St.

Petersburg State University Graduate School of Management Master in International Business Program

Paper # 3, A cross-cultural comparison on consumer behavior with regard to environmentally preferable products

by the 1st year student Eleonora Smulskaya Research advisor: Maria M. Smirnova, Senior Lecturer

St. Petersburg 2009

the United States of America and the Russian Federation. and the recent relatively stable growth in importance and size of Russian. Moreover. Chinese. especially of the comparative character. Since the very topic of the thesis implies the comparative research in the theoretical field on the basis of the theory of planned behavior. However. Indian and Brazilian economies let us regard the proposed topic as urgent and of current importance. In my master thesis research I have decided to concentrate on the following topic: “A cross-cultural comparison on consumer behavior with regard to environmentally preferable products”.Paper # 3. which would later allow define whether the companies need to adjust their strategy while operating in the different BRIC countries. the topic deals with the issues of strategy adaptation across countries. A cross-cultural comparison on consumer behavior with regard to environmentally preferable products. Meanwhile. so it is also practice-oriented. it would be based on the research methods that would allow to generalize the model of the study on the other types of products. The main reason for that is to regard these two major BRIC countries. there is lack of data on the other BRIC countries. In the thesis I would like to centre in primarily on the comparison of the two countries: Brazil and Russia. it is more of a research character. As a result my master thesis topic implies that the master thesis should be considered as of the complex character. 2 . I consider this topic as an interesting one because of relative scarcity of academic research in this field: there exist a huge number of research papers on the consumer preferences in the Western countries. (“Кросс-культурное сравнение поведения потребителя в отношении экологических продуктов питания”).

50. Thus.) and barriers. 3.The object of the study of my master thesis is the consumer in the context of the cultural environment. the subject of the study – cross-cultural differences and similarities in consumer behavior with regard to environmentally preferable products. 1991. // “Organizational behavior and Human Decision Processes”. To define some basic consumers’ priorities (price. The theory of planned behavior which underlies the research states that the behavior of a consumer is a result of both actual behavioral control and intention of the consumer1. Other objectives of the research include the following: 1. “The theory of planned behavior”. whether situation is the same in Russia and Brazil. pp. To find out whether the positive attitude towards environmentally preferable products implies automatically high willingness to pay higher price for them. The latter in its turn is defined on several levels – that of behavioral beliefs. the influence of the latter on the consumer and his/her purchase decisions. including personality and behavioral intentions and normative believes. To find out basic expectations of consumers with regard to environmentally preferable products and how they differ across cultures. the subsequent decision on whether to buy or not depends on the wide number of factors. I. Consequently. how the diverse cultural context influences consumer’s behavior with regard to environmentally preferable products. 175-211. 1 Ajzen. 3 . quality etc. The aim of the study is to define. including cognition barriers. 2. normative beliefs and control beliefs. To try to define whether and to what extent the decision to purchase is predetermined by cultural factors (and to what extent it depends on some personal factors) is the first major objective of the study. taste.

Different layers of the factors which influence the intention to buy will be analyzed. The analysis will allow us to justify how the in-depth interview and quantitative research questionnaires reflect and allow us to capture what motives and reasons stand behind the attitude of a consumer to the environmentally preferable products. The structure and logics of the study. in the first chapter we will strive to distinguish the culture-bind reasons in the purchase decision from the non-culture-bind (personal etc. but similarities will be analyzed as well. probably in-depth individual interviews with consumers and/or focus-groups. at what “layer” cultural factors show most of their influence on the consumer behavior etc. The second chapter will be devoted to the very cross-cultural comparison of consumer behavior with regard to the environmentally preferable products in Russia and in Brazil. As far as possible the reasons of the revealed peculiarities (similarities) will be analyzed. all the above-mentioned would allow to fulfill another important objective of the study – to find out how companies might adapt their marketing strategy in these BRIC markets. The focus will be made on differences. So. Finally.) ones. Some possible research questions here (which however might very likely be adjusted in the course of the research) are: how (and to what extent) does the consumer behavior depend on the cultural environment. In the research we would use quantitative and qualitative research methods – quantitative survey (SPSS or AMOS programs) based on the statistic data.4. The first chapter of the research will deal with the analysis of the theory of planned behavior as applied to the purchase decision of a consumer. The possible research questions are: 4 .

