex Invertors 20 = Dual 4 Input NAND 38 .

7400 Series History 1960s space program drove development of 7400 series Consumed all available devices for internal flight computer $1000 / device (1960 dollars) 10:1 integration improvement over discrete transistors 1963 Minuteman missile forced 7400 into mass production Drove pricing down to $25 / circuit (1963 dollars) 39 .

25V.7400 Series Evolution BJT storage time reduction by using a BC Schottky diode. Schottky diode has a Vfw=0. C B 40 . When BC junction becomes forward biased Schottky diode will bypass base current.

Too Much of a Good Thing? Families Packages Reliability options Speed grades Features Functions An availability nightmare! >> 500K unique devices 41 .

Different Families Don’t all Speak the Same Language 42 .

Sometimes Things Get Lost or Added in the Translation* Different families aren’t always on speaking terms with one another 43 .

The World of TTL 44 .

Success Drives Proliferation 2003 1960 New families introduced based on Higher performance Lower power New features New signaling threshold Spawned over 32 unique families! 45 .

Success Drives Proliferation Products introduced in the 1960 are near the end of their life cycle Decreasing supplier base Increasing prices Not recommended for new designs Products considered to be “mature” are about 2 decades into their life cycle High-volume production Multiple suppliers Low prices Newer products are only a few years into their life cycle High performance High level of vendor and supplier support Newest technologies Higher prices 46 .

most common) 47 .Characteristics: TTL and MOS Remember: TTL stands for Transistor-Transistor Logic uses BJTs MOS stands for Metal Oxide Semiconductor uses FETs MOS can be classified into three sub-families: PMOS (P-channel) NMOS (N-channel) CMOS (Complementary MOS.

TTL Circuit Operation +Vcc 4K R1 1.6K R2 Q2 A B 130 R3 Q 4 A 0 0 Y O/P B 0 1 0 1 ICQ1 + + + － Q1 ON ON ON OFF Q2 OFF OFF OFF ON Q3 OFF OFF OFF ON Q4 ON ON ON OFF Y O/P 1 1 1 0 D3 1 1 D 1 Q 1 D2 I CQ1 1K R4 Q 3 Table explaining the operation of the TTL NAND gate circuit A standard TTL NAND gate circuit 48 .

Transistor-Transistor Logic Families Transistor-Transistor Logic Families: 74L Low power 74H High speed 74S Schottky 74LS Low power Schottky 74AS Advanced Schottky 74ALS Advance Low power Schottky 49 .

MOS Circuit Operation +VDD S Q1 D D O/P I/ P 0 1 Q 1 ON OFF Q 2 OFF ON O/ P 1 0 I/P S Q2 A CMOS inverter circuit Table explaining the operation of the CMOS inverter circuit 50 .

CMOS Logic Families CMOS Logic Families 40xx/45xx 74C 74HC 74ACT Metal-gate CMOS TTL-compatible CMOS High speed CMOS Advanced CMOS -TTL compatible 51 .

CMOS Family Evolution CMOS Logic Trend: Reduction of dynamic losses (cross-conduction. capacitive charge/discharge cycles) by decreasing supply voltages: 12V→5V →3.5V → 1.5V … Reduction of IC power dissipation is the key to: lower cost (packaging) higher integration improved reliability 52 .8V → 1.3V →2.

Comparison of Logic Families vo vi 53 .

Comparison Logic Families 54 .

Comparison of Logic Families speed power product = a constant 55 .

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