phone in 1915, but were afraid deployment of the technology could undermine its monopoly According to internal memos, American Telephone & Telegraph discussed developing a wireless on wired service in the U.S. The first commercial mobile phone service was launched in Japan by NTT in 1978. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation commonly known as NTT, is a telephone company that dominates the telecommunication market in Japan. Ranked the 40th in Fortune Global 500, NTT is the largest telecommunications company in Asia, and the second-largest in the world in terms of revenue. By November 2007, the total number of mobile phone subscriptions in the world had reached 3.3 billion or half of the human population (although some users have multiple subscriptions or inactive subscriptions), which also makes the mobile phone the most widely spread technology and the most common electronic device in the world. The first mobile phone to enable internet connectivity and wireless email, the Nokia Communicator, was released in 1996, creating a new category of multi-use devices called smart phones. In 1999 the first mobile internet service was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan under the i-Mode service. By 2007 over 798 million people around the world accessed the internet or equivalent mobile internet services such as WAP and i-Mode at least occasionally using a mobile phone rather than a personal computer.

two for each of India's major cities.India's first cellular service launched in Calcutta July 31.20th aug. 1995: Today West Bengal Chief Minister made India's first cellular phone call. a joint venture between India's Modi Group and Australian telecom giant Telstra. The company. J&K¶s first cellular service BSNL: Launched on Wednesday. is one of the eight licensed to provide cellular services last year. inaugurating Modi Telstra's MobileNet service in Calcutta. 2003. When honble prime minister Atal bihari bajpayee received call from CM Mufti Mohammad Sayeed .

Huawei. with a global device market share of approximately 40% in 2008.. Other manufacturers include Apple Inc. Sharp. Trium and Toshiba There are also specialist communication systems related to (but distinct from) mobile phones. T&A Alcatel. Benefon. BenQ-Siemens. Siemens. Pantech Curitel.Fujitsu. Motorola (14%). Philips.Manufacturers of mobile phones Nokia is currently the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones. Panasonic (Matsushita Electric). NEC. Audiovox (now UTStarcom). Other major mobile phone manufacturers (in order of market share) include Samsung (14%). Research In Motion (RIM). Sendo. Mitsubishi Electric. Kyocera. . Sony Ericsson (9%) and LG (7%). Sonim Technologies. Sanyo. Sierra Wireless. SK Teletech. Neonode. CECT.Sagem.These manufacturers account for over 80% of all mobile phones sold and produce phones for sale in most countries. High Tech Computer Corporation (HTC).

Mobile service provider in India € BSNL € AIRTEL € AIRCEL € TATA INDICOM € IDEA € RELIANCE € SPICE € VODAFONE .

camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and receiving photos andvideo. such as SMS for text messaging. infrared. In addition to the standard voice function of a mobile phone. telephone. electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. Bluetooth.DEFINITION: A mobile phone (also known as a wireless phone. packet switching for access to the Internet. or cellular telephone) is a short-range. which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) (the exception is satellite phones). current mobile phones may support many additional services. gaming. cell phone. Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations (cell sites). and accessories. email. .

. The details of transmission from an MS are described later in this section.TRANSMISSION PROCESSES 1)GSM 2)CDMA GSM TRANSMISSION PROCESS The following figure summarizes the GSM transmission process.

PCM involves three main steps:    Sampling Quantization Coding .ANALOG TO DIGITAL (A/D) CONVERSION One of the primary functions of an MS is to convert the analog speech information into digital form for transmission using a digital signal. The analog to digital (A/D) conversion process outputs a collection of bits: binary ones and zeros which represent the speech input. A/D CONVERSION The A/D conversion is performed by using a process called Pulse Code Modulation (PCM).

This is expressed as the sampling frequency. which is acceptable based on the sampling theory.4 kHz = 6. the sampling frequency. . Telecommunication systems use a sampling frequency of 8 kHz.8 kHz. should be at least 2 x 3. Higher components have low energy and may be omitted without affecting the speech quality much. the signal must be sampled with at least twice the frequency of the highest frequency component in the analog signal Normal speech mainly contains frequency components lower than 3400 Hz.SAMPLING Sampling involves measuring the analog signal at specific time intervals. among other things. Applying the sampling theory to analog speech signals. Analog signal sampling The accuracy of describing the analog signal in digital terms depends on how often the analog signal is sampled. The sampling theory states that: To reproduce an analog signal without distortion.

