GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.

com

Gate 2010 Notes Planning
Explain with illustration, the baroque city-planning concept of monarchy and monumentalism The importance was laid upon both mass and space The main features of Baroque planning were as follows:  Avenues  Fountains  Axis  Geometry Example : the shone brunn palace at Germany where sides of the trees were also chopped off along the road to achieve the “axis” of the design. Illustrate any one of the best examples of residential sector planning in post independent new towns of India Residential sector in chandigarh  The basic planning unit of the city is a sector, 800 by 1200 metres with a population varying between 3,000 and 20,000, depending upon the size of the plots and the topography of the area  The dimensions of the sector are derived from a “modular” conception. Corbusier established a distance of 400 metres as a sort of outer limit of modular perception a distance beyond which measures could not be readily grasped.  Each sector is based on the concept of a neighbourhood unit which ensures necessities like shops, educational institutions, health centers, places of recreation and worship within a walkable distance  Introvert in character, a sector is bounded by fast-traffic roads running on its four sides and permitting only four vehicular entries into its interior

Explain with the help of sketches the hippodomian-planning concept Advocated the GRID IRON pattern of road layout.. This system was introduced to rebuild the Greek cities, which were destructed by the Persian invasion. For laying out the perpendicular roads, individual buildings were made the common denominator and the functions of the buildings were given importance. Mention the key elements used for interpretation of Aerial photographs.  Aerial photographs cannot give details of inside the buildings; the true nature of activities carried out within cannot be ascertained.  Such information has to be obtained only through perception and inter-relation with the shape, size and environmental factors of the building structures.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  This difficulty is particularly encountered in mixed land use area and hence, in such instances remotely sensed information has to be intensively cross checked with ground information  Certain types of information such as about the health status, and age and sex structure of population and similar other details have to be obtained through a detailed socio-economic survey in the filed. What do you understand by “sight distance” in a traffic flow? Write the expression for “ braking distance” of a vehicle on a roadway Sight distance from a point is the actual distance along the road surface, which a driver from a specified height above the carriageway has visibility of stationary or moving objects. In other words, sight distance is the length of road visible ahead to the driver at any instance Braking distance of a vehicle is the distance travelled by the vehicle after the application of the brakes, to a dead stop position l = v2 / 2gf where l = braking distance in metres v=speed of vehicle in metres / sec f = design coefficient of friction = 0.4 to 0.35 dpending on speed, from 30 to 80 kmph g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 metres / sec2 Explain the concept of “Eminent Domain” and “Police power” in relation to town planning?  Eminent domain - by which the government can acquire any private property for the sake of public welfare, public health and public safety  Police power - by which the developmental authorities can control the nuisances and the undue developments. Most of the developmental controls like building bye-laws and planning laws emanate from this police power. State the administrative procedures under the land acquisition act 1894 and the recent amendments to expedite the process of land acquisition Whenever any government department or a public authority want to acquire any land, they must send their requisition proposal to the appropriate office of the government (normally designated as land acquisition collector – who is in every district and big cities) who will on behalf of the department or public authority, which needs the land, go through the various stages of the land acquisition procedure until he takes possession of the land and hands it over to the concerned department or the public authority. Explain the hierarchy of recreational open spaces in urban areas in terms of physical size and facility standards Category Population Area in Facility standards per unit hectares Totlot 500 0.05 Paved area, playground apparatus ALL THE BEST Page 2

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com area for small children Children’s park 2000 Neighbourhood 1000 playground Neighbourhood park 5000 0.2 0.2 0.8 Playground apparatus areas, landscaped areas, multiple-use paved areas Facilities of neighbourhood park, tennis courts, football and lighting for evening use, community center / recreation buildings and swimming pool Water resource, camping, nature study picnicking

District park

25,000

5.0

Regional park

1,00,000

40.0

Describe the salient features of 73rd constitutional amendment act of India, and its role in empowering grass root level organizations  There shall be constituted in every state panchayats at avillage, intermediate and district level  To have proper representation of population in all areas, the ratio between the population of a territorial area of a panchayat and the number of seats, which are filled by election, shall be same throughout the state  Normally duration of panchayat is five years  The legislature of a state may endow the panchayat with such powers to enable them to function as institutions of self government, subject to conditions, with respect to prepaation and implementation of plans for economic development and social justice  Panchayats may be given powers to impose taxes, duties, tolls and fees subject to limits  A finance commission may be constituted to review financial position of the panchayat Explain the differences between formal and functional regions A Formal region is geographical area which is uniform or homogeneous in terms of selected criteria. A formal region can be further defined as natural or economic formal region depending upon the criteria used. A Natural formal region is a formal region based on the criteria of topography, climate or vegetation. Criteria used are predominantly physical, linked with the concept of geographical determinism. Economic formal regions are generally based on types of industry or agriculture ( such as coal mining region, tea plantation region ) although there are obvious physical undertones Functional region is a geographical area, which displays certain functional coherence, inter-dependence, of parts, when defined on the basis of certain criteria. It is sometimes referred to as a nodal or polarized region and is composed of heterogeneous units, such as cities, towns and villages, which are functionally inter-related.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Explain the relevance of the term “Ammortisation” to urban finance Ammortisation is a means of paying out a predetermined sum (the principal) plus interest over a fixed period of time, so that the principal is completely eliminated by the end of the term. What do you understand by the terms of parking accumulation, parking index and parking turnover? Parking accumulation The total number of vehicles parked in an area at a specified time. Parking Index Percentage of the theoretically available number of parking bays actually occupied by parked vehicles. Parking turnover Rate of the usage of available parking space. Explain the “backwash effect “ in development process Outline the salient features of the “Central place theory” of Christaller. Use a diagram to explain your answer Basic elements are A central good A central place A complimentary region 1. A region can be served by goods of various types if central places producing different ranges of goods are evenly distributed 2. Central places will be regularly spaced clusters located with in hexagonal trading areas and will together for triangular lattices 3. Lower order centers will be located at the gravity centers of the triangles formed by next higher order centers 4. Distances separating the centers will be greater in case of higher order centers and proportionally less for lower order centers 5. All the central places constitute a hierarchy of the smallest villages to the largest town of national importance Assumptions 1. Christaller assumed a homogenous plane with even distribution of natural resources, consumer preferences and production techniques for each and every product. 2. Transport cost, demand functions and economics of scale would vary from product to product and this spatial range of goods and services produced will also vary

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com What was the major planning issue that the plan of radburn helped to resolve? Show through a neat schematic diagram how the radburn plan achieved this objective. This plan introduced the “super block”, each block ranging from 30 to 50 acres in size, where through traffic is eliminated. With in them single-family dwellings were grouped about cul-de-sac roads. Kitchen and garages faced the road, while living rooms turned towards the garden. Pathways provided uninterrupted pedestrian access to a continuous park strip, leading to large, common open spaces within the center of the super-block. Underpasses separated pedestrian walks from traffic roadways. Distinguish between “linear” and “radio-centric” patterns of physical form of cities in terms of (i) transportation (ii) utility networks. Illustrate your answer with schematic diagrams. Linear Advantages disadvantages Radio – centric Advantages disadvantages

Transportati  Easy flow of  Monotony of  City gets  Through traffic is drivers as all prominent traffic is on network maintained crossings center increased look similar  It gives a  Too many direction concentric growth of rings the city increases  Easy intersections connection between radials Utility  Laying of  The pipes is easy distribution network  Length of area is pipe is divided into reduced different  Easy to plan blocks by the layout of virtue of its ALL THE BEST Page 5

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com the system form

(a) Distinguish between “Time mean speed” and “Space mean speed” (b) Estimate the average travel speed of an urban road based on the following information (Length of the segment of the urban road = 3km) Vehicle no. 1. 2. 3. 4. Travel time (min.) 4.5 3.45 3.0 6.0

Time-mean speed is the average of the speed measurements at one point in space over a period of time Space-mean speed is the average of the speed measurements at an instant of time over a space w.k.t speed = distance / time expressed in terms of kmph ( kilometers per hour) average travel speed = distance / average travel time

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com average travel time = ( 4.5+3.45+3+6 ) / 4 = 4.2375 min = 4.2375 / 60 hr. [since 1minute = 1 / 60 hour] = 0.070625 hr.

average travel speed = 3 / 0.070625 kmph = 42.4778 kmph Name the specific laws governing each of the following activities Permission of building construction Notification of master plan area of a city Permissible use of a plot of land in a city building permit notification in government gazette land use

Impact assessment of a highway department environmental impact assessment Eviction of a tenant by a landlord rent and accommodation control act

Name the amendment act and the schedule of the constitution of India that provide for the responsibilities and functions of urban local bodies. Outline the steps necessary to empower the local bodies to carryout these functions. THE CONSTITUTION (74TH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1992 TWELFTH SCHEDULE  Suitable organizational structure  Rationalization of geographical jurisdiction

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Management of resources – economic, social political and human – for optimum results  Logistical aids necessary for management capacity development  The procedures and practices that would be necessary for communication and coordination  The measures to be taken for city planning at the local level

Highlight briefly the features and applications of GIS in decision making in planning Natural resources  wildlife habitat  wild and scenic rivers  recreation resources  floodplains  wetlands  agricultural lands  aquifers  forests  minerals and exploration  oil and gas Land parcel-based  zoning - urban and regional  subdivision planning and review  environmental impact assessment  water quality management  maintenance of land ownership  land valuation and taxation  town planning schemes

Infrastructure  transport route planning  street address matching  location analysis, site selection  disaster planning and evacuation Socio-economic  population distribution and forecasting  demographic marketing and analysis  monitoring of patient health  epidemiology ALL THE BEST Page 8

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com   police crime statistics and monitoring census information public services and access

Discuss the essence of “concordance” and “discordance” analysis technique, thro’ a suitable example What are the basic components of an ideal remote sensing system? The basic components of an ideal remote-sensing system are shown in figure 8. These include the following components.  A uniform energy source. This source will provide energy over all wavelengths, at a constant, known, high level of output, irrespective of time and place.  A non-interfering atmosphere. This will be an atmosphere that will not modify the energy from the source in any manner, whether that energy is on its way to earth’s surface or coming from it. Again, ideally this will hold irrespective of wavelength, time, place, and sensing altitude involved.  A series of unique energy/matter interaction at the earth’s surface. These interactions will generate reflected and/or emitted signals that are not only selective in respect to wavelengths, but also are known, invariant, and unique to each and every earth surface feature type and subtype of interest.  A super sensor. This will be a sensor, highly sensitive to all wavelengths, yielding spatially detailed data on the absolute brightness (or radiance) from a scene (a function of wavelength), throughout the spectrum. This super sensor will be simple and reliable, require, virtually no power or space, and be accurate and economical to operate.  A real-time data handling system. In this system, the instant the radiance versus wavelength response over a terrain element is generated, it will be processed into an interpretable format and recognized as being unique to the particular terrain element from which it comes. This processing will be performed nearly instantaneously (real time), providing timely information. Because of the consistent nature of the energy/matter interactions, there will be no need for reference data in the analytical procedure. The derived data will provide insight into the physical-chemical-biological state of each feature of interest.  Multiple data users. These people will have comprehensive knowledge of both their respective disciplines and of remote-sensing data acquisition and analysis techniques. The same set of data will become various forms of information for different users, because of their vast knowledge about the particular earth resources being used. Unfortunately, an ideal remote-sensing system, as described above, does not exist. Real remote-sensing systems fall short of the ideal at virtually every point in the sequence outlined. Indicate the factors that govern the utility of Para - transits in urban areas? Para-transit – Auto, cycle rickshaw etc., ALL THE BEST Page 9

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com      Frequency of public transport system Comfortable travel, particularly during peak hours To commute shorter distance To access remote areas Commutation of aged and handicapped persons

What are the parameters to be considered for determining the sample size for a house hold survey?  Level / degree of confidence (degree of accuracy of the collected sample expressed in percentage)  Variability of the parameter  Population size State the major advantages of vertical aerial photographs over a map for its application in urban planning Vertical aerial photographs are taken with the axis of the air borne camera vertical (a deviation of less than 3 degrees from the vertical is accepted). These photographs are commonly used for mapping and interpretation purposes (gives true geometry of the ground in the form of base map, provides information about vegetation cover, soils, geological and geomorphologic features and drainage pattern) What is “Human Development Index”? What are the advantages of using this index Every year since 1990, the United Nations development programme has studied the quality of life in many countries. The Human Development Index is the result of this study. The index uses factors such as life expectancy, adult literacy rate and per-capita income to determine the rankings. State the important stages in land acquisition procedure while acquiring land for public purpose  Publication of preliminary notification by the Government that a particular land is needed or likely to be needed for a public purpose  Hearing of objections to the above mentioned notification from interested parties by the collector and his report to the Government in this matter  Declaration by the Government that the land is required for a public purpose  Notification by collector declaring Government’s intention to acquire land and calling for claims for compensation from interested parties  Enquiry into the compensation claims and passing of award by the collector  Taking possession of the land by the collector after payment of compensation and handing it over to the authority requiring the same What are the various forms of non property taxes that can be imposed by a municipality for mobilization of development funds?  Betterment tax  Professional tax  Tax on real estate  Water tax ALL THE BEST Page 10

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Sewerage tax etc. Indicate the factors to be considered for describing the economic profile of a region  Per-capita income  Demographic content of the region  Industrial scenario  Service sector  Trade and commerce  Informal sector employment Which factors are to be considered for “life cycle cost analysis” while evaluating alternative materials in any urban construction project?  Cost of the material  Benefit obtained from the material  Maintenance cost of that material Mention various criteria’s for enlisting heritage structures and precincts  Uniqueness of the monument or site  Its being representative of an important epoch in the national history  Its association with the life of a great national leader or personality  Outstanding architectural or artistic or archaeological value  Accessibility to the public  Not being under intensive use by the public A city had grown geometrically at a rate of 7% per annum from 1991 to 2001. In the year 2001, the city had a population of 701276. The net migration rate for the city during the above period had been 10 per thousand population. What was the net migration to the city during 1991 to 2001 Formula for geometric growth method : Pt = Po ( 1 + r) t where pt is the future population po is the current population r is the rate of change between current and initial population t is the no. of years for which projection is required 701276 = Po (1 + 7/100) 10 Po ( population in the year 1991 ) = 356493 Increase in population = Pt – Po = 701276 – 356493 = 344783 Net migration rate is 10 per 1000 i.e. 1% Net migration to the city during 1991 to 2001 = 1% of increase in population from 1991 to 2001 = 1% of 344783 = 3447.83 ~ 3444 persons

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Mention the limitation of GIS as a planning tool. Which are the other support systems that are to be interlinked with GIS to make it an effective planning tool? All GIS applications require digital geographic data (common reference data & application data). PLANNING PROCESS: All stages of actions from defining the objectives till implementation and review of any planning project in the planning process. In plan preparation, the physical planning should associate with the socio-economical, geographical, political factors, for achieving the objective in desired direction. The various stages of planning process is as follows: 1. Identification and definition of problems 2. Defining the objectives 3. Studies and survey 4. Analysis of data and preparation of study maps 5. Fore-casting 6. Design 7. Fixation of priorities 8. Implementation 9. Review, evaluation and feedback

MULTI LEVEL PLANNING IN INDIA The concept of multi level planning incorporates the principle that proper decision making is possible at any level if the strategy at each level is determined after a careful consideration of the potentials, needs and limitation at the next higher as well as the next lower levels of planning Multi level planning is two-way approach, requiring many preparatory efforts from both ends. The higher level gives macro framework indicators and guideline for planning. The lower levels must feed the higher level with information and has to prepare from below. The various processes involved in multi-level planning are  Determination of approach levels of decision making with reference to various activities  Organizing interaction between different levels in terms of exchange of information and interactive consultations of different stages of plan formulation and appraisal  ‘Nesting of plans’ at different levels and integrating them into a unified frame work. Nesting implies securing both the balances within the plans drawn up for different levels and also their harmonization. Securing integration within plans at different levels implies achieving balance at three levels i.e. sectoral, spatial and operational COMPREHENSIVE COMMUNITY PLANNING

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com The purpose of community planning is to anticipate the physical environment that will best serve the needs of the people living and working in an urban area, and then to make plans for achieving this environment. It is continuing process of developing a comprehensive programme to guide urban growth and renewal. There are six minimum planning requirements, which are backbone of any programme. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Land use plan The thoroughfare plan The community facilities plan The public Improvement programme The zoning ordinance and map The subdivision regulations

CENTRAL PLACE THEORY by CHRISTELLER Comprehensive approach of the system Basic elements are A central good A central place A complimentary region 1. A region can be served by goods of various types if central places producing different ranges of goods are evenly distributed 2. Central places will be regularly spaced clusters located with in hexagonal trading areas and will together for triangular lattices 3. Lower order centers will be located at the gravity centers of the triangles formed by next higher order centers 4. Distances separating the centers will be greater in case of higher order centers and proportionally less for lower order centers 5. All the central places constitute a hierarchy of the smallest villages to the largest town of national importance SETTLEMENT PATTERN Census of India defines an Urban Area as (i) all places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee; (ii) all other places which has features as (1) a minimum population of 5000; (2) at least 75% of the male working population engaged in non- agricultural pursuits and ALL THE BEST Page 13

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com (3) a density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km. Apart from urban area & urban agglomeration rest is considered as Rural Area. Census Classification of Cities and Towns Class of Cities/Towns Range of Population Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V Class VI 100,000 and above 50,000 to 99,999 20,000 to 49,999 10,000 to 19,999 5,000 to 9,999 Below 5,000

Source: Report of National Commission on Urbanization, vol. One

LANDUSE AND LAND UTILISATION At any particular point of time, a parcel of land put to some use is landuse. This concept is a dynamic phenomenon as the use of a vacant land may be converted to residential or commercial. Need for ‘land use’  To guide the use of land to promote the advantages of development of the community  Curb misuse of land i.e. increased intensity of development, encroachment of open space  Prevent abuse of land i.e. prevent formation of slums, squatters  Regulate the nonuse or misuse of land i.e. land being used for speculation, without development  To guide the re-use of land i.e. conservation Land use plan Landuse plans show us the various kinds of activities that are carried out in the different location of the city. There are various types of landuses in a city. CONCENTRIC ZONE THEORY Emerged from a study of Chicago by Burgess It was suggested that any city extends radially from its center to form concentric zones and that as distance from the center increased there would be a reduction in accessibility, rents and densities ALL THE BEST Page 14

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Land use would assume the following forms from the center outwards. The CBD, a zone of transition, an area of factories and low income housing, an area of higher income housing, and a commuter zone There would also be declining proportions of recent immigrants, delinquency rates, poverty and disease as distance increased from the center Natural population increase in migration, economic growth and income expansion will all result in each zone within the urban area ‘invading’ the next zone outwards As the CBD expands, the locational advantages of central sites might diminish, the transitional zone (awaiting redevelopment) might become more and more a twilight area, and as suburban population increase, new out lying business districts may evolve. Many criticisms can be made on the theory Landuses within many parts of the urban area are heterogenous – shops, offices, factories and housing may all be located close to each other, although they may have potentially different site and locational requirements Accessibility may be a relatively unimportant consideration for many uses, especially housing and commercial users may find it disadvantageous to agglomerate if there is an opportunity to corner an undeveloped market. Decentralized shopping centers and offices may further distort the pattern, and the CBD might experience a decrease in rents and density following the reduction in its accessibility through congestion The concentric zone models also ignores physical features, take little account of industrial and railway use and disregards the effect of radial route ways upon land values and uses HOYTT’S SECTOR THEORY Growth along a particular transport route takes the form of land use already prevailing and that each sector of relatively homogenous use extends outwards from the center Compatible land uses would lie adjacent to each other (for example ware housing and light manufacturing, and low-income housing) and incompatible uses will be repelled (for instance high income housing and ware housing). Residential uses will tend to be segregated in terms of income and social position and will expand in different directions in different parts of the city. When high-income households abandon the inner areas, they are in filled (usually at a higher density) by lower-income households The criticisms of the theory are broadly the same as those made of the concentric zone theory, and so are the merits. However, while recognizing the relationship between accessibility, land use and values, and densities, Hoytt believed that the interdependence of these variables express itself differently in terms of the spatial structure of the city. MULTIPLE NUCLEI THEORY Unlike other theories, which have all assumed that cities grow from one central point, the multiple nuclei theory produced by Harris and Ullman is based on the assumption that urban growth takes place around several distinct nuclei The nuclei could include the first urban settlement (probably a market town), nearby village, a factory, a mine, a railway terminal or waterside facility

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Ultimately they would be integrated into one urban area largely agglomerated by residential use and intra-city transportation The original nuclei would help to determine current use, for example the market town might become the CBD, the village an outlying business district, the factory site might evolve into an area of wholesaling and light manufacture, and the mine or waterside facility could become an area of heavy industry Within the urban area, compatible uses are attracted to each other- for example, lowincome residential land would be close to wholesale and light manufacturing and near heavy industry and the medium and high-income residential areas would surround the outlying business district. Incompatible uses would remain far apart – for example, highincome housing and heavy manufacturing. The number of nuclei would generally be greater in large urban areas than in small cities and there would be a greater degree of specialization within each nucleus.

A city had grown geometrically at a rate of 7% per annum from 1991 to 2001. In the year 2001, the city had a population of 701276. The net migration rate for the city during the above period had been 10 per thousand population. What was the net migration to the city during 1991 to 2001 Formula for geometric growth method : Pt = Po ( 1 + r) t where pt is the future population po is the current population r is the rate of change between current and initial population t is the no. of years for which projection is required 701276 = Po (1 + 7/100) 10 Po ( population in the year 1991 ) = 356493 Increase in population = Pt – Po = 701276 – 356493 = 344783 Net migration rate is 10 per 1000 i.e. 1% Net migration to the city during 1991 to 2001 = 1% of increase in population from 1991 to 2001 = 1% of 344783 = 3447.83 ~ 3444 persons Human Development Index Every year since 1990, the United Nations development programme has studied the quality of life in many countries. The Human Development Index is the result of this study. The index uses factors such as life expectancy, adult literacy rate and per-capita income to determine the rankings.

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Key elements used for interpretation of Aerial photographs  Aerial photographs cannot give details of inside the buildings; the true nature of activities carried out within cannot be ascertained.  Such information has to be obtained only through perception and inter-relation with the shape, size and environmental factors of the building structures.  This difficulty is particularly encountered in mixed land use area and hence, in such instances remotely sensed information has to be intensively cross checked with ground information  Certain types of information such as about the health status, and age and sex structure of population and similar other details have to be obtained through a detailed socio-economic survey in the filed.

Basic components of an ideal remote sensing system The basic components of an ideal remote-sensing system include A uniform energy source. This source will provide energy over all wavelengths, at a constant, known, high level of output, irrespective of time and place. A non-interfering atmosphere. This will be an atmosphere that will not modify the energy from the source in any manner, whether that energy is on its way to earth’s surface or coming from it. Again, ideally this will hold irrespective of wavelength, time, place, and sensing altitude involved. A series of unique energy/matter interaction at the earth’s surface. These interactions will generate reflected and/or emitted signals that are not only selective in respect to wavelengths, but also are known, invariant, and unique to each and every earth surface feature type and subtype of interest. A super sensor. This will be a sensor, highly sensitive to all wavelengths, yielding spatially detailed data on the absolute brightness (or radiance) from a scene (a function of wavelength), throughout the spectrum. This super sensor will be simple and reliable, require, virtually no power or space, and be accurate and economical to operate. A real-time data handling system. In this system, the instant the radiance versus wavelength response over a terrain element is generated, it will be processed into an interpretable format and recognized as being unique to the particular terrain element from which it comes. This processing will be performed nearly instantaneously (real time), providing timely information. Because of the consistent nature of the energy/matter interactions, there will be no need for reference data in the analytical procedure. The derived data will provide insight into the physical-chemical-biological state of each feature of interest. Multiple data users. These people will have comprehensive knowledge of both their respective disciplines and of remote-sensing data acquisition and analysis techniques. The same set of data will become various forms of information for different users, because of their vast knowledge about the particular earth resources being used. Unfortunately, an ideal remote-sensing system, as described above, does not exist. Real remote-sensing systems fall short of the ideal at virtually every point in the sequence outlined. ALL THE BEST Page 17

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Advantages of vertical aerial photographs over a map for its application in urban planning Vertical aerial photographs are taken with the axis of the air borne camera vertical (a deviation of less than 3 degrees from the vertical is accepted). These photographs are commonly used for mapping and interpretation purposes (gives true geometry of the ground in the form of base map, provides information about vegetation cover, soils, geological and geomorphologic features and drainage pattern) Parameters to be considered for determining the sample size for a house hold survey Level / degree of confidence (degree of accuracy of the collected sample expressed in percentage) Variability of the parameter Population size Population pyramid for an urban area with significant in-migration of working population  Population pyramid is a two dimensional pictorial representation of population (both men and women) with the break up of different age groups, which is prepared from the census data  The age structure of a population at a time is the result of past trends in nasality (birth rate), mortality (death rate) and migration  The age structure of a given population has its influence on the pattern of demand for various goods and services  By comparing two or more pyramids, changes in particular age group can create pressure on school facilities, employment opportunities and needs for housing units What is GIS? Geographic Information System Geographic Information System A System for Managing Spatial ( Mappable) Information ) Information An Information Technology An Information Technology Not only a Mapping Package Not only a Mapping Package More Than Just Software GIS has Five Major Components has Five Major Components Spatial Analysis Questions: Analysis Questions: • • What Exists at or Near a Particular Exists at or Near a Particular Location? Location? • • What Geographic Areas Meet What Geographic Areas Meet Certain Criteria? Certain Criteria? • • What Has Changed Since? What Has Changed Since? • • What Spatial Patterns Exist? What Spatial Patterns Exist? • • What if? What if?