price etc. what requirements should they meet? • What are consumers’ priorities (price. taste.• What do people expect from the ecological products.)? What might be left as is? The structure and the logic of the research seem to fit well the basic aim of the research – to find out how the diverse cultural context influences consumer’s behavior with regard to environmentally preferable products and consequently strategy adaptation of the companies across cultures.)? What are barriers for the consumers to take the decision to purchase? • What do consumers regard as acceptable in terms of the quality of the product they receive? • Though the consumers may perceive positively the improved (ecologically clean) products whether they are really willing to pay a higher price for them or not? Why if they are not? The third chapter will deal primarily with the practical issues. 5 . quality etc. and if yes. in what particular direction they need to adjust their strategies? What are the factors of adapting the strategy in these BRIC markets (product. Basing on the second chapter comparative analysis we will define the answer to the following research questions: whether the companies need to adapt their marketing strategies while operating in Russia and Brazil.

The cross-cultural research in this field adds another range of disciplines: psychology. as applied to managerial disciplines – organizational behavior studies. food marketing. Thus. The research of the consumer behavior with regard to environmentally preferable products itself implies the intersection of green marketing. The third group of literature sources includes works on the green consumers’ preferences and behavior. anthropology. the range of literature relevant for the research encompasses very wide range of researches in very different fields. Nevertheless we have allotted three groups of researches which are highly relevant for the current study and which consequently should be analyzed closely and intently. cross-cultural marketing etc. However the comprehensive analysis of the problems in all these fields exceeds the scope of the present analysis. the first group is further constricted to the researches which deal with cultural issues and motives which influence consumer’s decision to purchase. The first group encompasses the researches which deal with the consumer behavior at large. So. Evidently. The peculiarity of the topic chosen for my master thesis is that it lies in the adjacent field of focus of several disciplines.The literature overview. many of them touch upon some cross-cultural or just 6 . The second group of the articles and researches under consideration covers cultural issues in consumer behavior. even this group contains multitude of works. since it would enlarge the discussion infinitely. consumer behavior research and others. analyze and regard the motives which drive consumer in this or that purchase decision. that is why we would analyze only some basic “milestone” researches which would allow to warrant and to explain our choice of the theory of planned behavior as the most relevant basis for the research and the theory accurately allowing for the modeling of different motives which guide consumer in his choice.

1958. Thus. 67 Ibid. “The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations”. This means that there exist certain relatively constant correlation between the components. which however might not necessarily be accurate in terms of objectivity. the attitude ‘object’ and some other person. John Wiley & Sons. Jamal A. 4 Heider F. Here we would start from the widest perception of the consumer attitude towards product and any attitude of a person in general driven form psychology field – the structural approach to attitudes and attitude change2.Hoboken. A cognitive component consists of a person’s beliefs or knowledge about an issue or an object. and if we experience some inconsistency between the components. we will change our attitude in order to create harmony. NJ : John Wiley & Sons. An affective component reflects person’s feelings and emotions about the issue of the object and is based on the first cognitive component. Further we would regard each part of the sources and literature separately. “Consumer behaviour”. p. The theory provides a ‘triad’ framework of the consumer. Related to the concept of cognitive and affective components is Heider’s balance theory4. the broadest group of literature and sources in focus includes researches on the consumer behavior in general.cultural issues. Here an issue of strong interest for us was the mode of researches and methodology applied by the authors. All three components together drive a consumer in his attitude towards product and behavior. It implies that any kind of attitude encompasses three components: cognitive (beliefs). 68. Ltd. p. A behavioural (conative) component consists of how the individual is likely to respond to the object based on what they know about it and how they feel about it (‘readiness to respond behaviourally’ to the object3). affective (emotions) and conative (intentions).. 2 3 Evans M. 7 . which argues that consumers try to maintain a degree of balance between cognitive and affective components. but are of high importance because they reflect the perception of the individual. ..xv. Only the analysis of all three groups of the researches together would allow us to get a coherent perception of the existing knowledge in the field. Foxall G. 2006... New York.

