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Chapter 1.

Charge Calculations for Tunneling


ROGERHOLMBERG
INTRODUCTION it is probably not possible to achieve the same precision
The driving of drifts is a very important aspect of as with pneumatic pushers, and it is difficultto utilize the
underground mining. It is not unusual for the percent- larger holes because these cause more damage to the re-
age of rock broken during development in a mine using maining rock. Recently, however, the precision has be-
sublevel caving, for example, to be as much as 25% of come very good with the parallel booms and automatic
the total. If one also considers the amount broken for devices for setting the lookout angle (Fig. 2). A larger
transport, ventilation, and exploration drifts, one can arch of the drift roof requires a more carefully executed
easily understand that the planning and excavation of blasting procedure than before in order to prevent rock
drifts play a major part in the total economics of the fall and to insure a sufficiently long stand-up time.
mine (Fig. 1 ) . In this chapter, empirical relationships that can be
Increasing mechanization in mining demands larger used to design an economic and optimal drift blasting
tunnel areas for transport and mining equipment. With design will be presented. The principles of the calcula-
modern machines the hard work involved in using hand- tion method are based upon the earlier work of Lange-
held pushers is gone, and a better environment is fors and Kihlstrom ( 1963) and Gustafsson (1973).
achieved. More rational methods could be used, but COMPARISON OF EXPLOSIVES
much of the experience the working man acquired by
working close to the rock face (such as utilizing the To provide for the use of various explosives it is
natural weak planes in the rock when he placed the drill- necessary to have a basis of comparison. Several meth-
ing holes) has unfortunately been lost. By having sepa- ods have been developed to charactxize the strength of
rate shifts for drilling, loading, and hauling, more atten- an explosive. Some examples are comparison of values
tion has to be placed upon a well-designed drilling given by ( 1 ) calculated explosion energies; ( 2 ) the bal-
pattern. listic mortar test; ( 3 ) the Trauzl lead block test; (4) the
Some reduction in the number of holes required can brisance test; (5) the weight strength concept; and
be achieved with mechanized drilling because of the ( 6 ) the underwater test. However, most of these meth-
larger holes that can be produced. On the other hand, ods should be used carefully when stating the breaking

Fig. 1. Development for sublevel


caving.
1582 UNDERGROUND MINING METHODS HANDBOOK

CHARGE CALCULATION AND DESIGN OF


DRILLING PATTERN
Tunnel blasting is a much more complicated opera-
tion than bench blasting because the only available free
surface toward which initial breakage can occur is the
tunnel face. Because of the high constriction there will
be a need for a much higher specific charge. Fig. 4 pre-
sents a good guide for explosive consumption for vary-
ing tunnel sizes.
Environmental aspects influence the choice of explo-
sive by requiring the avoidance of high concentrations of
toxic fumes. The small burdens used in the cut demand
an explosive agent which is sufficiently insensitive so that
flashover from hole to hole is impossible, and which has
a sufficiently high detonation velocity to prevent occur-
rence of channel effects when the coupling ratio is less
than one. With the mechanized drilling equipment used
today larger holes than the charge demands are normally Fig. 5. Sections A-E represent the types of holes used
drilled. Channel effects can occur if an air space is pres- under different blasting conditions.
ent between the charge and the borehole wall. If the
detonation velocity is not high enough (less than about holes can be drilled in a series of wedges (V-cut), as a
3000 m/s), the expanding detonation gases drive for- fan, or in a parallel geometry usually centered around
ward the air in the channel as a compressed layer with an empty hole.
a high temperature and a high pressure. The shock front The choice of the cut has to be made with respect
in the air compresses the explosive in front of the deto- to the type of available drilling equipment, the tunnel
nation front, destroys the hot spots, or increases the den- width, and the desired advance. With V-cuts and fan
sity to such a degree that the detonation could stop or cuts where angled holes are drilled, the advance is strictly
result in a low energy release. The explosive used in the dependent upon the width of the tunnel. In the last dec-
lifters must also withstand water. In the contour holes ade the parallel cut (four-section cut) with one or two
special column charges should be used to minimize centered large empty diameter holes has been used to a
damage to the remaining rock. very large extent. The obvious advantages to using this
To simplify the charge calculations let us divide the cut are that no attention has to be paid to the tunnel
tunnel face into five separate sections A through E. width, and the cut is much easier to drill with machines
Each one has to be treated in its own special way during as there is no need to change the angle of the boom.
the calculation. A is the cut section; B involves the The principle behind a parallel cut is that small di-
stoping holes breaking horizontally and upward; C is the ameter holes are drilled with great precision around a
stoping holes breaking downward; D is the contour larger hole ( 4 65 to 4 175 mm). The larger empty hole
holes; and E is the lifters (Fig. 5 ) . serves as a free face for the smaller holes, and the open-
The most important operation in the blasting pro- ing is enlarged gradually until the stoping holes take
cedure is creating an opening in the rock face to serve over. The predominant type of parallel hole cut is
as another free surface. If this stage fails the round will the four-section cut which is used in the following
definitely not be a success. calculation.
In the cut the holes are arranged in such a way that Advance
the delay sequence permits the opening to gradually in-
crease in size until the stoping holes can take over. The The advance is restricted by the diameter of the
empty hole and the hole deviation for the smaller diame-
ter holes. Good economics demand maximum utiliza-
tion of the full hole depth. Drifting is getting very ex-