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GIS Data Requirements • • All GIS Applications Require Digital All GIS Applications Require Digital Geographic Data Geographic Data – –Common reference Data: Earth Common reference Data: Earth Features (Aerial Imagery, Parcels, Features (Aerial Imagery, Parcels, Streets) Streets) – –Application Data: SCADA, Application Data: SCADA, Infrastructure Infrastructure Basic Map Elements G • • Aerial Imagery Aerial Imagery – – High Resolution High Resolution – – Low resolution Low resolution • • Parcels & Right -of-Way Way • • Parcel/Ownership Attributes Parcel/Ownership Attributes • • Street Centerlines How to Create Digitized Maps • • Aerial Photography Aerial Photography – – Ortho Photo Ortho Photo – – Streets, Parcels, Facilities Streets, Parcels, Facilities – – Elevation data Elevation data • • Hard Copy Maps Hard Copy Maps – – Scan & Digitize Scan & Digitize – – Adjust Sectionals Adjust Sectionals How to Create Digitized Maps Street Centerlines

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Bas IS Hardware • • Computers Computers • • Networks Networks • • Graphic Graphic Devic Software es • • GIS Software GIS Software • • Database Software Database Software • • OS Software OS Software • • Network rSoftware Dat

ic Map Elements

Data • • Types of Data Types of Data - - Vector Vector - - Raster Data Raster Data - - Image Data Image Data - - Attribute Data Attribute Data •• Where Does GIS Data Come From? Where Does GIS Data Come From? - - In House House - - Commercial Commercial - - Government Government Data aba People People HaAdministrators Administrators • • Managers Managers • • GIS Technicians GIS Technicians ALL THE BEST Page 20

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com • • Application Experts Application Experts • • End Users End Users

Benefits of Using Benefits of Using GIS Cost Savings (Operational Efficiencies) Cot Savings (Operational ciencies) • • Better Data Management Better Data Management (More Efficient Storage and Updating) (More Efficient Storage and Updatng) • • Better Decisions Better Decisions (Faster Information Access) (Faster Information Access) • • Enhanced Capability (New Applications ) Enhanced Capability (New

What Can GIS Do In an Organization? • • Promote Data Sharing Promote Data Sharing • • Enhance Communication Enhance Communication • • Facilitate Decision Making Making

Promote Data Sharing • • Technology Integration Technology Integration • • Data Integration Data Integration Sharing)GISenefits of Using GIS ALL THE BEST Page 21

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Housing Discuss the concept of “post occupancy evaluation” in architecture Post occupancy evaluation is the systematic evaluation of buildings in use, from the perspective of the people who use them. It assesses how well buildings match users needs, and identifies ways to improve building design, performance and fitness for purpose. Post occupancy evaluation differs significantly form conventional surveys and market research. It uses the direct, unmediated experiences of building users as the basis for evaluating how a building works for its intended use. Differentiate between “gross” and “net” residential densities for a planned sector For a sector of 2Km X 1Km size and gross density of 350 ppha, what will be the net density if non-residential land use constitutes 30% of land area? Gross residential density : No. of persons per acre over the whole of a defined area including public buildings, large open space and half the width of surrounding roads Net residential density : No. of persons per acre of residential area including small garden patches, internal roads, half the width of surrounding roads up to 6m. Area = 2Km X 1Km = 2 Sq. Km. = 2000 hectares Gross Density = 350 ppha Total population = 350 X 200 = 70,000 Net residential area = 70% of 200 hectares = 140 hectares 70,000 persons live in 140 hectares Net Density = 70,000 / 140 = 500 ppha The 1991 housing census for a town of 2.5 lakhs with average household size of 5 persons shows a total number of 40,000 dwelling units. If the annual exponential population growth rate is 2.0%, what should be the average annual rate of dwelling unit supply to meet housing shortage in 2001? Assume a constant average household size and annual obsolescence rate of 5% No. of Dwelling units in 1991 = population / household size = 2,50,000 / 5 = 50,000, but as per census only 40,000 Dwelling units are there Existing Demand = 50,000 – 40,000 = 10,000 Dwelling units ____________________________ 1 Replacement need Obsolescence rate is 5% i.e. 5% of houses have to be replaced every year P(1-i)n = 40,000(1- 5/100)10 = 23,950 Dwelling units will be there after 10 years No. of houses to be replaced = 40,000 – 23,950 = 16,050________________________________ 2

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Demand at future date Using population projection method Pt = Po X ert = 2,50,000 X 1.2214

[e2/100 X 10 = 1.2214, since exponential population growth rate is 2.0%]

= 3,05,350 No. of dwelling units after 10 years = 3,05,350 / 5 (household size) = 61,070 Future Demand Demand at future date – Existing no. of dwelling units 61,070 – 40,000 21,070__________________________________________________________________ ______3 Housing shortage = 1 +2+3 = 10,000 + 16,050 + 21,070 = 47,120 Dwelling units Average annual rate of Dwelling units supply = 47,12 Dwelling units / year

Enlist special planning and design considerations for a housing complex in an earthquake prone area Foundation  Hard grounds are found to be suitable for all buildings  Construction of buildings on soils with low load bearing capacity and reclaimed sites should be avoided as far as possible in seismic areas  Loose sands with high water table subjected to violent ground shaking may cause differential settlement tilting or sinking of buildings Constructional aspects  Proper detailing of joints (wall to roof, wall to wall, beam to column ) for all type of construction should be made  The frame of building should have adequate ductility so as to permit energy dissipation through plastic deformation Behaviour of masonry walls  The behaviour of non-structural walls in recent earthquakes demonstrated the need for careful structural detailing and improved specifications and construction methods to avoid their brittle failure and to achieve effective composite action with the surrounding frame members Roofing  Use of lightweight roofs is recommended in the areas with medium, high and very high vulnerability. The use of A.C. and G.I. sheets is recommended Building materials  Most of the loss of life due to earthquakes was on account of collapse of nonengineered buildings constructed out of mud, stones, sun dried clay brick constructions etc.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  The major cause of damage to adobe and stone masonry buildings is the inherent weakness of the material and inadequate binding material used in construction against tensile and shearing stresses which developed during moderate to severe earthquakes Building configuration  Long building lengths subjected to differential ground vibrations ; unsymmetrical plans susceptible for torsion are some of the major causes of earthquake damages  The plan must be symmetrical as far as possible with respect to two orthogonal axes  The ratio of height to minimum width must be less than 2.5  The ratio of length to width must be less than 2  The plan shall not have protruding portions with dimensions larger than 20% of the plan dimension measured parallel to the direction of the protruding portion  Excessive penetration may lead to severe damages. The total opening areas does not exceed 20% of the plan area Architectural features  No architectural decorative elements should be incorporated in design without adequate structural detailing  All the interior elements like heavy shelves, false ceilings, decorative electrical fixtures, wall tiles, claddings should be adequately tied to the supporting structure  Provision of parking space on the ground floor in multi-storeyed apartment is a common phenomenon in most of the urban areas. This results in the presence of soft storey at the ground level and rigid walls above  The presence of large number of water storage units increased the extent of damage

An academic campus of 80 hectares has 30% area under student’s enclave, 25% area under staff housing and 15% area under major roads (of which 50% is within the academic complex). There are 5000 students and 1800 faculty and staff members having average family size of 4.45 living in campus. Find out the gross residential population density of the campus

Total area 30% area under student’s enclave 25% area under staff housing 15% area under major roads (of which 50% is within the academic complex) i.e 7.5% Total area excluding academic complex ALL THE BEST

= 80 hectares = 24 hectares = 20 hectares = 6 hectares _____________ = 50 hectares Page 24

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com ---------------------Total population in the residential area = 5000 (students) + 1800 (faculty & staff) = 6800 Family size = 4.45 No. of Dwelling units = 6800 / 4.45 = 1528 1528 Dwelling units are there in an area of 50 hectares Gross residential density = 1528 / 50 = 30.56 Dwelling units / hectare What is incremental housing? Why it is one of the preferred options in providing housing for economically weaker section of people? “a cage equipped with utilities. Residents could plug into this matrix their own units” As the size of the family increases, depending upon the affordability the residents can progressively develop the size of their units. Since different plans are already given to them as how to develop the core they have options to develop their own units as per their need. HOUSING DEFINITION Housing Household Dwelling unit Housing need Housing Demand Gross residential density No. of persons per acre over the whole of a defined area including public buildings, large open space and half the width of surrounding roads Net residential density No. of persons per acre of residential area including small garden patches, internal roads, half the width of surrounding roads up to 6m. Overall density No. of persons per acre over a large area of town affecting the general economy ALL THE BEST Page 25

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Town density No. of persons per acre over the entire town area including residential, industrial, commercial, educational, recreational, transportation unusable areas like river beds, quarry pits, streams, lakes, military land

Importance of housing  A place where one can take rest, sleep and cook food. House is a part and parcel of man's life and substantial part of man's lifetime is spent in his house.  The economic importance of housing is also very significant. It contributes to national income, national wealth and national employment. It also serves as a good source of revenue for central state and local governments.  In general, it can be stated that housing has potentiality to great extent in promoting human welfare, social life, economic growth, health of community and various other related aspects of human life.

Role of Architect / Planner in Housing Design  Generate no social pollution due to lack of privacy, group interaction, separation (class segregation) of income groups  Plot distribution must be maintainable i.e. eliminate the concept of no man’s land  Means to combat natural and unnatural hazards  Ensure efficient network and services for easy maintenance  A close knit for optimum density pattern  Maintain desired level of privacy  Guarantee acceptable - safety and standard of physical health Factors governing design of housing  Clients brief  Site  Climatologic  Development control parameters  Budget  Technology  Social, economic and cultural content of the community

Housing and Urban policy in India In the First Five Year Plan (1951-56), the emphasis was given on institution building and on construction of houses for Government employees and weaker sections. The Ministry of Works & Housing was constituted and National Building Organisation and Town & Country Planning Organisation were set up. A sizeable part of the plan outlay was spent ALL THE BEST Page 26

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com for rehabilitation of the refugees from Pakistan and on building the new city of Chandigarh. An Industrial Housing Scheme was also initiated. The Centre subsidised Scheme to the extent of 50% towards the cost of land and construction. The scope of housing programme for the poor was expanded in the Second Plan (195661). The Industrial Housing Scheme was widened to cover all workers. Three new schemes were introduced, namely, Rural Housing, Slum Clearance and Sweepers Housing. Town & Country Planning Legislations were enacted in many States and necessary organisations were also set up for preparation of Master Plans for important towns. The general directions for housing programmes in the Third Plan (1961-66) were coordination of efforts of all agencies and orienting the programmes to the needs of the Low Income Groups. A Scheme was introduced in 1959 to give loans to State Govts. for a period of 10 years for acquisition and development of land in order to make available building sites in sufficient numbers. Master Plans for major cities were prepared and the State capitals of Gandhi Nagar and Bhubaneswar were developed. The balanced urban growth was accorded high priority in the Fourth Plan (1969-74). The Plan stressed the need to prevent further growth of population in large cities and need for decongestion or dispersal of population. This was envisaged to be achieved by creation of smaller towns and by planning the spatial location of economic activity. Housing & Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) was established to fund the remunerative housing and urban development programmes, promising a quick turnover. A Scheme for Environmental Improvement or Urban Slums was undertaken in the Central Sector from 1972-73 with a view to provide a minimum level of services, like, water supply, sewerage, drainage, street pavements in 11 cities with a population of 8 lakhs and above. The scheme was later extended to 9 more cities. The Fifth Plan (1974-79) reiterated the policies of the preceding Plans to promote smaller towns in new urban centres, in order to ease the increasing pressure on urbanisation. This was to be supplemented by efforts to augment civic services in urban areas with particular emphasis on a comprehensive and regional approach to problems in metropolitan cities. A Task Force was set up for development of small and medium towns. The Urban Land (Ceiling & Regulation) Act was enacted to prevent concentration of land holding in urban areas and to make available urban land for construction of houses for the middle and low income groups. The thrust of the planning in the Sixth Plan (1980-85) was on integrated provision of services along with shelter, particularly for the poor. The Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT) was launched in towns with population below one lakh for provision of roads, pavements, minor civic works, bus stands, markets, shopping complex etc. Positive inducements were proposed for setting up new industries and commercial and professional establishments in small, medium and intermediate towns.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com The Seventh Plan (1985-90) stressed on the need to entrust major responsibility of housing construction on the private sector. A three-fold role was assigned to the public sector, namely, mobilisation for resources for housing, provision for subsidised housing for the poor and acquisition and development of land. The National Housing Bank was set up to expand the base of housing finance. NBO was reconstituted and a new organisation called Building Material Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC) was set up for promoting commercial production of innovative building materials. A network of Building Centres was also set up during this Plan period. The Seventh Plan explicitly recognised the problems of the urban poor and for the first time an Urban Poverty Alleviation Scheme known as Urban Basic Services for the Poor (UBSP) was launched. As a follow-up of the Global Shelter Strategy (GSS), National Housing Policy (NHP) was announced in 1988. The long term goal of the NHP was to eradicate houselessness, improve the housing conditions of the inadequately housed and provide a minimum level of basic services and amenities to all. The role of Government was conceived, as a provider for the poorest and vulnerable sections and as a facilitator for other income groups and private sector by the removal of constraints and the increased supply of land and services. The National Commission of Urbanisation submitted its report. The Report eloquently pointed out the reality of continuing and rapid growth of the urban population as well as the scale and intensity of urbanisation, the critical deficiencies in the various items of infrastructure, the concentration of vast number of poor and deprived people, the acute disparities in the access of shelter and basic services, deteriorating environmental quality and the impact of poor governance on the income and the productivity of enterprises. In the backdrop of this report the Eighth Plan (1992-97) for the first time explicitly recognised the role and importance of urban sector for the national economy. While growth rate of employment in the urban areas averaged around 3.8% per annum, it dropped to about 1.6% in the rural areas. Therefore, the urban areas have to be enabled to absorb larger increments to the labour force. The Plan identified the key issues in the emerging urban scenario:  the widening gap between demand and supply of infrastructural services badly hitting the poor, whose access to the basic services like drinking water, sanitation, education and basic health services is shrinking  unabated growth of urban population aggravating the accumulated backlog of housing shortages, resulting in proliferation of slums and squatter settlement and decay of city environment  high incidence of marginal employment and urban poverty as reflected in NSS 43 rd round that 41.8 million urban people lived below the poverty line. The response of the Plan to this scenario was the launching of Urban Poverty and Alleviation Programme of Nehru Rojgar Yojana (NRY)

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Demand for houses The demand for houses depends on the following factors  Availability of skilled labor  Available transport facilities  Cost of labor and materials of construction  Predictions of future demand  Rate of interest on investment, e.g. low rates of interest with facilities of long term repayment may facilitate investment in housing  Rate of population growth and urbanization  Supply of developed plots at reasonable prices  Taxation policy on real estates  Town planning and environmental conditions etc. Classification of residential buildings  Detached houses  Semi-detached houses  Row of houses  Apartments or flats  Skyscrapers Design of residential areas The residential areas are to be carefully designed with respect to the following aspects  Aesthetics  Basic materials  Housing unit  Layout  Size and shape  Street system The housing problems in urban and rural areas are different because of the following facts  Availability of land  Availability of materials  Availability of technical supervision  Economic conditions  Living habits  Social obligations

Rural housing India is a developing country with nearly 700 thousand villages with the main activity of the people as agriculture. It is therefore necessary to give serious thought to the overall development of villages also. The design of rural housing should be based on ALL THE BEST Page 29

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com characteristics of typical Indian village life and at the same time, the constructional features should correspond to the available men and materials. The central building research institute, roorkee has developed various techniques to make the rural housing schemes as economical as possible. These techniques include the production of building materials by using locally available raw materials and the building procedures can also be easily carried out by the locally available labor commensurate with the structural stability and durability aspects of the project. The rural housing policy should be based on the following three principles 1. Economic development It should be seen that there is all round economic development of the rural areas, which will help the villagers to maintain their houses and to repay the loans taken by them without much hardship. If possible, efforts should be made to obtain subsidies wither from government or other voluntary organisations to reduce the burden of the poor class people of villages. 2. Improvement The existing unfit rural houses should either be improved or reconstructed and for this purpose, the improvement scheme should be spread over a long period, say 10 to 15 years 3. Self-help The element of self-help should be added to bring down the cost of housing unit. However adequate technical guidance should be made available.

Following points should be considered at the time of selection of villages for housing project  The villages having population of backward class with bad living conditions should be given first chance  The villages which are flood affected and which are proposed to be rebuilt on sites free from damage of floods should be given preference  The villages which have become congested due to over-population should be selected For selecting villages under the improvement programme, the following factors should be considered  The majority of residents should be willing to improve or rebuild their houses on selfhelp basis and in accordance with the master plan prepared by the authority taking due care of existing trees, wells pucca houses monuments etc.  The village should offer voluntarily the sites for setting up co-operative brick kilns tiles preparation joinery lime manufacture, etc.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Agencies for housing Following are the three agencies, which may be considered responsible for the construction of houses 1. Government 2. Co-operative housing societies 3. Individuals  Government To provide housing on a large scale and even at subsidised rates, the supreme agency would naturally be government and semi-government bodies or departments. It is to be confessed that the principle of state assistance for housing though unsound in nature is unavoidable under the present condition. It is for this reason that such assistance  Co-operative housing societies  Individuals HUDCO It was setup in 1970 with the aim of promoting housing and urban development programmes in the country. HUDCO serves as the apex control agency for mobilisation of financial resources for housing and urban development programmes. The funds so generated are used by HUDCO for housing schemes of better quality houses for sale to the public on liberal terms and conditions The important borrowers from HUDCO are housing boards development authorities improvement trusts municipal corporations public sector undertakings private sector bodies, semi-govt. and govt. agencies private builders, etc. However the housing boards generally consume half of the total loan advanced by HUDCO. HUDCO has identified more housing agencies and as a result of this policy the number of housing agencies, which was only 12 in 1972, has gone up as high as 149 in 1981. The schemes financed by HUDCO are now spread over 381 towns and hundreds of villages The lending rate of interest charged by HUDCO varies with the nature of scheme for which loan is to be advanced. It looks with sympathy for the schemes, which are floated for the economically weaker section of the society, and it thus helps the under-privileged people substantially. One of the main objectives of HUDCO is also to finance or undertake the setting up of building material industries because of the fact that building materials constitute about 70% of the total cost of construction. It is therefore necessary to ensure a steady flow of essential building materials at reasonable prices especially to build houses for people of economically weaker sections and low-income group categories. Hence, to encourage the establishment of building material, industrial units, HUDCO advances loan on liberal grounds with low rate of interest.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com HUDCO has been in the forefront of Government’s efforts to come to the aid of disaster affected household, and has provided financial assistance for disaster rehabilitation housing to the tune of Rs. 2360 cores for construction of over 40 lakhs houses for earthquake, cyclone, and flood victims. HUDCO also promotes and provides consultancy services to help housing agencies to design low cost housing schemes, commercial projects townships and various other projects connected with housing and urban development programmes. For a sector of 2Km X 1Km size and gross density of 350 ppha, what will be the net density if non-residential land use constitutes 30% of land area? Area = 2Km X 1Km = 2 Sq. Km. = 2000 hectares Gross Density = 350 ppha Total population = 350 X 200 = 70,000 Net residential area = 70% of 200 hectares = 140 hectares 70,000 persons live in 140 hectares Net Density = 70,000 / 140 = 500 ppha An academic campus of 80 hectares has 30% area under student’s enclave, 25% area under staff housing and 15% area under major roads (of which 50% is within the academic complex). There are 5000 students and 1800 faculty and staff members having average family size of 4.45 living in campus. Find out the gross residential population density of the campus

Total area 30% area under student’s enclave 25% area under staff housing 15% area under major roads (of which 50% is within the academic complex) i.e 7.5% Total area excluding academic complex

= 80 hectares = 24 hectares = 20 hectares = 6 hectares _____________ = 50 hectares ----------------------

Total population in the residential area = 5000 (students) + 1800 (faculty & staff) = 6800 Family size = 4.45 ALL THE BEST Page 32

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com

No. of Dwelling units = 6800 / 4.45 = 1528 1528 Dwelling units are there in an area of 50 hectares Gross residential density = 1528 / 50 = 30.56 Dwelling units / hectare The 1991 housing census for a town of 2.5 lakhs with average household size of 5 persons shows a total number of 40,000 dwelling units. If the annual exponential population growth rate is 2.0%, what should be the average annual rate of dwelling unit supply to meet housing shortage in 2001? Assume a constant average household size and annual obsolescence rate of 5% No. of Dwelling units in 1991 = population / household size = 2,50,000 / 5 = 50,000, but as per census only 40,000 Dwelling units are there Existing Demand = 50,000 – 40,000 = 10,000 Dwelling units ____________________________ 1 Replacement need Obsolescence rate is 5% i.e. 5% of houses have to be replaced every year P(1-i)n = 40,000(1- 5/100)10 = 23,950 Dwelling units will be there after 10 years No. of houses to be replaced = 40,000 – 23,950 = 16,050________________________________ 2 Demand at future date Using population projection method Pt = Po X ert = 2,50,000 X 1.2214

[e2/100 X 10 = 1.2214, since exponential population growth rate is 2.0%]

= 3,05,350 No. of dwelling units after 10 years = 3,05,350 / 5 (household size) = 61,070 Future Demand Demand at future date – Existing no. of dwelling units 61,070 – 40,000 21,070__________________________________________________________________ ______3 Housing shortage = 1 +2+3 = 10,000 + 16,050 + 21,070 = 47,120 Dwelling units Average annual rate of Dwelling units supply = 47,12 Dwelling units / year An urban area is expected to accommodate during the next decade an additional population of 65,000 to the existing population of 2,25,000. Estimate the existing housing need and also the need at the end of the next decade based on the following information Present household size 4.75 persons ALL THE BEST Page 33

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Future household size 4.50 persons Housing stock to be replaced @ the end of the decade

4,500 units

Briefly outline the recommendation of the national housing policy  To encourage investment in housing and thereby achieve a sustained growth of the nation’s overall housing stock  To provide housing as part of the strategy for augmenting employment and upgrading skills  To motivate and assist the houseless households, to secure for itself, affordable shelter in the shortest possible time span  To reorient and strengthen public housing agencies, so that they could concentrate on provision of developed land with water supply, sanitation, roads, lighting, and other infrastructure facilities and leaving construction of houses to the people  To divert the attention of the housing agencies towards improving the housing conditions of the absolutely houseless and other disadvantageous groups in dire need of assistance  To endeavour to bring about an equitable distribution of land for housing through legal and fiscal measures and secure access to the poor households, to land  To attract more public investments in the housing sector by monetary and legal measures  To utilize science and technology to the needs of the shelter sector, both for optimizing the use of scarce, conventional building resources and for achieving cost reduction to levels affordable to various income groups  To promote repair, renovation and up gradation of existing housing stock  To curb speculation and profiteering in land and to arrest spiraling rents and lane values  To enhance housing stock by, promotion of research and development in available building materials, by imparting training for upgrading construction skills; by adopting appropriate and improved technology, by encourageang co-operative and group ghousing, by reviewing and modifying related laws and regulations which at present function as disincentives for housing development etc. Enlist special planning and design considerations for a housing complex in an earthquake prone area Foundation  Hard grounds are found to be suitable for all buildings  Construction of buildings on soils with low load bearing capacity and reclaimed sites should be avoided as far as possible in seismic areas  Loose sands with high water table subjected to violent ground shaking may cause differential settlement tilting or sinking of buildings Constructional aspects  Proper detailing of joints (wall to roof, wall to wall, beam to column ) for all type of construction should be made

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  The frame of building should have adequate ductility so as to permit energy dissipation through plastic deformation Behaviour of masonry walls  The behaviour of non-structural walls in recent earthquakes demonstrated the need for careful structural detailing and improved specifications and construction methods to avoid their brittle failure and to achieve effective composite action with the surrounding frame members Roofing  Use of lightweight roofs is recommended in the areas with medium, high and very high vulnerability. The use of A.C. and G.I. sheets is recommended Building materials  Most of the loss of life due to earthquakes was on account of collapse of nonengineered buildings constructed out of mud, stones, sun dried clay brick constructions etc.  The major cause of damage to adobe and stone masonry buildings is the inherent weakness of the material and inadequate binding material used in construction against tensile and shearing stresses which developed during moderate to severe earthquakes Building configuration  Long building lengths subjected to differential ground vibrations ; unsymmetrical plans susceptible for torsion are some of the major causes of earthquake damages  The plan must be symmetrical as far as possible with respect to two orthogonal axes  The ratio of height to minimum width must be less than 2.5  The ratio of length to width must be less than 2  The plan shall not have protruding portions with dimensions larger than 20% of the plan dimension measured parallel to the direction of the protruding portion  Excessive penetration may lead to severe damages. The total opening areas does not exceed 20% of the plan area Architectural features  No architectural decorative elements should be incorporated in design without adequate structural detailing  All the interior elements like heavy shelves, false ceilings, decorative electrical fixtures, wall tiles, claddings should be adequately tied to the supporting structure  Provision of parking space on the ground floor in multi-storeyed apartment is a common phenomenon in most of the urban areas. This results in the presence of soft storey at the ground level and rigid walls above  The presence of large number of water storage units increased the extent of damage What is incremental housing? Why it is one of the preferred options in providing housing for economically weaker section of people? “a cage equipped with utilities. Residents could plug into this matrix their own units” ALL THE BEST Page 35

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com As the size of the family increases, depending upon the affordability the residents can progressively develop the size of their units. Since different plans are already given to them as how to develop the core they have options to develop their own units as per their need. Housing Minimum plinth area per dwelling Minimum floor area per dwelling Minimum size of dwelling Desirable persons per room Density of dwellings: Area Low density area Medium density area High density area Average density of dwellings Average size of family

32.5 sq.m 23.25 sq.m 2 living rooms, kitchen and bath 2.0

Dwelling units per hectare 25 50 75 40 to 50 5 persons

Residential plot sizes for towns in India Income group Dimensions in mts. Low income group 9 x 15 12 x 15 Middle income group 12 x 18 14 x 21 15 x 24 High income group 18 x 27 24 x 30 27 x 36 Public housing and multiple 90 x 90 family plots (90 sq.m. per 90 x 180 and multiples of 90 family with 12 m. to 18m. road) Plot area coverage and floor area ratio Residential Area of plot in sq.m. 100 – 200 200 – 300 300 – 400 400 – 500 500 - 1,000 Above 1000 Floor area ratio: 1.0 to 3.0

Area in sq.mts. 135 180 216 294 360 486 720 972 8100 16,200

Max. Percentage of coverage 65 60 55 50 45 40

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Setback for residential buildings Front and rear set backs Depth of site in mts. Minimum front in mts. Up to 15 1.5 15 - 18 1.5 18 - 21 3.0 21 - 24 4.0 24 - 27 4.5 27 - 30 4.5 30 - 36 6.0 Above 36 9.0 Side set backs Width of site in mts. Up to 9 9 - 12 12 - 15 15 - 21 21 - 27 27 - 30 Above 30

Minimum rear in mts. 1.5 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 4.5

Minimum front in mts. 1.0 1.25 1.25 1.75 3.0 3.0 4.5

Minimum rear in mts. 1.0 1.75 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 6.0

Slum UNESCO defines “a slum is a building, a group of buildings, or area characterized by over crowding, deterioration, unsanitary conditions or absence of facilities or amenities which because of these conditions or any of them, endanger the health, safety or moral of it inhabitants or community. The highest degree of general crime and gangsterism is in the central city slums Slums may be broadly defined as an area with untidy and ill ventilated residences without proper sanitation and water supply. In slum and blighted areas we can find “submerged humanity” and social disorganization. Poor mostly inhabit these areas. Blight Any area or a part of urban or rural in deterioration is called “Blighted area irrespective of its degree of deterioration” The blight may be in physical conditions such as topological blight, or economic blight as the semi or full deterioration of commercial activities in that area. Obsolescence It can be defined as an associate of blights and slums, since the basic nature is same for all. An area which is unfit for the present use either due to the change in the pattern of living or due to cultural or economic changes is called “obsolescent area”

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Formation of squatters New group seek entry in development process of any settlement create a new type of residential settlement coordination and contrast to that of old urban groups. Operation takes place in groups initially consisting of relatives and kin or members from same caste, district region or language. This process involves illegal occupancy or squatting as public or private lands. These are autonomous settlements, which are manifestation of uncontrolled urban growth. Major characteristic ‘neo rural’ or village like pattern sine the dwellers follow traditional procedures. Land of little public utility along drainage line, railway line or land with difficult access, on the ridge, or on awkward shaped lands in unattractive surrounding. Causes of slum Decentralisation – rich and middle class move to extended portion of town, but poor? Economic conditions – umemployment and growth of population Education – lack of education – dragged into social evils Improper use of land Industrialisation – slums are direct evil result form industrialization Lack of zoning – random development Migration Powers of local authority – if authority do not possess adequate powers to control the development of the town Slum Improvement Programme (SIP) Envisage provision of lavatories, potable water, drains, roads and streetlights in slums. Service charge to be paid by slum dwellers to Municipal Corporation.

Slum upgradation programme (SUP) 3 Features :  Comprehensive approach  Loan assistance  Beneficiary participation Provides basic amenities on a higher scale than slum improvement programme Amenity Lavatories Water taps Drainage Slum Improvement programme 1 seat for 20 to 50 person 1 tap for 150 person Slum upgradation programme 1 seat for 20 to 50 person 1 tap for 15 household

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Concept of Self Help Housing by John Turner FC The elementary resources of housing are land, material tools, skills, energy and finance, used properly and economically by people themselves and local organizations control themselves Concept of Self Help Housing by Rod Burgess  Not necessarily, self built  Means self managed  Some of the elements of self help is present in any form of housing – alterations / additions  A house whether institutional or self built consumes a product of labour which also has market tag and can be realized by selling or renting  Burgess says self-help housing is a commodity produced primarily for consumption of its producers, rather than for exchange, and the difference essentially is between housing as a real commodity and housing as a potential commodity Concept of value is the main spine of argument between Turner and Burgess Turner (use value) Burgess (market value)  Housing is a means of personal  Does not view housing outside expression economic marketing process  A result of an incremental process  House is a commodity that has market  A process not a product value

Building regulations for rural areas Considering literacy levels elaborate byelaws, are of no use. Simple thumb rules easily understood by villages are required. Panchayat can be the monitoring agency, to check if the thumb rules are followed. Thumb rule should be easy to implement with little technical assistance and minor departures may be tolerated. Every residential building shall provide the following basic requirement  Living and bed area  Kitchen  Verandah  Courtyard  Bathing  Storage  Cattle shed Density Road width Plot size Min width of plot Plot coverage upto 360 sq.m 25 – 40 / hectare 7.5m min. on new sites 4.5 m on existing built up sites 140 sq.m (min) 9m 50%

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 50% for first 360 sq.m and 33% for remaining Plinth height for the main house 30cm for the main house with poor 45 cm drainage or which is susceptible to flood for cattle shed 15cm Setback front 3m Side - upto 160 sq.m. plot 1.5m Above 160 sq.m. plot 2.4m Ht of floor for flat roof 2.75m clear For sloped roof 2.25m at the lowest point Room size for two room tenements 9 sq.m. Min. width 2.5 m Kitchen 4.5 sq.m. Min. width 1.8 m Bath 1.8 sq.m. Ventilation – general 8% of floor area In warm humid climate 10% of floor area Distance of cattle shed and latrine from 4.5m to 6m habitable space Size of latrine 2.1 sq.m Min. width 1.8 m Water supply – individual or group supply Within a distance of 7.5m Disposal of sullage Soakpit or kitchen garden Size of door clear ht 1.8m Clear width 0.75m Regarding housing design NBO states 1. Design should be in accordance to customs and traditions 2. Investigate on housing condition, architectural characteristics and living habit for people 3. Conduct sample survey for the following  Shape, size and location of plot with respect to village  Orientation of plots  Dimensions of rooms, position and size of openings, niches, shelves etc.  Prevailing pocession of articles and furniture  Detailed study of any decorative feature or other feature of special interest  Landscaping couryard arrangement inside  Position of doors and windows in bathroom and latrine There are six rural development centers attached to engineering colleges to study rural housing and in turn help NBO in formulating standards A loan of Rs. 8,00,000 has been granted by a financial institution to an individual for the construction of his house. The loan has to be repaid by way of annuity at the rate of ALL THE BEST Page 40 Above 360 sq.m

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 13.5% interest per annum un 15 equal installments from the year in which the loan is taken by the house owner. Calculate the yearly installment for repaying the loan The general formula for the future value of a single flow is S = P (1+i)n where S = the future value after n years P = principle amount i = rate of interest n = number of years future value of an annuity is given by the following formula sn = R { ( [1+i] n – 1 ) / i } where sn = future value of an annuity which has duration of n years R = constant periodic flow [annual installment] To calculate the yearly installment, the future value of annuity has to be equated to the general formula for the future value R { ( [1+i] n – 1 ) / i } = P (1+i)n From the given problem R { ( [1+13.5 / 100] 15 – 1 ) / 13.5 / 100 } = 8,00,000 (1+13.5 / 100)15 = 1,09,605.16 The yearly installment is Rs. 1,09,605.16 An urban area is expected to accommodate during the next decade an additional population of 65,000 to the existing population of 2,25,000. Estimate the existing housing need and the need at the end of the next decade based on the following information Present household size 4.75 persons Future household size 4.50 persons Housing stock to be replaced @ the end of the decade 4,500 units Illustrate any one of the best examples of residential sector planning in post independent new towns of India Residential sector in chandigarh  The basic planning unit of the city is a sector, 800 by 1200 metres with a population varying between 3,000 and 20,000, depending upon the size of the plots and the topography of the area  The dimensions of the sector are derived from a “modular” conception. Corbusier established a distance of 400 metres as a sort of outer limit of modular perception a distance beyond which measures could not be readily grasped.  Each sector is based on the concept of a neighbourhood unit which ensures necessities like shops, educational institutions, health centers, places of recreation and worship within a walkable distance

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Introvert in character, a sector is bounded by fast-traffic roads running on its four sides and permitting only four vehicular entries into its interior Concept of “post occupancy evaluation” in architecture Post occupancy evaluation is the systematic evaluation of buildings in use, from the perspective of the people who use them. It assesses how well buildings match users needs, and identifies ways to improve building design, performance and fitness for purpose. Post occupancy evaluation differs significantly form conventional surveys and market research. It uses the direct, unmediated experiences of building users as the basis for evaluating how a building works for its intended use.