a lack of finance. Fishbein M. “The search for Attitudinal-Behaviour Consistency”. Ajzen I. Attitude. we approach the theory of planned behavior as an extension of reasoned action theory7. It includes the fourth component – ‘subjective norm’ which covers everything what other (relevant for the consumer) people might be perceived by consumer to think about the topic (object). No 5. Ajzen I.. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. “Belief.H. It provides that the attitude of the consumer towards product or brand is predicted basing upon what he/she considers being an appropriate range of beliefs about that object and how he/she evaluates these. “Prediction of Goal-Directed Behaviour: Attitudes. and Madden T. “Attitudes. in Kassarjian H.J. Other factors also could affect attitude here. To put it another way. Behavioural intention is then pictured to include the following three elements: attitude towards the behaviour. 7 Ajzen I. subjective norm. and perceived behavioural control. MA. change in circumstances.. Reading. This factor refers to ease or difficulty in performing the behaviour and it is assumed to reflect past experience as well as anticipated obstacles.Another model which provides explanation of how the attitude towards object is forming is Fishbein’s multi-attitude model5. Personality and behavior”. lack of motivation etc. Addison-Wesley. Finally. Further extension of the initial three component model resulted in the theory of reasoned action6. 22. The model starts to predict behaviour by the intention to perform that behaviour. pp. 1986. It implies the existence of some semantic differential scale (belief) along which one might score different objects. 1975. such as a lack of need. Vol. at that the important thing is that the consumer might ascribe different ‘importance/favorableness’ to this scale’s bipolar meanings. the theory of planned behaviour states that the influence of your partners (people relevant for you) will play an important part in your decision.. Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research”. Attitude toward the behaviour and subjective norm are further extended to include perceived control. Intentions and Perceived Behavioural Control”. 1988. 5 6 Fishbein M. Similarly the amount of knowledge that you have (be it knowledge-based or experimental knowledge) will also affect your decision. 8 . 453-474. 1973.

modified by the subject’s motivation to comply with their advice. 1962.Hoboken. p. Subjective norm encompasses all normative beliefs consumer has about what ‘relevant other people’ (‘salient others’9) would advise. we see that among all the theories and models analyzed in this section. Vol. MA.. It also provides a ‘sense of identity’ (‘who we are’) and rationale for our behavior (‘how to behave’ and ‘what to do in different contexts’11). Reading. 86-95. The second group of the researches under consideration covers cultural issues in consumer behavior motivation. 10 Evans M. June. Finally.. Addison-Wesley. According to it.. This point lies in the basis of the meaning-transfer model suggested by McCracken12. Ltd. Jamal A. Thus. the attitude of the consumer towards behavior is predicted by ‘salient beliefs’8 about behavior. Journal of Consumer Research. since it takes into account the broadest range of all possible relevant factors which influence the consumer behavior and decision to purchase. Foxall G. pp. the theory of planned behaviour is believed to provide the most relevant picture of how the attitude is formed and the behavior is carried out. Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research”. 12 McCracken G. 71-84. This perception of the culture as a certain reference frame implies also that the culture is a specific ‘meaning system’ that members of any group align with and use in the communication process. 9 . 2006. pp. 67. 1986. 1975 9 Ibid. Attitude. All the researches considered consent on the point that the culture of the consumer is of crucial importance for the understanding of consumer behaviour since it allows to decode ‘the frame of reference’10 of the consumer.To summarize. 11 Johnson H. NJ : John Wiley & Sons. Routledge & Kegan Paul. we all as consumers live and perceive marketing 8 Fishbein M.M. “Culture and Consumption: A Theoretical Account of the Structure and Movement of Cultural Meaning of Consumer Goods”.. .xv. perceived behavioural control is measured through beliefs that may help or hinder the individual in carrying out that behaviour. Ajzen I. weighted by his/her estimation of the likelihood that performing the behaviour will result in a given outcome. “Sociology”. “Belief. 13. “Consumer behaviour”.

