8 Page 1 of 14
Problems:
1. Find the solution of a springmass system IVP
u+ u+ 1.25u = 3cos ( t ) , u ( 0 ) = 2, u
( 0) = 3
ODE Lecture Notes Section 3.8 Page 2 of 14
ODE Lecture Notes Section 3.8 Page 3 of 14
Notes:
The homogeneous solution uh ( t ) 0 as t , which is why it is called the transient
solution.
The constants c1 and c2 of the transient solution are used to satisfy given initial
conditions.
The particular solution u p ( t ) is all that remains after the transient solution dies away,
and is a steady oscillation at the same frequency of the driving function. That is why it is
called the steady state solution, or the forced response.
The coefficients A and B must be determined by substitution into the differential
equation.
If we replace u p ( t ) = U ( t ) = A cos ( wt ) + B sin ( wt ) with u p ( t ) = U ( t ) = R cos ( wt  d ) ,
F0 m ( w0 2  w 2 ) gw
, sin ( d ) = , D = m 2 ( w0 2  w 2 ) + g 2w 2 , and
2
then R = , cos ( d ) =
D D D
k
w0 2 = . (See scanned notes at end for derivation)
m
Note that as w 0 , cos ( d )
1 and sin ( d ) 0 d 0.
p
Note that when w = w0 , d =
2
Note that as w , d p (mass is out of phase with drive).
The amplitude of the steady state solution can be written as a function of all the
parameters of the system:
ODE Lecture Notes Section 3.8 Page 4 of 14
F0 F0
R= =
D m 2 ( w0 2  w 2 ) + g 2w 2
2
F0
=
2
w2 2 2 w2
m w0
2
1  2 + g w0
4
w0 w0 2
F0
=
2
k2 w2 2 k w2
1 + g
2
m 2
m w0 2 m w0 2
F0
=
2
w2 g 2 w2
1  2 +
k
w0 mk w0
2
F0 / k g2
= ,G =
w2
2 mk
w2
1  2 + G 2
w0 w0
k 1
R =
F0 w 2
2
w2
1
 2
+ G
w0 w0
2
k
Notice that R is dimensionless (but proportional to the amplitude of the motion),
F0
F
since 0 is the distance a force of F0 would stretch a spring with spring constant k.
k
mass 2
g2 g time
2
d k
R
= 0
dw F0
1 w2 2w w

1
 2 1
 + 2G
d w2
2
w 2 2 w0
2 2
w0 w0 2
2
1  2 + G 2 =
dw
w0 w0 3
w 2
2
w 2 2
1  + G
2
w0 w0
2
w w2
2
2
1  2 + G
= 0
w0 w0
w2
w = 0,  2 1  2 + G = 0
w0
w2 G
1 =
w0 2 2
G
wmax
2
= w0 2
1+
2
k g2
w 2
max = w0 +
2
m 2mk
g2
wmax
2
= w0 2 +
2m 2
Plugging this value of the frequency into the amplitude formula gives us:
F0
Rmax =
g2
gw0 1 
4mk
g 2
If > 1 , then the maximum value of R occurs for w = 0 .
4mk
Resonance is the name for the phenomenon when the amplitude grows very large
because the damping is relatively small and the drive frequency is close to the undriven
frequency of oscillation of the system.
ODE Lecture Notes Section 3.8 Page 6 of 14
Practice:
2. Find the solution of u + 0.125u + u = 3cos ( wt ) , u ( 0 ) = 2, u
( 0 ) = 0 . Make graphs of the
solution for various values of w.
ODE Lecture Notes Section 3.8 Page 7 of 14
ODE Lecture Notes Section 3.8 Page 8 of 14
Demonstration:
3. Compute the spring constant and resonant frequency of a given springmass system, and
then verify the resonant frequency calculation experimentally. Observe the following:
pulling up and down on the spring very rapidly results in virtually no motion of
the mass.
pulling up and down slowly results in the entire system simply moving up and
down with the pull.
pulling up and down near the resonant frequency results in a large oscillation for a
pulling motion that is almost imperceptible to the human eye.
ODE Lecture Notes Section 3.8 Page 9 of 14
Practice:
4. Derive both particular solutions above.
ODE Lecture Notes Section 3.8 Page 10 of 14
5. Show that for the nonresonant case with initial condition u ( 0 ) = 0, u ( 0 ) = 0 (i.e., starting
F0
from rest at the equilibrium position), c1 =  , c2 = 0 , and that the solution
m ( w0 2  w 2 )
F0
becomes u ( t ) = ( cos ( wt )  cos ( w0t ) ) , which can be written as
m ( w0 2  w 2 )
2F ( w0  w ) t
( w + w ) t
u( t) = 0
sin
sin 0 using the sumtoproduct trig
m ( w0  w )
2 2
2
2
u  v u + v
identity cos ( u )  cos ( v ) = 2sin sin .
2 2
ODE Lecture Notes Section 3.8 Page 11 of 14
Notice in the last problem that the solution can be considered to be a rapidfrequency oscillation
that is modulated by a lowfrequency oscillation. In electronics, this is called amplitude
modulation. In acoustics, the lowfrequency oscillation is called a beat because the sound wave
is perceived as a constant pitch whose loudness varies with a beat.