City planning HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES EGYPTIAN PERIOD  Settlements were located on river banks which were subjected to flood and hence impact of straight lines and parallel lines were derived by receding lines of flood water which were parallel and also almost straight as the river Nile  Transportation within the settlement was probably on foot, but inter-settlement movement was by river  Changing flood level of river needed some protection wall on the river from side of a settlement  Central spine of transportation was on surface and not water as the river was wide and settlements grew only on one side of the river  The technology of stone cutting and curving and the tremendous pomp’s and splendors of the pharaohs led to advanced construction technologies TEL –EL –AMORNA 3000 B.C.         Along the river bank Six moles long Residential districts grouped around the imperial and sacred buildings Sacred buildings and imperial structures were linked by broad avenues and geometrically planned streets Temple enclosure was 1/3 mile x ½ mile with large plazas Courts and administrative buildings were on either side of the principal thoroughfare, the buildings were surrounded by pools and summer cottages Palaces on both sides of avenue connected by a brick bridge Buildings on more or less a set plan Page 42

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Buildings had reception rooms, domestic apartment and bathrooms. KAHUN 3000 B.C.       Slave town, slaves engaged in Ill Hun pyramid Planned in grid pattern Narrow lanes as passageways and also for drainage Wall surrounded the town to protect against flood and escape of slaves Sun-dried brick construction Rooms crowded about common courtyards

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Carbon test of the excavations reveals the approximate period of this civilization was 3000 B.C. or earlier. MOHENJODARA  No fortification  Major streets in the N-S direction  Broadly at right angles  Streets within built-up areas were narrow  Zoning was distinct for distinct groups, commerce at the meeting of east road and first street, near palace  Three broad divisions of the settlement: o The religious, institutional and cultural areas - around monastery and great bath in the western part including temple. o The northern part - principally for agriculture and industries o The southern part – principally for administration, trade and commerce  Construction technique was very well advanced: o Buildings were of masonry construction (sun-dried bricks) o Ranging from two rooms to mansions with many rooms o Underground sewerage and drainage from houses o Pumps (helical) to pump water in great bath o Principal buildings were monastery and bath – indicating the influence of religion as a culture (not for defense)  Development of art and craft, science and technology: excellent way of adjustment to contours CRETE CIVILIZATION GOURNIA  Houses upto 3 storeys for palace with living room, bedroom, store, kitchen, toilet, luxury room  Colonnades timber light wells in the middle windows recessed  Roads were paved with underground drainage, roads were narrow, 10’ to 12’ wide, stepped where needed ALL THE BEST Page 43

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Aqueducts for water with coverings, etc  Central building directly adjacent to roads  Houses were enlarging horizontally and vertically GREEK CIVILIZATION They had conscious attempt of Town planning: Hippodamus, the town planner THE HIPPODOMIAN-PLANNING CONCEPT Advocated the GRID IRON pattern of road layout. This system was introduced to rebuild the Greek cities, which were destructed by the Persian invasion. For laying out the perpendicular roads, individual buildings were made the common denominator and the functions of the buildings were given importance.

PRINCIPLES OF TOWN PLANNING OF GREEKS  Town divided into three parts o Gods o Administration o Dwelling houses  Town must satisfy the requirements of o Hygiene o Defense o Circulation  The city plan was conceived to be serving all people. Three classes of people o Craftsman o Workers o Soldiers  The meeting place – near the temple, and the temple at the heart of the town  The heart of the city, or the central place, approximately 5% of the town area, was to have o The temple – the center of religion o The assembly hall – legislature o The council chamber – chief executive o The council hall – judiciary o The agora or market place o The agora square – the central open space, which will accommodate all gatherings on public functions and ceremonies  The market should be on the periphery for easy transport of goods  Roads should be at right angles, oriented to the points of campus in order to make the house according to the direction of prevailing wind and sun  Arrangement of streets were to be such as to give access to houses and lead to more importance to community areas, but no interference with the assembly of people in the central area (this means that all major roads will meet the Agora square but not cross it through)

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Building standards: houses were to be of same size (say 50’x50,) block within which variations may occur MILETUS  Destroyed in 16th century by Persians who occupied Greece.  Rebuilt in 5 th century  Extensive, regularized form of chess-board planning, an outstanding event in town building history  Skill and imagination extraordinarily applied in its adaptation to a peninsular site  Two main divisions of the city  Agora was a plan disposition, an example of dignity and coherence of arrangement  The community zone had markets, temples, council house, sota (gymnasium), shops, colonnades  Importance attached to placing and planning of dwelling houses  Profuse use of marbles in construction of public buildings  Excellent space organization and space articulation

SELINUS 700B.C  Fairly high level plateau about 100 ft above sea level  Land surrounded by sea and river on three sides  Central spine road and two cross-roads about 25’ wide  Central area – temple agora location  Due importance given to the roads that connect the detached temple group on the eastern hill – an unusual feature of selinus  The layout is rectilinear, rather than chess-board, and shows remarkable adaptation to the circumstances and coherence of arrangement  Its situation, planning and architectural developments were excellent  Courtyard planning for houses, less class distinction, brick and tile roofing and wooden structure, narrow alleys between roads for drainage, frontage upon 16’ wide roads  The philosophy was of special attention to the public buildings and not houses, the principle was like precinct planning  Northern extension later for principally commercial activities – a good historical evidence of an expanding city with expanding commercial activities ROMAN PERIOD ROMAN PRINCIPLES OF TOWN LAYOUT  Towns were to be founded only on three occasions o When the town becomes a colonial center o When it was made a local capital o When it became an imperial residence ALL THE BEST Page 45

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Towns shall comply with o Fulfilling religious auspices  First to fix the boundaries of the town. Hence, to establish the city wall first. There were different religious activities within the town and outside  Next of importance were the two cross road: Decumanus - running E - W Cards - running N – S  Sun god was the god of soldiers. Hence these roads were at the cardinal directions representing the sun  The forum i.e. the central area, was to be developed at the crossing of the main roads  The rest of the town was to be divided into squares or rectangular plots of one side equaling 120’ o Defense requirements which include, in addition to the defense wall  The town must be quick and simple to lay out i.e. to avoid all curvature in streets  The town must be easy to police and defend i.e. long distance visibility for easy policing needed roads to be absolutely straight  The roads must be at least 8 ft. wide o Technical considerations include  Setback of 2-1/2 ft. from boundaries. That means, in case of rectangular plot division the minimum space between buildings on the sides was 5 ft.  Drainage was elaborately prescribed  Water supply was also duly considered – brought to the town by aqueducts and bridges All construction within the town was to be of concrete (lime) and stone, and in specific cases they might be faced by bricks DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROMAN FORUM AND GREEK AGORA Issues Roman Forum Greek Agora Purposes Purveying of law, show of right A place for gathering for all and might, recreation of nobles and cultural, social, religious ceremonies to ritualize the communicative and commercial observance of state laws as religion purpose Components Basilica - for law suits The Temple – for religion Thermae – for bathing and games The Assembly Hall – social Amphitheatres – for races and gathering and legislative contests The Council Chamber - Executive Theaters – for drama State temple – for religion No shop The chief Basilica – symbol of outward The Temple – symbol of outward ALL THE BEST Page 46

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com monument and symbolism Approaches expression of the national love for expression of simplicity, national power love for beauty and freedom for all Approaches were principally at the Approaches were mainly at the center of the sides of the Forum corners of the Agora

CHARACTERISTICS OF ROMAN TOWNS  The Roman Empire, since Julius Caesar, extended gradually over Africa, Spain, France, Gaul, Low Countries and England.  The town planning was slightly different in different areas depending on geography and resource potential, which determined the ruling strategy  Each city occupies a commanding site and includes building works of enormous scale and impressive stylistic quality  Chessboard planning – expressing and law and order. Crossing of parallel and equidistant streets at right angles to one another, square house blocks, 120 ft. either side  Cross streets occasionally stepped and bridged over streams around city  Generally rectangular walled city, entered by several gates, showing complete town organization  Colonnaded street, usually north to south columns at 15 ft. interval – for shops and important houses  From religious significance of the temples by Greeks – there was a change to the civic influence of law courts (Basilica), which became more important than other public buildings.  Central area was occupied by Forum having no shops, and sometimes having temple and theatres nearby only  Outside gate – stadium, street of Tombo (Pompeii), Triumphal arches  Aqueducts, sanitation, public health considerations were excellent for the noble’s areas  Excellent building stones of enormous size of pieces incorporated in the civic buildings. TIMGAD 1 AND 2-CENT A.D.  Typically rigid chessboard plan  355 metres by 325 metres. Area = 30 acres  Principally designed for residential colony  Abundant water supply  Rigid formality of plan  Eleven parallel cross-streets in either direction, with surface terracing over undulating ground. This gives an unparallel completeness in its architecture and majestic feeling  The Forum (160’ x 145’), the market, temple site and other non-residential buildings were artificially raised above the general street level  The public buildings had porticoes, colonnades and other features, giving variety to the architectural scene  Some houses were as big as 200 ft. x 200 ft. ALL THE BEST Page 47

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CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA MAURYA PERIOD King Chandragupta was the founder of Mauryan dynasty. He had kautilya (known also as Chanakya) as his Prime Minister. He is the author of the well-known Sanskrit book of ‘Arthashastra’ containing discourses on many subjects, inter alia duties of Government, administration and also on Town and Country planning and Housing. A short extract from his book on the subject of Town and Country planning and Housing is given below EXTRACTS FROM CHANAKYA’S ARTHASHASTRA Some interesting extracts relating to Town and Country planning in Arthashastra composed by Chanakya in the Maurya period is given below: Regional considerations:  Town, which is congested, should be freed of surplus population, which should then be housed in a new place. The towns should be so situated as they would be in a position to help each other.  There should be a ‘sangrahan’ among ten villages, a ‘sarvatik’ among two hundred, a ‘dronamukh’ among four hundred and a ‘sthaniya’ among eight hundred villages.  People who come to stay at the time of a new settlement or those who come to reside later in this new settlement should be exempted from payment of taxes for some years. In the new village, there should be higher proportion of agriculturists and shudras. There should be a market provided for the sale of goods received from traders on highways.  Dams should be constructed over river nalas. Temples and gardens should be provided. Arrangements should be made for looking after the aged, the children and informal persons. Cereals and wealth will grow if the agriculturists are kept busy. Attempts should be made to protect and increase quarries, forests and canals. Town planning:  A city should be located in the central part of a country to facilitate trade and commerce.  The site selected for the purpose of this city should be quite large in area, and on the banks of a river, or by the side of an artificial or natural lake, which never goes dry.  Its shape should be circular, rectangular or square as would suit the topography. There should be water on all sides.  Separate areas should be provided for marketing different goods.  There should be a wall around the town, which should be six dandas high and twelve dandas wide.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Beyond this wall there should be three moats of 14 feet, 12 feet and 10 feet wide to be constructed four arm-lengths apart. The depth should be three-fourth of width.  Three east - west and three North – south roads, should divide the town. The main roads should be eight dandas wide and other roads four dandas wide.  The palace should be in the central part. It should face either north or east.  The houses of priests and ministers should be on the south-east, traders, skilled workers, and kshatriyas on the east, the treasury, goldsmiths and industries on the south, forest produce on the northeast and doctors city fathers, army commander, artists, on the south.  Temples should be located in the center of the town.  Cemeteries should be located on the north and east of the town, that for the higher caste to be located on the south.  The depressed classes should be housed beyond cemetery. There should be one well for every group of ten houses. Housing  Foundation of houses should be two arm lengths deep. Every house should be provided with a latrine and a well  For festivals, special bathrooms and toilet rooms should be constructed.  The water should be drained by means of a Nala having sufficient slope.  The open space between two houses and two balconies should be four feet lengths wide.  The front door should be four-foot lengths wide. There should be no obstruction to the door shutter opening inside.  To ensure lighting of the room a small window should be provided high up in the wall. Roof should stand rains.  Those who obstruct steps, Nahanis, or cause any damage to the walls of building due to sullage water or dirty water, they will be severely punished.  A drain must be provided for carrying away wastewater, it should have an adequate velocity.  Those who throw waste on the streets will be severely punished.  The bathrooms, latrines, grinding place and open spaces, excluding special halls and rooms must be made available for the common use of all tenants, in the house.  Those who will leave the house for their own accord must pay a year’s rent to the landlord.  A census should be taken of all men and women wherein information should be noted down about the caste, Gotra, occupation, income and expenditure. For summer season, arrangements should be kept ready for attending to extinguishing of fires. SAMRAT ASHOK The Mauryan Empire attained its maximum glory in the time of Samrat Ashok. The empire covered the whole of India (except Assam and some southern part) Afghanistan, ALL THE BEST Page 49

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Baluchistan, Kashmir and Nepal. He became the champion of Buddhism and engraved principles of this religion on pillars rocks and caves in the various parts reference has already made in the last chapter to the numerous viharas built by him especially in Magadha, now known as Bihar on this account. He also dug wells; planted trees built rest houses and hospitals. The Ashok pillar at Sarnath, bearing a Lion and a wheel has been incorporated in the National Flag of free India to signify unit of India prevailing in Ashok period. The Mauryan Empire was divided into provinces, cities and Municipalities. Village administration was in the hands of ‘Gramics’. For ten villages there was a ‘Gopa’ and above him a ‘sthanika’. Taxes collected from citizens were spent on public welfare works such as tree plantation, digging of lakes, and constructing rest houses and hospitals

THE GUPTA PERIOD There followed a period of five hundred years of political instability after the collapse of Mauryan Empire. The influence of the Budha religion somewhat waned and Hindu religion again revived. The reign of samudragupta and his son Chandragupta II, popularly known as vikramaditya is looked upon as the golden age of India. This period was after 320 A.D. and corresponds to the Roman period in the west KING VIKRAMADITYA King Vikramaditya was a great patron of learning and nine great scholars called ‘Navratnas (nine jewels) adorned his court. The celebrated kalidas, poet and dramatist was one of them classical Sanskrit reached wonderful heights of its glory. Cities like Ujjain, pataliputra (patna), Mathura and sharavati become great centers of learning and culture. Fa Hein, a Chinese traveler who visited India during the fourth century A.D. writes that ‘the government was liberal. People had enough food clothes and housing. They lived an easy and a comfortable life. Wealth was multiplied by industry and trade. Art and architecture entered a classical stage. Caves at Ajantha and Yellora with their world famous paintings belong to this period. The famous Iron pillar at Delhi near Qutb Minar was cast by Kumar gupta in the fifth century A.D. MANASARA VASTUSHASTRA Another elaborate treatise on town planning in ancient India. It is perhaps of a later date – about 6th century A.D. There are several chapters in this book on town planning and construction of buildings. One interesting feature however deserves special mention. There are eight different types of towns and villages according to the shapes: ALL THE BEST Page 50

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com         Dandaka Sarvathobhadra Nandyavarta Padmaka Swastika Prastara Karmuka Chaturmukha

Dandaka  Dandaka type of town plan provides for two main entrance gates and is generally adopted for the formation of small towns and villages, the village offices being located in the east.  The female deity of the village or the chamadevata will generally be located outside the village and the male deities in the northern portion. Sarvathobhadra  This type of town plan is applicable to larger villages and towns, which have to be constructed on a square sites.  According to this plan, the whole town should be fully occupied by houses of various descriptions and inhabited by all classes of people.  The temple dominates the village. Nandyavarta  This plan is commonly used for the construction of towns and not for villages.  It is generally adopted for the sites either circular or square, with not less than three thousand houses, but not more than four thousand.  The streets run parallel to the central adjoining streets with the temple of the presiding deity in the center of the town.  “Nandyavarta” is the name of a flower, the form of which is followed in this layout. Padmaka  This type of plan was practiced for building of the towns with fortress all round.  The pattern of the plan resembles the petals of lotus radiating outwards from the center.  The city used to be practically an island surrounded by water, having no scope for expansion Swastika  Swastika type of plan contemplates some diagonal streets dividing the site into certain triangular plots.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  The site need not be marked out into a square or rectangle and it may be of any shape.  A rampart wall surrounds the town, with a moat at its foot filled with water.  Two main streets cross each other at the center, running south to north and west to east. Prastara  The characteristic feature of this plan is that the site may be either square or rectangular but not triangular or circular.  The sites are set apart for the poor, the middle class, the rich and the very rich, the sizes of the sites increasing according to the capacity of each to purchase or build upon.  The main roads are much wider compared to those of other patterns.  The town may or may not be surrounded by a fort. Karmuka  This plan is suitable for the place where the site of the town is in the form of a bow or semi-circular or parabolic and mostly applied for towns located on the seashore or riverbanks.  The main streets of the town run from north to south or east to west and the cross streets run at right-angles to them, dividing the whole area into blocks.  The presiding deity, commonly a female deity, is installed in the temple build in any convenient place. Chaturmukha  Chaturmukha type of plan is applicable to all towns starting from the largest town to the smallest village.  The site may be either square or rectangular having four faces.  The town is laid out east to west lengthwise, with four main streets.  The temple of the presiding deity will be always at the center.

“VASTUPURUSHA MANDALA” AND ITS APPLICABILITY IN MODERN URBAN STRUCTURE  Purusha and Mandala are associated with vaastu (site).  Vastu encompasses the house with the site and its environment.  According to the Vedic thought, Purusha is not only the cause and life behind all prakriti, but also behind all creations of Man.  Purusha is consciousness, the life source. It is also called atman.  The Vastupurusha Mandala is a grid of square, regarded as a perfect figure, is conceived to be a fundamental form in architecture and all other shapes are derived from it. ALL THE BEST Page 52

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  The Vastupurusha Mandala offered the formula to determine the functions of the building in relation to its orientation.  The Vasturatnakara assigns specific functions to each direction.  The southeast for example, is dedicated to fire and northeast to the element Water. Invariably, the correspondence with the elements would determine the position of the rooms in the house.  The space assigned to the region of fire, for instance, would be used for building a kitchen or reserved as a source for heat and warmth.  The Mandala also served as a guide to locate the buildings on site and determining the position of the shrines in a temple complex.

MEDIEVAL PERIOD  Towns were walled and fortified – like an island in a hostile world  Founded on irregular terrains, occupying hill tops or islands  Built by merchant, craftsmen and shopkeepers against deudalism. Hence, local loyalties grew up  Irregular road pattern inside the fortification wall to confuse the invaders; but roads were paved  The most commanding position was occupied by the church  The city council of the merchants and craftsmen and the role in administration and civic and cultural life developed local patriotism  Merchants love in gain or profit manifestation expanding benefit of fellow citizens, - building churches, founding hospitals buying off market tolls  A new dimension of civic spaces emerged  The most common meeting place was in the market square.  Civic buildings were around it  Open spaces, the piazza, the plaza, the place, were very common  Characteristics of Medieval open spaces: o Demarcated by a continuous row of public buildings o Monuments, statuary, etc. will stand off the main streets o Sides are, or appear to be, closed o Visual expression of formality o Proportion was to enhance principal buildings; width was not less than twice the height  Houses were simple, living and sleeping spaces were in the upp0er floor, the ground floor used for storage, workshops and kitchen  Waste disposal within houses rarely provided (only some had privies)  Thatch – covered roof, sometimes fire-proof roofs  Streets were usually paved and maintained by the owner of the property facing upon them THE BAROQUE CITY-PLANNING CONCEPT OF MONARCHY AND MONUMENTALISM  The importance was laid upon both mass and space ALL THE BEST Page 53

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  The main features of Baroque planning were as follows: o Avenues o Fountains o Axis o Geometry Example: the shone brunn palace at Germany where sides of the trees were also chopped off along the road to achieve the “axis” of the design. THE VIJAYANAGAR CIVILIZATION: The silver spot of India and especially for the Hindus during the medieval period was the emergence of Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagar, on the banks of the Tungabhadra, established in the fourteenth century, it played an important role in the social and cultural history of south India, for about three centuries out of which the earlier two hundred years were years of glory. The ruler of vijayanagar was Krishna Dev Raya (1599 – 1529). People loved and respected him. Foreigners admired him. During his time, vijayanagar kingdom reached climax of its power and glory. Vijaynagar Town was beautiful with temples, palaces, and gardens. Sculpture and painting rose of great heights as could be seen from ruins of Hampi. The population of the Town was more than five lakhs. The Bazaars were rich and full of all commodities; many articles of jewellery and precious stones were sold. Encouragement was given to Sanskrit literature. Sayanacharya wrote commentaries on Rigveda. MUGHAL PERIOD In contrast to the builders of cities like Mohenjo-daro and Harappa or the Hindu sthapatis who right down to modern times designed villages upon a magic grid diagram, Islamic architects frequently left the layout of streets to chance or allowed this to develop organically as the settlement grew in size. It was not until the sixteenth century that one Islamic ruler in India, the great Mughal Akbar, took on the task of planning an entire residential town, comprising palaces, Mosques, or travelers bungalow etc. His old residence of Agra could not be expanded any further owing to the unfavourable terrain and dusty jumble of houses. Hence, he decided to move his residence from Agra to an n auspicious mountain, Sikri where a hermit named salim chisti was residing.

FATEHPUR SIKRI

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Fatehpur sikri had a rectangular town hall with it longer side running parallel to the line of the ridge.  Along its axis i.e., from northeast to southwest ran the principle thoroughfare, which led to the highest part of the ridge where the palace stood.  A wall only on three sides to the northeast in enclosed the town fronted on a lake, formed artificially in some low-lying ground by damming a river.  Today the lake had dried up and the houses of the townsfolk on either side of the ridge have disappeared.  For shortage of water compelled the emperor and his suite to leave these buildings after they had been occupied for less than two decades.  The plan shows that all the buildings do not fit in with the general orientation of the town.  The caravan serais, mint, treasury and baths, located on the hillside follow the natural contours i.e., the axis of the town.  The mosque had to be oriented towards Mecca.  Since the plateau extends from the southwest to the northeast and the ideal orientation ran from north to south, the different courts had to be staggered one behind the other. TOWN OF SHAHJAHANABAD (DELHI)  The site plan of the Red Fort is characterized by emphasis on the axial relationship between successive courts.  The Red Fort at Delhi was evidently planned as a rectangle with sides in the proportion 3:4; in the east it fronts on the River Jumna, but since an arm of the river would have formed an acute angle with the north wall, the architect preferred to include this triangular area within the walls of the fort. Only this reason does the wall have an irregular shape. The southern corners of the rectangle formed by the walls are cut off; corresponding recesses in the north western and north - eastern corners.  The palace was divided by its east-west axis into a northern and a southern part, in the proportion 1:1. The visitor enters the fort along this main axis, on which lie the reception courts. Perpendicular to this it was planned to build a long bazaar, extending from the south gate to another one in the north; this bazaar divides the palace in the proportion 1:2. Since the north wall lay along the riverbank, there could be no north gate and the bazaar from the start lacked the connection it needed with one of the streets of the town. The northern part of the bazaar thus formed a blind alley; whether it was ever completed or used is open to doubt.  The area west of the large bazaar was reserved for the servant and soldier’s quarters. At the point where the north-south and east-west axis intersects there is a square court, still accessible to the public.  In the eastern periphery of the fort, on the east-west axis, lie the emperor’s private apartments, which form a second axis running from north to south; without exception they are oriented towards the Jumna - recalling a similar alignment in the fort at Agra. Between the northern part of the bazaar and the imperial chambers there were gardens and offices; to the north of the gardens lay the houses of princes. South of the east-west axis lay the zenana area. ALL THE BEST Page 55

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Hence in Mughal period cities like Agra, Delhi was re-developed. Fatehpur sikri was entirely planned. Fortification was strengthened in Bijapur, Lucknow. They built many forts in places like Agra, Delhi and developed beautiful ornamental gardens popularly known as ‘Mughal Gardens’ some of them are still in good conditions, for e.g. Kabul Bagh at panipat by Babur, Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh by shah Jahan, Lal Bagh by Haider Ali. In the same period, other rulers also built beautiful cities like Jaipur and Vijayanagar with new concepts of town planning. JAIPUR CITY  The city of jaipur can be described perhaps the only solitary example of a planned city. It was originally conceived and laid out by the Rajput king Maharajah Jaisingh in the eighteenth century. The city was built in 1753 within six years of the laying of its foundation stone on a carefully prepared plan, with broad avenues and public buildings.  But it is to sawai Ramsingh that the credit of making jaipur a world-famous city; he gave the city its universal pink colour; he founded all the Institutions by which Jaipur came to be ranked amongst the most progressive princely stats in India.  Jaipur had originally well laid out roads with ‘Geometric precision and Arithmetical accuracy’, with symmetrical open squares and fountains lined with uniform buildings THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT IN AMERICA  World fairs were held in Chicago in 1893  The need was felt for a fair that would be big, broad and beautiful in contrast to the cities which were crammed, monotonous and ugly  ‘Make no little plans’ was the move. The plans were of colossal scale with monumental proportions that pure the visions of past kings to shame  City beautiful movement started – center was Beaux Arts in Paris  Civic center became popular theme  Open space landscaped in the traditional fashion, fountains distributed about plazas and gardens, limited number of public buildings at vista points FACTORY TOWN In 1816, Robert Owen, an industrialist in England proposed a plan of a community that could be Self-supporting and reduce the cost of relief which was very heavy and with Large central open space for community buildings Surrounding the dwellings were large gardens Surrounding the center were dwellings Main roads encircle the entire compound The factories and workshops were outside the community across the main roads The entire compound surrounded by agricultural area of 1000 to 1500 acres Total community areas was to be of 50 to 100 acres Total population = 1200 or so It was a plan for a co-operative community combining industry and agriculture ALL THE BEST Page 56

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SIR EBENEZER HOWARD (1850-1928) A well-known sociologist, who after studying the industrialist evils in Britain gave the concept of ‘Garden City’, It soon became the landmark in the history of town planning. He had an idea which he set forth in little book entitled ‘To-morrow’, published in 1898 which later republished under the title of ‘Garden City of To-morrow. He explained his idea of ‘Garden City’ by an impressive diagram of The Three Magnets namely the town magnet, country magnet with their advantages and disadvantages and the third magnet with attractive features of both town and country life. Naturally people preferred the third one namely Garden City. It made a deep impression in the field of town planning. GARDEN CITY A town designed for healthy living and industry. Town of a size that makes possible a full measure of social life, but not larger Land will remain in a single ownership of the community or held in trust for the community. Not a colony, but a complete working city of population about 30,000 A large central park containing public buildings Central park surrounded by a shopping street Central park and shopping street are surrounded by dwellings in all directions – at density of 12 families / acre The outer circle of factories and industries The whole is surrounded by a permanent green belt of 5000 acres The town area is of about 1000 acres In 1899, the garden city association was formed. In 1903 – Letch worth started, 35 miles from London, town area: about 500 acres, designed for 35,000 persons, 3,000 acres of green belt. By 1947 it had about 16,000 populations and about 100 factories. In 1920 – Welwyn started 2400 acres, 40000 persons design capacity. By 1947, it had about 18,000 population and 70 factories. By keeping the land in single ownership, the possibility of speculation and overcrowding would be eliminated and the increment of value created by the community in the industrial and commercial (shops) sets would be preserved for it-self. PATRICK GEDDES  A Scot who has been called the father of modern town planning, Geddes did much of his pioneering work in the Old Town of Edinburgh, having made his married home there in 1886.  Geddes’ name and spirit are imperishably associated with Ramsay Garden and the Outlook Tower, both in Castle hill.  Geddes was concerned with the relationship between people and cities and how they affect one another. He emphasized that people do not merely needed shelter, but ALL THE BEST Page 57