The figure below shows the principle of quantization applied to an analog signal. the overall . 256 levels are used while in GSM 8. Within common telephony.192 levels are used.000 samples per second of 13 bits each. CODING Coding involves converting the quantized values into binary. The degree of accuracy depends on the number of quantization levels used.QUANTIZATION The next step is to give each sample a value. This is a bit rate of 104 kbits/s. For this reason. When it is considered that 8 subscribers use one radio channel. For example. the amplitude of the signal at the time of sampling is measured and approximated to one of a finite set of values.157 would have a bit pattern of 0100001101101: Coding of quantized value 2157 Summary of A/D Conversion The result from the process of A/D conversion is 8. Every value is represented by a binary code of 13 bits (213= 8192). It can be seen that a slight error is introduced in this process when the signal is quantized or approximated. a quantized value of 2.

SEGMENTATION The key to reducing the bit rate is to send information about the speech instead of the speech itself. the record is scratched and cannot be used.bit rate would be 8 x 104 kbits/s = 832 kbits/s. etc. The bit rate must be reduced somehow this is achieved using segmentation and speech coding. The process of segmentation and speech coding is explained in more detail as follows: The human speech process starts in the vocal chords or speech organs. Unfortunately. length of tone.the frequency . A rings B asking for the use of the record for some time. The mouth. the speech coding process analyses speech samples and outputs parameters of what the speech consists of: the tone.the sheets of music .together with information about how fast it should be played . where a tone is generated. In GSM. This is then transmitted through the network to another MS which generates the speech based on these parameters. this bit rate would not fit into the 200 kHz available for all 8 subscribers. Instead. changing the nature of this tone. B sends A parameters of how the music is built up . etc.and A reproduces the music. pitch. teeth. The aim of speech coding in . act as a filter. tongue. This can be explained with the following analogy: Person A wishes to listen to a certain piece of music and they know that person B has it on record. Recalling the general rule of 1 bit per Hertz.

This provides a speech quality which is acceptable for mobile telephony and comparable with wire line PSTN phones. For this reason. the filter parameters representing the speech organs are approximately constant during 20 ms. Many types of speech coders are available.GSM is to send only information about the original tone itself and about the filter. GSM speech coding uses 260 bits. when coding speech in GSM. at the expense of speech coder complexity. a block of 20 ms is coded into one set of bits. it is similar to sampling speech at a rate of 50 times per second instead of the 8. The hybrid coder which GSM uses provides good speech quality with a relatively low bit rate.000 used by A/D conversion. at the expense of lower speech quality (vocoders). at the expense of a higher bit rate (waveform coders). . In effect. Segmentation: Given that the speech organs are relatively slow in adapting to changes. Others use lower bit rates. Some offer better speech quality. SPEECH CODING Instead of using 13 bits per sample as in A/D conversion. This calculates as 50 x 260 = 13 kbits/s.

The bits added by the convolutional coder enable the correction of errors when the message is received. This compares favourably with the 832 kbits/s from A/D conversion. which adds three parity bits to result in 53 bits. It is these three bits which are used to detect errors in a received message. the overall bit rate would be 8 x 13 kbits/s =104 kbits/s. .Summary of Segmentation and Speech Coding The GSM speech coder produces a bit rate of 13 kbits/s per subscriber. CHANNEL CODING Channel coding in GSM uses the 260 bits from speech coding as an input and outputs 456 encoded bits. These 53 bits. When it is considered that 8 subscribers use one radio channel. the 132 bits in the second block and 4 tail bits (total = 189) are sent to a 1:2 convolutional coder which outputs 378 bits. The 260 bits are split according to their relative importance: Block 1: 50 very important bits Block 2: 132 important bits and Block 3: 78 not so important bits The first block of 50 bits is sent through a block coder. The remaining bits of block 3 are not protected.