t Specific
charge kg/m3
pensive if the advance becomes much less than 95% of
the hole depth. Fig. 6 illustrates the required hole depth
as a function of the empty hole diameter when a 95%
advance is desired with a four-section cut (Fig. 6).
The equation for hole depth (H) can be expressed as
+
H = 0.15 34.1 4 - 39.4 (m) (2)
where 4 is the empty hole diameter in meters.
The advance I is
I = 0.95 H (m) (3)
Eqs. 2 and 3 are valid only for a drilling deviation
not exceeding 2%.

-
25
7

50 7'5 ~ r e a-m2
loo
Sometimes two empty holes are used instead of one
in the cut, for example, if the drilling equipment can not
handle a larger diameter. Eq. 2 is still valid if 4 is com-
Fig. 4. Specific charge as a function of the tunnel area. puted according to the following:
BLASTING

t
H
Hole depth at
95% advance m
1Burden
Vl
m

I C
0.1 a2 0 Empty hole m
Fig. 6. Hole depth as a function of empty hole diameter
for a four-section cut.

do denotes the hole diameters of the two empty holes.


I 0:1
the holes meet
0.2 d3
*
0 Empty
The general geometry for the cut and cut spreader holes
is outlined in Fig. 7. hole m
Fig. 8. Blasting result for different relations between the
Burden in the First Quadrangle practical burden and the empty hole diameter. Hole
The distance between the empty hole and the drill deviation is less than 1% (Langefors and Kihlstrom,
holes in the first quadrangle should not exceed 1.7 times 1963).
the diameter of the empty hole if satisfactory breakage
and cleaning are to take place. Breakage conditions dif- tude 0.5 to 1 % , then the practical burden (V,) for the
fer very much depending upon explosive type, structure spreader holes in the cut must be less than the maximum
of the rock, and distance between the charged hole and burden ( V = 1.7 4 ) .
the empty hole. We use
As illustrated in Fig. 8, there is no advantage in
using a burden greater than 2 4 as long as the aperture
v,= 1.54. (m) (5)
angle is too small for the heavy charge. Plastic defor- When the deviation exceeds 1 %, V, has to be re-
mation would be the only effect of the blast. Even if the duced even further. The following formula should then
distance is smaller than 2 4, too great a charge concen- be used.
tration would cause a misfunction of the cut due to rock
impact and sintering which prevents the necessary swell.
V, = 1.7 4 - ( a H + B) (m) (6)
If the maximum accepted hole deviation is of the magni- where the last term represents the maximum drill de-
viation (F),a is the angular deviation (m/m), H is the
hole depth (m) , and /3 denotes the collaring deviation in
- -FOUR SECTION
- - - - - -CUT
- - - - -0
meters. In practice drilling precision is normally good
% enough to allow the use of Eq. 5.
Charge Concentration in the First Quadrangle
Langefors and Kihlstrom (1963) have verified the
following relationship between charge concentration ( I ) ,
the maximum distance between the holes (V), and the
diameter of the empty hole 4, for a borehole with a
diameter of 0.032 m.
I=1 . ( V ) (V - 4/21 (kg/m) (7)
T o utilize the explosive in the best manner, a burden
of V, = 1.5 4 for a deviation of 0.5 to 1% should be
used.
One must remember that Eq. 7 is valid only for a
drill-hole diameter of 0.032 m. If larger holes are going
to be used in the round an increased charge concentra-
tion per meter of borehole has to be used. To keep the
breakage at the same level it is necessary to increase the
concentration approximately in proportion to the di-
ameter. Thus if a drill-hole diameter of d is used instead
of d, = 0.032 m, the charge concentration is determined
by
Fig. 7. Four-section cut: V 4 represents the practical burden d
I = -I,.
for quadrangle i. dl
1584 UNDERGROUND MINING METHODS HANDBOOK

Obviously, when the diameter is increased this means