But products should also meet consumer’s expectations about form. Journal of Consumer Research.g. Vol. 16 Elliott R. purchase etc). This point is highly important with regard to ecologically preferable products. but the very products also are an important vehicle to transmit cultural values and meanings to consumers14.stimuli in the ‘culturally constituted world’ where the meaning originally resides. No 3/4. 57. In this sense. Vol. New York. firstly. “The world of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption”. James F. European Journal of Marketing. Further. or functional consequences the consumer would get from the product. June. not only culture influences consumer behavior. “Consumer behavior”. 10 . In other words it implies that. A lot of researches argue that these ‘symbolic meaning’ which is carried by the environmentally preferable products is crucial for the consumers. 1980. Miniard. also state that from a cultural perspective consumers buy products to obtain functions. according to McCracken. 285-296. 13. New York (NY): The Dryden Press. pp. 15 Engel. products also provide symbols of meaning in a society. that consumers turn to goods as a source of cultural meaning. 8th edition. p. The other researches enlarge this perspective in stressing the exceptional meaning of this ‘cultural component’ or meaning of goods: it is stated for example that consumers do not simply consume products for their material or other physical benefit. Finally. superior position with 13 McCracken G.. “Culture and Consumption: A Theoretical Account of the Structure and Movement of Cultural Meaning of Consumer Goods”. Engel at al. 71-84. 14 Ibid. pp. Roger D. but consume more the symbolic meaning of the goods16. and Paul W. and Isherwood B. and not some properties of the product. 31. that the cultural meaning can be communicated by goods. fashion etc. be it higher quality of the product. this implies that products and brands for companies become the ‘very arena in which culture is fought over and licked into shape’17. secondly. this meaning is ‘disengaged and transferred to consumer goods’13 via advertising and different stimulation systems. Blackwell. 1997. “Existential Consumption and Irrational Desire”. 1986. cultural meaning can be attached to consumer goods. 17 Douglas M. and finally. e. forms and meaning15. 1995. To extend it even further. Function here refers to the utilitarian aspect. the meaning is transferred to consumers through the range of different symbolic actions (gift exchange rituals. Finally.

This model underlines the major role of culture in the process of consumer behavior shaping. Implementation and Control”. another paramount research is that conducted by Kotler. social. In this sense cultural factors are further split into three branches of factors which are regarded as predetermining the other factors (i. Prentice Hall. the items motivation. personal and psychological factors.regard to benefit for the consumer’s health etc. 1996.. p. We will regard this point in details further. Manrai Ajay K. “Marketing Management: Analysis. i.g. So. personal and psychological19. London : International Business Press. who provided a conceptual model of consumer behavior shaping and revealed the four types of influence forming consumer behavior: cultural. personal and social). can be regarded as an intermediary variable. 19 Manrai Lalita A. each of these three categories can be divided into different intermediary variables and processes affecting consumer behavior.. For example. other focus on some kind of products and compare different cultural peculiarities with regard to these products (e. 11 . “Global perspectives in cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research” New York . Huge set of researches examines how cultural factors influence consumer behavior in a particular culture. Planning. To return to the cultural issues in consumer behavior. in the third part of the literature analysis. Englewood Cliffs. p. Further. Some of them focus on particular culture/cultures and examine the behavior of consumers. personal of and culture psychological and factors with that the the components/consequences conclude components/consequences of culture can be classified into these very three categories. 174. other researcher go further and compare the items suggested by Kotler under social. 13. how consumer behavior towards food and agricultural products is 18 Kotler P. also identified under psychological factors. social. There is no use in saying that there exists tremendous number of researches in this field. perception and learning identified by Kotler under psychological factors can be regarded as “processes” whereas the fourth item.e. psychological. cultural influence being the “broadest and deepest”18.e. beliefs and attitudes. These influences in turn are interrelated with a broader influence affecting the narrower ones. NJ: 1994.