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com also food and work, the recreation and social life. This makes the house an inseparable part of the neighbourhood, the city and the surrounding open country and the region. The town planning primarily meant establishing organic relationship among ‘Folk, place and work’, which corresponds to triad (Geddesian triad) of organism, function and environment. FOLK WORK PLACE I.e. organism i.e. function i.e. environment (Social aspect) (Economical aspect) (Physical aspect) “Cities in Evolution’ – published in 1915 – essence of the book – city beautiful movement and too many small schemes here and there like garden cities were only poor examples of town planning. In this book he coined the term “Conurbation” to describe the waves of population inflow to large cities, followed by overcrowding and slum formation, and then the wave of backflow – the whole process resulting in amorphous sprawl, waste, and unnecessary obsolescence. True rural development, true urban planning, true city design have little in common and repeating the same over all the three was disastrous and economically wasteful Each valid scheme should and must embody the full utilization of its local and regional conditions Geddes was the originator of the idea and technique of Regional survey and city survey The sequence of planning is to be: i. Regional survey ii. Rural development iii. Town planning iv. City design These are to be kept constantly up to-date In 1911 he created a milestone exhibition, Cities and Town Planning, which was studied appreciatively not only throughout Britain but abroad. From 1920-23 he was Professor of Civics and Sociology at the University of Bombay, and in 1924 he settled at Montpellier, in France. He died there in 1932, having been knighted that year. The Outlook Tower Interpreter’s House - Index Museum – Sociological Laboratory  From the Prospect Roof of the Outlook Tower are spectacular views across the Firth of Forth and the surrounding city region.  Crammed full of artistic and scientific objects to help promote civic and regional understanding, the tower was Geddes’ supreme thinking machine or index museum.  Positioned at the top of the Edinburgh’s High Street, it still holds the camera obscura, which refracts an image onto a white table within, for study and survey. A mirror at the top of the dome picks up images and reflects then through a lens which in turn focuses the picture onto a white surface as on a film in a camera.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  The tower was conceived as a tool for regional analysis, index-museum and the ‘world’s first sociological laboratory’. It represents the essence of Geddes’s thought his holism, visual thinking, and commitment to understanding the city in the region. PATRICK GEDDES IN INDIA He came to India in 1915 at the invitation of Lord Pent land, the then Governor of Madras. He gave his expert advice for the improvement of about eighteen major towns in India. He laid emphasis on “Survey before plan” i.e. diagnosis before treatment to make a correct diagnosis of various ills from which the town suffers and then prescribe the correct remedies for its cure. These are the physical and social economic surveys. He was the first man who introduced the sociological concept in the town planning. Before coming to India, he had successfully overcome the horrors of Edinborough slums. LEWIS MUMFORD  Wrote the book “Culture of cities”: 1938  He was a student of Patrick Geddes Advocate of “Neighbourhood unit” The convenient walking distance determines size for children between the furthest house and the school and playground in which a major part of their activities are focused. The need there is isolating school and home from the noise of traffic and its dangers. No major traffic arteries must run through, they may exist at the boundaries. Whatever traffic enters into the neighbourhood, must be that which sub serves it directly, moving at a pace that respects the pedestrians. Neighbourhood concept is almost universally accepted today at least in principle. The only difference is in terms of its size, the nature and extent of the physical boundary and on the character of housing within the unit. A large order of putting school at the central position. Need of adequate organization of the school activities and its incorporation as an inseparable part of the unit. CLARENCE A. PERRY One of the earliest authorities to attempt a definition of the neighborhood in fairly specific terms was Clarence A. Perry. He said “ The underlying principle of the scheme is that an urban neighbourhood should regarded both as a unit of larger whole and as a distinct entity in itself. There are certain other facilities, functions or aspects that are strictly local and peculiar to a well arrangedResidential community. They may be classified under four heads: (1) The elementary school (2) small parks and playgrounds (3) local shops and (4) residential environment other neighbourhood institutions and services are sometimes found, but there are practically universal. ALL THE BEST Page 59

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He laid down the fundamental elements on which he intended the neighbourhood unit should be based size, boundaries open spaces, institutional sites, local shops and internal road system. Its six basic principles were: 1. The size should be related to the catchment area of an elementary school. 2. The residential area should be bounded on all sides by arterial streets; there should be no through traffic. 3. There should be ample provision of small parks and play areas. 4. There should be a central point to the neighbourhood containing the school and other services. 5. District shops should be located on the periphery, thus serving approximately four neighbourhoods. 6. There should be a hierarchy of streets facilitating access but discouraging through traffic.

DOXIADIS, CONSTANTINOS A Constantinos A Doxiadis (1913 – 1975) was born in Bulgaria of Greek parentage. He grew up in a Greek community and was educated in Athens. He was particularly interested in town planning, and his thesis on the discovery of the geometric properties used in laying out the public buildings of ancient Greece was highly acclaimed by scholars for its originality. While in Berlin, Doxiadis became increasingly interested in large-scale planning using multi disciplinary approach and philosophy and dealing with built forms as well as systems.After his studies in Berlin, Doxiadis returned to Greece to work as an architect and city planner. His first post was Director of town planning studies in Athens. In 1959 he founded Doxiadis associates, a consulting and engineering firm in Athens. Since its inception, the firm has provided engineering, architectural and planning consultation in over 30 countries. The firm has been involved in the coastal redevelopment of Greece, the urban and rural renewal of Iraq and many other planning assignments In US, Doxiadis Associates has developed regional renewal projects for Washington, Cincinnati, Ohio and Detroit, Michigan. Doxiadis most important contribution to architectural and planning thought was the development of ekistics. The attempt to arrive at a proper conception and implementation of the facts, concepts and ideas related to human settlements, and the attempt to re-examine all principles and theories and to readjust the disciplines and professions connected with settlements, led to the need for a special discipline of human settlements, the discipline of Ekistics.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Since one of the major problem faced was the merging of settlements into much larger and complicated organisms, Doxiadis at the Athens center of Ekistics was working on an attempt to foresee where human settlements are going in the future. It seems that they will merge into ever-larger groupings, which will become a continuous universal settlement, the universal city or Ecumenopolis. Doxiadis said “When we try to classify the settlements according to their dimensions, we will soon realise that they do not belong to easily definable categories of sizes but spread over the whole spectrum of possible sizes. Any such division will, therefore, have to be somewhat arbitrary, but it must also be an inherently satisfying and reasonable one. Such a division has been worked out based on empirical experience and is presented in a logarithmic scale. The smallest unit of measurement is Man. He does not form a settlement in himself since he is one of its elements, but he does have a shell (his clothing is the smallest possible human shell and personal furniture plays the same role) and he is the Basic and indispensable unit of measurement. The second smallest unit is a normal room. From this we go to a dwelling, a group of several dwellings, a small neighbourhood, a neighbourhood, a small town, a town, a city, a metropolis, a conurbation, a megalopolis, an urban region, an urbanized continent, until, finally, we reach the largest conceivable space for a settlement, which is the whole Earth. This Ekistics Logarithmic Scale (ELS) can be presented graphically in several ways. One way is based on the areas covered by the different units(area ELS), another way is based on the number of people corresponding to each unit (population ELS). The ELS consist of 15 Ekistics units ranging from Man to Ecumenopolis and these units in turn belong to four basic groups Minor shells, or elementary units (man, room, house) Micro-settlements, the units smaller than, or as small as, the traditional town where people used to and still do achieve interconnection by walking Meso-settlements, between the traditional town and the conurbation within which one can commute daily Macro-settlements, whose largest possible expression is the Ecumenopolis. LE CORBUSIER

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com In the early twenties, Le Corbusier realized that many cities around the world were on the brink of an urban implosion due to poor design, inadequate housing and inefficient transportation. He studied these problems and advised bold new solutions. His theories helped shape the planning of many cities of the world, and the influence they exerted on a new generation of architects and planners is legendary.  He conceived plans for Algiers, Nemours, the university city of Brazil, Buenos Aires (Argentina), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Barcelona (Spain), Geneva( Switzerland), Stockholm (Sweden) and Antwerp (Belgium) His plans for cities were the result of a detailed analysis of three major urban factors – roads, housing and open spaces. He felt that roads should be arranged on the ‘grid – iron’ pattern with minimum crossings. Consequently, segregation of different forms of traffic was inevitable. He recommended skyscrapers for commercial and residential purposes, surrounded by large open spaces or parks. He claimed that on an average nearly 90 percent of the ground area of his modern city would consist of open spaces encompassing residential areas. He called his city ‘One Great Park’ with a lot of greenery around the buildings. LA VILLE CONTEMPORAINE (CONCENTRIC CITY) ‘The city of Tomorrow’ for 30,00,000 people was proposed by Le Corbusier in 1922, which was based on four principles : 1. 2. 3. 4. Decongestion of the centers of cities Augmentation of the density Enlargement of the means of circulation Increase in the number of parks and open spaces

 Gross FAR = 60x 5% = 3  Net FAR excluding roads = 4  Average floor space = 100 sq. ft/person

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com This scheme was a city of magnificent skyscraper towers surrounded by broad and sweeping open space. The city was a huge park. Sixty-story office buildings accommodating 1,200 people per acre and covering only 5% of the ground area were grouped in the heart of the city The hub of the plan is the transportation centre for motor, and rail lines, the roof of which is the air – field. Main highways are elevated. Surrounding the skyscrapers was the apartment district, eight-story buildings arranged in zigzag rows with broad open spaces about them, the density of population being 120 persons per acre. Lying about the outskirts were the garden cities of single-family houses. The residential zone contains schools, shopping centers, and recreational facilities.

PLAN VOISIN 1925 Above theories applied to a section of Paris The 60 story skyscraper office buildings are set in vast open space, main traffic highways are defined with complete separation of traffic and parking space for vehicles is provided. The plan is a rectangular arrangement of streets, but local and through traffic are distinctly separated, and the large open spaces are treated with informal pedestrian circulation and landscaped LA VILLE RADIEUSE 1930 – THE RADIANT CITY The previous concentric plan is considerably revised to allow a normal organic growth for the city Now Le Corbusier comes to the belief that ‘the essence of the city is the dwelling area’ Residential area occupies the most central location, with possible expansions to the right and left toward the open country. The civic center is on the main axis. The business area on the top Light manufacturing, freight yards and heavy industries at the bottom Traffic pattern – an orthogonal system with super imposed diagonals Subway system shows an equal simplicity The density is here 400 people per acre Each residential block is 1300 ft. x 1300 ft. or about 40 acres 16000 people = one neighbourhood. Each block has stadium, swimming pool, tennis courts, schools and playgrounds C.I.A.M. (CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE MODERNE) 1928 – FRANCE The international congress of modern architects subjected the city to re-examination and posed four basic elements of the urban biology : Sun Space Vegetation Steel and concrete ALL THE BEST Page 63

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Le Corbusier assumed a leading role It affirmed that town planning is the organizations of functions of collective life – this applies to both rural and urban settlements four functions of any settlement dwelling work recreation transportation, which connects the first three with one another. Le Corbusier organized in CIAM assembly of constructors, for an Architectural renovation ASCORAL (Assembly of Constructors for an Architectural Renewal) OF CIAM systematically studied the problems of construction, architecture and city planning. It resulted in the publication of ‘The Three Human Establishments’. The examination of working conditions in a mechanistic society led to the recognition of the utility and necessity of three unit establishments indispensable for human activity :  The Farming unit – the cooperative village : a unit for agricultural production  The linear industrial city  The radio concentric city - same as Radiant city (Ville Radieuse) for the exchange of goods and services. LINEAR INDUSTRIAL CITY – THE LINEAR TOWN ; UNIT FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION Leaving the ‘evils of the sprawling town’, the new industrial communities are located along the main arteries of transportation – water, rail and highway connecting the existing cities. Factories are placed along the main arteries, separated from the residential section by the highway and a green strip The residential areas include the ‘horizontal garden town’ of single houses and vertical apartment buildings with civic center. Sports, entertainments, shopping and office facilities are distributed in this district and all community facilities are placed within ample open space. Industries are placed at intervals along the highway and railway. The existing cities so connected remain as administrative, commercial and cultural centers.

PRE-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD OR BRITISH PERIOD The British people started independent colonies on the outskirts of the existing towns, which they considered as unhealthy. These extensions were known as ‘cantonments’ and ‘barracks’ for the military occupied area and ‘civil lines’ for the residence of the civilians and well-to-do people. At first they adopted straight roads for streets planning but no larger town planning schemes were taken. However, in the first decade of 20th century, they took up the outstanding work of building of New Delhi. The new capital of India. The plan was prepared on modern town planning principles by an eminent town planner ALL THE BEST Page 64

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com sir Edwin Lutyens, assisted by Baker. The capital group of building like Government House, council hall, and secretariat were designed. Industrial buildings were separated from residential sector and arranged around the commercial and civic buildings. It was more a planning and designing of Administrative center than a new town as such, and was mostly copied from their experience back home. POST INDEPENDENCE PERIOD The British had presumably planted their flags, paraded their troops, made their money, and disappeared without causing so much as a ripple of disturbance in the profound depths of the Indian soul (villages and rural areas) 75 % of India’s 700 million people still live in agricultural villages. The then Prime Minister Nehru once stated that ‘the fundamental problem of India is not Delhi or Calcutta or Bombay but the villages of India. National planning policies of the newly independent Indian Government strongly emphasized the improvement of the dominant rural sector. Yet the westernized metropolises bequeathed by colonialism could hardly be ignored far from rejecting westernization, many Indians persisted in equating it with progress, optimistically anticipating an era of technical advancement and industrial prosperity. In India, the socialist orientation of the government made it strongly receptive to the concept of large-scale planning and its first five-year plan called for a national town and country-planning act. Individual states were empowered to planning legislation as well as machinery for its implementation. Administrative progress was slow because of lack of Indian town planners. To remedy this, the government encouraged the establishment of academic programs in this field and thus in 1949 a department of Architecture and country planning was created by the Bengal Engineering College. The Department of architecture and Regional planning begun in 1955 by IIT kharagpur. The school of Town and country planning was established by the government in New Delhi and was subsequently attached to the University of Delhi as school of planning and Architecture. In the years following independence, India’s major cities were subjected to numerous studies, surveys, projection recommendations, and long-range plans. Planning documents, frequently prepared with the help of foreign consultants, reflected attempts to summarize information, analyses problems and suggest directions for future urban development. A series of tentative planning efforts culminated in the establishment of Development Authorities in metropolitan cities of Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. Dominant in western planning at this time was the concept of decentralization through regional development. It was hoped that through systems such a planned satellite towns, excessive congestion could be avoided and balanced patterns of residence and employment established. A particular focus of attention among planners in the 1950 was the New towns program in Britain, where the growth of London was guided by means of a green belt surrounded by a series of new urban centers. Many industrial towns were planned after Post – Independence period. A few of these are

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 1. STEEL TOWNS Durgapur Bhilai Rourkela Salem 2. INDUSTRIAL TOWNS Jamshedpur Bhadravati Gandhinagar 3. CAPITAL CITIES Chandigarh Gandhinagar

West Bengal Madya pradesh Orissa Tamil Nadu

Bihar Karnataka Gujarat

Union territory Gujarat

PRINCIPLES OF CITY PLANNING WHAT IS TOWN PLANNING? The art and science of ordering the use of land and siting of buildings and communication routes so as to secure the maximum practicable degree of economy, convenience, and beauty. An attempt to formulate the principles that should guide us in creating a civilized physical background for human life whose main impetus is thus … foreseeing and guiding change. An art of shaping and guiding the physical growth of the town creating buildings and environments to meet the various needs such as social, cultural, economic and recreational etc. and to provide healthy conditions for both rich and poor to live, to work, and to play or relax, thus bringing about the social and economic wellbeing for the majority of mankind. Planning is a process of helping a community, identify its problems and its central values, formulating goals and alternative approaches to achieving community objectives, and avoiding undesired consequences of change. This process of planning results in frameworks for coping with change. Some are physical elements such as streets, roads, and sewer lines. Some are concepts that serve as guides to action, such as the goal of becoming a major distribution center or of encouraging investment in the core of the city. Some are regulatory, reflecting the desires of the community to encourage good development and discourage bad development. “A city should be built to give its inhabitants security and happiness” – Aristotle “A place where men had a common life for a noble end” – Plato

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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF TOWN PLANNING The main objectives of the town planning may be summarised in three words viz. Health, Convenience and Beauty 1. Health : To create and promote healthy conditions and environments for all the people – rich and poor, to live, to work, to play or relax To make right use of the land for the right purpose by proper division of land called zoning such as residential, commercial industrial, institutional and recreational etc. in order to avoid the encroachment of one zone upon other for smooth and orderly development of the town or city without causing future conflicts. 2. Convenience : The object of convenience is meant in the form of various needs of the community such as social, economic, cultural and recreational amenities etc. Public amenities required for the proper upkeep of the citizens include water supply, sanitation, electricity, post, telegraph, gas etc., proper sites for industrial, commercial, business enterprises to encourage them in trade with cheap power, transport services, drainage etc. Recreational amenities include open spaces, parks, gardens and playgrounds, for children and town halls stadiums, community centers, cinema houses, and theatres for adults. 3. Beauty : To preserve the individuality of the town by developing it on its most suited natural conditions To preserve the aesthetics in the design of all elements of town or city plan, which includes preservation of trees, natural greenery, improved types of domestic buildings and buildings of civic dignity and beauty, architectural control on public as well as semi-public buildings, ancient architectural buildings, temples, churches, mosques and buildings of cultural and historical importance. CATEGORIES OF PLANNING Economic planning Physical planning Social planning CONCEPTS OF TOWN PLANNING Planning is concerned with taking an objective and rational view of future conditions, assessing what society desires its destiny to be, forecasting the amount of change, estimating the degree of control required, and formulating a policy to take account of this destiny, change and control. It has developed from the technical professions of architecture, surveying and engineering and has consequently produced solutions to urban problems that are ALL THE BEST Page 67

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com predominantly physical in character, such as land use maps, zoning density controls, building regulations and planning standards.

NEW TOWNS An appropriate form for the future city has no yet emerged, but serious attention has been directed to the nature of the modern city in two major areas: the internal urban structure – redevelopment –and planned decentralization – the New Towns. British planning policy Throughout the nineteenth century the British were stirred by the woeful impact of the industrial revolution on the living environment. Improvement in housing conditions was the centre of concern and action. In 1909 there began a series of legislative steps up the ladder of urban planning. In 1937 a royal commission was established under the chairmanship of Sir Montague Barlow to inquire into the distribution of industrial population and the social, economic, and strategic disadvantages arising from the concentration of industry and working people in large built-up communities. The commission report, published in 1940, contained recommendations for redevelopment of congested areas, the dispersal of population from such areas, the creation of balanced industrial employment throughout Great Britain, and the establishment of a national authority to deal with these matters. In 1941 two new committees were created to study the recommendations of the Barlow report – the Scott Committee on land utilization in Rural areas and the Uthwat committee on compensation and betterment. From these committees came recommendations for the creation of a central planning authority, measures to insure state control of development, increased powers of local planning authorities for compulsory purchase (eminent domain), and major revisions in the laws on compensation and betterment The Scott and Uthwatt Committee reports led to the adoption of a new series of Town planning acts. Compensation and Betterment The principle that the use of private property is subject to regulation for the community welfare was implemented by the dual provision that just compensation is due to private owners for restrictions by public authorities which impair the value of land, whereas the enhancement of property values which accrue through public planning decisions may be assessed by the local authorities. In the administration of this policy it was assumed that the public funds expended for compensation to property owners would be balanced by the assessments for betterments, which resulted from land use regulations. Assessments for betterments for improved values were awkward to determine and almost impossible to

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com collect. As a consequence, local authorities had inadequate resources upon which to draw to fulfill their obligations for payment of compensation.

NEW TOWN IN INDIA The most ambitious planning opportunity is the creation of a new town of which Chandigarh is an example in the country, where the planning unit is the sector containing a number of neighbourhood units. The steel towns of Rourkela, Bhilai and Durgapur are further examples in this field. The latter, however, are wasteful of land and services in many ways. As a result, a special committee was appointed by the central Government to recommend the standards on which future plans are to be based. The report of this committee has been published for guidance of planners.

SURVEY METHODS TYPES OF SURVEYS Surveys can broadly be divided into two categories depending on the area upon which they are to be conducted. They are : REGIONAL SURVEYS They are those surveys, which are done over a region dealing with  PHYSICAL FACTORS like topography, physically difficult land, geology, landscape etc.  PHYSICAL ECONOMIC FACTORS like agricultural value of the land, mineral resources and water gathering lands, areas with public services, transportation linkages etc.  SOCIAL ECONOMIC FACTORS like areas of influence of towns and villages, employment, population changes etc. TOWN SURVEYS They are done at much small scale and apart from the above data collected from the regional surveys it also includes  LANDUSE SURVEYS  DENSITY SURVEYS  SURVEYS FOR THE AGE AND CONDITION OF THE BUILDINGS  TRAFFIC SURVEYS  OTHER SOCIAL SURVEYS For conducting proper survey, primarily relevant enquiries should be framed in the form of questionnaires for presentation, when required. ALL THE BEST Page 69

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TECHNIQUES OF SURVEYS Of the various techniques of surveys that are followed, the four listed below are most prominent 1. self surveys (i.e. mailing questionnaires to the persons to be surveyed ) 2. interviews (i.e. by asking questions to the people to be surveyed ) 3. direct inspection (i.e. when the surveyor himself inspects the situations concerned ) 4. observers participation (i.e. when the observer himself participate in acquiring the data required ) SCALES FOR STRUCTURING QUESTIONNAIRES The questions that are asked in the questionnaires formed for doing the surveys can be of various types. Some of the asks for general things, some asks for some order of preferences or some give stress to the time interval between two incidents. Thus the scales of the questionnaires are fixed, which can be described as follows NOMINAL where there is no ordering, like asking of sex, age, employment in any particular service etc. ORDINAL where there is a specific order of choices like asking of priorities, housing conditions, climate etc. INTERVAL where an interval of time is given importance like time taken to shift from LIG housing to MIG housing, time interval to change from two wheelers to four wheelers etc. this provides an yardstick of measurements

SELECTION OF SAMPLES For conducting surveys, it is not always possible to ask each person about his or her opinion. Hence, certain numbers of persons are selected for conducting the surveys and these selected persons are known as ‘samples’ of surveying. The selection of the number of samples is of utmost importance. The basic rules for selection of sample size are as follows: 1. MORE DISASTROUS THE RESULTS OF POOR INFORMATION, LARGER SAMPLE SIZE IS REQUIRED. That is if the information got are poor (both qualitatively and quantitatively) the analysis done from them will be wrong. Thus, if getting incorrect results have a very disastrous effect on the framing up of the policies of planning; more number of people is to be surveyed. 2. THE MORE VARIED THE EXPECTED RESPONSES, LARGER SAMPLE SIZE IS REQUIRED. That is, if it is expected that there will be various kinds of responses to a particular question, more number of persons are to be asked, as more varied answers will help in getting different ideas of the people through the cross section of the people surveyed

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 3. LARGER THE TOTAL POPULATION, SAMLLER THE PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION ARE REQUIRED TOBE SURVEYED. That is, if the total population to be surveyed is very large then, even a small percentage of it will amount to quite a large number of samples. Depending on the time available, the money involved and many other things, the number of samples could be restricted by selecting a small percent of the total population. The samples could be selected in various ways depending on the type of information required and the importance of the accuracy of the particular information in the survey process. The various types of selection of samples are 1. SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING ( selecting samples at random without any criteria to select the samples whatsoever ) 2. SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING (selection of the Kth element along a particular street, where k can be any number ) 3. STRATIFIED SAMPLING ( making of a homogenous listing of the different sects of the population and collecting a certain percentage at random from each sect) 4. CLUSTERED SAMPLING (when samples are selected from clusters and not from a homogeneous listing ) PLANNING REGULATIONS AND BUILDING BYELAWS A bye-law is a local law framed by a subordinate authority. The building codes or byelaws are defined as standards and specifications designed to grant minimum safeguards to the health and comfort of users and to provide enough safety to the public in general. The building bye-laws should not be confused with zoning regulations. The former regulates the construction aspects of buildings. The latter regulates the uses of land and (or) buildings Objects of bye-laws The bye-laws are necessary to achieve the following three objects It becomes easier to pre-plan the building activities and provisions of bye-laws give guide lines to the designing architect or engineer The building bye-laws prevent haphazard development without any resemblance to the development of the area as a whole The provisions of building bye-laws usually afford safety to the human beings who work and live in them against fire, noise, health hazard and structural failure Technical consideration for formation of building byelaws To frame the building byelaws, the local authorities must take into consideration the following points to make them functional and practical. These are:  Structural dimensions of walls and foundations ALL THE BEST Page 71

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com        Building height and road angles Front set backs for aesthetics ad road widening Density and FSI Bulk of buildings Urban form Minimum dimensions of rooms, toilets and kitchens Side open spaces and the space in-between buildings

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES EGYPTIAN PERIOD  Settlements were located on river banks which were subjected to flood and hence impact of straight lines and parallel lines were derived by receding lines of flood water which were parallel and also almost straight as the river Nile  Transportation within the settlement was probably on foot, but inter-settlement movement was by river  Changing flood level of river needed some protection wall on the river from side of a settlement  Central spine of transportation was on surface and not water as the river was wide and settlements grew only on one side of the river  The technology of stone cutting and curving and the tremendous pomp’s and splendors of the pharaohs led to advanced construction technologies TEL –EL –AMORNA 3000 B.C.          Along the river bank Six moles long Residential districts grouped around the imperial and sacred buildings Sacred buildings and imperial structures were linked by broad avenues and geometrically planned streets Temple enclosure was 1/3 mile x ½ mile with large plazas Courts and administrative buildings were on either side of the principal thoroughfare, the buildings were surrounded by pools and summer cottages Palaces on both sides of avenue connected by a brick bridge Buildings on more or less a set plan Buildings had reception rooms, domestic apartment and bathrooms.

KAHUN 3000 B.C.       Slave town, slaves engaged in Ill Hun pyramid Planned in grid pattern Narrow lanes as passageways and also for drainage Wall surrounded the town to protect against flood and escape of slaves Sun-dried brick construction Rooms crowded about common courtyards

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Carbon test of the excavations reveals the approximate period of this civilization was 3000 B.C. or earlier. MOHENJODARA  No fortification  Major streets in the N-S direction  Broadly at right angles  Streets within built-up areas were narrow  Zoning was distinct for distinct groups, commerce at the meeting of east road and first street, near palace  Three broad divisions of the settlement: o The religious, institutional and cultural areas - around monastery and great bath in the western part including temple. o The northern part - principally for agriculture and industries o The southern part – principally for administration, trade and commerce  Construction technique was very well advanced: o Buildings were of masonry construction (sun-dried bricks) o Ranging from two rooms to mansions with many rooms o Underground sewerage and drainage from houses o Pumps (helical) to pump water in great bath o Principal buildings were monastery and bath – indicating the influence of religion as a culture (not for defense)  Development of art and craft, science and technology: excellent way of adjustment to contours CRETE CIVILIZATION GOURNIA  Houses upto 3 storeys for palace with living room, bedroom, store, kitchen, toilet, luxury room  Colonnades timber light wells in the middle windows recessed  Roads were paved with underground drainage, roads were narrow, 10’ to 12’ wide, stepped where needed  Aqueducts for water with coverings, etc  Central building directly adjacent to roads  Houses were enlarging horizontally and vertically GREEK CIVILIZATION They had conscious attempt of Town planning: Hippodamus, the town planner THE HIPPODOMIAN-PLANNING CONCEPT Advocated the GRID IRON pattern of road layout. This system was introduced to rebuild the Greek cities, which were destructed by the Persian invasion. For laying out the ALL THE BEST Page 73

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com perpendicular roads, individual buildings were made the common denominator and the functions of the buildings were given importance.