that the coupling ratio and the borehole pressure de-
crease. It is important to carefully select the proper ex-
plosive in order to minimize the risk of channel effects
and incomplete detonation.
Considering the rock material and type of explosive,
Eq. 7 can now be rewritten in terms of a general hole
diameter d:

where saxso denotes the weight strength relative to


ANFO, and c is defined as the rock constant.
Often the possible values for charge concentration Fig. 10. Influence of the hole devia-
are rather limited due to the restricted assortment from tion.
the explosives manufacturer. This means that the charge
concentration is given, and the burden is calculated from
Eq. 9 instead. This can easily be done by using a pro- den V can be expressed explicitly with good accuracy as
grammable pocket calculator and an iterative procedure. a function of B and I.
Rock Constant
Factor c is an empirical measure of the amount of
explosive needed for loosening one cubic meter of rock. When calculating the burden for the new quadrangle,
The field experiments by which the c values were deter- the effect of the faulty drilling F (defined in Eq. 6 ) must
mined took place with a bench-blasting geometry. It be included. This is done by treating the holes in the
turns out that the rock constant determined in this way fist quadrangle as if they were placed at the most un-
also gives a good approximation for the rock properties favorable location (Fig. 10).
in tunneling. In trial blasts it was found that c fluctuated From Fig. 10 one can see that the free surface B that
very little. Blasting in brittle crystalline granite gave a should be used in Eq. 11 differs from the hole distance
c factor equal to 0.2. In practically all other rock ma- B' in the first quadrangle.
terials, from sandstone to more homogeneous granite, a
c value of 0.3 to 0.4 kg/m3 was found. Under Swedish B = V 2 ( v , -F) ( m ) . (12)
conditions c = 0.4 is predominant in blasting operations. By substitution, the burden for the new quadrant is
The Second Quadrangle
After the first quadrangle has been calculated, a new v= 10.5 . 10-2 1 / ( ~ 1 - 7 ) IsaNm (m). (13)
geometry applies when solving the burdens for the fol-
lowing quadrangles. Blasting tosalds a circular hole Of course this value has to be reduced by the drill-
naturally demands a higher charge concentration than hole deviation to obtain the practical burden.
blasting towards a straight face due to a higher constric- v,=v-F ( m ) . (14)
tion and a less effective stress wave reflection.
If there is a rectangular opening of width B, and the There are a few restrictions that must be put on V,.
burden V is known (Fig. 9 ) , the charge concentration It must satisfy the following:
( I ) relative to ANFO is given by V, 6 2B (15)
32.3 d c V if plastic deformation is not to occur. If it does not,
I= (kg/m). (10)
~ A N F O[sin (atn(B/2V) using Eqs. 10 and 15, the charge concentration should be
If instead we start from the assumption that the reduced to
charge concentration for the actual explosive and the
rectangular opening width B are known, then the bur-
or
1 = 5 4 0 d ~ B / s ~ , , ~ (kg/m). (17)
If the restriction for plastic deformation cannot be
satisfied, it is usually better to choose an explosive with a
lower weight strength in order to optimize the breakage.
The aperture angle should also be less than 1.6 rad
(90"). If not the cut will lose its character of a four-
section cut. This means
V, > 0.5 B. (18)
Gustafsson (1973) suggests that the burden for each
quadrangle be V, = 0.7 B'.
A rule of thumb for the number of quadrangles in
Fig. 9. Geometry for blasting towards the cut is that the side length of the last quadrangle B'
a straight face. should not be less than the square root of the advance.
BLASTING 1585