143-188. . 179. Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers. Pp. Thus. p. “Agricultural marketing and consumer behavior in a changing world”. Chang for example provides detailed qualitative analysis of a paradoxical issue: how individualism and collectivism affect buyer behavior in a developed East Asian economy. Jan-Benedict E. cultural factors. how elements of both collectivism and individualism influence the buyer behavior of Koreans21. and physiologically-induced effects on the consumer behavior. 23 Steemkamp.]: Elsevier JAI. including often the papers explaining apparently paradoxical buyer behavior. Edited by Charles R. Multiple researches analyze how cultural factors pertain to buyer behavior in different contexts. “Cross-cultural buyer behavior”. 2007. 12 . . 21 Chang. Doo-Hee Lee. 141. Dae Ryun “The “We-Me” Culture: Marketing to Korean Consumers”. he discerns cognitive factors. Further. He gives an account of how to study the consumer decision processes and discusses crosscultural and international issues regarding food consumption. 22 Festge.Amsterdam [etc. Taylor. Another indicative example of the research in this field is the investigation of the drivers of customer satisfaction with industrial goods22. It examines how cultural factors impact buyer behavior in the context of industrial markets and provides the results of survey conducted in 12 countries. Taylor.]: Elsevier JAI. Edited by Charles R. and the factors influencing this decision process.shaped in different cultures20). 20 Wierenga Berend et al. Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. The Korean culture is analyzed along the Hofstede’s and Hall’s dimensions and application to marketing is made. “Dynamics in consumer behavior with respect to agricultural and food products” // Wierenga Berend et al. the industrial buyer behaviour issues are discussed and recommendations for enhancing satisfaction levels across cultures are provided.Amsterdam [etc. “The drivers of customer satisfaction with industrial goods: an international study”. An example of how the cross-cultural research is conducted with regard to particular products is Steemkamp’s study of consumer decision processes with respect to food. “Cross-cultural buyer behavior”. but stresses the exceptional role of culture. 1997. 1997. Doo-Hee Lee. He distinguishes between the consumer’s decision process with respect to foods. We will regard only a few in order to get an idea of topics discussed in this field. Fabian and Schwaiger.M. 2007. Manfred.23 Classically. “Agricultural marketing and consumer behavior in a changing world”. 314 p.

In this sense. In this sense. even in countries where green issues have climbed to the top of social agendas. Jan-Benedict E. “Handbook of cross-cultural marketing”. firstly. London : International Business Press. at that many of them touching upon some cross-cultural or just cultural issues. In the current paper we will assume hence and further that the “green marketing” refers to the marketing of products and services considered environmentally friendly that make their marketers “environmentally responsible”24. Europe. 167. New York. And this is of particular importance with regard to green marketing. 1997. since. 279. is evidently leading the way in green marketing25) and secondly the very green marketing can provide significant international competitive advantage. It is argued widely that the ‘symbolic meaning’ which is carried by the environmentally preferable products is crucial for the consumers.. 25 Ibid. p. It is stood out in most of the researches under consideration that since marketing is based upon satisfying the varied needs or wants of a firm’s customers. motivation of green consumers is regarded in the following way: consumers use goods to link cultural meanings to themselves. it is of crucial importance for a marketer to understand the cultural mores of the country to which he/she is attempting to market. 13 . p. 1998. “Agricultural marketing and consumer behavior in a changing world”. different countries take different positions in green issues involvement (e. 289. p. Another important issue to note is connected with the McCracken’s meaningtransfer model. is dependent upon economic conditions. as it has been already mentioned above. it may not even be itself a competitive advantage by its presence. In this sense green 24 Herbig.g. 26 Steemkamp.M. deals with the green consumers’ preferences and behavior. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Paul A. especially Northern Europe. and the needs and wants are very much culturally based. so buying ecologically produced products is a way to represent ourselves to others as environmentally conscious26. The important revelation which is often expressed in many researches is that green marketing.The third group of researches under consideration. “Dynamics in consumer behavior with respect to agricultural and food products” // Wierenga Berend et al. It is necessary to define firstly some basic notions in the field. but it may become a distinct disadvantage by its absence in some markets.