PRINCIPLES OF TOWN PLANNING OF GREEKS  Town divided into three parts o Gods o Administration o Dwelling houses  Town must satisfy the requirements of o Hygiene o Defense o Circulation  The city plan was conceived to be serving all people. Three classes of people o Craftsman o Workers o Soldiers  The meeting place – near the temple, and the temple at the heart of the town  The heart of the city, or the central place, approximately 5% of the town area, was to have o The temple – the center of religion o The assembly hall – legislature o The council chamber – chief executive o The council hall – judiciary o The agora or market place o The agora square – the central open space, which will accommodate all gatherings on public functions and ceremonies  The market should be on the periphery for easy transport of goods  Roads should be at right angles, oriented to the points of campus in order to make the house according to the direction of prevailing wind and sun  Arrangement of streets were to be such as to give access to houses and lead to more importance to community areas, but no interference with the assembly of people in the central area (this means that all major roads will meet the Agora square but not cross it through)  Building standards: houses were to be of same size (say 50’x50,) block within which variations may occur MILETUS  Destroyed in 16th century by Persians who occupied Greece.  Rebuilt in 5 th century  Extensive, regularized form of chess-board planning, an outstanding event in town building history  Skill and imagination extraordinarily applied in its adaptation to a peninsular site  Two main divisions of the city

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Agora was a plan disposition, an example of dignity and coherence of arrangement  The community zone had markets, temples, council house, sota (gymnasium), shops, colonnades  Importance attached to placing and planning of dwelling houses  Profuse use of marbles in construction of public buildings  Excellent space organization and space articulation

SELINUS 700B.C  Fairly high level plateau about 100 ft above sea level  Land surrounded by sea and river on three sides  Central spine road and two cross-roads about 25’ wide  Central area – temple agora location  Due importance given to the roads that connect the detached temple group on the eastern hill – an unusual feature of selinus  The layout is rectilinear, rather than chess-board, and shows remarkable adaptation to the circumstances and coherence of arrangement  Its situation, planning and architectural developments were excellent  Courtyard planning for houses, less class distinction, brick and tile roofing and wooden structure, narrow alleys between roads for drainage, frontage upon 16’ wide roads  The philosophy was of special attention to the public buildings and not houses, the principle was like precinct planning  Northern extension later for principally commercial activities – a good historical evidence of an expanding city with expanding commercial activities ROMAN PERIOD ROMAN PRINCIPLES OF TOWN LAYOUT  Towns were to be founded only on three occasions o When the town becomes a colonial center o When it was made a local capital o When it became an imperial residence  Towns shall comply with o Fulfilling religious auspices  First to fix the boundaries of the town. Hence, to establish the city wall first. There were different religious activities within the town and outside  Next of importance were the two cross road: Decumanus - running E - W Cards - running N – S  Sun god was the god of soldiers. Hence these roads were at the cardinal directions representing the sun

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com The forum i.e. the central area, was to be developed at the crossing of the main roads  The rest of the town was to be divided into squares or rectangular plots of one side equaling 120’ o Defense requirements which include, in addition to the defense wall  The town must be quick and simple to lay out i.e. to avoid all curvature in streets  The town must be easy to police and defend i.e. long distance visibility for easy policing needed roads to be absolutely straight  The roads must be at least 8 ft. wide o Technical considerations include  Setback of 2-1/2 ft. from boundaries. That means, in case of rectangular plot division the minimum space between buildings on the sides was 5 ft.  Drainage was elaborately prescribed  Water supply was also duly considered – brought to the town by aqueducts and bridges All construction within the town was to be of concrete (lime) and stone, and in specific cases they might be faced by bricks DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROMAN FORUM AND GREEK AGORA Issues Roman Forum Greek Agora Purposes Purveying of law, show of right A place for gathering for all and might, recreation of nobles and cultural, social, religious ceremonies to ritualize the communicative and commercial observance of state laws as religion purpose Components Basilica - for law suits The Temple – for religion Thermae – for bathing and games The Assembly Hall – social Amphitheatres – for races and gathering and legislative contests The Council Chamber - Executive Theaters – for drama State temple – for religion No shop The chief Basilica – symbol of outward The Temple – symbol of outward monument expression of the national love for expression of simplicity, national and power love for beauty and freedom for all symbolism Approaches Approaches were principally at the Approaches were mainly at the center of the sides of the Forum corners of the Agora CHARACTERISTICS OF ROMAN TOWNS  The Roman Empire, since Julius Caesar, extended gradually over Africa, Spain, France, Gaul, Low Countries and England. 

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  The town planning was slightly different in different areas depending on geography and resource potential, which determined the ruling strategy  Each city occupies a commanding site and includes building works of enormous scale and impressive stylistic quality  Chessboard planning – expressing and law and order. Crossing of parallel and equidistant streets at right angles to one another, square house blocks, 120 ft. either side  Cross streets occasionally stepped and bridged over streams around city  Generally rectangular walled city, entered by several gates, showing complete town organization  Colonnaded street, usually north to south columns at 15 ft. interval – for shops and important houses  From religious significance of the temples by Greeks – there was a change to the civic influence of law courts (Basilica), which became more important than other public buildings.  Central area was occupied by Forum having no shops, and sometimes having temple and theatres nearby only  Outside gate – stadium, street of Tombo (Pompeii), Triumphal arches  Aqueducts, sanitation, public health considerations were excellent for the noble’s areas  Excellent building stones of enormous size of pieces incorporated in the civic buildings. TIMGAD 1 AND 2-CENT A.D.  Typically rigid chessboard plan  355 metres by 325 metres. Area = 30 acres  Principally designed for residential colony  Abundant water supply  Rigid formality of plan  Eleven parallel cross-streets in either direction, with surface terracing over undulating ground. This gives an unparallel completeness in its architecture and majestic feeling  The Forum (160’ x 145’), the market, temple site and other non-residential buildings were artificially raised above the general street level  The public buildings had porticoes, colonnades and other features, giving variety to the architectural scene  Some houses were as big as 200 ft. x 200 ft. CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA MAURYA PERIOD King Chandragupta was the founder of Mauryan dynasty. He had kautilya (known also as Chanakya) as his Prime Minister. He is the author of the well-known Sanskrit book of ‘Arthashastra’ containing discourses on many subjects, inter alia duties of Government, administration and also on Town and Country planning and Housing. A short extract from his book on the subject of Town and Country planning and Housing is given below ALL THE BEST Page 77

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EXTRACTS FROM CHANAKYA’S ARTHASHASTRA Some interesting extracts relating to Town and Country planning in Arthashastra composed by Chanakya in the Maurya period is given below: Regional considerations:  Town, which is congested, should be freed of surplus population, which should then be housed in a new place. The towns should be so situated as they would be in a position to help each other.  There should be a ‘sangrahan’ among ten villages, a ‘sarvatik’ among two hundred, a ‘dronamukh’ among four hundred and a ‘sthaniya’ among eight hundred villages.  People who come to stay at the time of a new settlement or those who come to reside later in this new settlement should be exempted from payment of taxes for some years. In the new village, there should be higher proportion of agriculturists and shudras. There should be a market provided for the sale of goods received from traders on highways.  Dams should be constructed over river nalas. Temples and gardens should be provided. Arrangements should be made for looking after the aged, the children and informal persons. Cereals and wealth will grow if the agriculturists are kept busy. Attempts should be made to protect and increase quarries, forests and canals. Town planning:  A city should be located in the central part of a country to facilitate trade and commerce.  The site selected for the purpose of this city should be quite large in area, and on the banks of a river, or by the side of an artificial or natural lake, which never goes dry.  Its shape should be circular, rectangular or square as would suit the topography. There should be water on all sides.  Separate areas should be provided for marketing different goods.  There should be a wall around the town, which should be six dandas high and twelve dandas wide.  Beyond this wall there should be three moats of 14 feet, 12 feet and 10 feet wide to be constructed four arm-lengths apart. The depth should be three-fourth of width.  Three east - west and three North – south roads, should divide the town. The main roads should be eight dandas wide and other roads four dandas wide.  The palace should be in the central part. It should face either north or east.  The houses of priests and ministers should be on the south-east, traders, skilled workers, and kshatriyas on the east, the treasury, goldsmiths and industries on the south, forest produce on the northeast and doctors city fathers, army commander, artists, on the south.  Temples should be located in the center of the town. ALL THE BEST Page 78

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Cemeteries should be located on the north and east of the town, that for the higher caste to be located on the south.  The depressed classes should be housed beyond cemetery. There should be one well for every group of ten houses. Housing  Foundation of houses should be two arm lengths deep. Every house should be provided with a latrine and a well  For festivals, special bathrooms and toilet rooms should be constructed.  The water should be drained by means of a Nala having sufficient slope.  The open space between two houses and two balconies should be four feet lengths wide.  The front door should be four-foot lengths wide. There should be no obstruction to the door shutter opening inside.  To ensure lighting of the room a small window should be provided high up in the wall. Roof should stand rains.  Those who obstruct steps, Nahanis, or cause any damage to the walls of building due to sullage water or dirty water, they will be severely punished.  A drain must be provided for carrying away wastewater, it should have an adequate velocity.  Those who throw waste on the streets will be severely punished.  The bathrooms, latrines, grinding place and open spaces, excluding special halls and rooms must be made available for the common use of all tenants, in the house.  Those who will leave the house for their own accord must pay a year’s rent to the landlord.  A census should be taken of all men and women wherein information should be noted down about the caste, Gotra, occupation, income and expenditure. For summer season, arrangements should be kept ready for attending to extinguishing of fires. SAMRAT ASHOK The Mauryan Empire attained its maximum glory in the time of Samrat Ashok. The empire covered the whole of India (except Assam and some southern part) Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Kashmir and Nepal. He became the champion of Buddhism and engraved principles of this religion on pillars rocks and caves in the various parts reference has already made in the last chapter to the numerous viharas built by him especially in Magadha, now known as Bihar on this account. He also dug wells; planted trees built rest houses and hospitals. The Ashok pillar at Sarnath, bearing a Lion and a wheel has been

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com incorporated in the National Flag of free India to signify unit of India prevailing in Ashok period. The Mauryan Empire was divided into provinces, cities and Municipalities. Village administration was in the hands of ‘Gramics’. For ten villages there was a ‘Gopa’ and above him a ‘sthanika’. Taxes collected from citizens were spent on public welfare works such as tree plantation, digging of lakes, and constructing rest houses and hospitals

THE GUPTA PERIOD There followed a period of five hundred years of political instability after the collapse of Mauryan Empire. The influence of the Budha religion somewhat waned and Hindu religion again revived. The reign of samudragupta and his son Chandragupta II, popularly known as vikramaditya is looked upon as the golden age of India. This period was after 320 A.D. and corresponds to the Roman period in the west KING VIKRAMADITYA King Vikramaditya was a great patron of learning and nine great scholars called ‘Navratnas (nine jewels) adorned his court. The celebrated kalidas, poet and dramatist was one of them classical Sanskrit reached wonderful heights of its glory. Cities like Ujjain, pataliputra (patna), Mathura and sharavati become great centers of learning and culture. Fa Hein, a Chinese traveler who visited India during the fourth century A.D. writes that ‘the government was liberal. People had enough food clothes and housing. They lived an easy and a comfortable life. Wealth was multiplied by industry and trade. Art and architecture entered a classical stage. Caves at Ajantha and Yellora with their world famous paintings belong to this period. The famous Iron pillar at Delhi near Qutb Minar was cast by Kumar gupta in the fifth century A.D. MANASARA VASTUSHASTRA Another elaborate treatise on town planning in ancient India. It is perhaps of a later date – about 6th century A.D. There are several chapters in this book on town planning and construction of buildings. One interesting feature however deserves special mention. There are eight different types of towns and villages according to the shapes:  Dandaka  Sarvathobhadra  Nandyavarta  Padmaka  Swastika  Prastara  Karmuka  Chaturmukha

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Dandaka  Dandaka type of town plan provides for two main entrance gates and is generally adopted for the formation of small towns and villages, the village offices being located in the east.  The female deity of the village or the chamadevata will generally be located outside the village and the male deities in the northern portion. Sarvathobhadra  This type of town plan is applicable to larger villages and towns, which have to be constructed on a square sites.  According to this plan, the whole town should be fully occupied by houses of various descriptions and inhabited by all classes of people.  The temple dominates the village. Nandyavarta  This plan is commonly used for the construction of towns and not for villages.  It is generally adopted for the sites either circular or square, with not less than three thousand houses, but not more than four thousand.  The streets run parallel to the central adjoining streets with the temple of the presiding deity in the center of the town.  “Nandyavarta” is the name of a flower, the form of which is followed in this layout. Padmaka  This type of plan was practiced for building of the towns with fortress all round.  The pattern of the plan resembles the petals of lotus radiating outwards from the center.  The city used to be practically an island surrounded by water, having no scope for expansion Swastika  Swastika type of plan contemplates some diagonal streets dividing the site into certain triangular plots.  The site need not be marked out into a square or rectangle and it may be of any shape.  A rampart wall surrounds the town, with a moat at its foot filled with water.  Two main streets cross each other at the center, running south to north and west to east. Prastara  The characteristic feature of this plan is that the site may be either square or rectangular but not triangular or circular. ALL THE BEST Page 81

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  The sites are set apart for the poor, the middle class, the rich and the very rich, the sizes of the sites increasing according to the capacity of each to purchase or build upon.  The main roads are much wider compared to those of other patterns.  The town may or may not be surrounded by a fort. Karmuka  This plan is suitable for the place where the site of the town is in the form of a bow or semi-circular or parabolic and mostly applied for towns located on the seashore or riverbanks.  The main streets of the town run from north to south or east to west and the cross streets run at right-angles to them, dividing the whole area into blocks.  The presiding deity, commonly a female deity, is installed in the temple build in any convenient place. Chaturmukha  Chaturmukha type of plan is applicable to all towns starting from the largest town to the smallest village.  The site may be either square or rectangular having four faces.  The town is laid out east to west lengthwise, with four main streets.  The temple of the presiding deity will be always at the center.

“VASTUPURUSHA MANDALA” AND ITS APPLICABILITY IN MODERN URBAN STRUCTURE  Purusha and Mandala are associated with vaastu (site).  Vastu encompasses the house with the site and its environment.  According to the Vedic thought, Purusha is not only the cause and life behind all prakriti, but also behind all creations of Man.  Purusha is consciousness, the life source. It is also called atman.  The Vastupurusha Mandala is a grid of square, regarded as a perfect figure, is conceived to be a fundamental form in architecture and all other shapes are derived from it.  The Vastupurusha Mandala offered the formula to determine the functions of the building in relation to its orientation.  The Vasturatnakara assigns specific functions to each direction.  The southeast for example, is dedicated to fire and northeast to the element Water. Invariably, the correspondence with the elements would determine the position of the rooms in the house.  The space assigned to the region of fire, for instance, would be used for building a kitchen or reserved as a source for heat and warmth.  The Mandala also served as a guide to locate the buildings on site and determining the position of the shrines in a temple complex.

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MEDIEVAL PERIOD  Towns were walled and fortified – like an island in a hostile world  Founded on irregular terrains, occupying hill tops or islands  Built by merchant, craftsmen and shopkeepers against deudalism. Hence, local loyalties grew up  Irregular road pattern inside the fortification wall to confuse the invaders; but roads were paved  The most commanding position was occupied by the church  The city council of the merchants and craftsmen and the role in administration and civic and cultural life developed local patriotism  Merchants love in gain or profit manifestation expanding benefit of fellow citizens, - building churches, founding hospitals buying off market tolls  A new dimension of civic spaces emerged  The most common meeting place was in the market square.  Civic buildings were around it  Open spaces, the piazza, the plaza, the place, were very common  Characteristics of Medieval open spaces: o Demarcated by a continuous row of public buildings o Monuments, statuary, etc. will stand off the main streets o Sides are, or appear to be, closed o Visual expression of formality o Proportion was to enhance principal buildings; width was not less than twice the height  Houses were simple, living and sleeping spaces were in the upp0er floor, the ground floor used for storage, workshops and kitchen  Waste disposal within houses rarely provided (only some had privies)  Thatch – covered roof, sometimes fire-proof roofs  Streets were usually paved and maintained by the owner of the property facing upon them THE BAROQUE CITY-PLANNING CONCEPT OF MONARCHY AND MONUMENTALISM  The importance was laid upon both mass and space  The main features of Baroque planning were as follows: o Avenues o Fountains o Axis o Geometry Example: the shone brunn palace at Germany where sides of the trees were also chopped off along the road to achieve the “axis” of the design. THE VIJAYANAGAR CIVILIZATION: The silver spot of India and especially for the Hindus during the medieval period was the emergence of Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagar, on the banks of the Tungabhadra, ALL THE BEST Page 83

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com established in the fourteenth century, it played an important role in the social and cultural history of south India, for about three centuries out of which the earlier two hundred years were years of glory. The ruler of vijayanagar was Krishna Dev Raya (1599 – 1529). People loved and respected him. Foreigners admired him. During his time, vijayanagar kingdom reached climax of its power and glory. Vijaynagar Town was beautiful with temples, palaces, and gardens. Sculpture and painting rose of great heights as could be seen from ruins of Hampi. The population of the Town was more than five lakhs. The Bazaars were rich and full of all commodities; many articles of jewellery and precious stones were sold. Encouragement was given to Sanskrit literature. Sayanacharya wrote commentaries on Rigveda. MUGHAL PERIOD In contrast to the builders of cities like Mohenjo-daro and Harappa or the Hindu sthapatis who right down to modern times designed villages upon a magic grid diagram, Islamic architects frequently left the layout of streets to chance or allowed this to develop organically as the settlement grew in size. It was not until the sixteenth century that one Islamic ruler in India, the great Mughal Akbar, took on the task of planning an entire residential town, comprising palaces, Mosques, or travelers bungalow etc. His old residence of Agra could not be expanded any further owing to the unfavourable terrain and dusty jumble of houses. Hence, he decided to move his residence from Agra to an n auspicious mountain, Sikri where a hermit named salim chisti was residing.

FATEHPUR SIKRI

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Fatehpur sikri had a rectangular town hall with it longer side running parallel to the line of the ridge.  Along its axis i.e., from northeast to southwest ran the principle thoroughfare, which led to the highest part of the ridge where the palace stood.  A wall only on three sides to the northeast in enclosed the town fronted on a lake, formed artificially in some low-lying ground by damming a river.  Today the lake had dried up and the houses of the townsfolk on either side of the ridge have disappeared.  For shortage of water compelled the emperor and his suite to leave these buildings after they had been occupied for less than two decades.  The plan shows that all the buildings do not fit in with the general orientation of the town.  The caravan serais, mint, treasury and baths, located on the hillside follow the natural contours i.e., the axis of the town.  The mosque had to be oriented towards Mecca.  Since the plateau extends from the southwest to the northeast and the ideal orientation ran from north to south, the different courts had to be staggered one behind the other. TOWN OF SHAHJAHANABAD (DELHI)  The site plan of the Red Fort is characterized by emphasis on the axial relationship between successive courts.  The Red Fort at Delhi was evidently planned as a rectangle with sides in the proportion 3:4; in the east it fronts on the River Jumna, but since an arm of the river would have formed an acute angle with the north wall, the architect preferred to include this triangular area within the walls of the fort. Only this reason does the wall have an irregular shape. The southern corners of the rectangle formed by the walls are cut off; corresponding recesses in the north western and north - eastern corners.  The palace was divided by its east-west axis into a northern and a southern part, in the proportion 1:1. The visitor enters the fort along this main axis, on which lie the reception courts. Perpendicular to this it was planned to build a long bazaar, extending from the south gate to another one in the north; this bazaar divides the palace in the proportion 1:2. Since the north wall lay along the riverbank, there could be no north gate and the bazaar from the start lacked the connection it needed with one of the streets of the town. The northern part of the bazaar thus formed a blind alley; whether it was ever completed or used is open to doubt.  The area west of the large bazaar was reserved for the servant and soldier’s quarters. At the point where the north-south and east-west axis intersects there is a square court, still accessible to the public.  In the eastern periphery of the fort, on the east-west axis, lie the emperor’s private apartments, which form a second axis running from north to south; without exception they are oriented towards the Jumna - recalling a similar alignment in the fort at Agra. Between the northern part of the bazaar and the imperial chambers there were gardens and offices; to the north of the gardens lay the houses of princes. South of the east-west axis lay the zenana area. ALL THE BEST Page 85

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Hence in Mughal period cities like Agra, Delhi was re-developed. Fatehpur sikri was entirely planned. Fortification was strengthened in Bijapur, Lucknow. They built many forts in places like Agra, Delhi and developed beautiful ornamental gardens popularly known as ‘Mughal Gardens’ some of them are still in good conditions, for e.g. Kabul Bagh at panipat by Babur, Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh by shah Jahan, Lal Bagh by Haider Ali. In the same period, other rulers also built beautiful cities like Jaipur and Vijayanagar with new concepts of town planning. JAIPUR CITY  The city of jaipur can be described perhaps the only solitary example of a planned city. It was originally conceived and laid out by the Rajput king Maharajah Jaisingh in the eighteenth century. The city was built in 1753 within six years of the laying of its foundation stone on a carefully prepared plan, with broad avenues and public buildings.  But it is to sawai Ramsingh that the credit of making jaipur a world-famous city; he gave the city its universal pink colour; he founded all the Institutions by which Jaipur came to be ranked amongst the most progressive princely stats in India.  Jaipur had originally well laid out roads with ‘Geometric precision and Arithmetical accuracy’, with symmetrical open squares and fountains lined with uniform buildings THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT IN AMERICA  World fairs were held in Chicago in 1893  The need was felt for a fair that would be big, broad and beautiful in contrast to the cities which were crammed, monotonous and ugly  ‘Make no little plans’ was the move. The plans were of colossal scale with monumental proportions that pure the visions of past kings to shame  City beautiful movement started – center was Beaux Arts in Paris  Civic center became popular theme  Open space landscaped in the traditional fashion, fountains distributed about plazas and gardens, limited number of public buildings at vista points FACTORY TOWN In 1816, Robert Owen, an industrialist in England proposed a plan of a community that could be Self-supporting and reduce the cost of relief which was very heavy and with Large central open space for community buildings Surrounding the dwellings were large gardens Surrounding the center were dwellings Main roads encircle the entire compound The factories and workshops were outside the community across the main roads The entire compound surrounded by agricultural area of 1000 to 1500 acres Total community areas was to be of 50 to 100 acres Total population = 1200 or so It was a plan for a co-operative community combining industry and agriculture ALL THE BEST Page 86

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SIR EBENEZER HOWARD (1850-1928) A well-known sociologist, who after studying the industrialist evils in Britain gave the concept of ‘Garden City’, It soon became the landmark in the history of town planning. He had an idea which he set forth in little book entitled ‘To-morrow’, published in 1898 which later republished under the title of ‘Garden City of To-morrow. He explained his idea of ‘Garden City’ by an impressive diagram of The Three Magnets namely the town magnet, country magnet with their advantages and disadvantages and the third magnet with attractive features of both town and country life. Naturally people preferred the third one namely Garden City. It made a deep impression in the field of town planning. GARDEN CITY A town designed for healthy living and industry. Town of a size that makes possible a full measure of social life, but not larger Land will remain in a single ownership of the community or held in trust for the community. Not a colony, but a complete working city of population about 30,000 A large central park containing public buildings Central park surrounded by a shopping street Central park and shopping street are surrounded by dwellings in all directions – at density of 12 families / acre The outer circle of factories and industries The whole is surrounded by a permanent green belt of 5000 acres The town area is of about 1000 acres In 1899, the garden city association was formed. In 1903 – Letch worth started, 35 miles from London, town area: about 500 acres, designed for 35,000 persons, 3,000 acres of green belt. By 1947 it had about 16,000 populations and about 100 factories. In 1920 – Welwyn started 2400 acres, 40000 persons design capacity. By 1947, it had about 18,000 population and 70 factories. By keeping the land in single ownership, the possibility of speculation and overcrowding would be eliminated and the increment of value created by the community in the industrial and commercial (shops) sets would be preserved for it-self. PATRICK GEDDES  A Scot who has been called the father of modern town planning, Geddes did much of his pioneering work in the Old Town of Edinburgh, having made his married home there in 1886.  Geddes’ name and spirit are imperishably associated with Ramsay Garden and the Outlook Tower, both in Castle hill.  Geddes was concerned with the relationship between people and cities and how they affect one another. He emphasized that people do not merely needed shelter, but ALL THE BEST Page 87

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com also food and work, the recreation and social life. This makes the house an inseparable part of the neighbourhood, the city and the surrounding open country and the region. The town planning primarily meant establishing organic relationship among ‘Folk, place and work’, which corresponds to triad (Geddesian triad) of organism, function and environment. FOLK WORK PLACE I.e. organism i.e. function i.e. environment (Social aspect) (Economical aspect) (Physical aspect) “Cities in Evolution’ – published in 1915 – essence of the book – city beautiful movement and too many small schemes here and there like garden cities were only poor examples of town planning. In this book he coined the term “Conurbation” to describe the waves of population inflow to large cities, followed by overcrowding and slum formation, and then the wave of backflow – the whole process resulting in amorphous sprawl, waste, and unnecessary obsolescence. True rural development, true urban planning, true city design have little in common and repeating the same over all the three was disastrous and economically wasteful Each valid scheme should and must embody the full utilization of its local and regional conditions Geddes was the originator of the idea and technique of Regional survey and city survey The sequence of planning is to be: v. Regional survey vi. Rural development vii. Town planning viii. City design These are to be kept constantly up to-date In 1911 he created a milestone exhibition, Cities and Town Planning, which was studied appreciatively not only throughout Britain but abroad. From 1920-23 he was Professor of Civics and Sociology at the University of Bombay, and in 1924 he settled at Montpellier, in France. He died there in 1932, having been knighted that year. The Outlook Tower Interpreter’s House - Index Museum – Sociological Laboratory  From the Prospect Roof of the Outlook Tower are spectacular views across the Firth of Forth and the surrounding city region.  Crammed full of artistic and scientific objects to help promote civic and regional understanding, the tower was Geddes’ supreme thinking machine or index museum.  Positioned at the top of the Edinburgh’s High Street, it still holds the camera obscura, which refracts an image onto a white table within, for study and survey. A mirror at the top of the dome picks up images and reflects then through a lens which in turn focuses the picture onto a white surface as on a film in a camera.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  The tower was conceived as a tool for regional analysis, index-museum and the ‘world’s first sociological laboratory’. It represents the essence of Geddes’s thought his holism, visual thinking, and commitment to understanding the city in the region. PATRICK GEDDES IN INDIA He came to India in 1915 at the invitation of Lord Pent land, the then Governor of Madras. He gave his expert advice for the improvement of about eighteen major towns in India. He laid emphasis on “Survey before plan” i.e. diagnosis before treatment to make a correct diagnosis of various ills from which the town suffers and then prescribe the correct remedies for its cure. These are the physical and social economic surveys. He was the first man who introduced the sociological concept in the town planning. Before coming to India, he had successfully overcome the horrors of Edinborough slums. LEWIS MUMFORD  Wrote the book “Culture of cities”: 1938  He was a student of Patrick Geddes Advocate of “Neighbourhood unit” The convenient walking distance determines size for children between the furthest house and the school and playground in which a major part of their activities are focused. The need there is isolating school and home from the noise of traffic and its dangers. No major traffic arteries must run through, they may exist at the boundaries. Whatever traffic enters into the neighbourhood, must be that which sub serves it directly, moving at a pace that respects the pedestrians. Neighbourhood concept is almost universally accepted today at least in principle. The only difference is in terms of its size, the nature and extent of the physical boundary and on the character of housing within the unit. A large order of putting school at the central position. Need of adequate organization of the school activities and its incorporation as an inseparable part of the unit. CLARENCE A. PERRY One of the earliest authorities to attempt a definition of the neighborhood in fairly specific terms was Clarence A. Perry. He said “ The underlying principle of the scheme is that an urban neighbourhood should regarded both as a unit of larger whole and as a distinct entity in itself. There are certain other facilities, functions or aspects that are strictly local and peculiar to a well arrangedResidential community. They may be classified under four heads: (5) The elementary school (6) small parks and playgrounds (7) local shops and (8) residential environment other neighbourhood institutions and services are sometimes found, but there are practically universal. ALL THE BEST Page 89

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He laid down the fundamental elements on which he intended the neighbourhood unit should be based size, boundaries open spaces, institutional sites, local shops and internal road system. Its six basic principles were: 7. The size should be related to the catchment area of an elementary school. 8. The residential area should be bounded on all sides by arterial streets; there should be no through traffic. 9. There should be ample provision of small parks and play areas. 10. There should be a central point to the neighbourhood containing the school and other services. 11. District shops should be located on the periphery, thus serving approximately four neighbourhoods. 12. There should be a hierarchy of streets facilitating access but discouraging through traffic.