The algorithm for the calculation of the remaining quad-


rangles is the same as for the second quadrangle. The length of the column charge (h,) is given by
Holes in the quadrangles should be loaded so that a
hole length ( h ) of ten times the hole diameter is left
unloaded. and the concentration of this charge can be reduced to
h=lOd (m). (20) 70% of the concentration in the bottom charge. How-
ever, this is not always done because it is time-consuming
Lifters work. Generally the same concentration is used in both
The burden for the lifters in a round are in principle the bottom and in the column. For lifters an unloaded
calculated with the same formula as for bench blasting. hole length of 10 d is usually used at the collar.
The bench height is simply replaced by the advance, and If Eq. 20 is going to be used, the following condition
a higher fixation factor is used due to the gravitational has to be fulfilled:
effect and to a greater time interval between the holes.
The maximum burden can be found using
Otherwise the maximum burden has to be succes-
sively reduced by lowering the charge concentration.
Then the practical spacing EL and burden V, can be
where f is the fixation factor, E I V denotes the relation evaluated.
between the spacing ( E ) and the burden ( V ) , and E is Fixation Factor
the corrected rock constant. A fixation factor f of 1.45
and an E I V ratio equal to 1 are used for lifters. In the formulas, different fixation factors f are used
for calculating the burden in different situations. For
example, in bench blasting with vertical hole positioned
in a row with a fixed bottom, f = 1. If the holes are in-
When locating the lifters, one must remember to con- clined it becomes easier to loosen the toe. To account
sider the lookout angle (see Fig. 11). The magnitude of for this a lower fixation factor (f < 1 ) is used for an
the angle is dependent upon available drilling equipment inclined hole. This results in a larger burden. In tun-
and hole depth. For an advance of about 3 m a lookout neling a number of holes are blasted with the same delay
angle equal to 0.05 rad (3") (corresponding to -5 number. Sometimes the holes have to loosen the burden
cmIm) should be enough to provide room for drilling upward and sometimes downward. Different fixation
the next round. factors are used to include the effects of multiple holes
Hole spacing should be equal to V. However, it will and of gravity.
vary depending upon the tunnel width. Stoping Holes
The number of lifters N is given by
The method for calculating the stoping holes in sec-
tunnel width f 2 H sin y tions B and C (Fig. 5 ) does not differ much from the
N = integer of
v +2). calculation of the lifters. For stoping holes breaking
The spacing EL for the holes (with the exception of horizontally and upward in section B, a fixation factor f
the comer holes) is evaluated by of 1.45 and an E I V ratio equal to 1.25 are used. The
fixation factor for stoping holes breaking downward is
EL =
+
tunnel width 2 H sin y
(m). (23) reduced to 1.2, and E I V should be 1.25. The column
N-1 charge concentration for both types of stoping holes
The practical spacing EL. for the corner holes is should be equal to 50% of the concentration for the
equal to bottom charge.
EL*= EL - H sin y ( m ) . (24) Contour Holes
The practical burden VL should be reduced by the If smooth blasting is not necessary, the burden and
bottom lookout angle and the drill hole deviation. spacing of the contour holes are calculated according to
what has been said previously about the lifters, with the
VL=V-Hsiny-F (m). (25) following exceptions: ( 1) fixation factor f = 1.2; (2)
The length of the bottom charge (h,) needed for E I V ratio should be 1.25; and (3) charge concentration
loosening the toe is for the column charge is 50% of the bottom charge
concentration.
The blast-damaged roof and walls in a drift often
need an excessive amount of support. In low strength
rock, a long stand-up time usually can be achieved by
more careful contour blasting. A 3-m long borehole
with ANFO (1.5 kgIm) is capable of producing a
damaged zone of about 1.5-m radius.
With smooth blasting this damage zone is reduced to
a minimum. Our experience shows that the spacing is a
linear function of hole diameter (Persson, 1973).