but in recessions. one will be green. which allows to develop an understanding of the entire cognitive process. Gamba/Oskamp 1994. addressing such issues as how do consumers develop ‘meaning’ regarding green products and how intelligent and successful are consumers in assessing the environmentally friendly attributes of products in daily life30. 295. This cognitive constituent is regarded in the research of Wagner. even as shoppers increasingly want to know if what they are buying is ecologically friendly or not. Paul A. Sigmund A. these intentions do not turn into buying behavior. cognitive operations which are beneath a knowledge content level. who through the study of green environmentally friendly consumers examines basic aspects of the working of the consumer’s mind. So. “Handbook of cross-cultural marketing”. and formatting features of cognition that are below an operational level. In this sense it is extremely important to explore the knowledge of a consumer about the product. companies are having a hard time getting price-conscious consumers to pay more for green products28. The author adopts an interdisciplinary approach. 14 . The author concludes that consumers apparently find it difficult to assess the environmental friendliness of a product and consumer confusion and scepticism about the greenness of products is widespread indeed. p. green consumer cognition is examined at three levels: knowledge content. That is why on the emerging markets such as Russia and Brazil it is of crucial importance for companies to include educational component in their marketing communication campaigns while dealing with ecologically preferable products. “Understanding green consumer behaviour. p. 1. 1998. 28 Ibid. In the study. London : International Business Press. there is no convergence between general consumer’s position and pro-environmental behavior29. 30 Wagner. New York. 2003. The study focuses on knowledge and learning related to green consumer behavior. one tends to revert to one’s prior set of beliefs. Nonetheless.marketing is often thought of as a ‘fair weather friend’27: when times are good and economic conditions allow. 29 Scott 1999. Many consumers might spout their intentions to buy green products. This presents ‘an important 27 Herbig. A qualitative cognitive approach”. when asked to pay premiums for green products.

p. concerns.: “Ecological information receptivity of Hispanic and AngloAmericans” // “Advances in Consumer Research”. mainly working with primary data. and Miranda F.. 2009. It is interesting to note also that the overwhelming majority of the researches under consideration are empirical research. analyzing and predicting consumer behavior for marketing management purposes. 15 . Golden LL. # 18. pp. 223–239. Vincent VC.(cognitive) barrier to the adoption of green products’31. 33 Chamorro A. e. At that different consumers are likely to experience different cognitive barriers.g. 1996. Some of these identify the demographic. ecological information receptivity32. and that cultural differences can have a significant effect on not only 31 32 Ibid. prevents the market mechanisms from developing an ethical impact on companies. psychological and behavioral profiles of consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products33. which in turn are expected to facilitate the effectiveness of marketing management efforts. 34 Ibid. intentions and attitudes. in turn. Rubio S.J. Frels JK. To sum up this section. # 23. what companies should do is to build their environmental marketing communications strategies in such a way that they aim at the lowering of cognitive barriers that prevent consumers from adopting green products: environmental communication has to be capable of addressing the different information problems of different groups of green consumers. one should note that in understanding. and the most commonly used data collection technique is the survey. So. but on the other factors leading consumer’s choice. de los Santos G. the role of culture has always been given a prominent role in consumer behavior studies. most articles investigate environmentally friendly consumer behaviors.. “Characteristics of Research on Green Marketing” // “Business Strategy and the Environment”. Other authors concentrate not on the cognitive component. researches which analyze cross-cultural pricing issues argue that the relative importance of culture on pricing is largely underappreciated. which. 3. At that only minor number of researches obtains data from two or more countries34. The implications of the studies can have profound effect on the company’s strategy adaptation: for example.

and Lerman D. 35 Callow M. 117. 16 . but also on the consumer’s response to these pricing strategies35. “Cross-cultural pricing issues” // “Cross-Cultural Marketing”. P.types of pricing strategies that corporations select.

and perceived behavioural control. - Another preliminary research hypothesis states that there would exist sufficient gap between general consumer’s ideological position with regard to ecologically preferable products and his/her active buying behavior. namely the attitude towards the behaviour. since it takes into account the broadest range of all possible relevant factors which influence the consumer behavior and decision to purchase. This gap in Russia and Brazil would be even more than the one in Western countries. Finally. that is why companies would be compelled to adjust greatly their marketing strategies and in particular marketing communication.Conclusions and preliminary research hypotheses. - We preliminary formulate the following research hypothesis as follows: consumers in Russia and Brazil would display insufficient awareness and knowledge with regard to the environmentally preferable products. From the strategic perspective that would mean the necessity for the companies to adjust their marketing strategy in such a way that would allow to accentuate strongly the marketing stimuli for the consumer in Brazil and Russia. subjective norm. 17 . at least to include educational component in their marketing communications strategy. the literature overview allowed us to make several implications for our research: - We are basing our research on the theory of planned behavior as a theory which is believed to provide the most relevant picture of how the attitude of a consumer towards ecologically preferable products is formed and the consumer behavior is carried out.