DOXIADIS, CONSTANTINOS A Constantinos A Doxiadis (1913 – 1975) was born in Bulgaria of Greek parentage. He grew up in a Greek community and was educated in Athens. He was particularly interested in town planning, and his thesis on the discovery of the geometric properties used in laying out the public buildings of ancient Greece was highly acclaimed by scholars for its originality. While in Berlin, Doxiadis became increasingly interested in large-scale planning using multi disciplinary approach and philosophy and dealing with built forms as well as systems.After his studies in Berlin, Doxiadis returned to Greece to work as an architect and city planner. His first post was Director of town planning studies in Athens. In 1959 he founded Doxiadis associates, a consulting and engineering firm in Athens. Since its inception, the firm has provided engineering, architectural and planning consultation in over 30 countries. The firm has been involved in the coastal redevelopment of Greece, the urban and rural renewal of Iraq and many other planning assignments In US, Doxiadis Associates has developed regional renewal projects for Washington, Cincinnati, Ohio and Detroit, Michigan. Doxiadis most important contribution to architectural and planning thought was the development of ekistics. The attempt to arrive at a proper conception and implementation of the facts, concepts and ideas related to human settlements, and the attempt to re-examine all principles and theories and to readjust the disciplines and professions connected with settlements, led to the need for a special discipline of human settlements, the discipline of Ekistics.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Since one of the major problem faced was the merging of settlements into much larger and complicated organisms, Doxiadis at the Athens center of Ekistics was working on an attempt to foresee where human settlements are going in the future. It seems that they will merge into ever-larger groupings, which will become a continuous universal settlement, the universal city or Ecumenopolis. Doxiadis said “When we try to classify the settlements according to their dimensions, we will soon realise that they do not belong to easily definable categories of sizes but spread over the whole spectrum of possible sizes. Any such division will, therefore, have to be somewhat arbitrary, but it must also be an inherently satisfying and reasonable one. Such a division has been worked out based on empirical experience and is presented in a logarithmic scale. The smallest unit of measurement is Man. He does not form a settlement in himself since he is one of its elements, but he does have a shell (his clothing is the smallest possible human shell and personal furniture plays the same role) and he is the Basic and indispensable unit of measurement. The second smallest unit is a normal room. From this we go to a dwelling, a group of several dwellings, a small neighbourhood, a neighbourhood, a small town, a town, a city, a metropolis, a conurbation, a megalopolis, an urban region, an urbanized continent, until, finally, we reach the largest conceivable space for a settlement, which is the whole Earth. This Ekistics Logarithmic Scale (ELS) can be presented graphically in several ways. One way is based on the areas covered by the different units(area ELS), another way is based on the number of people corresponding to each unit (population ELS). The ELS consist of 15 Ekistics units ranging from Man to Ecumenopolis and these units in turn belong to four basic groups Minor shells, or elementary units (man, room, house) Micro-settlements, the units smaller than, or as small as, the traditional town where people used to and still do achieve interconnection by walking Meso-settlements, between the traditional town and the conurbation within which one can commute daily Macro-settlements, whose largest possible expression is the Ecumenopolis. LE CORBUSIER

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com In the early twenties, Le Corbusier realized that many cities around the world were on the brink of an urban implosion due to poor design, inadequate housing and inefficient transportation. He studied these problems and advised bold new solutions. His theories helped shape the planning of many cities of the world, and the influence they exerted on a new generation of architects and planners is legendary.  He conceived plans for Algiers, Nemours, the university city of Brazil, Buenos Aires (Argentina), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Barcelona (Spain), Geneva( Switzerland), Stockholm (Sweden) and Antwerp (Belgium) His plans for cities were the result of a detailed analysis of three major urban factors – roads, housing and open spaces. He felt that roads should be arranged on the ‘grid – iron’ pattern with minimum crossings. Consequently, segregation of different forms of traffic was inevitable. He recommended skyscrapers for commercial and residential purposes, surrounded by large open spaces or parks. He claimed that on an average nearly 90 percent of the ground area of his modern city would consist of open spaces encompassing residential areas. He called his city ‘One Great Park’ with a lot of greenery around the buildings. LA VILLE CONTEMPORAINE (CONCENTRIC CITY) ‘The city of Tomorrow’ for 30,00,000 people was proposed by Le Corbusier in 1922, which was based on four principles : 5. 6. 7. 8. Decongestion of the centers of cities Augmentation of the density Enlargement of the means of circulation Increase in the number of parks and open spaces

 Gross FAR = 60x 5% = 3  Net FAR excluding roads = 4  Average floor space = 100 sq. ft/person

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com This scheme was a city of magnificent skyscraper towers surrounded by broad and sweeping open space. The city was a huge park. Sixty-story office buildings accommodating 1,200 people per acre and covering only 5% of the ground area were grouped in the heart of the city The hub of the plan is the transportation centre for motor, and rail lines, the roof of which is the air – field. Main highways are elevated. Surrounding the skyscrapers was the apartment district, eight-story buildings arranged in zigzag rows with broad open spaces about them, the density of population being 120 persons per acre. Lying about the outskirts were the garden cities of single-family houses. The residential zone contains schools, shopping centers, and recreational facilities.

PLAN VOISIN 1925 Above theories applied to a section of Paris The 60 story skyscraper office buildings are set in vast open space, main traffic highways are defined with complete separation of traffic and parking space for vehicles is provided. The plan is a rectangular arrangement of streets, but local and through traffic are distinctly separated, and the large open spaces are treated with informal pedestrian circulation and landscaped LA VILLE RADIEUSE 1930 – THE RADIANT CITY The previous concentric plan is considerably revised to allow a normal organic growth for the city Now Le Corbusier comes to the belief that ‘the essence of the city is the dwelling area’ Residential area occupies the most central location, with possible expansions to the right and left toward the open country. The civic center is on the main axis. The business area on the top Light manufacturing, freight yards and heavy industries at the bottom Traffic pattern – an orthogonal system with super imposed diagonals Subway system shows an equal simplicity The density is here 400 people per acre Each residential block is 1300 ft. x 1300 ft. or about 40 acres 16000 people = one neighbourhood. Each block has stadium, swimming pool, tennis courts, schools and playgrounds C.I.A.M. (CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE MODERNE) 1928 – FRANCE The international congress of modern architects subjected the city to re-examination and posed four basic elements of the urban biology : Sun Space Vegetation Steel and concrete ALL THE BEST Page 93

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Le Corbusier assumed a leading role It affirmed that town planning is the organizations of functions of collective life – this applies to both rural and urban settlements four functions of any settlement dwelling work recreation transportation, which connects the first three with one another. Le Corbusier organized in CIAM assembly of constructors, for an Architectural renovation ASCORAL (Assembly of Constructors for an Architectural Renewal) OF CIAM systematically studied the problems of construction, architecture and city planning. It resulted in the publication of ‘The Three Human Establishments’. The examination of working conditions in a mechanistic society led to the recognition of the utility and necessity of three unit establishments indispensable for human activity :  The Farming unit – the cooperative village : a unit for agricultural production  The linear industrial city  The radio concentric city - same as Radiant city (Ville Radieuse) for the exchange of goods and services. LINEAR INDUSTRIAL CITY – THE LINEAR TOWN ; UNIT FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION Leaving the ‘evils of the sprawling town’, the new industrial communities are located along the main arteries of transportation – water, rail and highway connecting the existing cities. Factories are placed along the main arteries, separated from the residential section by the highway and a green strip The residential areas include the ‘horizontal garden town’ of single houses and vertical apartment buildings with civic center. Sports, entertainments, shopping and office facilities are distributed in this district and all community facilities are placed within ample open space. Industries are placed at intervals along the highway and railway. The existing cities so connected remain as administrative, commercial and cultural centers.

PRE-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD OR BRITISH PERIOD The British people started independent colonies on the outskirts of the existing towns, which they considered as unhealthy. These extensions were known as ‘cantonments’ and ‘barracks’ for the military occupied area and ‘civil lines’ for the residence of the civilians and well-to-do people. At first they adopted straight roads for streets planning but no larger town planning schemes were taken. However, in the first decade of 20th century, they took up the outstanding work of building of New Delhi. The new capital of India. The plan was prepared on modern town planning principles by an eminent town planner ALL THE BEST Page 94

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com sir Edwin Lutyens, assisted by Baker. The capital group of building like Government House, council hall, and secretariat were designed. Industrial buildings were separated from residential sector and arranged around the commercial and civic buildings. It was more a planning and designing of Administrative center than a new town as such, and was mostly copied from their experience back home. POST INDEPENDENCE PERIOD The British had presumably planted their flags, paraded their troops, made their money, and disappeared without causing so much as a ripple of disturbance in the profound depths of the Indian soul (villages and rural areas) 75 % of India’s 700 million people still live in agricultural villages. The then Prime Minister Nehru once stated that ‘the fundamental problem of India is not Delhi or Calcutta or Bombay but the villages of India. National planning policies of the newly independent Indian Government strongly emphasized the improvement of the dominant rural sector. Yet the westernized metropolises bequeathed by colonialism could hardly be ignored far from rejecting westernization, many Indians persisted in equating it with progress, optimistically anticipating an era of technical advancement and industrial prosperity. In India, the socialist orientation of the government made it strongly receptive to the concept of large-scale planning and its first five-year plan called for a national town and country-planning act. Individual states were empowered to planning legislation as well as machinery for its implementation. Administrative progress was slow because of lack of Indian town planners. To remedy this, the government encouraged the establishment of academic programs in this field and thus in 1949 a department of Architecture and country planning was created by the Bengal Engineering College. The Department of architecture and Regional planning begun in 1955 by IIT kharagpur. The school of Town and country planning was established by the government in New Delhi and was subsequently attached to the University of Delhi as school of planning and Architecture. In the years following independence, India’s major cities were subjected to numerous studies, surveys, projection recommendations, and long-range plans. Planning documents, frequently prepared with the help of foreign consultants, reflected attempts to summarize information, analyses problems and suggest directions for future urban development. A series of tentative planning efforts culminated in the establishment of Development Authorities in metropolitan cities of Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. Dominant in western planning at this time was the concept of decentralization through regional development. It was hoped that through systems such a planned satellite towns, excessive congestion could be avoided and balanced patterns of residence and employment established. A particular focus of attention among planners in the 1950 was the New towns program in Britain, where the growth of London was guided by means of a green belt surrounded by a series of new urban centers. Many industrial towns were planned after Post – Independence period. A few of these are

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 4. STEEL TOWNS Durgapur Bhilai Rourkela Salem 5. INDUSTRIAL TOWNS Jamshedpur Bhadravati Gandhinagar 6. CAPITAL CITIES Chandigarh Gandhinagar

West Bengal Madya pradesh Orissa Tamil Nadu

Bihar Karnataka Gujarat

Union territory Gujarat

PRINCIPLES OF CITY PLANNING WHAT IS TOWN PLANNING? The art and science of ordering the use of land and siting of buildings and communication routes so as to secure the maximum practicable degree of economy, convenience, and beauty. An attempt to formulate the principles that should guide us in creating a civilized physical background for human life whose main impetus is thus … foreseeing and guiding change. An art of shaping and guiding the physical growth of the town creating buildings and environments to meet the various needs such as social, cultural, economic and recreational etc. and to provide healthy conditions for both rich and poor to live, to work, and to play or relax, thus bringing about the social and economic wellbeing for the majority of mankind. Planning is a process of helping a community, identify its problems and its central values, formulating goals and alternative approaches to achieving community objectives, and avoiding undesired consequences of change. This process of planning results in frameworks for coping with change. Some are physical elements such as streets, roads, and sewer lines. Some are concepts that serve as guides to action, such as the goal of becoming a major distribution center or of encouraging investment in the core of the city. Some are regulatory, reflecting the desires of the community to encourage good development and discourage bad development. “A city should be built to give its inhabitants security and happiness” – Aristotle “A place where men had a common life for a noble end” – Plato

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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF TOWN PLANNING The main objectives of the town planning may be summarised in three words viz. Health, Convenience and Beauty 4. Health : To create and promote healthy conditions and environments for all the people – rich and poor, to live, to work, to play or relax To make right use of the land for the right purpose by proper division of land called zoning such as residential, commercial industrial, institutional and recreational etc. in order to avoid the encroachment of one zone upon other for smooth and orderly development of the town or city without causing future conflicts. 5. Convenience : The object of convenience is meant in the form of various needs of the community such as social, economic, cultural and recreational amenities etc. Public amenities required for the proper upkeep of the citizens include water supply, sanitation, electricity, post, telegraph, gas etc., proper sites for industrial, commercial, business enterprises to encourage them in trade with cheap power, transport services, drainage etc. Recreational amenities include open spaces, parks, gardens and playgrounds, for children and town halls stadiums, community centers, cinema houses, and theatres for adults. 6. Beauty : To preserve the individuality of the town by developing it on its most suited natural conditions To preserve the aesthetics in the design of all elements of town or city plan, which includes preservation of trees, natural greenery, improved types of domestic buildings and buildings of civic dignity and beauty, architectural control on public as well as semi-public buildings, ancient architectural buildings, temples, churches, mosques and buildings of cultural and historical importance. CATEGORIES OF PLANNING Economic planning Physical planning Social planning CONCEPTS OF TOWN PLANNING Planning is concerned with taking an objective and rational view of future conditions, assessing what society desires its destiny to be, forecasting the amount of change, estimating the degree of control required, and formulating a policy to take account of this destiny, change and control. It has developed from the technical professions of architecture, surveying and engineering and has consequently produced solutions to urban problems that are ALL THE BEST Page 97

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com predominantly physical in character, such as land use maps, zoning density controls, building regulations and planning standards.

NEW TOWNS An appropriate form for the future city has no yet emerged, but serious attention has been directed to the nature of the modern city in two major areas: the internal urban structure – redevelopment –and planned decentralization – the New Towns. British planning policy Throughout the nineteenth century the British were stirred by the woeful impact of the industrial revolution on the living environment. Improvement in housing conditions was the centre of concern and action. In 1909 there began a series of legislative steps up the ladder of urban planning. In 1937 a royal commission was established under the chairmanship of Sir Montague Barlow to inquire into the distribution of industrial population and the social, economic, and strategic disadvantages arising from the concentration of industry and working people in large built-up communities. The commission report, published in 1940, contained recommendations for redevelopment of congested areas, the dispersal of population from such areas, the creation of balanced industrial employment throughout Great Britain, and the establishment of a national authority to deal with these matters. In 1941 two new committees were created to study the recommendations of the Barlow report – the Scott Committee on land utilization in Rural areas and the Uthwat committee on compensation and betterment. From these committees came recommendations for the creation of a central planning authority, measures to insure state control of development, increased powers of local planning authorities for compulsory purchase (eminent domain), and major revisions in the laws on compensation and betterment The Scott and Uthwatt Committee reports led to the adoption of a new series of Town planning acts. Compensation and Betterment The principle that the use of private property is subject to regulation for the community welfare was implemented by the dual provision that just compensation is due to private owners for restrictions by public authorities which impair the value of land, whereas the enhancement of property values which accrue through public planning decisions may be assessed by the local authorities. In the administration of this policy it was assumed that the public funds expended for compensation to property owners would be balanced by the assessments for betterments, which resulted from land use regulations. Assessments for betterments for improved values were awkward to determine and almost impossible to

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com collect. As a consequence, local authorities had inadequate resources upon which to draw to fulfill their obligations for payment of compensation.

NEW TOWN IN INDIA The most ambitious planning opportunity is the creation of a new town of which Chandigarh is an example in the country, where the planning unit is the sector containing a number of neighbourhood units. The steel towns of Rourkela, Bhilai and Durgapur are further examples in this field. The latter, however, are wasteful of land and services in many ways. As a result, a special committee was appointed by the central Government to recommend the standards on which future plans are to be based. The report of this committee has been published for guidance of planners.

SURVEY METHODS TYPES OF SURVEYS Surveys can broadly be divided into two categories depending on the area upon which they are to be conducted. They are : REGIONAL SURVEYS They are those surveys, which are done over a region dealing with  PHYSICAL FACTORS like topography, physically difficult land, geology, landscape etc.  PHYSICAL ECONOMIC FACTORS like agricultural value of the land, mineral resources and water gathering lands, areas with public services, transportation linkages etc.  SOCIAL ECONOMIC FACTORS like areas of influence of towns and villages, employment, population changes etc. TOWN SURVEYS They are done at much small scale and apart from the above data collected from the regional surveys it also includes  LANDUSE SURVEYS  DENSITY SURVEYS  SURVEYS FOR THE AGE AND CONDITION OF THE BUILDINGS  TRAFFIC SURVEYS  OTHER SOCIAL SURVEYS For conducting proper survey, primarily relevant enquiries should be framed in the form of questionnaires for presentation, when required. ALL THE BEST Page 99

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TECHNIQUES OF SURVEYS Of the various techniques of surveys that are followed, the four listed below are most prominent 5. self surveys (i.e. mailing questionnaires to the persons to be surveyed ) 6. interviews (i.e. by asking questions to the people to be surveyed ) 7. direct inspection (i.e. when the surveyor himself inspects the situations concerned ) 8. observers participation (i.e. when the observer himself participate in acquiring the data required ) SCALES FOR STRUCTURING QUESTIONNAIRES The questions that are asked in the questionnaires formed for doing the surveys can be of various types. Some of the asks for general things, some asks for some order of preferences or some give stress to the time interval between two incidents. Thus the scales of the questionnaires are fixed, which can be described as follows NOMINAL where there is no ordering, like asking of sex, age, employment in any particular service etc. ORDINAL where there is a specific order of choices like asking of priorities, housing conditions, climate etc. INTERVAL where an interval of time is given importance like time taken to shift from LIG housing to MIG housing, time interval to change from two wheelers to four wheelers etc. this provides an yardstick of measurements

SELECTION OF SAMPLES For conducting surveys, it is not always possible to ask each person about his or her opinion. Hence, certain numbers of persons are selected for conducting the surveys and these selected persons are known as ‘samples’ of surveying. The selection of the number of samples is of utmost importance. The basic rules for selection of sample size are as follows: 4. MORE DISASTROUS THE RESULTS OF POOR INFORMATION, LARGER SAMPLE SIZE IS REQUIRED. That is if the information got are poor (both qualitatively and quantitatively) the analysis done from them will be wrong. Thus, if getting incorrect results have a very disastrous effect on the framing up of the policies of planning; more number of people is to be surveyed. 5. THE MORE VARIED THE EXPECTED RESPONSES, LARGER SAMPLE SIZE IS REQUIRED. That is, if it is expected that there will be various kinds of responses to a particular question, more number of persons are to be asked, as more varied answers will help in getting different ideas of the people through the cross section of the people surveyed

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 6. LARGER THE TOTAL POPULATION, SAMLLER THE PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION ARE REQUIRED TOBE SURVEYED. That is, if the total population to be surveyed is very large then, even a small percentage of it will amount to quite a large number of samples. Depending on the time available, the money involved and many other things, the number of samples could be restricted by selecting a small percent of the total population. The samples could be selected in various ways depending on the type of information required and the importance of the accuracy of the particular information in the survey process. The various types of selection of samples are 5. SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING ( selecting samples at random without any criteria to select the samples whatsoever ) 6. SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING (selection of the Kth element along a particular street, where k can be any number ) 7. STRATIFIED SAMPLING ( making of a homogenous listing of the different sects of the population and collecting a certain percentage at random from each sect) 8. CLUSTERED SAMPLING (when samples are selected from clusters and not from a homogeneous listing ) PLANNING REGULATIONS AND BUILDING BYELAWS A bye-law is a local law framed by a subordinate authority. The building codes or byelaws are defined as standards and specifications designed to grant minimum safeguards to the health and comfort of users and to provide enough safety to the public in general. The building bye-laws should not be confused with zoning regulations. The former regulates the construction aspects of buildings. The latter regulates the uses of land and (or) buildings Objects of bye-laws The bye-laws are necessary to achieve the following three objects It becomes easier to pre-plan the building activities and provisions of bye-laws give guide lines to the designing architect or engineer The building bye-laws prevent haphazard development without any resemblance to the development of the area as a whole The provisions of building bye-laws usually afford safety to the human beings who work and live in them against fire, noise, health hazard and structural failure Technical consideration for formation of building byelaws To frame the building byelaws, the local authorities must take into consideration the following points to make them functional and practical. These are:  Structural dimensions of walls and foundations ALL THE BEST Page 101

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Building height and road angles Front set backs for aesthetics ad road widening Density and FSI Bulk of buildings Urban form Minimum dimensions of rooms, toilets and kitchens Side open spaces and the space in-between buildings Development management and admin THE LAND ACQUISITION ACT 1894 Administrative procedures Whenever any government department or a public authority want to acquire any land, they must send their requisition proposal to the appropriate office of the government, (normally designated as land acquisition collector – who is in every district and big cities) who will on behalf of the department or public authority, which needs the land, go through the various stages of the land acquisition procedure until he takes possession of the land and hands it over to the concerned department or the public authority. Important stages in land acquisition procedure while acquiring land for public purpose Publication of preliminary notification by the Government that a particular land is needed or likely to be needed for a public purpose Hearing of objections to the above mentioned notification from interested parties by the collector and his report to the Government in this matter Declaration by the Government that the land is required for a public purpose Notification by collector declaring Government’s intention to acquire land and calling for claims for compensation from interested parties Enquiry into the compensation claims and passing of award by the collector Taking possession of the land by the collector after payment of compensation and handing it over to the authority requiring the same LAND REVENUE ACT LAND REFORMS ACT URBAN LAND CEILING AND REGULATION ACT TOWN PLANNING ACT URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACT       

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REGIONAL PLANNING Regional planning deals primarily with the integrated development of human settlements and countryside within a region. It aims at reducing the disparity in the level of living of the people and the wide gulf between urban and rural life. Regional planning can be a tool for balanced development of the nation and co-ordinate the aims and objectives of the national development planning with the implementation programmes at the microlevel.

REGION The term ‘Region’ applies to an area with certain characteristics, often-mere size, by virtue of which it is adopted as a suitable unit for some particular purpose of business and administration. It is also an area which is homogeneous in respect of some particular set of associated conditions, whether of the land or of the people, such as industry, farming, distribution of population, commerce, or the general sphere of influence of a city. A region in general terms is envisaged as a natural unit, in contrast to the artificial unit created for administrative purposes. For planning purposes, whether for planning a town or a country, new unit areas are required, differing in character and extent for particular purposes. Though different areas are used for distinct purposes – say, for planning towns, developing resources, collecting census data, regionalisation of public services, like health and housing and so on – it is essential that there should be as close a geographical co-ordination between them as is practicable.

FORMAL AND FUNCTIONAL REGIONS Formal region is geographical area which is uniform or homogeneous in terms of selected criteria. A formal region can be further defined as natural or economic formal region depending upon the criteria used. A Natural formal region is a formal region based on the criteria of topography, climate or vegetation. Criteria used are predominantly physical, linked with the concept of geographical determinism. Economic formal regions are generally based on types of industry or agriculture ( such as coal mining region, tea plantation region ) although there are obvious physical undertones Functional region is a geographical area, which displays certain functional coherence, inter-dependence, of parts, when defined on the basis of certain criteria. It is sometimes ALL THE BEST Page 103

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com referred to as a nodal or polarized region and is composed of heterogeneous units, such as cities, towns and villages, which are functionally inter-related. Merits and demerits of a large dam in regional planning Merits :  Storage of water for irrigation  Generation of electrical power  Water supply  Flood control  Controlling of silt formation in rivers and canals  Fish culture and breeding  Recreation  Wild-life preservation  Soil conservation Demerits : Factors to be considered for describing the economic profile of a region Per-capita income Demographic content of the region Industrial scenario Service sector Trade and commerce Informal sector employment

FINANCE Amortisation Ammortisation is a means of paying out a predetermined sum (the principal) plus interest over a fixed period of time, so that the principal is completely eliminated by the end of the term. Various forms of non property taxes that can be imposed by a municipality for mobilization of development funds Betterment tax Professional tax Tax on real estate Water tax Sewerage tax etc. Factors that are to be considered for “life cycle cost analysis” while evaluating alternative materials in any urban construction project Cost of the material ALL THE BEST Page 104

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Benefit obtained from the material Maintenance cost of that material

Salient features of 73 rd constitutional amendment act of India  There shall be constituted in every state panchayats at avillage, intermediate and district level  To have proper representation of population in all areas, the ratio between the population of a territorial area of a panchayat and the number of seats, which are filled by election, shall be same throughout the state  Normally duration of panchayat is five years  The legislature of a state may endow the panchayat with such powers to enable them to function as institutions of self government, subject to conditions, with respect to prepaation and implementation of plans for economic development and social justice  Panchayats may be given powers to impose taxes, duties, tolls and fees subject to limits  A finance commission may be constituted to review financial position of the panchayat

Constitution 74 th Amendment Act, 1992  provides constitutional status to Municipalities and Municipal Corporations.  The constitution provides for three types of Municipalities. o A Nagar Panchayat for a transitional area, that is to say, one area in transition from rural area to an urban area o A Municipal Council for a smaller urban area o A Municipal corporation for a larger urban area

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THE CONSTITUTION (74TH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1992 TWELFTH SCHEDULE Suitable organizational structure Rationalization of geographical jurisdiction Management of resources – economic, social political and human – for optimum results Logistical aids necessary for management capacity development The procedures and practices that would be necessary for communication and coordination The measures to be taken for city planning at the local level

Criteria’s for enlisting heritage structures and precincts Uniqueness of the monument or site Its being representative of an important epoch in the national history Its association with the life of a great national leader or personality Outstanding architectural or artistic or archaeological value Accessibility to the public Not being under intensive use by the public State the elements of public interest in formulating development control  Health  Economy  Safety  Convenience  amenity PLANNING LEGISLATION Legislation forms a very important tool in the hands of town planners as the laws help the planners to develop the cities, as they want. Without the laws it becomes impossible to implement the new concepts of planning and to restrict the developments, which are not ALL THE BEST Page 106

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com conducive for the general welfare of the city dwellers. The two most important laws that help the planners to implement their plans are:  Eminent domain – by which the government can acquire any private property for the sake of public welfare, public health and public safety  Police power – by which the developmental authorities can control the nuisances and the undue developments. Most of the developmental controls like building bye-laws and planning laws emanate from this police power Nuisance is of two types  Private nuisance, which affect the enjoyment of the individual, and  Public nuisance, which affect the health, safety, moral values and comfort of the public at large. These nuisances come in the form of noise, air pollution, water pollution etc. The police power takes care of these nuisances and also it empowers the authorities to look after the issues like architectural conservation, esthetics, spiritual values etc. The municipal authorities that work with mainly two instruments like generally exercise the police power: 1. Building bye-laws, which establish municipal safeguards of the constructions and use of buildings 2. Development controls, which shape the overall urban network. CAPACITY BUILDING Capacity building in urban development means working to get to a situation where cities are planned and managed more effectively that at present. It is a concept that goes beyond training of individuals to the institutions and frameworks that they work within. This has considerable impact on the approach of capacity building institutions and of their partners if cities are to play their potential role in human and economic development. Training has much more importance to equip the professionals for capacity building and to respond effectively to their changing roles. With greater political control over planning and urban development, the training programmes have to give more emphasis on preparing the urban managers and professionals to be more organized, productive, responsive to public and also to act with integrity within the political system. In this regard, attitudinal changes for new management culture, facilitating public participation, decentralization, sharing of information, and personal action planning are the critical priorities of capacity building. Planning theory PLANNING PROCESS: All stages of actions from defining the objectives till implementation and review of any planning project in the planning process. In plan preparation, the physical planning should associate with the socio-economical, geographical, political factors, for achieving the objective in desired direction. The various stages of planning process is as follows: 10. Identification and definition of problems 11. Defining the objectives ALL THE BEST Page 107

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Studies and survey Analysis of data and preparation of study maps Fore-casting Design Fixation of priorities Implementation Review, evaluation and feedback

MULTI LEVEL PLANNING IN INDIA The concept of multi level planning incorporates the principle that proper decision making is possible at any level if the strategy at each level is determined after a careful consideration of the potentials, needs and limitation at the next higher as well as the next lower levels of planning Multi level planning is two-way approach, requiring many preparatory efforts from both ends. The higher level gives macro framework indicators and guideline for planning. The lower levels must feed the higher level with information and has to prepare from below. The various processes involved in multi-level planning are  Determination of approach levels of decision making with reference to various activities  Organizing interaction between different levels in terms of exchange of information and interactive consultations of different stages of plan formulation and appraisal  ‘Nesting of plans’ at different levels and integrating them into a unified frame work. Nesting implies securing both the balances within the plans drawn up for different levels and also their harmonization. Securing integration within plans at different levels implies achieving balance at three levels i.e. sectoral, spatial and operational COMPREHENSIVE COMMUNITY PLANNING The purpose of community planning is to anticipate the physical environment that will best serve the needs of the people living and working in an urban area, and then to make plans for achieving this environment. It is continuing process of developing a comprehensive programme to guide urban growth and renewal. There are six minimum planning requirements, which are backbone of any programme. 7. The Land use plan 8. The thoroughfare plan 9. The community facilities plan 10. The public Improvement programme 11. The zoning ordinance and map ALL THE BEST Page 108

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 12. The subdivision regulations