where the constant k is in the range of 15 to 16. An


Fig. 11. Blasting geometry for lifters. E I V ratio of 0.8 should be used. For a 41-mm hole
1586 UIVDERGROUND MINING METHODS HANDBOOK

k g l m ANFO eauivalent

0-21 7I / - mm GURlT

I/. 20
11 mm GURlT

40 60 Diameter
J
mm
Fig. 12. Minimum required charge concentration for
smooth blasting and recommended practical hole diam-
eter for NABlT and GURlT charges.

diam the spacing will be about 0.6 m and the burden


about 0.8 m.
The minimum charge concentration per meter of Fig. 13. Peak particle velocity as a function of distance
borehole is also a function of the hole diameter. For and charge concentration for a 3-m long charge.
hole diameters up to 0.15 m the relationship
1 kg/m means that damage occurs in a zone of radius
1.0 to 1.4 m around the charge.
applies. In smooth blasting the total hole length must be In field experiments for gneiss, pegmatite, and ,;an-
charged to avoid ripping. In Fig. 12, 1 is plotted as a ite (tensile strength = 5 to 15 MPa), a very good agree-
function of d. ment between the calculated and measured values was
Rock Damage found. Reports about damage zones also agree well with
The sudden expansion caused by an explosion in a the calculated distances for similar charges if the 700 to
borehole generates a stress wave that propagates into the 1000 mm/s criterion is used. This is valid for charge
rock mass. For an elastic material the generated stress is concentrations in the range 0.2 to 75 kg/m.
directly proportional to density, particle velocity, and In the field experiments accelerometers have been
wave propagation velocity. used together with FM-tape and transient recorders.
Close to the charge the strain will reach a magnitude Numerical integration provided the particle velocities.
where permanent damage is produced. Whether this The closest distance from the charges located in 25 to
damage will have any significant influence on the 250-mm holes to the accelerometers has been in the
stand-up condition for a tunnel depends upon the char- range 1.5 to 13 m.
acter of the damage, the exposure time, the influence of Measurements close to tunnel contours have indi-
ground water, and the orientation of the joint planes cated that charges in the row next to the contour often
with respect to the contour and the static load. cause higher particle velocities and more damage than
For a long time, the damage criteria for structures the smooth blasted row. If a smooth blasting result
built in the vicinity of a blasting site have been based should not be ruined by the rest of the holes it is a good
upon the peak particle velocity. At SveDeFo (Swedish idea to reduce the charge concentration in the row next
Detonic Research Foundation) the same criteria have to the contour. Fig. 13 provides a guide for estimating
been found to apply for estimating damage in the re- the charge concentration. A concentration of 0.2 kg/m
maining rock (Persson, Holmberg, and Persson, 1977; in the contour results in a damage zone of 0.3 m. If the
Holmberg and Persson, 1978; Holmberg, 1978). burden was 0.8, one can see that the charge concentra-
The empirical equation is tion for the inner row should be limited to about 1 kg/m
if the damage zone of 0.3 m is not to be exceeded
(Fig. 14).
where v is the particle velocity (mm/s); Q is the charge
weight ( k g ) ; and R denotes the distance (m). It is valid
for calculating the particle velocity at such distances
where the charge can be treated as being spherical. For
short distances the discrepancy between the calculated
and the measured values is unacceptable.
By performing an integration over the charge length
it was found possible to get the particle velocity as a
function of distance, charge length, and charge concen-
tration per meter of borehole. In Fig. 13 the calculation
for a 3-m long charge is given.
When the particle velocity exceeds some value be- Fig. 14. A well-designed round where the charge concen-
tween 700 and 1000 mm/s (Fig. 13), cracks are induced trations in the holes close to the contour are adjusted
or enlarged in a granite rock mass. A concentration of so that the damage zone from each hole coincides.
BLASTING 1587