6. New York. Doo-Hee Lee. Chamorro A. NJ : John Wiley & Sons. Festge. Miniard. European Journal of Marketing. 1988.. 18 . James F. Edited by Charles R. # 18. Vol.Evans M. and Lerman D. 11. 2007. “Prediction of Goal-Directed Behaviour: Attitudes. No 5. Doo-Hee Lee. Callow M. 4. “The drivers of customer satisfaction with industrial goods: an international study”. 2007. 453-474. pp. pp. .]: Elsevier JAI. Intentions and Perceived Behavioural Control”. Personality and behavior”. 31. Rubio S. 2. “Consumer behaviour”. 22. “Attitudes. 8th edition. 50. Dae Ryun “The “We-Me” Culture: Marketing to Korean Consumers”. 1991. and Paul W. 10. Ltd. “The world of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption”... 1997. and Isherwood B. 175-211. I. Elliott R. Roger D. “Cross-cultural pricing issues” // “Cross-Cultural Marketing”. Jamal A.]: Elsevier JAI..List of references: 1. Taylor. // “Organizational behavior and Human Decision Processes”. 8. Ajzen I.Amsterdam [etc. 9. Ajzen. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Ajzen I. 1980. Vol.Amsterdam [etc. 2009. 3. “Cross-cultural buyer behavior”. “Cross-cultural buyer behavior”. Manfred. Douglas M. Engel.Hoboken.J. and Miranda F. 7.. 1986. 285-296. No 3/4. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. New York (NY): The Dryden Press. 1995. . “The theory of planned behavior”.. Fabian and Schwaiger. 2006. Foxall G. Taylor. pp. Chang.J. 223–239. “Characteristics of Research on Green Marketing” // “Business Strategy and the Environment”. Blackwell. and Madden T. “Existential Consumption and Irrational Desire”. pp. “Consumer behavior”. Edited by Charles R. 5.

Addison-Wesley. Vincent VC. 13. “Culture and Consumption: A Theoretical Account of the Structure and Movement of Cultural Meaning of Consumer Goods”. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. London : International Business Press. 16.. 22. Frels JK. 19. Ajzen I. “Agricultural marketing and consumer behavior in a changing world”. 1998.: “Ecological information receptivity of Hispanic and Anglo-Americans” // “Advances in Consumer Research”. MA. Sigmund A. 20.Johnson H. 1975. June. London : International Business Press. Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 71-84. “Marketing Management: Analysis.. Journal of Consumer Research. 17.Scott 1999. 2003. in Kassarjian H. 1958.Fishbein M. 19 .Wagner. “The search for Attitudinal-Behaviour Consistency”. “Dynamics in consumer behavior with respect to agricultural and food products” // Wierenga Berend et al. 1986. Prentice Hall. 1996. New York. 21.12.H. Attitude. “Global perspectives in cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research” New York . Jan-Benedict E. Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers. 18. Gamba/Oskamp 1994. 24.M. 14.McCracken G. John Wiley & Sons. 1996.M. New York.. “Handbook of cross-cultural marketing”. 1973. Englewood Cliffs.Golden LL. “Belief. “Agricultural marketing and consumer behavior in a changing world”. A qualitative cognitive approach”. 1997. # 23. Manrai Lalita A. Wierenga Berend et al.. 13. “The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations”. 23. Planning. “Sociology”. Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research”. 15. 86-95.Kotler P. 1962. Manrai Ajay K. “Understanding green consumer behaviour. 1997. Implementation and Control”. Steemkamp. Reading. pp. Vol. de los Santos G.Fishbein M. NJ: 1994. Herbig. Paul A.Heider F.

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