These are interleaved.Channel coding INTERLEAVING First level of interleaving The channel coder provides 456 bits for every 20 ms of speech. forming eight blocks of 57 bits each. as shown in the figure below. Interleaving of 20 ms of encoded speech .

. This is too much for the channel decoder to correct. there is a 25% BER for the entire 20 ms of speech (2/8 = 25%). Instead of sending two blocks of 57 bits from the same 20 ms of speech within one burst. in any one burst.As can be seen in Figure . Normal burst Second level of interleaving If only one level of interleaving is used. This rate can be corrected by a channel decoder. there is space for two of these blocks. a block from one 20 ms and a block from another 20 ms are sent together. However. (The remaining bits are explained later in this book. because the MS must wait for the next 20 ms of speech.5% of the bits from each speech frame.5%. the system can now afford to loose a whole burst because the loss only affects 12. This causes a delay in the system. a loss of this burst results in a total loss of 25%. A second level of interleaving can be introduced to further reduce the possible BER to 12. if one burst transmission is lost.) Thus.

7 ms). BURST FORMATING As previously explained. each time slot on a TDMA frame is 0. However. This time is used to enable the MS/BTS ramp up and ramp down .25 bits or 625 bits per 20 ms. bringing the overall total to 592. Burst formatting adds a total of 136 bits per block of 20 ms. every transmission from an MS/BTS must include some extra information such as the training sequence. This increases the overall bit rate. To ramp up means to get power from the battery/power supply for transmission. but is necessary to counteract problems encountered on the radio path. The output of burst formatting is a burst of 156.25 bit times. 8. Ramping down is performed after each transmission to ensure that the MS is not using battery power during time slots allocated to other MSs.Speech frame CIPHERING/ENCRYPTION The purpose of ciphering is to encode the burst so that it cannot be interpreted by any device other than the intended receiver. It does not add bits to the burst. The rest of the space. This provides enough time for 156. is empty and is called the Guard Period (GP). meaning that the input and output to the ciphering process is the same as the input: 456 bits per 20 ms. The process of burst formatting is to add these bits (along with some others such as tail bits) to the basic speech/data being sent. but a burst only contains 148 bits.577 ms long. some dummy bits . The ciphering algorithm in GSM is called the A5 algorithm. In GSM. the input to burst formatting is the 456 bits received from ciphering.25 bits to be transmitted (each bit takes 3. in order to regulate the modulator. However.

This brings the total to 676 bits per 20 ms of speech. The bits are modulated onto a carrier frequency (e. As previously explained. It should not be confused with themobile phone standards called cdmaOne and CDMA2000 (which are often referred to as simply "CDMA").g. . the overall bit rate for GSM can be calculated to be 270. that use CDMA as their underlying channel access methods. 912. MODULATION & TRANSMISSION The 676 bits per 20 ms of speech must then be sent over the air using a carrier frequency.are used on either side of the burst. while frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) divides it by frequency.4 kbits/s. When it is considered that there are 8 subscriber per TDMA frame. GSM uses the GMSK modulation technique.2 MHz) and transmitted. time division multiple access (TDMA) divides access by time. One of the basic concepts in data communication is the idea of allowing several transmitters to send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This concept is called multiplexing. This allows several users to share a bandwidth of frequencies. CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code) to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical channel. 2)CDMA( CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACESS) Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method utilized by various radio communication technologies. By contrast.

CDMA is a form of "spread-spectrum" signaling. they would speak different languages. or speak in different directions (spatial division). each group of users is given a shared code. Each packet is dispatched and may go via different routes. which sets up a specific circuit with a limited number of constant bit rate and constant delay connections between no des for exclusive use during the communication session. the original message/data is segmented into several smaller packets. in radio CDMA. This contrasts with the other principal paradigm. circuit switching. packets are queued or buffered. sound. but only users associated with a particular code can understand each other. people could take turns speaking (time division). This precludes the need for a dedicated path to help the packet find its way to its destination. since the modulated coded signal has a much higher bandwidth than the data being communicated. In CDMA. . the original message/data is reassembled in the correct order. To avoid confusion. but not other people. that are then routed over a shared network. called packets. Many codes occupy the same channel. PACKET SWITCHING Packet switching is a network communications method that splits data traffic (digital representations of text. People speaking the same language can understand each other. based on the packet number and other statistically determined factors. In each network node. resulting in variable delay. At the destination. Similarly. Each packet is then labeled with its destination and the number of the packet. including the Global Positioning System and the OmniTRACS satellite system for transportation logistics. or video data) into chunks. speak at different pitches (frequency division). To accomplish this. An analogy to the problem of multiple access is a room (channel) in which people wish to communicate with each other. CDMA has been used in many communications and navigation systems.