CENTRAL PLACE THEORY by CHRISTELLER Comprehensive approach of the system Basic elements are  A central good  A central place  A complimentary region 6. A region can be served by goods of various types if central places producing different ranges of goods are evenly distributed 7. Central places will be regularly spaced clusters located with in hexagonal trading areas and will together for triangular lattices 8. Lower order centers will be located at the gravity centers of the triangles formed by next higher order centers 9. Distances separating the centers will be greater in case of higher order centers and proportionally less for lower order centers 10. All the central places constitute a hierarchy of the smallest villages to the largest town of national importance SETTLEMENT PATTERN Census of India defines an Urban Area as (i) all places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee; (ii) all other places which has features as (1) a minimum population of 5000; (2) at least 75% of the male working population engaged in non- agricultural pursuits and (3) a density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km. Apart from urban area & urban agglomeration rest is considered as Rural Area. Census Classification of Cities and Towns Class of Cities/Towns Range of Population Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V Class VI ALL THE BEST 100,000 and above 50,000 to 99,999 20,000 to 49,999 10,000 to 19,999 5,000 to 9,999 Below 5,000 Page 109

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Source: Report of National Commission on Urbanization, vol. One

LANDUSE AND LAND UTILISATION At any particular point of time, a parcel of land put to some use is landuse. This concept is a dynamic phenomenon as the use of a vacant land may be converted to residential or commercial. Need for ‘land use’  To guide the use of land to promote the advantages of development of the community  Curb misuse of land i.e. increased intensity of development, encroachment of open space  Prevent abuse of land i.e. prevent formation of slums, squatters  Regulate the nonuse or misuse of land i.e. land being used for speculation, without development  To guide the re-use of land i.e. conservation Land use plan Landuse plans show us the various kinds of activities that are carried out in the different location of the city. There are various types of landuses in a city. CONCENTRIC ZONE THEORY Emerged from a study of Chicago by Burgess It was suggested that any city extends radially from its center to form concentric zones and that as distance from the center increased there would be a reduction in accessibility, rents and densities Land use would assume the following forms from the center outwards. The CBD, a zone of transition, an area of factories and low income housing, an area of higher income housing, and a commuter zone There would also be declining proportions of recent immigrants, delinquency rates, poverty and disease as distance increased from the center Natural population increase in migration, economic growth and income expansion will all result in each zone within the urban area ‘invading’ the next zone outwards As the CBD expands, the locational advantages of central sites might diminish, the transitional zone (awaiting redevelopment) might become more and more a twilight area, and as suburban population increase, new out lying business districts may evolve. Many criticisms can be made on the theory Landuses within many parts of the urban area are heterogenous – shops, offices, factories and housing may all be located close to each other, although they may have potentially different site and locational requirements Accessibility may be a relatively unimportant consideration for many uses, especially housing and commercial users may find it disadvantageous to agglomerate if there is an opportunity to corner an undeveloped market. ALL THE BEST Page 110

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Decentralized shopping centers and offices may further distort the pattern, and the CBD might experience a decrease in rents and density following the reduction in its accessibility through congestion The concentric zone models also ignores physical features, take little account of industrial and railway use and disregards the effect of radial route ways upon land values and uses HOYTT’S SECTOR THEORY Growth along a particular transport route takes the form of land use already prevailing and that each sector of relatively homogenous use extends outwards from the center Compatible land uses would lie adjacent to each other (for example ware housing and light manufacturing, and low-income housing) and incompatible uses will be repelled (for instance high income housing and ware housing). Residential uses will tend to be segregated in terms of income and social position and will expand in different directions in different parts of the city. When high-income households abandon the inner areas, they are in filled (usually at a higher density) by lower-income households The criticisms of the theory are broadly the same as those made of the concentric zone theory, and so are the merits. However, while recognizing the relationship between accessibility, land use and values, and densities, Hoytt believed that the interdependence of these variables express itself differently in terms of the spatial structure of the city. MULTIPLE NUCLEI THEORY Unlike other theories, which have all assumed that cities grow from one central point, the multiple nuclei theory produced by Harris and Ullman is based on the assumption that urban growth takes place around several distinct nuclei The nuclei could include the first urban settlement (probably a market town), nearby village, a factory, a mine, a railway terminal or waterside facility Ultimately they would be integrated into one urban area largely agglomerated by residential use and intra-city transportation The original nuclei would help to determine current use, for example the market town might become the CBD, the village an outlying business district, the factory site might evolve into an area of wholesaling and light manufacture, and the mine or waterside facility could become an area of heavy industry Within the urban area, compatible uses are attracted to each other- for example, lowincome residential land would be close to wholesale and light manufacturing and near heavy industry and the medium and high-income residential areas would surround the outlying business district. Incompatible uses would remain far apart – for example, highincome housing and heavy manufacturing. The number of nuclei would generally be greater in large urban areas than in small cities and there would be a greater degree of specialization within each nucleus.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com A city had grown geometrically at a rate of 7% per annum from 1991 to 2001. In the year 2001, the city had a population of 701276. The net migration rate for the city during the above period had been 10 per thousand population. What was the net migration to the city during 1991 to 2001 Formula for geometric growth method : Pt = Po ( 1 + r) t where pt is the future population po is the current population r is the rate of change between current and initial population t is the no. of years for which projection is required 701276 = Po (1 + 7/100) 10 Po ( population in the year 1991 ) = 356493 Increase in population = Pt – Po = 701276 – 356493 = 344783 Net migration rate is 10 per 1000 i.e. 1% Net migration to the city during 1991 to 2001 = 1% of increase in population from 1991 to 2001 = 1% of 344783 = 3447.83 ~ 3444 persons Human Development Index Every year since 1990, the United Nations development programme has studied the quality of life in many countries. The Human Development Index is the result of this study. The index uses factors such as life expectancy, adult literacy rate and per-capita income to determine the rankings.

Services and amenties SERVICES AND AMENITIES WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM: The planning, design, financing, construction of modern urban water supply scheme is complex undertaking. Each water supply scheme by its very nature, must be uniquely conceived. Even in its most specific sense as an engineering enterprise satisfactory development of water supply scheme depends upon demographic, hydrologic, geodetic and geologic information that can be made available only by decades of institutionalized, orderly observation, recording and analysis. COMMUNITY AND WATER SUPPLY: Water is introduced into municipalities for many purposes: 1. for drinking and culinary uses, ALL THE BEST Page 112

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 2. for washing, bathing, and laundering, 3. for cleaning windows, walls and floors, 4. for heating and air conditioning, 5. for watering lawns and gardens, 6. for filling swimming pools, 7. for display in fountains, 8. for producing hydraulic and stream power, 9. for employing in numerous and varied industrial processes, 10. for protecting life and property against fire, and 11. for removing offensive and potentially dangerous wastes from household and industry. To provide for these varying uses about 300 liters per capita per day is essential but many Indian cities have water supply much less than the required quality. WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM OF A TOWN: Water supply system of a town includes: 1. Sources of water supply, 2. Purification, 3. Transmission, and 4. Distribution of water. SOURCES OF WATER SUPLY: There are various sources of water supply, they are: (a) Rain water: This is collected from roof of building stored in cisterns of small individual supplies. (b) Surface water: This is the run off water, which is collected putting dam across the natural streams or rivers. Usually water supply for a large town or city is derived from these sources. (c) Ground water: erecting wells and infiltration galleries across the river basin collects this water. This source of supply is suitable for small towns. Municipal supplies may be drawn from a single source or from a number of different ones. The water from multiple sources is ordinarily mixed before distribution. PURIFICATION OF WATER Some of the water collected from surface or ground source are satisfactory in quality for all common municipal uses. Such water needs to be protected only by disinfections. Others containing objectionable substances in varying quantities, and these substances must be removed, reduced to tolerable limit, destroyed, or otherwise changed in character before they are sent to the consumer. Impurities are acquired in normal passage of water through the atmosphere, over the earth’s surface, or through the pores of the ground. They are associated in their pollution aspects with man’s activities and, in particular, with his own use of water in household and industry and his discharge of spent watercourses. Purification works in public water supply system is employed to make water; 1. Hygienically safe, 2. Esthetically attractive and palatable, and ALL THE BEST Page 113

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 3. Economically satisfactory for the uses to which it is to be put. The most common classes of municipal water purification works and their principal functions are: 1. Filtration plants that remove objectionable colour, turbidity and bacteria as well ad other potentially harmful organisms by filtration through sand after necessary preparation of the water by coagulation and sedimentation. 2. Defferrization and demagnetization plants that remove excessive amounts of iron and manganese by oxidizing the soluble ferrous and manganeous compounds, which are removable by sedimentation and filtration. 3. Softening plants that remove excessive amounts of scale-forming soap consuming compounds, chiefly and soluble bicarbonate, chloride and sulphate of calcium and magnesium. Most water supplies are chlorinated to assure their disinfections and many waters are treated with lime or other chemicals to reduce their tendency to corrode iron and other metals with which they come into contact. TRANSPORTATION OF WATER: Supply conduits or aqueducts, transport water from the source of supply to the community and so form the connecting link between the collection works and the distribution system. The location of the source determines whether the conduits are short or long and whether the water is transported by gravity by pumping. Depending upon topography and available materials, conduits are designed to carry the water in open channel flow under pressure. They may follow the hydraulic grade line as: 1. canals dug through the ground, 2. flumes elevated above the ground, 3. grade aqueducts laid in balanced cut and cover at ground surface, 4. grade tunnels penetrating hills, or they may depend from the hydraulic gradient as pressure aqueducts laid in balanced out and cover at the ground surface 5. pressure tunnels dipping beneath valleys or hills 6. pipe lines of fabricated materials following the ground surface. Size and shape of supply conduits are determined by hydraulic, structural and economic considerations. Velocities of flow are held ordinarily between 1 to 1.5 m/sec. Requisite capacity depends upon the inclusion and size of service, or distributing reservoirs, in the supply system. The service reservoirs are designed to store enough water. Its capacity will be a day’s consumption of water plus 50% excess of the average daily rate of use. Ordinarily, required storage is approximately a day’s consumption. Distribution reservoirs are constructed as open or covered basins at ground level or as elevated tanks. The choice depends upon their size and their location with particular reference to available elevation above the area served by them. A number of different reservoirs may be needed in large system.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com DISTRIBUTION OF WATER: The system of conduits that conveys water to the points use from the terminus of the supply conduit, is known as the distribution system. Street plan, topography, location of supply work and distribution storage, etc., establish the type of distribution system and the character of flow through it. Depending upon the street plan, two distribution patterns predominate: 1. A branching pattern on the outskirts of the community in which ribbon development follows the primary arteries of road and streets and 2. To gridiron pattern within the built up portion of the community in which streets criss cross, pipes are interconnected. Hydraulically the gridiron system possesses the advantage of carrying water to any spot from more than one direction. The branching system has the disadvantage of dead ends. The carrying capacity of the grid iron system is strengthened by providing, in place of a central feeder, a loop or belt of feeder pipes the supplies water to the congested, or high value, district from at least two direction, thereby more or less doubling the delivery of grid. In large system, feeder conduits take the form of pressure tunnels, pressure aqueducts, or steel pipes. In smaller communities, the entire distribution system is generally made up of castiron pipes. Cast iron is the most common material for service mains. Steel and asbestos-cement pipes are also widely employed. WASTE WATER DISPOSAL SYSTEM 1. The disposal of wastewater requires the construction and operation of 2. Collection works and 3. Disposal works 4. Treatment works precedes the later. SOURCES AND NATURE OF WASTE WATER Sanitary sewage is the spent water supply of the community. Domestic sewage is the wastewater from kitchen, bathroom, lavatory, toilet and laundry. In addition to the mineral and organic matter already in the water dispensed to the community, domestic sewage contain an imposed burden of human excrement, paper, soap, dirt, food waste and numerous other substances. Domestic sewage is unstable, decomposable, or putrescible, it may give rise to offensive odors. Pathogenic organisms discharged by persons harboring intestinal parasites or suffering from infectious diseases are always present in domestic sewage and render it dangerous The nature of industrial waste depends upon the industrial processes. Some industrial wastes are so objectionable that they should not be admitted to the public sewerage system. Some industrial wastes adhere to sewers and clog them. Some others contain acids and hydrogen sulphide, which destroy cement concrete etc. used in construction of sewers There are two types of sewerage system Combined system and Separate system

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com In combined system, waste matters from household, industries and storm water run off are collected in a single pipe But in separate system, domestic and industrial sewage and storm water are collected in separate sewers PATTERN OF COLLECTION SYSTEM Usually the sewer lines are laid 4 to 5’ below the centerline of the streets provided that the streets are 30’ in width or less. But in the case of wider roads sewer lines are laid on sides of the road just below the footpaths. The lines are laid to get flow of sewage by gravity. Now sewer line is allowed to flow more than 2/3 of its capacity. In case sewage is lifted to a particular point, pump station are constructed along the sewer line. The velocity of flow of sewerage will be limited to 2.0 to 2.5 ft/sec. If the velocity is reduced from this limit deposition of waste matter will occur. This will lead to clogging of the sewer system. On the other hand the velocity is increase beyond 3 ft/sec, the rubbing action of solid particle will damage the inner layer of sewer system. MANHOLE Some deposition of solids is bound to occur. So sewers made accessible for inspection and cleaning. In sewers that are not large enough to be entered, providing manhole at all junctions of sewers, changes in direction and change in grade does this. The straight runs that can be rodded out between manhole are limited in length 300 to 400’. For sewers less than 24” in diameter. For larger sewers, they are up to 600’ COLLECTION OF STORM WATER In separate sewerage system, collection of storm water is done in catch water drains, which run on either side of the road. Strom water carries solid waste and sand particles etc. if the speed is reduced there is every chance of depositing the solid particle carried by the sewage. So minimum velocity is maintained at 3 ft/sec. DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE Storm water Strom water is collected in surface drains called catch drains, or in underground drains and disposed off to the natural water courses with out any treatment Sewage Raw sewage is treated before discharging into watercourse. The daily load of solid imposed upon domestic sewage about half a kilo per person per day. Industrial wastes however, may be far more concentrated. METHODS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT Removal of floating and suspended matter These matters are strained out by passing the sewage through screens

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Removal of oil and grease This is removed in skimming tanks where the sewage is allowed to stand still for a particular period of time and the floating oil is allowed to flow into a separate tank. Removal of heavy materials This is done in settling tank or sedimentation basins. Here sewage is allowed to stand still for a particular time. During this course of time heavy particles start settling on the bottom of the tank and this is removed from the bottom. Removal of non-settleable suspended matters Here suspended matters are converted into settleable solids by adding chemicals to sewage and is allowed to settle in settling tanks. Even more colloidal and dissolved matter is converted into settleable solids by biological growths. This growth is accelerators by aeration of sewage. This is done in trickling filters and more finely divided matters are removed by filtration through soil, sand, or other granular materials. The filtered water is chlorinated to remove all the harmful bacteria’s before it is discharged into the natural watercourses. SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM Following are some of the methods of solid waste disposal 1. Dumping in this method, the refuse is dumped in low lying areas partly as a method of reclamation of land. Because of bacterial action, refuse decreases considerably in volume and is converted into humus. The method through popular in cities, is not quite satisfactory because of the following drawbacks  The refuse is exposed to flies and rodents  It is a source of nuisance from smell and unsightly appearance  The loose refuse is dispersed by the action of wind  Drainage from dumps contributes to the pollution of surface and ground water 2. Sanitary land filling This method is simple, efficient and cheap. It consists of providing a deep wide trench (3.5m x 6 m) and filling it up with refuse up to a depth of 2m. the refuse is then compacted by rollers or bulldozers and covered with 1-2m thick earth. The bacteria and fungi in refuse start the work of decomposition of organic substances and convert them into stable substances. The temperature in the sanitary landfill will be around 60 to 70 degrees during the first two weeks and will start dropping afterwards. The top of the fill is covered by a layer of earth or ash, properly leveled, with sides sloping at 45 degrees to the horizontal. 3. Incineration It involves in burning of combustible refuse in an incinerator. All sorts of bacteria, insects, etc. are destroyed and the remaining noncombustible ashes, metals etc have little ALL THE BEST Page 117

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com sanitation problems. The heat produced during burning of the refuse can be utilized for the production of steam and other purposes. It is th most sanitary method of disposal of refuse. It is recommended for crowded cities and populated areas due to lack of suitable land. However, because of the large amount of smoke and gases emitted in this process, it adds considerably to the air pollution problem. 4. Composting Composting is a method of combined disposal of refuse and night soil or sludge. It is a process of nature. In this, organic matter breaks down under bacterial action. This results in the formation of relatively stable humus like material, called compost. It has considerable manorial value for the soil. This method of refuse disposal is popular in India. The following methods of composting are now in use.  Bangalore method  Mechanical composting Bangalore method: Composting is usually carried out in India by an anaerobic method, popularly known as bangalore method. It is a satisfactory method of disposal of town wastes and night soil. Trenches of 4.5 to 10m long, 1.5 to 2.5m wide and 0.9m deep are dug. Depths greater than 0.9m are not recommended because of slow decomposition. The pits should be located on leeward side by not less than 800m away from city limits. The trench is alternately filled with layers of refuse (150mm) and night soil (50mm) till the heap rises to 300mm above the ground level. The top layer should be of refuse, at least 250mm in thickness. Then, the leap is covered with excavated earth. Within 7 days, because of bacterial action, considerable heat (up to 70 degrees C) is generated in the compost mass. This intense heat persists over 2 to 3 weeks. this serves to decompose the refuse and night soil and to destroy all pathogenic and parasitic organisms. At the end of 4 to 6 months, decomposition is complete. The resulting manure is a well-composed material of high manorial value. A modification of the above method is the aerobic method called Indore method of composting. The operation in filling the pit is similar to the bangalore method except that the top 600mm portion of the trench is left unfilled. Turning of the mass is then done at intervals of 5 to 7 days, twice or thrice thereby enabling material both outside and inside to be fully decomposed aerobically under the action of atmospheric oxygen. In addition, the pathogenic organisms and fly larvae are thoroughly destroyed. The compost mass may be converted into humus in a period of 15 to 20 days. Mechanical composting: In this method, the refuse is first cleared of salvable materials such as rags, bones, metal, glass and items which are likely to interfere with the grinding operation. It then pulverized in order to reduce the size of particles to less than 40mm. The pulverized refuse is then mixed with sewage in a rotating machine and incubated. The factors which are controlled in the operation are a certain carbon-nitrogen ratio, temperature, moisture, pH and aeration. The entire period of composting is completed in 4 to 6 weeks 5. Fermentation and biological digestion

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com In this method, the garbage is placed in air tight sealed tanks without air for 10 days, and in presence of air for 15 to 20 days. If necessary, the drainage collected at the bottom of the tank is recirculated to keep the garbage wet. The digested residue is stable and is good soil conditioner 6. Pyrolysis This is also known as destructive distillation. In this process, solid wastes are either shredded until they are finely ground or partly shredded and then heated in an oxygen free atmosphere. Most organic substances are split through a combination of thermal cracking and condensation reactions into gaseous, liquid and solid fractions. This process is high endothermic. 7. Dumping into the sea Solid wastes cause pollution to the aquaculture, if they are dumped into the sea along the coast. But radioactive substances are packed in containers and taken deep into the sea and then dumped. These containers reach the bottom of the sea. In due course, they lose their radioactivity. 8. Grinding and discharging to sewers In this method, the refuse is well ground in commercial grinders and is discharged into the sewer. This method is not common in India, but is used in America and other western countries. 9. Vermiculture biotechnology Vermiculture biotechnology is use for biotechnological conversion of solid wastes ‘Vermi’ means worms (earthworms) and ‘Culture’ means farming; thus, vermiculture is a farming of earthworms. In this process, earthworms are harnesses as versatile natural bioreactors, which convert the organic solid waste into valuable by-product, the vermicasting, a rich manure used in agriculture and horticulture. This technology is a potential alternative, which offers an ideal low-cost solid waste-processing scheme of sustainable agriculture on wasteland.

ELECTRICITY An electric current is a flow of electricity carried by the electrons. Usually electric current flows from a positive terminal to a negative terminal. SOURCES OF ELECTRIC POWER There are several sources of electric power. They are 1. Hydroelectric stations 2. Thermal power stations 3. Nuclear power stations 4. Photoelectric cells 5. Chemical actions

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 1. Hydroelectric stations Hydroelectric installations produce electricity from energy of water. Large water retaining structures are constructed across the river or valley, these structures are known as dam. They help to obstruct the flow of natural water and impound large quantity of water on the upstream side of the dam. Water thus impounded behind the dam is led through pipes at the bottom of the dam to the powerhouse. In the power house the water is fed into water turbines. Each water turbine in-turn, rotates generator. Cables carry electricity produced by generator or overhead transmission wires to distant places as desired. 2. Thermal stations Here generators are allowed to run by steam obtained from heating the water by coal. High-pressure steam is passed through tubes fitted round a wheel in required angle. Due to pressure this wheel runs with high velocity. Usually generator is axiled to the wheels to produced electricity 3. Nuclear power stations The function of nuclear power stations are more less the same that of thermal stations. Here burning uranium rods by a process called atomic fission generate the heat. Uranium 235 is the only material that can be used for nuclear fission. Plutonium, a newly created element, may be used as well. 4. Photoelectric cells This is a device based on the discovery that small particles of negative electricity called electrons are emitted from the surface of certain metals, when light falls on it. But current produced from this source is very small and cannot be used for electrifying a town or a city 5. Electricity produced by chemical action Ordinary batteries work on this principle. The current produced from this source is very small. So it is not sufficient for a town Transformer Electricity produced in a generator is at relatively low pressure. To transmit large amount of power at this voltage, comparatively larger sized transmission wires are required to be use. Hence voltage is increased by many times. A transformer does this. A transformer ca step up or step down the voltage. Transmission of current Transmission wires erected on transmission towers do electric current transmission. While transmitting current to a great distance, there will be loss of voltage. This is again raised to the required level by transformers. Distribution For distribution of electric current the whole town is divided into districts. In each district a sub-station is constructed to supply current to the use in that district. Usually all the ALL THE BEST Page 120

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com substations are interlinked to form a grid so that in case of any break down in any one of sub-stations, current can be supplied from other sub-stations. The capacity of the sub-station is decided by the power consumption in that district. This includes domestic and industrial consumption of the district. TELECOMMUNICATION World has been made to depend more and more upon these technical means of communication, namely, telephone and telegraph, radio, television and printing; all summed up on one word, telecommunications Communication has become the pulse of the world and an essential part of human life and human progress. The telegraphs and the telephone brought the new method of communication. Probably the most remarkable feature of the age in which we live is the rapidity of communication.

PLANNING STANDARDS 1. Civic amenities and community facilities Educational facilities Population per unit Nursery school (age group of 3 to 6 1,500 years) Basic primary school (age group of 3,500 6 to 14 years) Higher secondary school (age group 3,500 of 14 to 17 years) Colleges 50,000 Technical institution University campus Medical facilities Dispensary Health centre (0.5 bed per 1,000 population) Hospital (2 bed per 1,000 population) District tuberculosis centre 50,000 --Population per unit 5,000 20,000 50,000 1.0 to 2.0 million

Number of pupils 80 400 400 2,000 1,000 20,000 Number of beds --15 100 100

Area in hectares 0.2 (including play ground) 1.0 (including play ground) 1.0 (including play ground) 3 to 4 (including play ground) 5.0 500.0 Area in hectares 0.1 0.4 (including staff quarters) 2 (including staff quarters) 2

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Other amenities Post and telegraph office Telephone exchange (10,000 lines) Electricity substation Police station Police station (major) Fire station Cinema theatre Community hall and library Swimming pool Stadium Open air theatre Religious building Auditorium Filling station Filling-cum service-station 2. Shopping facilities Level of shopping Population served Population per unit 10,000 1,00,000 50,000 10,000 50,000 50,000 20,000 25,000 1,00,000 1,00000 50,000 3,000 20,000 15,000 25,000 Area in hectares 0.1 (including staff quarters) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 (including staff quarters) 0.8 (including staff quarters) 0.25 0.75 0.8 3 0.8 0.1 0.4 0.05 0.1

Neighbourhood and convenience centre Community centre (district level) City centre Total for the city

3000 - 20,000 50,000 - 75,000 1,50,000 & above Entire city

No. of shops per 1000 persons 3 2-3 3 -4 8 - 10

Average area per shop in sq.m. 10 - 15 20 25 20

Area of influence in km. 0.5 - 0.75 1.5 - 3 Entire city Entire city

3. Parks, playgrounds and open spaces Category Tot - lot Children's park Neighbourhood playground Neighbourhood park District park Regional park Crematorium Burial ground Total area required for parks, playgrounds and open spaces ALL THE BEST

Population per unit 500 2,000 1,000 5,000 25,000 1,00,000 5,00,000 10,000 1,000

Area in hectares 0.05 0.2 0.2 0.8 5.0 40.0 0.2 0.4 1.5 Page 122

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4. Water supply consumption Population range Break up per capita consumption in litres per day Domestic Public Ind. and Agricultu Wast use use commerce re e Less than 1000 25 --------1,000 to 5,000 45 10 5 --10 5,000 to 20,000 45 10 15 15 10 20,000 to 50,000 45 35 15 10 10 50,000 to 2,00,000 70 - 90 45 -65 20 10 20 Above 2,00,000 ----------5. Desirable land use pattern (percentage) Particulars Population range 1,50,000 and above Residential 40 Industrial 8 Commercial 3.5 Parks, playgrounds and open 10 spaces Transportation and 24 communication Public and semi-public 10 Others 4.5 Total 100 6. Desirable densities of population Particulars Average gross density for the city Average gross density for the community Net density for residential neighborhood Gross density at the periphery and suburbs including lowland value areas Intermediate rings of cities and districts Inner ring around core area Core of city and high land value areas

Total 25 70 95 115 165 165 - 300

50,000 to 1,50,000 45 7 3 10 22 9 4 100

Less than 50,000 50 6 3 8 22 8 3 100

Persons per hectare 100 150 - 200 200 - 250 100 200 250 - 375 500

7. Residential plot sizes for towns in India Income group Dimensions in mts. Low income group 9 x 15 12 x 15 Middle income group 12 x 18 14 x 21 ALL THE BEST

Area in sq.mts. 135 180 216 294 Page 123

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 15 x 24 18 x 27 24 x 30 27 x 36 90 x 90 90 x 180 and multiples of 90 360 486 720 972 8100 16,200

High income group

Public housing and multiple family plots (90 sq.m. per family with 12 m. to 18m. road)

8. Plot area coverage and floor area ratio  Residential Area of plot in sq.m. 100 - 200 200 - 300 300 - 400 400 - 500 500 - 1,000 Above 1000 Floor area ratio: 1.0 to 3.0  Commercial Area of plot in sq.m. Up to 100 100 - 300 300 - 400 400 - 500 500 - 1,000 1000 - 2000 Above 2000 Floor area ratio: 1.0 to 4.0  Industrial

Max. Percentage of coverage 65 60 55 50 45 40

Max. Percentage of coverage 80 75 70 65 50 40 35

Area of plot in sq.m. Light industry Medium industry Heavy industry 250 - 2000 2000 - 4000 Above 4000

Max. Percentage of coverage 50 40 35

Hierarchy of recreational open spaces in urban areas in terms of physical size and facility standards Category Population Area in Facility standards per unit hectares Totlot 500 0.05 Paved area, playground apparatus area for small children Children’s park 2000 0.2 Neighbourhood 1000 0.2 ALL THE BEST Page 124

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com playground Neighbourhood park 5000

0.8

District park

25,000

5.0

Regional park

1,00,000

40.0

Playground apparatus areas, landscaped areas, multiple-use paved areas Facilities of neighbourhood park, tennis courts, football and lighting for evening use, community center / recreation buildings and swimming pool Water resource, camping, nature study picnicking

Decision factors for outdoor recreation  Age group  Distance  Family income  Mode of travel  Availability of time Outline the details required to be incorporated in the preparation of project estimate for water supply scheme of a town         Financial aspect Population Quality of water Rate of consumption Sanitary survey of area Sources of water supply Topography of area Trend of town development

TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION PLANNING Traffic:  Vehicles moving along a road or street  The number of people or the amount of goods moved from one place to another by road, rail, sea or air Transportation:  Conveyance used for going from place to place  The process of transporting or carrying goods and passengers from one place to another. Types of transport: ALL THE BEST Page 125

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com The different types of transport available in our country are  Road transport  Rail transport  Air transport  Water transport Road transport Road is the path specially prepared for the movement of transport vehicles like carts, trucks, buses, lorries, etc Different types of roads generally constructed are  Water bound macadam road The term Water bound macadam road is applied to a layer of broken stone aggregate that is held together by the dust particles of stone and the water sprinkled during compaction carried out by using roller  Bituminous road Road surface formed of broken stone aggregate and bituminous binder is called bituminous road. The selection of the type of bituminous surfacing, thickness of road surface and the method of laying the bituminous surface depend on the volume of the traffic and the intensity of the load transmitted by the traffic  Cement concrete road Road constructed of cement concrete with or without steel reinforcement is called concrete road. It is a rigid pavement.