EXAMPLE OF CHARGE CALCULATION Third Quadrangle


Conditions B = fl(0.16 + 0.17/2 - 0.05) = 0.28 m.
Hole diameter = 45 mm. Use 438 x 600 cartridges with charge concentration
Empty hole, 4 = 102 mm. I = 1.36 kg/m.
Tunnel width = 4.5 m. Maximum burden V = 0.42 m.
Abutment height = 4.0 m. Practical burden V3 = 0.37 m.
Height of arch = 0.5 m. Unloaded hole length h = 0.45 m.
Smooth blasting in the roof. Hole distance in quadrangle B' = a +
(0.37 0.35/
Lookout for contour holes y = 0.05 rad ( 3 " ) . 2 ) = 0.77 m.
Angular deviation a = 10 mm/m. No. of 438 x 600 cartridges = 4.5.
Collar deviation p = 20 mm. Fourth Quadrangle
Explosive: a water gel explosive is used with car-
tridge dimensions of 4 25 x 600, + 32 x 600, 4 38 x 600
B= \a +
(0.37 0.35/2 - 0.05) = 0.70 m.
Maximum burden V = 0.67 m.
mm. Practical burden V, = 0.62 m.
Heat of explosion = 4.5 MJ/kg. Unloaded hole length h = 0.45 m.
Gas volume at STP = 0.85 m3/kg.
Density = 1200 kg/m3.
B' = a +
(0.62 0.77/2) = 1.42 m.
No. of 438 x 600 cartridges = 4.5.
Rock constant c = 0.4. The side length of this quadrangle is 1.42 m which is
Calculation comparable to the square root of the advance.
Weight strength relative to LFB (Eq. 1 ) . Therefore there is no need for more quadrangles.
Lifters
Use 438 x 600 cartridges with a charge concentration
of 1 = 1.36 kg/m.
and Maximum burden V = 1.36 m (Eq. 20)
sANFO = 0.92/0.84 = 1.09 No. of lifters N = 5 (Eq. 22)
Charge concentration 4 mm I k g l m Spacing E, = 1.21 m (Eq. 2 3 )
25 0.59 Spacing, corner holes E', = 1.04 m (Eq. 24)
32 0.97 Practical burden V, = 1.14 m (Eq. 25)
38 1.36 Length of bottom charge h, = 1.43 m (Eq. 26)
Length of column charge h, = 1.32 m (Eq. 27)
Advance This charge concentration shall be 70% of the bot-
Using an empty hole diameter 4 = 102 mm, Eq. 2 tom charge concentration; 0.70 X 1.36 = 0.95 kg/m.
results in a hole depth of 3.2 m, and the advance is Use 2.5 cartridges 438 x 600 as the bottom charge
3.0 m. and 2 cartridges 432 x 600 as the column charge.
Cut Contour Holes, Roof