music (MP3) playback. ringtones. videogaming. (source Informa 2007). and soon will also serve as a console of sorts to online games and other high quality games.6 SMS sent per day per person across the whole mobile phone subscriber base. SMS text messaging was worth over 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2007 and the worldwide average of messaging use is 2. including Internet browsing. personal organiser functions.3 billion total subscribers at the end of 2007). The total value of mobile data services exceeds the value of paid services on the Internet. e-mail. video calling and serve as a wireless modem for a PC. picture downloads. adult entertainment. call registers. with 74% of all mobile phone users as active users (over 2. radio. . built-in cameras and camcorders. Nokia and the University of Cambridge are showing off a bendable cell phone called Morph Applications The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging.Features Mobile phones often have features beyond sending text messages and making voice calls. while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993.The largest categories of mobile services are music. The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK. memo recording. and was worth 31 billion dollars in 2006 (source Informa). infrared and Bluetooth connectivity. games. gambling. ability to watch streaming video or download video for later viewing. Push-toTalk (PTT).4 billion out of 3. video/TV. instant messaging.

prompting leading mobile telephone forensic specialists to identify forensic techniques available in this area. phones and calls were very expensive and early mobile operators (carriers) decided to charge for all air time consumed by the mobile phone user. This resulted in the concept of charging callers for outbound calls and also for receiving calls. An exception to this is international roaming tariffs. Tariff models When cellular telecoms services were launched. evidence about the physical location of an individual at a given time has been introduced by triangulating the individual's cellphone between several cellphone towers. Law enforcement Law enforcement have used mobile phone evidence in a number of different ways. As mobile phone call charges diminished and phone adoption rates skyrocketed. Most early content for mobile tended to be copies of legacy media. TV and PC screens as the first three) or Third Screen (counting only TV and PC screens). from the ringing tones and ringback tones in music to "mobisodes. TV and Internet the first six). Cinema. by which receiving calls are normally also chargediving Party Pays" . Radio." video content that has been produced exclusively for mobile phones. more modern operators decided not to charge for incoming calls. It is also called the Seventh of the Mass Media (with Print. Recordings. This triangulation technique can be used to show that an individual's cellphone was at a certain location at a certain time.In other countries. acquisition. NIST have published guidelines and procedures for the preservation. and reporting of digital information present on mobile phones can be found under the NIST Publication SP800-101. such as the banner advertisement or the TV news highlight video clip. examination. Recently unique content for mobile has been emerging. The concerns over terrorism and terrorist use of technology prompted an inquiry by theBritish House of Commons Home Affairs Select Committee into the use of evidence from mobile phone devices. analysis. In the EU the "communications of every mobile telephone user are recorded".MEDIA The mobile phone is often called the Fourth Screen (if counting cinema. Thus some markets have "Recereceiving calls is free.

and other markets have "Calling Party Pays" models. and by another. but the effect of mobile phone usage on health continues to be an area of public concern. For example. There have also been attempts to limit use by persons operating moving trains or automobiles. by which only making calls produces costs. so that children could get some sleep. at the request of some of their customers. American mobile phones transmitted and received more text messages than phone calls. and Impacts Human health and behavior Since the introduction of mobile phones.models (also known as "Mobile Party Pays"). Verizon created usage controls that meter service and can switch phones off. concerns (both scientific and public) have been raised about the potential health impacts from regular use. Numerous studies have reported no significant relationship between mobile phone use and health. But by 2008. By one measure. and movie theater audiences. nearly 40% of automobile drivers aged 16 to 30 years old text while driving. 40% of teenagers said they could text blindfolded. . coaches when writing to potential players on their teams. in which both outbound and received calls are charged.