DEFINITION OF TERMS Right of way (ROW) The horizontal distance from one plot line to another plot line in front of it Carriage way (C/V) The metaled portion of ROW to take the vehicles Travel time is the reciprocal of speed and is a simple measure of how ell a road network is operating Spot speed is the instantaneous speed of a vehicle at a specified section or location Average speed is the average of the spot speeds of all vehicles passing a given point on the highway Time-mean speed is the average of the speed measurements at one point in space over a period of time

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Space-mean speed is the average of the speed measurements at an instant of time over a space

Traffic volume (or) Volume of traffic Traffic volume is the number of vehicles moving in a specified direction on a given lane or roadway that pass a given point or cross-section during specified unit of time. Traffic volume is expressed as vehicles per hour or vehicles per day Traffic density Traffic density is the number of vehicles occupying a unit length of lane of roadway at a given instant, usually expressed as vehicles per kilometer. Traffic volume is the product of the traffic density and traffic speed. The highest traffic density will occur when the vehicles are practically at a stand still on a given route, and in this case traffic volume will approach zero Traffic capacity Traffic capacity is the ability of a roadway to accommodate traffic volume. It is expressed as the maximum number of vehicles in a lane or a road that can pass a given point in unit time, usually an hour. i.e., vehicles per hour per lane or roadway. Capacity and volume are measures of traffic flow and have the same units. Volume represents an actual rate of flow and responds to variations in traffic demand, while capacity indicates a capability or maximum rate of flow with a certain level of service characteristics that can be carried by the roadway. Passenger Car Unit (PCU) Different classes of vehicles such as cars, vans, buses, trucks, auto rickshaw, motor cycles, pedal cycles, bullock carts, etc. are found to use the common roadway facilities without segregation on most of the roads in developing countries like India. The flow of traffic with unrestricted mixing of different vehicle classes on the roadways forms the heterogeneous traffic flow or the mixed traffic flow. It is rather difficult to estimate the traffic volume and capacity of roadway facilities under mixed traffic flow, unless the different vehicle classes are converted to one common standard vehicle unit. It is common practice to consider the passenger car as the standard vehicle unit to convert the other vehicle classes and this unit is called Passenger Car Unit or PCU. Thus in mixed traffic flow, the traffic volume and capacity are generally expressed as PCU per hour or PCU/lane/hour and the traffic density as PCU per kilometer length of lane.

Tentative equivalency factors or PCU values suggested by the IRC (Indian road congress) S.no Vehicle class Equivalency factors 1. Passenger car, tempo, auto rickshaw, agricultural 1.0 ALL THE BEST Page 127

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com tractor Bus, truck, agricultural tractor-trailer unit Motor cycle, scooter and pedal cycle Cycle rickshaw Horse drawn vehicles Small bullock cart and hand cart Large bullock cart

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

3.0 0.5 1.5 4.0 6.0 8.0

Patterns of physical form of cities in terms of transportation. Form of Network Linear Easy flow of traffic is maintained Monotony of drivers as all crossings look similar Grid-iron Regular plot sizes are got Easy flow of traffic is maintained Monotony of drivers as all crossings look similar Close placement of roads creates too many intersections Radial City gets prominent center It gives a direction growth of the city Easy connection between radials Trapezoidal plots are got Through traffic is increased Connections of the radials are felt necessary as the distance from one road to other goes on increasing Regular and diagonal Monotony is broken Landmarks and nodes are created Plot sizes becomes irregular Advantages Disadvantages

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Radio – centric Easy connection between radials Other advantages of radial pattern Too many concentric rings increases intersections Trapezoidal plots are got Radial and rectangular Prominent nodes and landmarks are got Regular plot sizes are obtained Organic Provides a new vista at every step Meets the public demand in the best possible way Difficult for automobiles irregular plot sizes are obtained Similar to both radial and rectangular

PRINCIPLES OF TRAFFIC ENGINEERING AND TRANSPORTATION PLANNING TRAFFIC ENGINEERING Traffic engineering is that branch of engineering which deals with the improvement of traffic performance of road networks and terminals. Traffic engineering deals with the application of scientific principles, tools, techniques and findings for safe, rapid, convenient and economic movement of people and goods. Traffic engineering embraces the host of devices with which thecity dweller is familiar: stop and go signs at street intersections, slow-down warnings and speed limits, parking limits and prohibitions, the policeman’s whistle, the ‘safety islands’ at points of boarding street cars and buses and the one-way street. The list of these ‘solutions’ is long, but none has singly, norin combination, brought any genuine relief of the traffic problem. The devices are more appropriately described as stunts rather than solutions; they are expedient measure to cope with immediate traffic problems in the form of first-aid treatment and offer no real improvement in the capacity of the transportation system to move people. The study of traffic engineering may be divided into six major sections  Traffic characteristics o Road user characteristics o Vehicular characteristics o Breaking characteristics  Traffic studies and analysis o Traffic volume study ALL THE BEST Page 129

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com o Speed studies o Origin and destination (O & D) study o Traffic flow characteristics o Traffic capacity study o Parking study o Accident studies Traffic operation – control and regulation o Traffic regulation o Traffic signals o Road marking o Traffic islands o Design of intersection o Design of parking facility o Highway lighting Planning and analysis o Traffic planning o Transportation planning process Geometric design Administration and management

  

TRANSPORTATION PLANNING Planning may be defined as the activity or process that examines the potential of future actions to guide a situation or a system toward a desired direction, for example, toward the attainment of positive goals, the avoidance of problems, or both The most important aspect of planning is the fact that it is oriented toward the future. A planning activity occurs during one time period but is concerned with actions to be taken at various times in the future. However, although planning may increase the likelihood that a recommended actin will in fact take place, it does not guarantee that the planned action will inevitably be implemented exactly as conceived and on schedule. The fundamental purpose of transportation is to provide efficient access to various activities that satisfy human needs. Therefore, the general goal of transportation planning is to accommodate this need for mobility. Within specific contexts, however, whose mobility for what purpose, by what means, at what cost and to whom, and who should do the planning and how are questions that are not amenable to easy answers. Contemporary responses to these questions are largely rooted in history and have been influenced by a confluence of many factors, including technological innovations, private interests, and governmental policies. Transportation planning process  Inventories  Trip generation  Trip distribution  Modal split  Traffic assignment ALL THE BEST Page 130

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Plan preparation and evaluation TRANSPORT SURVEYS Transport survey may be done for assessing the number of vehicles that pass through a stretch of road which enables the planner to design the roads and also to designate the location of the land uses as the trips are generated by the land uses only. Apart from this, surveying is also conducted to assess the area required for parking particularly in the developed countries, where the personalized vehicle ownership is much more and thus parking of vehicles do create problems in the city centers and near the commercial areas. Transport survey may be broadly be divided into two types name, traffic survey and parking survey. Traffic survey Traffic surveys conducted form the basis for deciding the number of traffic lanes and roadway width, pavement design and economic analysis of road project. Origin and Destination surveys are very useful for deciding the alignment of the roads. Traffic survey consists of three parts namely  Observation  Assessment  Designing and proposals Observation is mainly done of the congestion of the streets and a probable solution sought by taking into consideration the cost factor. Assessment of the existing capacities of the roads can be done in relation to Carriageway widths Intersection capacities Assessment is also done on the kind of traffic that is flowing through the town. Hence, traffic survey is of three types namely Speed survey: to check the speed at which the vehicles move through a particular stretch of road; for assessing the L.O.S. (Level of service) required and provide the same if found safe and economical Volume survey: to assess the kind of traffic that is flowing through the road and to find out whether the existing carriage way width is sufficient for the present traffic and how many more PCUs it can sustain in future. Origin-destination (O-D) survey: to know how many of the incoming and outgoing vehicles have their origins and destination in the town and how many are through traffic, just passing by the towns thus uncreasing the congestion on the roads. OD survey can be done by a cordon of surveyors, stationed at various points of intersections and the survey can be conducted by  Direct Interview, e.g. stopping the vehicles and asking them about their origin and destination ALL THE BEST Page 131

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  By observation of the registration numbers of the vehicles when they comein and go out of the town  By attaching tags to the vehicles when they come into the town and collecting the tags when they go out of it. Parking survey By parking surveys, the planner can know,  The number of vehicles parked in the central area at different times of a day  The number of frustrated parkers who wished to park in the central area bu have parked somewhere else;  How many people habitually walk along the central area, as they know that there is no parking space there  How many, because of this reason, go to other central area of the town. DESIGN OF ROADS Requirements of a good city road Following are the ideals, which are to be kept in view while designing a good city road  It should accommodate amenities such as shady avenues, parking places, enough lighting etc.  It should afford safety to the vehicles and pedestrians by provision of measures such as footpaths, traffic signs etc.  It should be resting on the unyielding soil  It should have good alignment and visibility  It should possess easy gradients and smooth curves  It should possess well-designed junctions  It should remain in dry condition  Its overall performance should be such that congestion of traffic is brought down to the minimum possible extent  Its wearing surface should be impervious and impermeable to the rain water  Its width and camber should be proper Factors to be considered Following are the factors which are to be by a planner while designing a town road Destination: the points or centers or areas which are being linked up by the road are to be studied with respect to their capacity f attracting the traffic Importance of road: the overall importance of road with respect to the surrounding roads is to be ascertained and accordingly, the facilities and dimensions are to be determined Nature of traffic: the probable traffic to be carried by the road is studied with respect toits intensity, peak periods, type of vehicles, parking facilities etc. Use of road: the probable use to which the road is to be put up for maximum period during the day is to be estimated.

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com Geometric design of highways Geometric design refers to the physical proportioning of facilities, as distinguished from other aspects of design, such as structural design. The five elements are  Cross section  Horizontal alignment  Superelevation  Vertical alignment  Channelisation Importance and purpose of channelisation of modern highways  To ensure smooth flow of traffic  Increase in operating speed of vehicles  Greater capacity  Safe overtaking  To reduce accidents Factors affecting the capacity of a road in urban areas  Lane width  Large commercial vehicles  Width of shoulders of the road  Alignment of the road  Presence of intersection at grade  Vehicular stream speed  One or two way traffic movement  No. of traffic lanes  Vehicular and driver characteristics  Composition of traffic  Traffic volume Capacity of roads in rural areas Type of road Single lane with 3.75m wide carriageway and normal earthen shoulders Single lane with 3.75m wide carriageway and 1.0m wide hard shoulders Roads with intermediate lanes of width 5.5m and normal earthen shoulders Two lane roads with 7.0m wide carriage way and earthen shoulders Four lanes divided highway

Capacity PCU per day (both directions) 1000 2500 5000 10,000 20,000 to 30,000

Capacity of roads in urban areas No. of Traffic Capacity in PCU per hour for traffic condition ALL THE BEST Page 133

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com traffic lanes flow and width Roads with no frontage access, no standing vehicles, very little cross traffic 2400 Roads with frontage access, but no standing vehicle and high capacity intersections 1500 Roads with free frontage access, parked vehicles & heavy cross traffic 1200

Two lane (7.0 – 7.5 m) Two lane (7.0 – 7.5 m) Three lane (10.5 m) Four lane (14 m) Four lane (14 m) Six lane (21 m)

One way

Two way

1500

1200

750

One way One way Two way Two way

3600 4800 4000 6000

2500 3000 2500 4200

2000 2400 2000 3600

INTERSECTION AND PARKING AREAS INTERSECTION Design criteria The intersections are the places where the vehicles can change their directions. There are various criteria for designing the intersections. They are  Type of road  Priority of movement  Volume of traffic  Allocation of land  Existing shape of intersection (i.e. T-junction, cross junction etc.) Type of intersections  Intersections at grade These include all roads, which meet at more or less the same level. The traffic maneuvers like merging, diverging and crossing are involved in the intersections at grade. They are further classified into 1. unchannelised intersections 2. channelised intersections 3. Rotary intersection  Grade separated intersection The intersecting roads are separated by difference in level, thus eliminating the crossing maneuvers Grade separated intersection is the highest form of intersection treatment. Grade separation is achieved by means of vertical level, separation of the intersecting roads by ALL THE BEST Page 134

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com means of a bridge thus eliminating all crossing conflicts at the intersection. The grade separation may be either by an over bridge or an under pass. Transfer of route at the grade separation is provided by interchange facilities consisting of ramps. PARKING AREAS The parking facility can be grouped in the following two categories On-street or kerb parking: In case of on-street parking, the vehicles are allowed tobe parked on the kerb and it may either be restricted kerb parking or unrestricted kerb parking. The former is controlled by police or parking metres and there is no such control in te latter type. The on-street parking reduces the effective width of road and if not properly designed or planned, it leads to traffic congestion, especially during peak hours. On the other hand, the removal of kerb parking can increase the capacity of a roadway to the extent of 40 to 65 percent depending on such factors as roadway width, type of adjacent landuse and composition of the traffic stream. Off-street parking: the vehicles are parked at a separate lace away from the kerb. This facility avoids undue traffic congestion and delay on the road. The effects of improper on-street or kerb parking on the urban environment are as follows:  The haphazard parking spoils the aesthetics of road  The safety of various classes of road-users is adversely affected  The standing vehicles on road decrease the effective width of road and thus, the traffic carrying capacity of road is reduced The various methods adopted to grant the parking facilities on-street or off-street, are as follows:  Basement floors and open spaces or margins around new buildings by the implementation of suitable building bye-laws.  Constructing central parking stations in areas of high lnadvalue in the form of multi-storey buildings with open walls and cheap construction  Constructing underground parking stations below parks and play grounds  Developing plots for off-street parking and charging a reasonable parking fee as per type of vehicle and duration of parking  Installing parking metres for short duration parkingon roads  Kerbside parking with effective road marking techniques  Providing parking stations at ground level where land values are low etc. HIERARCHY OF ROADS AND LEVEL OF SERVICES

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com HIERARCHY OF ROADS The road system in the country are now classified into three classes, for the purpose of transport planning, functional identification, earmarking administrative jurisdictions andassigning priorities on a road network. 1. Primary system primary system consists of two categories of roads:  Express ways are a separate class of highways with superior facilities anddesign standards and are meant as through routes having very high volume of traffic. The expressways are to be provided with divided carriageways, controlled access, grade separations at cross roads and fencing. These highways should permit only fast moving vehicles.  National highways (NH) are main highways running through the length and breadth of India, connecting major ports, foreign highways, capitals of large states and large industrial and tourist centers including roads required for strategic movements for the defense of India. 2. Secondary system Secondary system consists of two categories of roads:  State highways (SH) are arterial roads of a state, connecting with the national highways of adjacent states, district head quarters and important cities within the state and serving as the main arteries for traffic to and from district roads.  Major district roads (MDR) are important roads within a district serving areas of production and markets and connecting those with each other or with the main highways of a district. The MDR has lower speed and geometric design specifications than NH/SH 3. Tertiary system or rural roads The tertiary system are rural roads and these consist of two categories of roads:  Other district roads (ODR) are roads serving rural areas of production and providing them with outlet to market centres, taluk head quarters, block development head quarters or other main roads. These are of lower design specifications than MDR>  Village roads (VR) are roads connecting villages or groups of villages with each other to the nearest road of a higher category WIDTH OF ROAD WAY OF VARIOUS CLASSES OF ROADS (by Indian Road Congress) Sl.No. Road classification Roadway width, m Plain and rolling Mountainous and terrain steep terrain 1. National and state Highways  Single lane 12 6.25  Two lanes 12 8.8 2. Major District Roads  Single lane 9 4.75 ALL THE BEST Page 136

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com  Two lanes Other District roads  Single lane  Two lanes Village roads – single lane 9 7.5 9 7.5 -4.75 -4

3.

4.

CLASSIFICATION OF URBAN ROADS The road system within urban areas are classified as urban roads and will form a separate category of roads to be takn care by the respective urban authorities The urban roads are classified as Type of urban road Design speed ROW Arterial roads 50 – 60 m 80 kmph Sub-arterial roads 30 – 40 m 60 kmph Collector street 20 – 30 m 50 kmph Local street 10 – 20 m 30 kmph Arterials and sub-arterials are streets primarily for through traffic on a continuous route, but the sub-arterials have lower level of traffic mobility than the arterials. Collector streets provide access to arterial streets and they collect and distribute traffic from and to local streets which provide access to abutting property 9. Traffic and transportation Standards for roads Streets in residential areas Cul-de-sac Loop street Service road Residential street Collector street Feeder street Major street Other roads Roads in commercial and industrial areas Sub-arterial road Arterial road Cycle track Foot path (on either side of roads having width 12m. and above) Pathways inside public gardens and pedestrian malls 10. standards for highways  classes of highways 1. national highways N.H. ALL THE BEST Page 137

Minimum right of way in metres 9 (max. Length 150m. with sufficient turning radius) 9 (max. length 450m.) 9 9 - 14m (with cross road at 200m) 18 23 30 14 45 60 2.25 - 3 1.75 - 2.5 in residential and other areas 4.5 min in CBD 1.5 - 3

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com 2. 3. 4. 5. state highways S.H major district roads M.D.R other district roadsO.D.R. village roads V.R.

 Design capacity and number of traffic lanes Traffic Very light Medium classifi light A B cation Averag Up to 201 to 501 to 751 to e daily 200 500 750 1500 tonnage No of 1 1 1 1 traffic lanes

heavy

Very heavy A B 1501 to 2500 2 or 3 2501 to 5000 4 lanes divided

C Over 5000 6 lanes divided

1001 to 1500 1

In addition 2.75m wide cycle track on each side where required. In addition 2.75 m wide cycle track and 2.75 m wide foot path where required  Design speed pavement width per traffic lane and width of roadway Classification of N.H. S.H. M.D.R. O.D.R. highway Design speed (km. h) Flat topography 80 Rolling topography Mountainous area 48 Pavement width per 3.65 traffic lane in metres Width of roadway in metres Flat topography 11.6 Rolling topography 11.6 Mountainous area 8 80 64 48 32

V.R. 32 24

48 40 3 (desirable 3.65 )

9.75 9.75 8

7.3 7.3 6.7

7.3 7.3 6.7

4.9 4.9 4.25

 Minimum width of right of way (in metres) Class of Open area and agricultural country road Width of road land Building Control line line Normal range (overall (overall width) width)

N.H. and 30 S.H. M.D.R. 24 O.D.R. 12 ALL THE BEST

30 - 60 24 - 30 12 - 24

60 48 24

134 91 36

Urban (built-up) and indl. areas Width of road land Building (or setback) Normal range line width of strip beyond road boundary 24 24 - 60 3 -6 12 9 12 - 18 9 - 15 3 --Page 138

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com V.R. 12 12 - 18 24 30 9 9 - 15 ---

 Road camber or cross fall 1. Water bound macadam road 1 in 48 1 in 36 in heavy rainfall regions 2. Black topped road 1 in 60 3. Concrete road 1 in 72 4. Shoulders 1 in 48 (earth)  Gradient maximum Ruling Limiting Exceptional Flat topography 1 in 30 1 in 20 1 in 15 Rolling topography 1 in 30 1 in 20 1 in 15 Mountainous area 1 in 20 1 in 15 1 in 12 (Lengths in exceptional cases should not exceed 60m. in a kilometre)  Sight distance (stopping and overtaking) Design speed Minimum overtaking sight distance (in (Km. h) meters) Divided carriage Undivided carriage way way 80 259 472 64 167 305 48 107 183 40 76 137 32 61 91 24 ----(Increase or decrease in sight distance due to grades not specified)  Minimum radius of horizontal curves in meters Design speed Plain and rolling topography (km h) Ruling Absolute maximum 80 305 244 64 244 152 48 152 91 40 ----32 91 46 24 ---- Minimum length of transition curve Design speed (chem.) 24 Min length of transition curve 15 ALL THE BEST

Stopping sight distance

122 91 61 37 30 27

Mountainous topography Ruling Absolute maximum --------122 91 91 61 61 46 46 30

32 15

40 15

48 15

64 23

80 30 Page 139

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com (meters)  Extra width of carriage way in curves Radius of curve in meters Up to 61 61 - 152 Extra width in meters 1.2 0.9

152 - 305 0.6

305 - 457 0.3

Above 457 ---

11. Minimum off-street parking space Type of use Theatres and auditoriums Retail business Office building Restaurants Hostels Industrial buildings Wholesale and warehouse building Multi-family dwellings Lodging establishments and tourist homes Minimum parking spaces for each car or truck: Car 3m x 6m 2.5m x 5m

One parking space shall be provided for every 20 seats of accommodation 45 sq.m. of sales area 90 sq.m. of office floor space 15 seats of accommodation 4 guest rooms 100 employees in industry 90 sq.m. of storage floor space 4 dwelling units 5 guest rooms

when individual parking space is required when parking lots for community parking are required

Truck

3.75m x 7.75m

Loading and unloading space: Off-street loading and unloading berths shall be 3.75 m x 7.75 m provided as below: 1. For all kinds of developments excepting residential warehouses and go downs: One berth for initial 500 to 1500 sq.m of floor area. Additional berths at the rate of one for every 1000 sq.m. or part thereof. 2. For warehouses and go downs: Two berths for initial 500 to 1500 sq.m of floor area. Additional berths at the rate of one for every subsequent 500 sq.m. or part. Level of service (LOS) It is the qualitative expression describing the traffic condition at a given state of roads. The qualitative description of the conditions that correspond to eachlevel of service founding the 1985 Highway capacity Manual is as follows

LOS LOS

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G SPEED

LOS LOS LOS LOS

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GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com

Level-of-service A represent free flow. Individual users are virtually unaffected by te presence of others in the traffic stream. Freedom to select desired speeds and to maneuver within the traffic stream is extremely high. The genral level of comfort and convenience provided to the motorist, passenger or pedestrianis excellent Level-of-service B is in the range of stable flow, but the presence of other users in the traffic stream begins to be noticeable. Freedom to select desired speeds is relatively unaffected, but there is a slight decline in the freedom to maneuver within the traffic stream from LOS A. the level of comfort and convenience provided is somewhat less than LOS A, because the presence of others in the traffic stream begins to affect individual behaviour. Level-of-service C is in the range of stable flow, but marks the beginning of the range of flow in which the operation of individual users becomes significantly affected by the presence of others, and maneuvering within the traffic stream requires substantial vigilance on the part of the user the general level of comfort and convenience declines noticeably at this level Level-of-service D represents high-density, but stable, flow. Speed and freedom to maneuver are severely restricted, and the driver or pedestrian experiences a generally poor level of comfort and convenience. Small increases in traffic flow will generally cause operational problems at this level Level-of-service E represents operating conditions at or near the capacitylevel. All speeds are reduced toa lwo, but relatively uniform value. Freedom to maneuver within the traffic stream is extremely difficult, and it is generally accomplished by forcing a vehicle or pedestrian to ‘give way’ to accommodate such maneuvers. Comfort and convenience levels are extremely poor, and driver or pedestrian frustration is generally high. Operations at this level are usually unstable, because small increases in flow or minor perturbations within the traffic stream will cause breakdowns. Level-of-service F is used to define forced or breakdown flow. This condition exists whenever the amount of traffic approaching a point exceeds the amount which can traverse the point. Queues form behind such locations. Operations within the queue are ALL THE BEST Page 141

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com characterized by stop-and-go waves, and they are extremely unstable. Vehicles may progress at reasonable speeds for several hundred feet or more, then be required to stop in a cyclic fashion. Level-of-service F is used to describe the operating conditions within the queue, as well as at the point of breakdown. It should be noted, however, that in many cases operating conditions of vehicles or pedestrians discharged from te queue may be quite good. Nevertheless, it is the point at which arrival flow exceeds discharge flow which causes the queue to form, and level of service F is an appropriate designation for such points. The Level of Service depends on  Driver’s freedom  Operational speed  Volume/capacity ratio LOS A B C D E F V/C 0.1 – 0.3 0.3 0.3 – 0.5 0.5 – 0.7 0.7 1.0 Condition Free flow Freedom affected Freedom restricted Stream behaviour Stop & go Forced flow Operating speed > 80 Kmph 80 Kmph 60 - 80 Kmph 40 - 60 Kmph 20 - 40 Kmph 0 - 20 Kmph

Operational speed Operational speed is the speed at which traffic flows on the road. The operational speed depends on the volume to capacity ratio of that particular road. As the V/C ratio increases, the operational speed on the road decreases. V/C Operational speed 0.1 Higher 0.5 Medium 0.8 Stop & go 1.0 Unstable

TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS Many of the urban streets carry traffic volumes for which they were not simply designed. The inevitable result is delay, congestion and accidents. The resultant ills can be got over to some extent by controlling the traffic, imposing regulatory measures and enforcing management techniques, so as to make the most economic use of the streets. Traffic control measures include traffic signals and these have been already considered. Regulatory measures include restrictions on speed, parking size of vehicles and so on. The third of the set of measures available to the traffic engineer are collectively known as traffic management The fundamental approach in traffic management measure is to retain as much as possible the existing pattern of streets but to alter the pattern of traffic movement on ALL THE BEST Page 142

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com these, so that the most efficient use is made of the system. In doing so, minor alterations to traffic lanes, islands, curbs etc. are inevitable, and part of the management measures. The general aim is to reorient the traffic pattern on the existing streets so that the conflict between vehicles and pedestrians is reduced. Some of the well-known traffic management measures are 1. Restriction on turning movements 2. One-way streets 3. Tidal-flow operations 4. Exclusive bus-lanes 5. Closing side-streets

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND TRAFFIC LAWS 1. Engineering measures  Road design  Preventive maintenance of vehices  Before and after studies regarding accidents  Road lighting 2. Enforcement measures  Speed control  Traffic control devices  Training and supervision  Medical check  Special precautions for commercial vehicles  Observance of law and regulation 3. Educational measures  Education of road users  Safety drive

MODES OF TRANSPORTATION  Public transport like buses, rail, trams etc.  Intermediate public transport ( Para transit ) like auto-rickshaw, taxi etc and slow vehicles like rickshaw  Other than public transport (i.e personified slow vehicles like cycle, and personified fast vehicles like cars, bikes etc.) Private and public transportation Transportation services are also classified as either for-hire or not-for-hire services. These categories are also know, respectively, as public and private transportation, but these terms refer to their availability to the general public and to private parties, respectively, ALL THE BEST Page 143

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com and not to their ownership. For example, a city bus system may be owned either privately or publicly. In either case, the service provided is public transportation because the system is available for use by the public. For-hire systems are further classified into contract carriers and common carriers. The former stand ready to provide service to the public under individual contractual arrangements. Common carriers, on the other hand, generally offer scheduled service and are open to all members of the public willing to pay the posted fare. The terms mass transportation or mass transit usually refers to the common carriage of passengers. Taxis, car rentals, and certain other individually arranged services belong to the category of contract public transportation. Factors that govern the utility of Para - transits in urban areas Para-transit – Auto, cycle rickshaw etc.,  Frequency of public transport system  Comfortable travel, particularly during peak hours  To commute shorter distance  To access remote areas  Commutation of aged and handicapped persons

for all architecture books & Gate Architecture material and revit training http://kavali.4shared.com/ password : sujith any specific topic mail me ur request
architecture time saverstandards pdf`s http://isohunt.com/torrent_details/63019441/architecture?tab=summary - file attached files in the torrent TSS Architectural Design Data TSS Interior Design TSS Landscape TSS URBAN DESIGN Time_Saver_building_types_new-all watson_all Neufert_3_edition

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other wise use the below links Interior_Design http://rapidshare.com/files/172557972/TSS_Interior_Design.part1.rar http://rapidshare.com/files/172551783/TSS_Interior_Design.part2.rar ALL THE BEST Page 144

GATE ARCHITECTURE2010 Kavali.4shared.com

Time_Saver_building_types_new-all
http://rapidshare.com/files/172548152/Time_Saver_building_types_new-all.part1.rar http://rapidshare.com/files/172550849/Time_Saver_building_types_new-all.part2.rar

TSS_Landscape
http://rapidshare.com/files/172562904/TSS_Landscape.part1.rar http://rapidshare.com/files/172552168/TSS_Landscape.part2.rar

TSS_URBAN_DESIGN.pdf
http://rapidshare.com/files/172771471/TSS_URBAN_DESIGN.pdf

TSS_Architectural_Design_Data
http://rapidshare.com/files/172610434/TSS_Architectural_Design_Data.part1.rar

http://rapidshare.com/files/172611294/TSS_Architectural_Design_Data.part2.rar Neufert_3_edition
http://rapidshare.com/files/172605862/Neufert_3_edition.part1.rar http://rapidshare.com/files/172602998/Neufert_3_edition.part2.rar http://rapidshare.com/files/172553131/Neufert_3_edition.part3.rar

or if u know how to use utorrent use the attached torrent file

add me up in ORKUT
http://www.orkut.co.in/Profile.aspx?uid=5207946714 614938962&mt=5
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kavalisujith@yahoo.co.in kavalisujith@msn.com kavali007@gmail.com
-Regards Kavali Sujith Kumar +91 9940286543 Help the environment – please don't print this email unless you really need to !! ALL THE BEST Page 145

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