First Quadrangle Smooth blasting with 425 x 600 cartridges is speci-
Maximum burden V = 1.74=0.17m fied.
Practical burden V, = 0.12 m (Eq. 6 ) Spacing E = 0.68 m (Eq. 2 9 ) .
Charge concentration I = 0.58 kg/m (Eq. 9 ) Burden V = E/0.8 = 0.84 m.
1 for the smallest cartridge is 0.59 kg/m which is Due to lookout and deviation the practical bur-
sufficient for clean blasting the opening. den becomes V, = 0.84 - 3.2 sin 3" - 0.05 = 0.62 m.
Unloaded hole length = 10d = 0.45 m (Eq. 19). The minimum charge concentration for this smooth
Hole distance in quadrangle B' = = 0.17 m. blasting is 1 = 90 d2 = 0.18 kg/m (Eq. 3 0 ) .
No. of 25 x 600 cartridges = (3.2 - 0.45) 10.6 = The charge concentration for the 425 X 600 car-
4.5. tridges is 0.59 kg/m which is considerably more than
what is really needed.
Second Quadrangle
The rectangular opening to blast toward is B = \/Z
+
No. of holes; integer of (4.7/0.68 2 ) = 8.
5 cartridges per hole are used.
(0.12 - 0.05) = 0.10 m (Eq. 12).
Maximum burden for 425 cartridges V = 0.17 m Contour Holes, Wall
(El.1 1 ) . The abutment height is 4.0 m and from the calcula-
Maximum burden for 432 cartridges V = 0.21 m tion it is known that the lifters should have a burden of
(Eq. 1 1 ) . 1.14 m, and the roof holes should have a burden of
Maximum burden for 438 cartridges V = 0.25 m 0.62 m. This implies that there are 4.0 - 1.14 - 0.62 =
(Eq. 1 1 ) . 2.24 m left in the contour along which to position the
Eq. 15 says the practical burden must not exceed 2B. wall holes.
This implies that the 432 x 600 cartridges are the By using a fixation factor f = 1.2, and an E/V-ratio
most suitable ones in this quadrangle. equal to 1.25, Eq. 20 results in a maximum burden
Practical burden V2 = 0.16 m (Eq. 14) V = 1.33 m.
Unloaded hole length h = 0.45 m 0%. 19) Practical burden V,, = 1.33 - 3.2 sin 3" - 0.05 =
Hole distance in quadrangle B' = a +
(0.16 0.17/ 1.12 m.
2 ) = 0.35 m. +
No. of holes = integer of (2.24/ (1.33 X 1.25) 2 )
No. of 432 x 600 cartridges = 4.5. = 3.
UNDERGROUND MINING METHODS HANDBOOK