In the UK. Cell phones can also be used for bullying and threats to other students. There is also a theory it could even occur on the fingers if someone spends a lot of time text messaging on metal menu buttons.Emirates has announced plans to allow limited mobile phone usage on some flights. However. . Etiquette Most schools in the United States and Europe have prohibited mobile phones in the classroom. Earlier this year Lionel Bercovitch of Brown University in Providence. short-range connection of any phones aboard to remain connected to the aircraft's base station. The Australian airline Qantas is the first airline to run a test aeroplane in this configuration in the autumn of 2007. Thus. or in school due to the large number of class disruptions that result from their use. or initially only as SMS text messaging and similar services.Rhode Island and colleagues tested 22 popular handsets from eight different manufacturers and found nickel in 10 of the devices. Safety concerns As of 2007. airlines may offer phone services to their travelling passengers either as full voice and data services. allowing low power. The British Association of Dermatologists are warning of a rash occurring on people¶s ears or cheeks caused by an allergic reaction from the nickel surface commonly found on mobile devices¶ exteriors. commercial airlines have prevented the use of cell phones and laptops. and the potential for cheating via text messaging. several airlines are experimenting with base station and antenna systems installed to the aeroplane. or displaying inappropriate material in school. in the past. they would not attempt connection to the ground base stations as during take off and landing.Mobile Phone Dermatitis According to Reuters. Simultaneously. possession of a mobile phone in an examination can result in immediate disqualification from that subject or from all that student's subjects. due to the assertion that the frequencies emitted from these devices may disturb the radio waves contact of the airplane.

either as part of their job. as in the case of delivery drivers who are calling a client. some jurisdictions have made the practice against the law Environmental impacts Cellular antenna disguised to look like a tree . or by commuters who are chatting with a friend.Use by drivers This driver is using two phones at once The use of mobile phones by people who are driving has become increasingly common. While many drivers have embraced the convenience of using their cellphone while driving.

US authorities estimate that millions of birds are killed near communication towers in the country each year. Towers over a certain height or towers that are close to airports or heliports are normally required to have warning lights. Our First Future Step ± 3110 Evolve Materials: ‡Use of plant based plastics ‡Minimization of brominated. no load value < 50 mW ‡Otherwise the charger meets US EPA Energy Star and the EU Code of Conduct for External Power Supplies requirements Small packaging made 60 % recycled material and designed for easy recycling ³Unplug charger´ ±reminder to advice consumers Our first set of environmental software / services . Some cellular antenna towers have been camouflaged to make them less obvious on the horizon. cellular antenna masts pose a hazard to low flying aircraft.Like all high structures. and make them look more like a tree. TV-towers and other high structures can attract and confuse birds. chlorinated compounds and antimony trioxide ‡No PVC or phthalates Charging: ‡Ultra low no load charger. There have been reports that warning lights on cellular masts.

e. positive CO2 impact and less dependency on oil New technologies enabling better integration to save materials and related life cycle impacts Energy efficient solutions prolong device usage time and thus improve user experience New energy sources (batteries) 2. How to maximise theuse of mobile technology Where and how mobile technology can be used efficiently to save materials and energy. Regulatory Framework Enable innovations ± do not stick to current technologies Support proactive companies (IPP type of approaches) Utilize risk based approaches (like in REACH) . Engaging consumer Help consumers to utilize mobile technology to use resources more efficiently Better eco-information will raise awareness Advising consumers to recycle obsolete products 3. Materials and Energy efficiency Materials made from renewable or recycled.Future Trends 1.g: ‡Can we reduce unnecessary resource usage? ‡Can we have better control and measuring systems? 4.

launched in 2003. . Transmission is done either by GSM or CDMA.SUMMARY Mobile phone is an electronic device used for data transmission. In future phones will be based on plant based plastics. Launched in 1978 by NTT. no load chargers etc. Switching in mobile phones is packet switching. In India launched in 1995 In J&K .

BIBLIOGRAPHY  Nokia system manuals .com  Active Library Explorer (ALEX)  Ericsson system manuals  www.

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