Spacing = 2.24/2 = 1.12 m.


Length of bottom charge h , = 1.40 m.
Length of column charge h, = 1.35 m.
2.5 cartridges $38 x 600 are used as the bottom
charge, and 2 cartridges $32 x 600 are used in the
column.
Stoping
The side of the fourth quadrangle in the cut is
1.42 m, and the practical burden V , for the wall holes
was determined to be 1.12 m. As the tunnel width is
4.5 m a distance of 4.5 - 1.42 - 2 X 1.12 = 0.84 m is
available for placing horizontal stoping holes.
Maximum burden ( f = 1.45) V = 1.21 m.
Practical burden V H= 1.21 - 0.05 = 1.16 m.
Instead the burden V H= 0.85 m is used, due to the
tunnel geometry.
The height of the fourth quadrangle was 1.42 m, and Fig. 15. Calculated drilling pattern; MS stands for rn-sec
this will of course determine the spacing for the two caps (4 no. = 100 rn-sec) and HS stands for half sec
holes, which becomes 1.42 m. caps (1 No. = 0.5 sec).
For stoping downwards:
~ a x i m L m b u r d e nV = 1.33 m. The author gratefully acknowledges professional dis-
Practical burden V , = 1.28 m. cussions with present and former colleagues at SveDeFo
The maximum height of the tunnel is specified to be and Nitro Consult whose experiences in the art of charge
4.5 m. If we subtract the height of the fourth quadrangle calculations helped in the formulation of this chapter.
( 1.42 m ) , the burdens for the lifters (1.14 m) and the
roof holes (0.62 m), there is 1.32 m left for a stoping REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
hole. This is just a little more than the practical burden,
Gustafsson, R., 1973, Swedish Blasting Technique, Gothen-
but if the stoping holes are placed at 1.28 m above the burg, Sweden.
cut, the remaining 0.04 m will in all probability be re- Holmberg, R., 1975, "Computer Calculations of Drilling
moved by the overcharged contour. Furthermore, the Patterns for Surface and Underground Blastings," Design
formulas used in the calculation have a safety margin Methods in Rock Mechanics, C. Fairhurst and S. Crouch,
that can tolerate small deviations. eds., 16th Symposium on Rock Mechanics, University of
Three holes for stoping downward are positioned Minnesota, Minneapolis.
above the fourth quadrangle (see Fig. 15). The charge Holmberg, R., and Hustrulid, W., 1981, "Swedish Cautious
distribution for the stoping holes is the same as for the Blast Excavations at the CSM/ONWI Test Site in Colo-
wall holes. rado," 7th Conference of Explosives and Blasting Tech-
A summary of explosive consumption is given in nique, Phoenix.
Holmberg, R., and Mahi, K., 1982, "Case Examples of Blast-
Table 2. ing Damage and Its Influence on Slope Stability," Stability
ACKNOWLEDGMENT in Surface Mining, Vol. 3, AIME, New York.
Holmberg, R., and Persson, P.-A., 1979, "Design of Tunnel
This work was done as a part of the rock-blasting Perimeter Blasthole Patterns to Prevent Rock Damage,"
research program of the Swedish Detonic Research Proceedings, Tunnelling '79, M.J. Jones, ed., Institution of
Foundation supported by Swedish industry and the Mining and Metallurgy, London.
National Swedish Board for Technical Development. Holmberg, R., 1978, "Measurements and Limitations of

Table 2. Summary of Explosive Consumptlon

No. of Cartridges
Hole No. of Charge per Total
Type Holes 425 432 438 mm Hole, kg kg
1st quad. 4 4.5 1.59 6.37
2nd quad. 4 4.5 2.62 10.48
3rd +4th quad. 8 4.5 3.67 29.36
Lifters 5 2.0 2.5 3.20 16.00
Roof 8 5.0 1.77 14.16
Wall 6 2.0 2.5 3.20 19.20
Stoping 5 2.0 2.5 3.20 16.00

Total charge weight = 111.6 kg


Cross sectional area = 19.5 m2
Advance = 3.0 m
Specific charge = 1.9 kg/m3
Total No. of holes = 40
Hole depth = 3.2 m
Specific drilling = 2.2 m/m3
Rock Damage in Remaining Rock," Rock Mechanics tious Blasting," TULEA, 1980:26, University of Lulea,
Meeting, Stockholm. Sweden.
Holmberg, R., and Persson, P.A., 1978, 'The Swedish Persson, P.A., 1973, "The Influence of Blasting on the
Approach to Contour Blasting," 4th Conference on Ex- Remaining Rock," Report DS 1973: 15, Swedish Detonic
plosives and Blasting Technique, New Orleans, LA, Feb. Research Foundation.
Johansson, C.H., and Persson, P.A., 1970, Detonics o f High Persson, P.A., Holmberg, R., and Persson, G., 1977, "Care-
Explosives, Academic Press, London. ful Blasting of Slopes in Open Pit Mines," Report DS
Langefors, U., and Kihlstrom, B., 1963, The Modern 1977 :4, Swedish Detonic Research Foundation.
Technique of Rock Blasting, Almqvist and Wiksell, Stock- Svanholm, B.O., Persson, P.A., and Larsson, B., 1977,
holm. "Smooth Blasting for Reliable Underground Openings,"
Naarttijhi, T., et a]., 1980, "Field Experiments with Cau- Rockstore 77, Session 1, Sweden, Sep.